This website outlines the history of Jewish people in America from the arrival of the first immigrants in New Amsterdam in 1654 to the present day. It was created by the Commission for commemorating 350 Years of American Jewish History (2004), created through the cooperation of four research institutions: the American Jewish Historical Society; the Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives; the Library of Congress; and the National Archives and Records Administration. The site provides short narrative histories of the community with primary source excerpts for different periods, which would serve either for reference or teaching. For scholars, students and those interested from among the general public, the site offers an online essay with lecture and book excerpts entitled Historiography of American Jewish History. The site connects to multimedia digital archives, based on the holdings of the Truman Presidential Museum and Library, and related to the 50th anniversary of the creation of the State of Israel, 1948-1998. Other parts of the site include online exhibitions, such as Great Voices in Reform Judaism, which uses sound clips, images and full-text resources. There is a general illustrated historical timeline; an exhibition review; a calendar of socially, communally and academically oriented events; and further information on related conferences, links, bibliographies and instructions on how commuities can chronicle and submit their own histories to the Commission.
The "Academic Guide to Jewish History" website is published by the University of Toronto Libraries, and is the product of a collaborative effort by librarians from eleven research institutions, including Princeton and Yale. The Guide was established to provide a consolidated list of Jewish history resources, which are all of an academic nature and have been carefully selected. The material listed falls into several categories; information gateways, encyclopaedias and biographies, libraries and archives, indexes and bibliographies, primary documents and journals. The focus is on English-language material, although major works in Hebrew, German, Russian and other languages are included. The contents consist of both electronic and print titles, and currently more than five hundred resources are included. The entries are annotated where appropriate and active links are also provided. In addition to this, the Academic Guide to Jewish History offers a built-in search engine for keyword searching, along with a pull-down menu to locate materials by one of four subjects, the Holocaust, Israel and Zionism, Jewish Communities and Jewish Women's History. There is also a list of contributors and an introduction for new users, along with a FAQ section.
The website "Aktion Rheinhard Camps" or ARC is dedicated to presenting the history of three deathcamps, Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka. Aktion Reinhard or "Einsatz reinhard" was the code name for the extermination of Polish Jewry by the Nazis during the Second World War. Led by Odilo Globocnik, the operation drew on the experience of T4 groups, practised in previous euthanasia operations. The site is a collaboration between international historians, which claims the support of many people of renown in the field, including Sir Martin Gilbert. The site provides many illustrations, and information on the camps, their structures, headquarters and the tragic events that they were witness to. There is also an excellent list of pertinent books, in Polish, German, and English. Unfortunately the site was not well translated and there are a few factual errors here and there, such as the statement that the Soviets were in charge in Poland until the 1990s. Overall it is a good site for those wanting to gain a deeper insight into the history of the three death camps. However, this website has been frozen as of October 2006 and is no longer being maintained, although uupdates concerning the issue of counterfeits sites are published.
This website, publishing the American Jewish Yearbook from 1899 to 2007 is from the American Jewish Committee Archives (AJC Archives). The American Jewish Yearbook is regarded by some as the authoritative account of trends and happenings in Jewish society. The website is very simple to use: the yearbooks are split into 20 volume blocks (e.g. volume 1-20, covering the years 1899 to 1999 and so on) at first, and then further subdivided into the yearly publications. Each of the yearly volumes is then further divided (into, for example, table of contents, forematter, calendars, index, and yearly issues). The yearbooks are available in PDF format.
The website "Anne Frank and the Holocaust" is related to the "Anne Frank: A History for Today" exhibition which was designed by the curators of the Anne Frank Museum in Amsterdam. Published by the East Riding of Yorkshire Council, the site advises local UK teachers on how to approach and teach this subject. The site does not reproduce the Amsterdam exhibition, it does tell Anne Frank's story and that of her family, and recounts the history of the Holocaust through the testimony of contemporary witnesses and other historical documents. In addition, the site offers a range of teaching materials and primary sources, such as an eye-witness account of the liberation of Belsen near the end of the Second World War. The site also contains an extensive range of links to other Holocaust-related Web resources, as well as galleries and a discussion forum.
This is the official website of the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam. This site includes information about: Anne Frank; the house where she and her family hid from the Nazis circa 1942-1944; the history of her famous diary - including images and transcriptions of extracts - and its publication after her death; resources for teaching about the Second World War and the persecution of the Jews in Europe especially during World War II, and the Holocaust; as well as links to online resources relating to the diverse issues raised by the issues involved. Teachers will particularly find a wealth of information here, especially historical images and videos. Researchers who study memory and commemoration will find the history of the transformation of the house where the Frank family and their friends hid into a museum to be interesting and informative. In the Activities menu, scholars should also check the Research subpages, which outlines library holdings and academic studies sponsored by the museum.
"Archive groups in the Czech Republic" is the English version of the website, which is also available in Czech, French, and German. It is an online database of archival fonds and their locations within the various archives of the Czech Republic. It is published by the Central State Archive in Prague under the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic. The site is quite straightforward and provides instructions as to what can be found in the database, how to search, basic archival terms, finding aids, and data in .XML for downloading (in Czech). The database operates and produces its results in Czech. The database covers the Central State Archives in Prague, seven regional state archives, five town archives, and selected significant archives of cultural institutions and companies. An excellent resource for those carrying out research in the Czech Republic.
This web page presents the table of contents, full editorial remarks, reviews and journal abstracts from the periodical, 'Archives Juives : revue d'histoire des Juifs de France' ('Jewish Archives: Review of the History of Jews of France'). Some articles are fully posted. The journal covers research conducted in the fields of French Jewish social and cultural history, concentrating mainly on the 19th and 20th centuries. All articles are in French, with occasional English abstracts. Tables of contents posted here run back to Volume 34 in 2001. New, themed volumes of the journal are published twice a year, on topics ranging from identity after emancipation, to the Alliance Israélite Universelle, to the Jewish press between the two world wars, to Russian Jews in Paris. This page is a subsite of Cairn; a French site which posts some 150 journals online on a pay-per-view basis for articles. Full, free, access to tables of contents and introductory editorial remarks, as well as some article abstracts is generally provided. To get complete access to articles, users must register and pay on the site.
The website 'Archiwa Panstwowe' (State Archives), was created by the Naczelna Dyrekcja Archiwów Panstwowych (NDAP) 'National Headquarters of the State Archives' and provides an excellent guide and overview of the Polish State Archives as well as access to the three main online Polish archival databases, IZA, SEZAM, and PRADZIAD. This site is of interest to anyone carrying out archival or genealogical research on Poland, Belarus, Lithuania or Ukraine. The site acts as a gateway to the websites of individual local state archives, which, for the most part, do not have an English version. The site is in Polish and English, however the translation is not excellent, and not all of the material on the Polish version is to be found on the English pages. Access to the online databases enables the swift location of records. The site is easy to navigate and includes details of new publications of the NDAP, a history of the archives, and their organisational structure. There is an excellent index of the archives complete with contact details and access policies. A link to the offical journal of the Polish State Archives called ARCHEION lists the contents of the journal which is published once or twice a year.
The website of the "Archiwum akt nowych" (Central Archives of Modern Records) provides information on the section of the Polish state archives in Warsaw that holds records pertaining to the 20th century. The site gives the opening hours, location, accessibility, and prices of reprographic and enquiry services. This site is essential for historians and political scientists carrying out research in Poland during the 20th century. The holdings contain a miscellanea of interesting archives including those of: Ignacy Jan Paderewski; the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa); the PZPR Central Committee; and the German occupying forces. A list of the records is posted on the site with a good overview of each fund. The holdings include: ecclesiastical; administrative; industrial; fiscal; social; personal; and political records. This archive is also a good research resource for Holocaust studies. The collections of the archives can be searched via the centralised SEZAM database. Online publications so far include the holdings on Polish-Mexican relations between 1921-1945 and an exhibition of photographs with bullet-scarred buldings in Warsaw entitled "The wounded capital". The site also features the activities of the "Commission for the Women's history in the war of independence" (WWII).
The site "Archiwum Państwowe w Piotrkowie Trybunalskim (State archive in Piotrków Trybunalski)" introduces the activitity of this regional branch of the Polish State Archives. The language of the site is Polish. The archive has its roots in the fourteenth century, and has an extensive collection of administrative records of the early modern period, since it was the seat of the Crown Tribunal (Trybunał Koronny). The archive also has a department in Tomaszów Mazowiecki. The archives have changed hands many times, as most Polish archival collections, and also suffered loss and damage throughout their history. The collections include: administrative; military; police; ecclesiastical; and muncipal records. The holdings of this archive can be searched via SEZAM, the central database of archival holdings. The funds of the archives are particularly strong in nineteenth and twentieth cenury records. The site features several online exhibitions such as celebrations of the centennial press of Tomaszow; the 25th anniversary of the Solidarność; or the anniversay of 350 years of the university in Vilnius founded by Stephen Báthory. The subsite dedicated to the events and publications is rich and up to date.
The Web Site of the Archiwum Państwowe w Siedlcach (State archive in Siedlce) is in Polish with good English and French versions. It features information on the opening hours, collections, and location of the archive. The chronological range of the holdings spans 1651-1997. There is an online description of the collections, which consist of: administrative; judicial; police; fiscal; property; and institutional records. The strength of the collection really lies in the nineteenth century range. The birth, death, and marriage records are also useful for the genealogist or historian. Charters of the city are preserved, as well as records pertaining to eminent Polish families such as the Kuczyńskis, Czartoryskis, and Wierzejskis. Publications of the archives are well presented and the possibility of online purchase is offered to the interested. A good but basic site of use to those carrying out research on Siedlce and its environs.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Suwałkach (The state archive of Suwałki)" provides information in Polish on this branch of the Polish State Archives. The archives have a long tradition in this area, but were formally founded in 1921. During the twentieth century, its records were taken by the Russians and the Germans and at the end of the Second World War were to be found scattered in Belarus, Moscow, Lithuania, and St Petersburg. The archives also have a department in Ełk and contact details are also provided for this archive. The holdings date from the seventeenth century, which mainly consist of Radziwiłł and ecclesiastical privileges. The nineteenth century is far better represented. A selection of important documents (registers, privileges) is offered digitised on the site. The holdings of thie archives can be consulted on the national databases SEZAM, IZA and PRADZIAD. A good archive for those interested in the history of Poland's new eastern borderlands (Kresy) and their varied populations.
The website "Archiwum państwowe w Wrocławiu (State archive in Wrocław)" is in Polish. The site of the archives informs that Wrocław has had an extremely varied history and among its other incarnations it has most recently been the pre-war German town of Breslau. The archive also has departments in: Jelenia Góra; Kamieniec Ząbkowicki; Legnica; Lubań, and Wałbrzych. The site provides an online catalogue of the holdings in the various departments and the main archive. Some records from the Silesian principalities date from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and the archives are rich in holdings from the early modern period. Among the collections are ecclesiastical, municipal, industrial, fiscal, and administrative records. A picture gallery shows images of medieval documents related to Wrocław from the USA. This site is of great use to those researching the history of Silesia, or the town of Wrocław.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Kielcach (State archive in Kielce)" provides information on the branch of the state archives in Kielce. There are details of the opening hours, accessibility of the archive, and the holdings. The site details the territorial range of the archive, the most interesting holdings, a history of the archive, and a list of links to websites of a similar nature. The earliest documentation dates from the fifteenth century, but the collections mainly date from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. They include documentation on the guilds, local councils, judicial records, and educational institutions. There is an online exhibition of the most precious treasures of the archive, from the early modern period, partitions, the inter-war period, the Second World War and the second half of the twentieth century.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Krakowie (State archive in Cracow)" is in Polish and English and provides information on the archive's opening hours, locations, and collections. The archive is divided into separate sections, located in various departments and the earliest documentation comes from the thirteenth century.The archive holds much of the early state documentation for Poland, from the period when Cracow was the Polish capital. There are details of the archive's conservation, educational, publishing, and training activities. Of use to researchers are the forms which can be downloaded for requests to the archives for reproduction and borrowing services. The online exhibitions on the archive's holdings, stamps, iconography, cartography and temporary exhibitions enrich this site. The holdings of all branches of the Krakow state archive can be search throught the SEZAM database, however the keywords and strings are available only in Polish.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Lesznie (State Archive in Leszno)" is a branch of the Polish State Archives. It was established in 1951 and contains administrative, political, financial, judicial, and educational records. There is a very useful list of the records held. The archive is digitalising the catalogues of holdings which can be found on the IZA database. The site features a history of the archive, a description of its holdings, its publications, and access details. An excellent photogallery features images of valuable documentation held by the archive. The site is of interest primarily to those who are carrying out research in or on Poland.
The Web Site "Archiwum Państwowe w Lublinie (State archive in Lublin)" is in Polish with a very substantial English version. The site provides the usual information about the archive and its reproduction services, opening hours, and location. There is access to the SEZAM, PRADZIAD, IZA, ELA and GENEBA databases. The territorial range covered by the archive covers the lands between the Bug, San, and the Vistula. The archive has a wonderful collection of early modern records, as well as the founding charter of Lublin from 1317. The collections include: guild; judicial; financial; administrative; municipal; Jewish; and ecclesiastical records. The site is of interest to those researching the area of Lublin or those carrying out geneaological research.
The Web Site of the "Archiwum państwowe w Płocku (State archive of Płock)" is in Polish, with good English and Russian versions. The archive also has departments in Kutno and Łeczyca. The archive is one of the oldest in Poland, established as the Płock Castle Archive, and its interesting history is told in the site. The holdings focus mainly on the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries and are particularly strong for the period of the PRL or the Polish People's Republic. The usual information on opening hours, location and accesibility are provided, as well as an online enquiry form. This is a site of interest to those carrying out research on Płock, Mazovia or Poland in general.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Przemyślu (State archive in Przemyśl)" provides information about this branch of the Polish State Archive. The site has good versions in English, German and Ukrainian. There are the usual details on accessibility, collections, opening hours and reprographic services. The collection contains holdings dating from 1291. One of the most interesting and extensive collections is that of documentation from the Greek-Catholic Bishopric between the end of the thirteenth century and 1946. There are also rich collections on eminent aristocratic Polish families such as the Czartoryskis, Lubomirskis, Potockis, and Tarnowskis. There are also records of the Jewish community. Comprehensive listings are available online of the ecclesiastical, municipal, judicial, and legal records throught the SEZAM, ELA and PRADZIAD centralised databases. The site also features the tables of contents of the "Historical-Archival Yearly". This is an informative site for those carrying out research on Przemyśl and its environs.
The Web Site "Archiwum Państwowe w Radomiu (State Archive in Radom)" is in Polish and English. The archive has been functioning since the early modern period, and found itself in the hands of the Austrians during the partitions. This is elaborated on in the brief history of the archive featured on the site. The archives are stronger in nineteenth and twentieth century holdings, but do have some municipal records from the early modern period. Of interest to genealogists and historians, are the registry records of Roman Catholic, Jewish, Orthodox, and Protestant communities. For those interested in the post-war history of Poland, the Radom archives are extremely rich in holdings on the PZPR. The link to SEZAM is useful for searching the records, as well as the publications list. The Polish variant of the site has a guest book.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Rzeszowie (The State Archive in Rzeszów)" is in Polish It provides the usual information on opening hours, holdings, accessibility, and the location of the archives. It has a particularly strong collection of records on the Jewish community, which is assigned to a dedicated department (The Jewish History Research Centre) within the archive. The Rzeszów holdings date from 1406 and consist of administrative, fiscal, agricultural, judicial, industrial, political, union, and military records. It has a good collection of family records of the Lubomirskis, Jaworskis, Potockis, and Mycielskis. A good site of use to those carrying out genealogical or historical research in this area of Poland.
The Web Site "Archiwum Państwowe w Zamościu (State archive in Zamość)" provides information on this department of the Polish State Archives. The site is in Polish, with a brief English description of the history of the archive and main collections. The Russian version was empty at the time of the review. The holdings and collections of the archive focus mainly on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with older records held at the Lublin State Archives. Information on the opening hours, accessibility, and location of the archive is to be found on the site, as well as a history of the archives, its organisation, and its publications. The collections contain mainly judicial, administrative, regional, fiscal, and industrial records. The site is of use to those carrying out research into this area of eastern Poland.
The Web Site "Armia Krajowa 1939-1945: Polish resistance in WW II : La résistance Polonaise : Die Polnische Heimatarmee" is a multilingual site about the heroic, and largest resistance movement in Europe during the Second World War. The Home Army (Armia Krajowa) was 300,000 strong at its peak and played an important part in Allied intelligence operations and gathering. In August and September 1944, the Home Army commanded the largest uprising against the Nazi forces ever witnessed in World War Two. This is an extremely good site, which draws on the opinions and writings of eminent historical experts and of those who took part in the events portrayed. It features a set of brief essays on aspects of Polish resistance, such as: The Home Army Intelligence Service; the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the Polish Home Army; Operation Tempest: A Brief Outline; Those Who Helped Polish Jews During WW II; and The Scout's Postal Service During the Warsaw Uprising. The further reading section is extremely comprehensive and a dozen or so relevant institutions are listed. The links sections is also a great resource for those researching this period of history. It is an excellent site for those interested in the history of the military or intelligence, Polish Studies, or the Second World War.
The Web Site Auschwitz - Birkenau is the official Web Site of the concentration camp (KL) Auschwitz-Birkenau (Oswiecim-Brzezinka). It is in Polish and English, and features a brief history and overview of the infamous death camp where Jews, Poles, Roma, Sinti and many other nationalities and ethnicities perished during the Second World War. Initially set up as a concentration camp, in 1942 it began to function as an extermination centre which saw the murder of between 1.1 and 1.5 million people. The site provides information about the opening times of the memorial museum, its foundation, and news concerning the site. There is a good links section and details of the museum's publications. There is also a sizable sub-section devoted to the Museum's Archives, which reflects the bureaucratic system by which the camp functioned. There are valuable pages on the archival collections, how they are organized, and how researchers may gain access to study them. This site is of interest to all those studying or researching Jewish, Polish, or European History and World War Two.
The Web Site "Auschwitz Jewish Center Foundation" serves to provide information about an American-Polish foundation that seeks to make available information about the Polish town of Oswiecim - Auschwitz and aspects of its Jewish history. The site is in German, Polish and English with flyers in French and Hebrew. It is of interest to all those studying Jewish, Polish and German history. More infamously known as the location of the death camps Auschwitz and Birkenau, the town is home to the Auschwitz Jewish Center run by the foundation. The site has a timeline of Jewish life in Oswiecim and there are excellent images of exhibits held at the center. The center has a video testimony room, a family history room and library (it also has an experienced genealogical researcher at its disposal), and runs various educational programmes as well as dialogue meetings and community events. The foundation has offices in the USA and Poland and offers scholarships for students and researchers. Contact information for both offices is provided.
"The International Military Tribunal for Germany" website provides access to an amazing amount of information and original texts about the Nuremberg trial of major German war criminals, 1945-1946 (at the end of the Second World War). This resource is part of The Avalon Project at the Yale Law School, (which mounts digital documents relevant to the fields of Law, History, Economics, Politics, Diplomacy and Government). The main texts are linked throughout to supporting documents. Each section of the Nuremberg Trials Collection provides an insight into one of the most important trials in 20th century history, by displaying information in the following categories: Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal (motions, orders, presentation of cases, testimony of witnesses, final report). Also included are supporting documentation and Internet links about "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression" (before and during World War II), and on the Jewish genocide, the Holocaust and the persecution of religious and other minorities.
This is the website of the quarterly journal Azure, which deals with Jewish issues in history, culture, politics, and religion, as it pertains to Israel and world Jewry. It is published by the Shalem Center, a Jerusalem think-tank, in an English and a Hebrew edition, the latter of which goes under the name Techelet. Like the think-tank that backs it, Azure is committed to bringing to a wider audience the "richness of Jewish tradition and the centrality of a strong, free, and Jewish State of Israel". Contributors, many of whom are affiliated with the Shalem Center, generally write from the perspective of the political and religious right. They include Michael B. Oren, Yossi Klein Halevi, Martin Kramer, and Natan Sharansky. There are notable exceptions, however, such as the Israeli novelist A.B. Yehoshua, a well-known peace activist with left-leaning views. Azure offers most of its content free of charge online, and through an easily navigated archival section, the visitor is allowed access to back-issues, dating as far back as the first issue from 1996. In addition, a handy search function allow searches by title, author, and keyword.
This website makes available BARGE, an online database of British archival resources relating to German-Jewish refugees (1933-1950). The database is the result of a three year, AHRB funded project which began in March 2004; it aims to facilitate research on the migration of German-speaking refugees to Britain between 1933 and 1950, whose papers are held in private and public collections in Britain. Before the creation of this database, there was no research tool that brought together this information. The database includes the names of over 2,000 individuals, along with the location of their papers and brief biographical details to aid identification of areas of research interest. Descriptions of over 1,300 individual collections are provided to enable researchers to assess potential use. Users can consult the database online (at the time of cataloguing a trial version was available with the full version promised in the coming month). There are various search categories, such as keyword, author, gender, and profession. This resource would be extremely useful for researchers of migration during Nazi occupation and the Second World War, in particular in relation to Jewish studies.
This is the main page of the BBC History website's section on genocide under the Nazis before and during World War Two. The site covers the period 1933 to 1945, offering a range of articles on topics such as the descent into genocide; the identity of the guilty parties; and various controversial questions that have arisen, including discussion of those who try to deny that the Holocaust ever happened. The articles are supplemented by a timeline, an interactive map of the Auschwitz concentration camp, and image galleries. Links to other relevant Web resources are provided - a short list is given at the bottom of the main page, with longer selections alongside individual articles. This resource is perhaps best suited to those wanting a general overview of the subject (new undergraduates, for example, or those teaching introductory courses), although some sections do contain articles by eminent scholars. The site is attractively presented and easy to use.
The Web Site of the "The Beth Shalom holocaust web centre" is a central hub for three main sites: Holocaustcentre.net; holocausthistory.net; and holocaustbookstore.net. It also collaborates with project sites such as the Aegis Genocide Prevention Initiative and Remembering for the Future - academic research. It is supported by the Association of Jewish Refugees and the Pears Family Trust. The Holocaust Centre, Beth Shalom is based in Nottingham and is Britain's first dedicated Holocaust Memorial and Education Centre. It has a permanent exhibition and houses a library and research facilities. The centre is now open to the public and the site provides details on its location and opening hours. The site runs educational tours, and publishes a journal 'Perspectives' three times a year. The sister site Holocaust History is aimed at school pupils. This well-maintained and informative site is particularly useful for those teaching or studying the Holocaust or Second World War history.
This website is part of the online exhibition "Beyond the Pale", which depicts the history of anti-Jewish attitudes and the history of Jews in Europe and Russia. It is entirely devoted to the history of Soviet Jews from 1941 onwards and consists of the following chapters: Behind the front, which gives a picture of the Jewish participation in World War II; The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee; campaigns against "Cosmopolitans" and "The Doctors' Plot"; assimilatory pressures; the anti-Zionist campaign; the right to emigrate; reforms: 1985-1991, detailing reforms that took place after Mikhail Gorbachev came to power and included the creation of new Jewish schools, Hebrew classes, Jewish religious schools, etc.; anti-Semitism since 1985, featuring Russian nationalist movements; and democracy and minority rights. The textual material is accompanied by numerous photos, images of documents and other pictorial materials which should make it an excellent teaching resources or aid for students.
'Beyond the Pale' is a bilingual online exhibition in English and Russian, which gives an overview of the history of the Jews who lived in the Pale of Settlement, the western borderland of Czarist Russia where Jews were legally allowed to live. The site summarizes anti-Semitic attitudes against Jews in Russia from the 18th to 20th centuries. Additional sections include Jews in the Soviet Union; Nazism and the Holocaust; and Democracy and Minority Rights. There is also a basic background history of the Jewish people prior to their history in Russia. This site is a good starting point for students interested in Jewish social history in this region. This resource contains a number of useful pictures and maps, as well as links to related sites, but no bibliographical material.
The web site Borderland is the English name for the Polish site called Pogranicze and introduces the activities of the Borderland Foundation which was created in 1990 to promote and liaise with borderland communities all over Europe. It is located in the Polish town of Sejny, located on the border with Lithuania - a town previously home to Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Orthodox, and Old Believer communities. The web site has been redesigned and functions now as a portal for all the projects run by this foundation. The foundation publishes the Krasnogruda journal, and the site introduces the latest issue. There are many writers and artists featured on the site, with presentations of their works and interviews. The documentation centre of the Borderland Foundation holds over 10,000 books, 5,000 magazines, 2,000 films and other forms of documentation on Central and East Europe. There are details of the Borderland school, a one-year training programme for managers and leaders in cultural, educational, and social organisations in Central and Eastern Europe. The site holds details of the many events in which the foundation takes part.
The Web site "The Brest ghetto passport archive" is part of the JewishGen, Inc. site. Its focus is the massacre of Jews at Bronnaya Gora near the town of Brest Litovsk, currently in Belarus, and formerly the Polish town of Brześc Litewski. Many of the victims came from the ghetto in Brest. It is thought that 50,000 perished in this atrocity committed by the Nazis on October 15th 1942. This archive is part of the Phoenix Project at the University of Arizona, which aims to digitise data on the Jewish Holocaust which has emerged from the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission Archives. The archive is a searchable database of the identification documents issued to the inhabitants of the Brest Ghetto. This is an excellent resource for personal and academic researchers.
The British Association for Jewish Studies Bulletin (BAJS) provides information relevant to Jewish Studies within the UK. The Bulletin, published in print and online, includes: news from related departments; a list of publications by members of the Association; lectures, seminars and conferences being held at various associated centres for Jewish and Hebrew studies; and details of prizes and grants. There is a useful list of PhD research underway with details of dissertation titles and supervisors. The BAJS website is hosted by the Centre for Jewish Studies at the University of Manchester.
German and Austrian Exile Periodicals 1933-1945 is a research site posted by the German Section of the British Library. It provides a listing of German-language periodicals written and produced by Nazi-era exiles from Germany and Austria, which are held at the British Library. This resource will prove of interest to those researching the history of both German and German Jewish culture outside of Germany during the Nazi period. These periodicals were published in London, Paris, Copenhagen and Amsterdam, among other cities. The collection includes works by "Bertolt Brecht, Lion Feuchtwanger, Hugo Huppert, Berta Lask, Georg Lukacs, Heinrich Mann, Thomas Mann, Gustav Regler, Anna Seghers, Friedrich Wolf, and Paul Zech." Aside from complete runs, there is also a select list of isolated periodical issues which the library possesses. The site provides shelfmarks and locations of these resources in the British Library as well as further relevant research aids and links to external sites.
The web site of the The Canadian foundation of Polish-Jewish heritage: Montreal chapter is in Polish and English. The foundation is headed by Professor Irena Bellert, a remarkable Polish woman, who survived the Warsaw Rising in 1944, and continues to promote Polish-Jewish good relations. In view of how many Jews lived in Poland or can trace their roots to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, this foundation has an important role to play. It is supported by an impressive array of names: Prof. W. Bartoszewski; Zbigniew Brzeziński; Marek Edelman; and Eva Hoffman. The site contains interviews with Bartoszewski, the author of many books on the Second World War, survivor of Auschwitz, and co-founder of a Polish Underground organisation devoted to saving Jews during World War Two. Articles are reprinted from many prominent Polish magazines and newspapers, including: Gazeta Wyborcza; Znak; Tygodnik Powszechny; and Nowy Dziennik. The archive section has a great repository of relevant articles, a good selection of links, and information on new publications. The site also features two online books, the memoirs of Hanna Wehr (in Polish), and of Sven Sonnenberg and Mila Sandberg-Mesner (in English). An excellent site that is extremely informative for those who wish to research or study Polish-jewish relations.
The Carrie electronic library publishes a number of full-text books of historical value in HTML format. All books are easily accessed and can be read online or printed. Some of the books had never been published before. The items offered include: the Carrie Eurasia Collection (CEC); documents from World War I; documents for the study of American history; historical documents from western Europe; the Lopez Martin collection, and the Planctus for William Longsword. Among the titles are: Renaissance and Reformation; The Age of Torquemada; Winter Wheat in the Golden Belt of Kansas; The Normans in South Wales, 1070-1171; Central Asian Monuments; British Policy and Mission Education in the Southern Sudan, 1928-1946; Persecution of the Jews in the Roman Empire; and The Origins of the Kazaks and the Uzbeks. The books are relevant to American studies, European history, and Central Asian studies. It is possible to submit works of adequate standard for publication on the site. Originally published by the University of Kansas, the Carrie library has been hosted by the European University Institute in Florence since April 2006.
'Casa Shalom' is a research institute dedicated to the study of Spanish Jewish history, specially after the expulsion of 1492 when secret Sephardic Jews (marranos, or Anusim) continued to live in the country. The institute's website will be of interest to anyone interested in this part of Jewish history, as it offers bibliographies of published studies (some of which can be requested online to the institute). 'Casa Shalom' publishes a journal, and lists of contents for all issues can be accessed on the site too. Articles published here include studies on: the Ladino language; Sephardic Jewish history; and Jewish literature. News and membership information are also provided.
This website, published by the University of Pennsylvania's Penn Libraries, features a set of online exhibitions relating to Jewish history from 600BCE to the twentieth century. The exhibitions have been produced by the Centre for Advanced Judaic Studies, a post-doctoral college at the University, and cover a range of topics in Jewish history. These include Jewish history and culture in Eastern Europe; Jewish biblical interpretation; modern Jewry and the arts; Christian Hebraism; and Jewish traditions. The exhibitions all follow the same format, featuring an introduction, digitised exhibits with explanatory notes, and suggested further reading. They should be of particular interest to graduate and post-graduate students.
The website "Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota" presents information about the centre, established in order to teach, research, and publicise issues connected to genocide. It focuses on the Jewish Holocaust as well as genocides and related issues pertaining to the following groups: Roma and Sinti; Poles and Slaves; Armenians; Native and Plains Indians; Ukrainians; and Black Slaves in the USA. The site boasts a virtual museum, with an excellent links to relevant sites as well as an extensive list of educational resources for teachers and lecturers on subjects such as Raoul Wallenberg (to whom the site is dedicated) and teaching the Armenian genocide. There are also digitized audio online testimonies of Holocaust survivors and camp liberators. There is a virtual museum featuring the images of and lectures by many artists. Within the "Histories and Narratives" section links to resources about the Dight Institute which functioned in Minnesota and the eugenics movement can be found. It is a rich and fascinating site, which seeks to contextualise all aspects of genocide. One of the best sections is entitled histories, narratives and documents, and features images of Buchenwald, materials on Bolshevism, and documentation of the Armenian genocide.
Website of the Centre for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, at the University of Minnesota in the United States. The site includes educational resources relating to the Nazi holocaust and genocide studies in general, including video and audio materials, personal narratives and photographs. There is also a searchable database of relevant books and articles. Information is provided about the work of the Centre and its newsletter is available from the Fall 1999 issue onwards.
This is the website of the Center for Jewish history, an organization which unites five pre-existing organizations: the American Jewish Historical Society; the American Sephardi Federation; the Leo Baeck Institute; the Yishiva University Museum; and the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. Its combined holdings include approximately 100 million archival documents, 500,000 books, and thousands of photographs and cultural objects. The Center website states that this collection is the largest repository of sources on the history of Judaism and Jewish culture outside of Israel. It also has holdings pertaining to the Holocaust (prior to and during the Second World War) and to Jewish genealogy. The Center's main website is new, and reflects its comprehensive focus. It includes a virtual tour of the Center's facilities, and an online overview of the center in PDF format which the user can download. It is easy to navigate with clear, quick search options which generally cover all component sites. The search options address the user's immediate concern (professional academic, teacher, student, archivist) and type of historical focus (geneology, archival). Subpages within the site provide information on: Facilities; Academic Research (including a general overview of the library and archival collections); Resources for Educators and Teachers; Family History; Archives and Libraries; Supporting the Center; and Film, Music, Art and History. There is also a calendar of events. For more detailed information, the independent pages of the Center's component organizations can be called up from the main home page. These appear on multiple overlapping new screens which make navigation more cumbersome. Each of these sites is comprehensive in its own right, with extensive details on the history and resources of each organization. Of particular academic note is the Leo Baeck Institute for the Historical Study of German-speaking Jewry, and the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research on East European Jewry and the Yiddish language. The Leo Baeck Institute has put its master catalogue online.
Located in Jerusalem, the Central Archives of the History of the Jewish people (CAHJP) aims to provide a continuous and cohesive set of sources from the middle ages to the present on Jewish history in the Diaspora. Catalogues for special national collections are not yet all on the Web. But the catalogues for the community archives of Germany and Vienna are online, revealing the impressive extent of the CAHJP's holdings. Other national collections include Algeria; Chile; China; Columbia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Czechoslovakia; Danzig (Gdansk); Ecuador; Egypt; Estonia; Finland; France; Great Britain; Greece; Hungary; India; Iran; Iraq; Italy; Ireland; Israel; Latvia; Lebanon; Lithuania; Mexico; Morocco; the Netherlands; Panama; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Rhodesia; Romania; Russia; Belarus; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; South Africa; Spain; Syria; Tunisia; Turkey; and the United States. There are additional descriptions or indexes for private collections and archives listed, as well as records of international Jewish organisations such as the Jewish Colonisation Association (JCA). Instructions for ordering printed guides to CAHJP sources on Germany, Poland, Spain and Private Collections are available on the site. The archives serve scholars, teachers and genealogists, the last of which receive quite detailed information on the site regarding access to the CAHJP. Of interest on the site as well is a set of scanned images from nineteenth century minute books and of community seals from Central Europe and the Levant. There is a subpage devoted to 'Latest Acquisitions' which allows users to check which collections have been recently updated. Details for visitors are posted.
The Web Site "Centrum Dialogu i Modlitwy w Oświęcimiu (Centre for Prayer and Dialogue in Oświęcim)" has versions in English, Polish, German, Italian, and French. It provides information about the centre, founded in 1992, whose aim is to promote understanding and discussion about the Nazi Holocaust. Located in the Polish town of Oświęcim, known more familiarly to the world as the site of the death camps Auschwitz-Birkenau, it holds regular programmes and meetings for the inhabitants of the town and for school groups that come from abroad. The programme includes meetings with survivors, experts, discussions on ethics and religion, and retreats. The centre also provides accommodation, research facilities and a conference hall. This Catholic-run Centre aims to promote inter-faith dialogue and to commemorate those who died in the camps. The most useful elements of the site for researchers are in its Resources section, which offer essays in Polish and English and a few scanned images.
An attractive and well-designed website, Centropa is a platform for Jewish history in Central Europe. The site has contributors from across the region and it serves scholars, teachers, genealogists and the general public. The site contains a large collection of book reviews; travel suggestions for those visiting from abroad; excerpts from fiction and memoirs; historical summaries; and links pages. In the broad range of material, there are two main projects which dominate the site: Jewish Witness to a European Century (An Interactive Database to Jewish Memory) and Centropa Films (The Library of Rescued Memories). Both projects are online collections of family pictures and other photographs related to Jewish life. There is a good search engine with advanced capability. Of additional interest are the site's slideshows, which are chosen according to set themes. These are not to be missed, as they render the site much more than a database with a search engine: they provide historical context and commentary for the collections. Among the slideshows are the Life Book project, with interviews and photographs from a retirement home in Prague whose residents lived through the Holocaust. Another notable slideshow is an anti-Semitic postcard collection. Valuable for its instructive content and clear navigability, the site also provides continuity between past and present for the troubled history of the Jews of Central Europe. The slideshows pose a question best expressed by one of the contributors: how does one photograph an absence? It is a problem that the site clearly seeks to redress and is necessary now for a comprehensive understanding of the region. This message, augmented by the further comment that the past lurks in the shadows in Central Europe, even when it lies in plain sight, is worth remembering. The website has a German version, a Hungarian version, and Centropa student, a site for students interested in Jewish studies.
This is the home page of the Collegium Carolinum (CC), the major German research centre based in Munich, Germany, focussing on the historic Czech lands, Czechoslovakia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, with special references to Central Europe in general. The site offers descriptions of the CC's various research projects (past and present), which range through the whole political and cultural history of the area, and includes links to relevant online primary sources. The CC's numerous publications are listed, along with subscription or purchase information and article abstracts. The sub-site for the Institute's library gives a list of all current periodicals, newspapers, and yearbooks relevant to study of this region. Another index provides a list of holdings of weekly and daily newspapers published before 1945. Finally there is a valuable primary document list of the library's entire printed sources collection (this is still under construction with only the early alphabet being fully completed). The site provides a link to the Bavarian virtual library catalogue, with an option to search more than 30 libraries and databanks. The Internet resources section is invaluable, with relevant links to: other university departments; museums; archives; libraries; government sites; journals and newspapers; cultural and professional academic associations; mailing lists; and portals. The site offers a calendar of lectures and events going back to 1999, and forthcoming events are also advertised.
his is the website of the Commission for Art Recovery, which is part of the World Jewish Congress and affiliated with the World Jewish Restitution Organization, Jerusalem. The Commission is dedicated to reuniting works of art looted by the Nazis before and during World War II with their rightful owners and/or their heirs. They identify and locate art stolen by the Nazis and their collaborators, and register claims for the victims of Nazi art theft. This website provides an introduction to the work of the Commission for Art Recovery.
Compact Memory is an online archive of German-Jewish periodica from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. A side index allows easy navigation through about two dozen journals which are listed alphabetically. Each journal has its own subsite with a useful editorial history and links to scanned online copies. This is truly a valuable online resource for historians of German-Jewish culture and society, with famous titles such as Ost und West (East and West), Der Orient, Die Welt (The World) and the Jüdische Rundschau (Jewish Circular), among many others, which have been made readily available. The site has its own search engine which allows simple or complex searches of all journals and which will bring up all articles on a given topic. Information on this outstanding and complex academic project and its various contributors is posted. There is also an online help function for site visitors.
This website is part of the Cybrary of the Holocaust or Remember.org site. This section contains a variety of images of the Holocausts of World War II, focusing mainly on the Jewish experience. There are photographs of the concentration camps, Birkenau, Mathausen, and Auschwitz, as well as from the Warsaw Ghetto. As well as the photographic material, there are paintings and images composed by survivors, or on the subject of survivors. "Carpati", a film about a village now in Ukraine, which was home to Roma and Jews before the Second World War is also featured on the site. The site presents the work of: Myatt Lipscomb; Stuart Nichols; Roger Beecroft; and David Aronson. The site is useful for those who wish to put a human face to the history of the Second World War, and to all those studying, researching or with an interest in the Holocaust.
This website is the home page of the official archive, library and museum of Dachau concentration camp which, in its time, held more than 200,000 prisoners from over thirty countries. Events in the camp are related here through historical photographs and short written passages in English and German. The camp was built in 1933 as a new kind of prison for political opponents of the regime, such as communists, social democrats, trade unionists and some liberals and conservatives. Other groups were subsequently imprisoned there, including Jews, homosexuals, gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses and priests. After the 'Night of Broken Glass' (Kristallnacht) on 9-10 November 1938, more than 10,000 Jews were sent to Dachau. The site treats the wartime history of the camp very briefly, touching on the treatment of slave labour, prisoners of war, and Jewish prisoners. It notably does not give any prominence to the medical experimentation that took place at the camp. Essential statistics are posted: well over the 30,000 who were recorded dead perished there; and over 67,000 people were still imprisoned there upon liberation. There is a virtual tour of the camp from the years when it was operating. For more in-depth information, researchers in Holocaust Studies should look to the subpage on the archive associated with the camp, which briefly describes archival holdings of written documents, over 5,000 photographs, posters, plans, objects and some 800 films. Details on German memorial publications of documents are provided, with some compiled versions translated into English and French. The site also gives directions to the camp, information for visitors and tours (especially visiting teachers and students), brief details on current exhibitions and contact information. There is a straightforward but good links page, notably to other concentration camp memorial sites.
The website of the "Danish Centre for Holocaust Studies" is the English version of the main Danish site. Not all of the Danish pages are available in English. The aim of the site is to provide teaching materials and learning materials for those researching the Second World War Holocaust. The site begins with a basic overview which examines the ghettos of Poland, extermination camps, the Final Solution, the fate of Danish Jews, and of the Roma and Sinti. The background and aftermath are also briefly described. The bibliography is somewhat misnamed but serves the purpose of providing a brief introduction to leading protagonists. It is, in fact, the literature section that contains details of books, articles, and films in German and English. The timeline is also useful as well as the list of links to pertinent websites. A good site for those studying World War Two or the Holocaust.
"Daring to Resist" is the companion website to a PBS film that traces the lives of three Jewish women who worked in resistance against the Nazi regime in Europe during the Second World War. The site provides resources on the experiences of the three women: Faye Shulman, Barbara Rodbell and Shulamit Lack, who survived the Nazi occupation in the Netherlands, Hungary and Poland, and who worked in resistance and partisan groups to save Jews from the ghettos and concentration camps. A biography of each woman is available, along with a video clip of them talking about their lives. There is also an interactive timeline that lists the movements of the women alongside the events taking place in Europe during World War II. The site also provides a Teacher's Guide, which offers a range of resources on the programme. It is well structured, including background information about the Nazi persecution of Jewish people and the Holocaust, suggested areas of study and questions, a transcript of the film, a glossary, a bibliography, and a useful list of related websites.
Deadly Medicine is an online exhibition published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as part of its exhibitions programme. The site looks at the central role of eugenics in Nazi doctrine and the ultimate culmination of this racist ideology in the Holocaust and mass programmes of euthanasia. The exhibition is divided into three main sections, the first of which looks at the popularity of ideas on eugenics and racial hygiene within the Weimar Republic years 1919-1933. The second and third sections concentrate on the Nazis' own theories and the efforts they made to establish an Aryan race, with details of programmes of sterilization, the promotion of motherhood, and the eventual murderous policies of euthanasia and genocide during the war years. The site features some well-chosen primary source material, and information on further reading and related Web links. There is also a related traveling exhibition described here, with catalogue, upcoming dates and cities posted. Separate subpages are devoted to education with teaching and learning mateials for students and information for group visits to the Museum.
The Institute for Microfilmed Hebrew Manuscripts (IMHM) contains "microfilm copies of all Hebrew manuscripts extant in public and private collections. Over 74,000 reels, representing more than 90% of known Hebrew manuscripts are available." Most recently, over 20,000 manuscripts have been microfilmed from Russian collections, especially documents from Moscow and St. Petersburg. The IMHM maintains an ongoing and thoroughgoing search for small obscure samples and collections of all existing manuscripts written in Hebrew anywhere in the world. This site enables the reader to search the catalogue of the IMHM or to order copies of microfilms in their collection. It also provides information on research opportunities at the Institute, as well as a bibliography on the subject and a list of libraries which hold a microfiche catalogue of the Institute's resources. There is a good list of relevant global archival and library links and the Institute also has its own blog. This site is a remarkably interesting and valuable resource for researchers.
The Web Site of the "Diecezja Drohiczyńska" is in Polish and contains information about the Drohiczyn diocese's archive and museum. It is quite a rich archive with holdings mainly pertaining to the ecclesiastical records, but with a substantial section on the Jewish community. A brief history of the archive reveals its relatively new history. The site provides a listing of the holdings which include: parish records; monastery records; episcopal and diocesan records; memoires; plans and maps; early manuscripts and printed sources; and a collection of photographs, microfilms, and videos. The catalogues of the holdings can be downloaded in MS Word .DOC files. The site is of great use to those researching the history of different confessions, ethnicities, and Jewish communities in Poland and the areas now within Belarus and Ukraine.
The website 'Jewish History Resource Center' is an online project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The website is a selective gateway for Jewish history, with links to over 4,500 sites. All have been checked by the Center's staff, and deemed relevant to the subject. Brief descriptions of the resources are provided. The sites listed cover Jewish history from biblical times until the 20th century, including a section devoted to the Holocaust. There are also sections on online texts and documents; relevant institutions (libraries, archives, and museums, for example); study and research resources (such as details of academic programmes, bibliographies, and journals); plus thematic sections on archaeology, genealogy, Jerusalem, and gender studies. The index of sites is searchable, or can be browsed by keywords. Also provided is information about the Dinur Center, including details of recent publications online and in print. A well-maintained and valuable resource for all those working in this area.
The website "Early Hebrew Newspapers" is published by the Jewish National and University Library, which is part of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. On this site users can freely access digitised copies of the major titles of the nineteenth and early twentieth century Hebrew press. The following papers: Halevanon; Hamagid; Havazelet; Hazefirah; Hameliz; and Hazevi/Haor/Hashkafa are available, covering the years 1856-1911, and featuring some 65,000 pages. All of the papers are indexed by common era date, Jewish calendar date and issue number, and can also be searched partially by author and subject. The content is entirely in Hebrew, and to view the images users will need to accept to run the free image viewer viewONE. The database has an introductory page in English.
The website 'Eras' is an online journal produced by postgraduate students from the School of Historical Studies at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. The journal focuses on the areas of history, archaeology, religion and theology, and Jewish civilisation. Readers are encouraged to respond through the discussion page. Eras is intended to provide a platform to showcase recent Masters and doctoral research. There are links to back editions and each edition contains five or six full articles plus some book reviews. The articles are presented in both abstract and full form (in PDF format). The journal lacks a thematic approach, which would help or even engage the reader. Instead, each issue contains random material and it is necessary to trawl through the issues to discover if there is anything useful. Guidelines for contributors are available on the site together with calls for papers. There is scope to contact the editors and contribute to the discussion page.
Exilpresse digital: Deutsche Exilzeitschriften 1933-1945 is an online project published by the German National Library and based on collections of the Exiled Germans Archive, 1933-1945 at the German Library in Frankfurt am Main and related collections of exile literature in Leipzig. These collections contain a total of about 30,000 individual publications and volumes and some 900 periodical titles; a portion of this total was digitized between 1998 and 2003. Around thirty periodicals from the Nazi period from a broad range of subjects are posted on this site. They were published in German in places as diverse as New York, Paris, Shanghai and London. Several, but not all, of the newspapers are Jewish publications, such as the Shanghai Jewish Chronicle; Jüdisches Nachrichtenblatt (The Jewish Voice, Shanghai); Gemeindeblatt der Jüdischen Kultusgemeinde (Shanghai); and Ordo (Paris). Publication histories of the scanned periodicals are posted separately. Resources can be searched by keyword, year, issue and page. A keyword catalogue is provided. Pages have a zoom function for easier viewing. There are some glitches in the site's navigation. The site is entirely in German.
The Web Site "Eydes : Evidence of Yiddish Documented in European Societies" has versions in both German and English and obviously contains a lot of material in Yiddish. The aim of the project is to archive the dialects, folklore, customs and life experiences of the East and Central European Jewry. This is essentially home to a project on the language and culture atlas of Ashkenazic Jewry. The project authors have chosen 603 cities, towns and villages to focus on and have collected over 6,000 hours of tape recordings. This archive represents an amazing resource for ethnographers, anthropologists, historians, and sociologists. This resource is an international academic collaboration between scholars in the US, Poland, and Germany, sponsored by the Commission of the European Union, among other organisations. There is an interactive map with audio clips of regional differences in dialect. There are links to an online Yiddish course (in German) and to other sites of relevant interest. Audio and visual plug-ins are available for download on the site.
The website "Facing History and Ourselves" is an interesting project which seeks to examine history in the light of human behaviour. It is an American project that focuses more on the experience of the individual within an historical context, rather than on historical processes. The website has several sections: Educator Resources; Professional; Events and News. Students and alumni have their own subsite. Resources for teachers include lessons and units, classroom strategies, online modules but also video clips with prominent scholars and public figures talking about an issue involving moral choices today concerning the past. The organisation runs summer schools. Virtual courses online deal with subjects such as: Becoming American, the Chinese Experience; Seeking Justice in the Aftermath of Genocide; and Identity, Religion and Violence, a Critical Look at Sept 11, 2001. The issues apparent around teaching pupils and students about the Holocaust and Civil rights movements are also addressed. The organisation has bases in many towns in the USA and one in Switzerland. They publish details of vacancies within the organisation on the website and details of their regional offices. Facing History was established over 25 years ago and seeks to engage those of different backgrounds in discussion of prejudices, racisms, and antisemitism. They can be found on Facebook, YouTube and change.org as well.
'Filmography: Home of Israeli Film' is a free scholarly website about the history of Hebrew & Israeli cinema. There are also coverage of Eastern Europe and Germany before the holocaust. The website is run by film historian Joseph Halachmi. At April 2009 the website has a small but growing range of news items, links, book notes, details of events interest to film historians, and a few short scholarly articles - although these items are not currently well-presented or organised. This is a developing new website that will be a useful contact point for those interested in the history of Hebrew & Israeli cinema, and the role of cinema in Eastern Europe and Germany during the early 20th century.
The website of the Florida Holocaust Museum provides information on the Museum's temporary, permanent and past exhibitions. Subsites on the exhibitions present the Jewish experience for the last two thousand years through the Holocaust and beyond, using the themes of history, heritage and hope. The lives and works of two painters, Samuel Bak and Saul Balagura are featured. Further sub-sections of the site provide information and resources for teachers, including a teaching trunk that is can be loaned to teachers to use in classes for limited periods. Details for tours and individual visitors are provided. There is also a calendar of events, which includes events at the Museum such as lectures on genocide and symposia.
'Folk Literature of the Sephardic Jews' is a multimedia online archive of ballads and oral literature in Judeo-Spanish. The collection was amalgamated between 1957 and 1993 by Samuel G. Armistead, Joseph H. Silverman, and Israel J. Katz. Site visitors can listen to initial transcriptions or entire recordings from an online audio archive of ballads (RealPlayer needed). Users gain access to them by means of lists sorted either by date or place of recording. Lyrics are helpfully displayed as the recording plays. The site also offers a linked list of known ballad titles as well as a linked catalogue of folk literature genres other than ballads under the following categories: endecha; liturgy; lyric song; proverb; story; vocabulary; and wedding song. In most instances, English translations are not provided. There is a search engine available, and contributors are named in an alphabetical list with their countries of origin ranging from Morocco, Greece, Turkey and Israel. The site also includes short introductory essays about history and forms of Sephardic oral literature, and the oral literature of the Hispanic world more generally. These include short bibliographies. Unfortunately, this outstanding resource could have been greatly enhanced by more detailed explanations of the historical and cultural context and significance of these ballads within Jewish, European and Mediterranean history. Nonetheless, this resource provides important access to a dying tradition, and should be of great assistance to scholars working in the field.
The website "The Forgotten Camps" is a very personal site featuring accounts of survivors and their liberators, hosted by JewishGen, Inc. The subject of this project, touched upon rarely, is the lesser-known camps and sub-camps that were scattered around Europe. A comprehensive list of these camps is available on this site. Links are also made to the pages of other camps where they exist. An online exhibition of the art work of Fernand von Horen, a survivor of both Esterwegen and Flossenburg camps captures the brutality of camp life. A very useful section on the site is the glossary of slang used in camps, and there are also short histories of the main camps and some of the smaller camps such as: Drancy, Radogosz, and Nordhausen. The bibliography tends towards personal accounts rather than historical works, and also has a wide selection of French literature on the subject.
The Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies is based in the Manuscripts and Archives department at Yale University Library. It is a video archive of more than 4,300 interviews with Holocaust survivors, telling of their experiences under Nazi occupation. The site provides a detailed background to the project and the activities of the archive, as well as information about the educational resources and publications available for use by teachers. In addition it is possible to view on the site video excerpts from the archive in Quicktime, or as audio files. These are accompanied by transcripts, and include testimonies from Jewish people, American witnesses, and Gypsy internees. Although it is not possible to view the rest of the archive footage on the site, it is possible to search the catalogue using Orbis, the online catalogue for Yale University Library.
This is the website of the Fritz Bauer Institut in Frankfurt, Germany. The institute exists to promote academic investigation of the history and impact of mass killings perpetrated by the Nazis, and in particular the Holocaust. In addition to carrying out research, the institute encourages dialogue, develops educational materials for use in schools, and organises conferences. The website, which is in German throughout, gives details of the institute's recent and forthcoming activities, and provides a selection of online papers and other documents. Also available are copies of the institute's newsletter, in PDF. The Fritz Bauer Institut is affiliated to the University of Johann Wolfgang Goethe, and is housed on the campus of the University of Frankfurt am Main.
This website hosts the Geisteswissenschaftliches Zentrum, Geschichte und Kultur Ostmitteleuropas (GWZO) (Centre for the Humanities, History and Culture of East Central Europe) at the University of Leipzig. It focuses on the region from the Baltic to the Adriatic, covering the Early Middle Ages to the 20th century, and using a comparative cultural context, both within the region and without. The site maintains that this comparative perspective is the basis for the Centre's innovative research methodology which prompts its cooperative and interdisciplinary efforts in the fields of the construction of national identities in comparison with regional and ethnic identities; historical cultural plurality of East Central Europe vis-ŕ-vis Slavic, Magyar, Jewish and German cultural elements; and the significance and boundaries of these developments in relation to general European cultural trends. The site then describes the GWZO's various research projects which expand upon these general themes. These will be of undoubted interest to all specialists in this field. Contact details are given for the researchers and senior academics who head each project. Abstracts of all GWZO publications are listed with the location of reviews of GWZO monographs in scholarly journals. There is an excellent address subsite for all affiliated GWZO members. Their course offerings within the University are listed - as are the lectures of visiting academics.
The Web Site "German Crimes in Poland" (referring to the Second World War) is part of a broader site published by the University of the West of England on genocides. This section is a transcription of the Central Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes in Poland's findings which were published in 1946. It comprises links to sections about: background information; Auschwitz; Treblinka; Chelmno (Kulmhof); extermination of the Jews 1939-1945; crimes committed during the Warsaw Rising; and crimes committed against Soviet prisoners of war. The site is excellent for those studying the period, whether at A and AS level, undergraduate or postgraduate. Some materials are in German, and there are eye-witness accounts heard before the commission. The texts have been preserved as they were published. Many personal accounts recorded here allow the student to observe World War Two from a rather more personal viewpoint, and provides an excellent resource for teachers.
This very short PDF document describes the background to the AHRC funded project “German Jewish Travelling Cultures in the Diaspora, 1919-1939”. The project examines Jewish interwar travel writing with its comingling of modernity and nostalgia and looking beyond the German nation state, sees Europe as “a powerful Jewish historical landscape“ offering “communists, Zionist travellers and middle-class tourists“ alike conflicting alternative Jewish futures.
This is the home page for the Gesellschaft für Exilforschung (GfE), or Society for Exile Research, a centre for research on people, especially Jews, who fled Germany and East Central Europe leading up to and during the Second World War and came to live in exile. For the later period, it also deals with Western Europe. This is a relatively new field of enquiry, emphasising an integration of political history and literary studies, with a deep-rooted exploration of the nature of the cultural identity of Germans and Jews who fled the Nazi regime. It investigates the nature of exile itself, tracing reverberations of the experience into second and third generations. In this light, the site describes the centre's recent exhibitions, such as 'Rudolf Olden. Journalist gegen Hitler – Anwalt der Republik' (Rudolf Olden. Journalist Against Hitler - Advocate of the Republic). The main page also posts new announcements, such as academic meetings held at the GfE and calls for papers to attend relevant conferences. It offers a good newsletter running back to 1997, and a subpage lists recent GfE publications. The centre runs a new journal entitled 'Jahrbuchs Exilforschung' (Exile Research Yearbook), for which tables of contents are provided. The site also has a useful set of links.
The website The Ghetto fighters' house provides information on a Holocaust and Jewish resistance heritage museum in Israel. The site has versions in Hebrew, English, French, German, Russian, and Arabic. It is an educational site aimed at sharing the story of the Jewish people in the 20th century, especially as it unfolded during World War II, depicting Jews as victims of the Holocaust and as members of the anti-Nazi resistance. It also provides information regarding a second museum, which is located within the first one, Yad LaYeled. It is a museum devoted to the Jewish young who perished in the Holocaust. The purpose of the museums is to help educators preserve and disseminate information on an international scale. On the website, there are education packs available and the organisation works in partnership with American schools. The site is rich in online exhibitions, and the museum has an excellent art collection centred on the Holocaust. The archive section includes documentation collections on the Łódź Ghetto, Jews remaining in Germany after World War II, the Yitzhak Zuckerman archive, and the Warsaw Ghetto underground, among many other valuable holdings. An excellent resource for all those interested in the Holocaust, or those teaching the subject.
The Web Site "Grodno Online" is in English and states its aim as "to make available specific documents or articles concerning the History of the Jewish Community in the city of Grodno, Belarus". Prior to the Second World War this city was part of Poland. The site provides access to excerpts in English of transcriptions of the documentation of the murder of nearly thirty thousand Jews between 1941-1943, deportations to death camps, the Ghetto, and the Cologne and Bielefield trials. In addition there are also details of which libraries hold the six-volumed work published by the Beata Karlsfeld Foundation. The site features the book "Lost Jewish Words: the Communities of Grodno, Lida, Olkieniki, Vishay", published by Yad Vasehm. It contains the following chapters: the fall of Grodno, confiscation and forced labour; liquidation of the Ghetto; and postwar events. There is also a short bibliography. The site displays a certain bias in its narrative, but has many good resources.
The Web Site "H-Holocaust discussion list" is part of the H-Net group of resources and lists that hosts discussion groups on various topics of History. In essence the site is a discussion list. The list does not confine itself to just the Holocaust, but covers anti-Semitism, Jewish history in the 1930s and 1940s and related themes in the Second World War. The site features book reviews, conference calls for papers, and most usefully for those teaching courses, there are course syllabi. A section entitled Professional Papers contains good articles on a variety of subjects such as using authentic Nazi propaganda in teaching the holocausts. Interested scholars and students are invited to subscribe to the mailing list. A search of the site and of all H-Net site is available. This is a good site for teachers and students of the holocaust and the Second World War.
The Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz website presents primary historical sources related to the Nazi meeting that was held at a villa on the Wannsee, Germany on 20 January 1942, to discuss Adolf Hitler's 'Final Solution' to the Jewish question. The chilling original protocol of the conference is available in German and in translated versions. Additional documents surrounding this meeting, including letters of invitation and follow-up correspondence on implementation of the genocidal policy, are posted. Researchers will be further served by the site's search engine whereby searches can be made according to themes and key figures. Thus for example, from the index users can gain access to short biographies of all the people who attended the conference. A permanent online exhibition of essays, historical documents and photographs traces the evolution of the Nazis' policies from modified pogroms to full-blown rationalised and bureaucratised genocide. Several special online exhibitions provide essential historical background and context. Teachers will also find extensive useful materials here, with small essays and exhibitions complementing proposed lesson plans. Not all documents are translated from the original German. Users should persist in the face of somewhat over-simplified navigation menus, which belie the wealth of information available at this site. There is a library at the villa itself; the library's electronic catalogue is available online. A price list of the Museum's publications, which are mainly exhibition catalogues and some relevant monographs, is posted. Teachers are encouraged to conduct seminars and classes in visits to the villa, where possible. The site provides directions to the villa, with tourist opening times and details on tours and permanent exhibitions as well as a history of the house itself.
The website "Heritage: Civilization and the Jews" is a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) site, which is designed to accompany a series of broadcasts that are also available on video and DVD-ROM. This site accompanies a nine-part course, with lesson plans, discussion questions, and research projects. The history of the Jewish people is described using texts, images and a rather selective timeline. The website is easy to navigate and nicely presented, and of great use to teachers and those wishing to gain a basic knowledge of Jewish history. The course covers the period from 3800 BC to the present day and was written by Professor William Hallo, a Professor at Yale University. The course follows a broad chronological path, but is also themed, presenting links to modern issues and points for reflection and discussion. Each episode of the programme is accompanied by an index, an atlas, documents, and a real player visual clip.
The website "Hiatt Holocaust Collection " provides information about this collection of Holocaust material at the College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA, USA, which was created in 1979. The Hiatt Holocaust collection consists of holdings mainly in English that focus on the roles of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus) and the wider Roman Catholic Church during the Second World War. There is also an emphasis on the post-war relationship between Christians and Jews. The collection is coordinated by the Rev. Vincent Lapomarda, who has published works on the subject. There is a useful link to the Holy Cross archives and to related sites. Sections include information on Jesuit victims of the Holocaust, information on Saint Edith Stein, and the Jesuit Righteous Among Nations. There are also images of the liberation of Buchenwald and the text of a dedication speech made by Elie Wiesel. The collection can also be searched using the Holy Cross Libraries catalogue. This site is useful for those who are studying World War Two and its Holocausts and for A and AS level students.
The website "Historical sites of Jewish Warsaw" is in Polish and English, and is edited by Jan Jagielski. The site, which is published by the Warsaw Department of Promotion, features a timeline and guide to over fifty locations linked to the history of Warsaw's Jews. There is a good introduction written by Jacek Leociak "From Żidowska street to Umschlagplatz", which points out that Warsaw was thirty per cent Jewish during the interwar period, and it is estimated that between 10 and 15 thousand Jews now reside in Poland. This is a wonderful yet moving journey and lesson for those who know Warsaw well, and an opportunity to step into a now-vanished world. An alphabetical list of locations is of use to the informed user, recreating the topography of Jewish streets and houses in the city. A chronology is extremely helpful, as is the plan of the Ghetto and the map of Warsaw. For those intending to visit sites, it must be remembered that the majority of Warsaw was destroyed during the Second World War, and some sites mentioned here were not rebuilt.
This is the homepage of the Historical Society of Jews from Egypt, a committee-run organization which serves Egyptian-born Jews everywhere, but especially in the United States. The Society received a charter from the New York State Museum in 1996 and devotes itself to the history of the community as it existed in Egypt and subsequently via institutions of education, arts, good will organizations and religious establishments. Through a great range of posted letters, reminiscences and samples of private ephemera, the site describes key events and details of this very old and still extant community; it particularly notes departures during the defining 'second Exodus' in the 1950s and 1960s, when Jews were expelled and the recent rise of anti-Semitism in Egypt. Navigation is haphazard, but scholars will find a wealth of photographs, biographical information and starting points for deeper research on this interesting site. There is also a lot of news on current matters related to Jewish history and the protection of Jewish historical documents and artifacts in Egypt. Researchers will note that the site conveys an émigré perspective.
This Internet resource provides a wide range of information pertaining to the first Nazi concentration camp in Europe at Dachau. Designed and maintained by Scrapbookpages.com, the site will be of interest primarily to those with a non-specialist interest in this aspect of the Holocaust, although the site may serve as a good teaching resource. The Dachau resource is divided into several principal sections, all of which may be accessed via the hyperlinks at the foot of the home page. These cover topics ranging from eye witness accounts of life in the camp to the liberation of Dachau by American troops in April 1945. Each section is divided into further parts which are located via additional hyperlinks. In addition to those features already mentioned, the site contains text documents and photographs relating to the Dachau trials conducted by an American Military Tribunal in 1947. These pertain to the Malmedy Massacre; the trial of Martin Gottfired Weiss, the last Commandant of Dachau and main defendant at the trial; and the trial of the infamous Ilse Koch. The site additionally offers information relating to the Dachau memorial site, the town of Dachau itself and its places of historical interest. In sum, this is an authoratative and expansive website that is well-deisgned and easily navigable. The site is not regularly updated.
Other parts of the site have detailed sub-sections on other World War II concentration camps as well as less well known forced labour and POW camps, museums and related pages of more general interest. In the general sections, visitors will find good, carefully researched essays, historical images and recent photos of synagogues and key Central European towns. The site has many graphic photographs from the war alongside current pictures of other camps, including: Mauthausen; Hartheim Castle; Bergen-Belsen; Buchenwald; Dachau; Gardelegen; Ohrdruf; Sachsenhausen; Neuengamme; Auschwitz-Birkenau; Majdanek; Plaszow; Treblinka; Belzec; Sobibor; Chelmno; the Warsaw and Cracow Ghettos; Theresienstadt; and Natzweiler-Struthof in France. There are external links to sites concerning Mittelbau-Dora and Flossenbürg. The context of the Dachau pages within this larger site suggests that Scrapbookpages.com might generally serve scholars who are analysing the growing sophistication of tourists' studies of the Holocaust. The site is updated regularly.
The Web Site "The History of Poland" provides a brief historical overview of the lands that have variously made up the state of Poland. The site is divided into the following sections: the rise to power (before 1696); the Polish Army (1550-1683); decline and partition (1697-1795); revolution and rebirth (1791-1939); the Second World War (1939-1945); and Postwar Poland (1945-). As is frequently the case, this author compacts the early modern period into an extremely brief part of the outline of Poland's history. Most attention is paid to the twentieth century. A biographical section of the site gives information on important families and historical figures. This site serves as a good brief introduction to, or refresher for, Polish history. A good site for undergraduates of History, Slavonic Studies, or Polish Studies and ambitious A and AS Level History students.
This time-line website from the History Place offers an overview of the events of the Second World War. The overall look of the time-line is clean and uncluttered. There are over 100 links to text, photographs and audio clips, including: the rise to power in Germany of Hitler and the Nazi party; the origins and consequences of the conflict; and ending with the Allied victory and the Nuremberg war trials. There are also links to other History Place Web pages including the Holocaust Time-line, genocide in the twentieth century, and biographies of some key figures of World War II. The time-line is easy to read and to navigate. For example, when following links back to the time-line from the resources (photographs, audio clips etc.), you are returned to the relevant date on the time-line. The site is now archived.
"Hitler's Germany" is a website which has been compiled by Professor Gerhard Rempel of Western New England College. It is easy to navigate and contains the following sections: lectures; examination questions; a quiz (which at the time of cataloguing only contained one image); maps (at the time of cataloguing there were none on the site); media; links to other sites; Auschwitz; and a bibliography. The lecture section is quite comprehensive with over 28 topics including: the 19th-century origins of Germany's power; the Wannsee Conference; Neo-Nazis and History; a chronology of the Holocaust; World War Two in the East; and the question of guilt. The site is a good resource for history teachers and students, indeed for anyone who wants to find out the basic background to the Second World War. It is a good A or AS Level resource. However, Rempel also includes photographs from a personal trip made to Auschwitz, accompanied by comments that not everyone would find appropriate. The bibliography is good for a complete beginner, but is very brief.
The site aims to disseminate information about the non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust, which number over 5 million. The author of the site (Terese Schwartz-Pencak) is widely published on the subject, is the daughter of Holocaust survivors, and has converted to Judaism. The site features extracts from Nuremberg trial documentation and an excellent page of links to resources on the Holocaust. Individual stories of survivors along with pictures and images enhance the site. Those given a voice here, Afro-Europeans, Roma and Sinti, Poles, Homosexuals, the disabled, and Jehovah's Witnesses, are among those frequently by-passed by Holocaust histories. The site is of use to those seeking an individual insight into the Holocaust and those who were both victims and heroes.
Holocaust/Shoah is a Resource Guide/gateway, designed by David M. Dickerson of the Institute for Global Communications. It is dedicated to the provision of information pertaining to the Holocaust and the Third Reich. The organisational structure is simple and user-friendly. Resources are categorised as follows: organizations; archives and references; personal responses; educational projects and tools; list and conference archives; survivors and rescuers; and the Third Reich. Each category consists of a vast selection of hyperlinks, which are accompanied by a brief description of the resource's content. The site also contains a search facility, and a small number of hyperlinks to other history-related Internet resources. In sum, this is a well-designed and easily navigable website that will be of benefit primarily to those with a specialist interest in the Holocaust and its surrounding issues. The site is not regularly updated.
The website "Holocaust and genocide studies" provides information about the journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The journal is published twice a year (print ISSN: 8756-6583 and online ISSN: 1476-7937) and claims to "cut across the disciplines of history, literature, economics, religious studies, anthropology, political science, sociology, and others". It focuses on how insights into the Holocaust can inform work on, and examination into other genocides. The site features the usual information about subscriptions, conventions for the submission of articles, and placing orders. The online archive contains issues dating back to 1986 with some articles in abstract and others in full-text. To access these a subscription is required. Contributors have included: R. H. Levy; S. Aronson; I. Deák; Piotr Wróbel; and David Cesarani. An interesting site for those researching the Holocaust and other genocides.
Published by Modern American Poetry (an online journal and multimedia companion to 'Anthology of Modern American Poetry', OUP, 2000), this resource is part of a website about the Holocaust. The Web page provides images of contemporary paintings and drawings that document events, during the Jewish Holocaust and in the concentration camps of the 1940s. Also shown are some images of Holocaust memorial art at Auschwitz, Warsaw, Berlin and Treblinka. Users should note that the website has a number of high quality images, and as a result may take longer to load on slower connections.
The Web Site "Holocaust Awareness" is part of a project run out of the History Department at Northeastern University. Its committee aims to attract a diverse range of students, staff, faculty, and others who wish to discuss, debate and contribute to interpretations and awareness of the Holocaust of the Second World War. It contains an extremely useful bibliography divided into themed sections, and posts information on meetings, lectures, conferences and other events, including Holocaust Awareness Week. Sections of texts deal with Poland under Nazi occupation, Hitler's legacy, Nazi propaganda on the Drang nach Osten, and euthanasia statistics. One subsection deals with David Irving and Holocaust denial. This site is useful for those studying World War Two at A and AS Level and possibly at the undergraduate level. It also features some excellent illlustrations and relevant links.
This extensive website seeks to provide an historical analysis to 'one of the most notable anti-Semitic propaganda movements [which has developed] over the past two decades', namely Holocaust denial or an attempt to 'deny or minimise the established history of Nazi genocide against the Jews'. More than that, however, the website aims to disprove the notion of Holocaust denial. Topics include: origins of the movement (including the Institute for Historical Review); related American legal precedents; academic interest; and denial themes. The website is part of the Jewish Virtual Library from the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise and, as a result, there is a vast amount of information on Israeli-American relations.
The website "Holocaust Education Resources" is essentially a teaching pack designed for those teaching on the Holocaust in schools and universities, and so is of interest also to those learning about it. Notes for students and teachers are provided, including an excellent section on how to deal with Holocaust denial. The interesting aspect of this resource, is that it is based on material from survivors and refugees. Produced by the Centre for German-Jewish Studies at the University of Sussex, the teaching pack draws on their extensive archives, expert academics and the centre's consultations with survivors and Jewish groups.The course is divided into twelve topics, including: History of Antisemitism; History of the Third Reich; Women in the Holocaust; Survivors; and Holocaust Education. Each section provides a paragraph introduction to the theme and images, films, oral accounts, personal correspondence, or links to further information. The pack makes particular reference to and use of the Arnold Daghani collection and one of the most moving sources is a letter from a young man in Auschwitz (Oświęcim) to his mother. The site deals almost exclusively with the Holocaust of the Jewish populations, mentioning briefly some groups, such as the Roma/Gypsies, but omitting others. At the time of last review, the last update on the site was from 2003 therefore the bibliographies and links might not be entirely up to date.
The website "Holocaust Era in Croatia: Jasenovac 1941-1945" provides the history of Jasenovac, the largest complex of the concentration camps built under the fascist Croatian Ustaša régime between 1941 and 1945. It is an online exhibition of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. There are three sections to the site, provided in English, Serbian, and Croatian versions: memorial; historical; and collection. The memorial section pays tribute to camp victims through quotations from prisoners and photographs. The historical section features an impressive six-part narrative history of the Jasenovac camps, accompanied by an automated slide show. The narrative reveals that the camps held political, religious, and racial prisoners. The Balkan context for these conflicts is only briefly or implicitly described. A clearer explanation of the nature of camps in this region compared to those in Germany and Poland would be valuable, especially for teachers and students of Holocaust studies. Further historical commentary on the relationship in this region between Muslim, Orthodox and Roman Catholic faiths and ethnic and political groups - as well as the relative place of the Jewish minority - would have added historical depth to the site. This would be all the more valuable, given remarks from site authors that documents from the camp were burned and any assessment of events is subject to a great range of varying nationalist interpretation. A related links section provides limited additional information from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The collection section provides an exhibition of artefacts, photographs, and maps related to the camp. Its most interesting component is its video section, with interviews with museum staff who have collected and restored excavated evidence, and one captured German newsreel from 1944 of the Croatian Ustaša leader, Anton Pavelić. There are also small excerpts from oral histories and personal histories, including audio excerpts from interviews. The site has won a Web award for style and content, affirming its value as a resource for teachers and students. Navigation is largely automated. This can be difficult to follow on some pages, as text and photographs scroll by on opposite sides of the screen simultaneously.
A Holocaust Journey: Classroom Encounters offers a collection of resources relating to teaching college-level courses about the Holocaust, particularly in the context of writing and literature classes. Some general reflections on the issues raised by teaching such a difficult and potentially disturbing topic are offered, but the site's main features are an annotated bibliography of texts suitable for use with classes, a selection of sample syllabi, some of which include further bibliographies, and supplementary related material, such as a partial book manuscript by the site's author, Gordon Thomas of the University of Idaho. Most of the example teaching resources are provided as RTF files. This is a useful website for those teaching or researching this subject, though users should note that as the site was compiled after a 1999 workshop, most of the bibliographies predate this, and hence will not include the most recent works.
This page links to the website of the most recent Holocaust Memorial Day. Holocaust Memorial Day in Britain is 27th January each year, and is marked by national and local acts of reflection and remembrance. The Memorial Day websites detail when and where events are taking place, as well as providing basic information about the Holocaust and Britain's role in dealing with the Jewish refugees that were a consequence of the Nazi brutality before and during the Second World War. The sites include the Government's declaration on the importance of remembering the tragedy, and the lessons that should be learned for the future. Educational sections are provided, which give suggestions for classroom teaching projects about the Holocaust, and offer education packs that teachers may order from the site. Information and contact details are also provided for the organisations in Britain and around the world that are dedicated to preserving the memory of the Nazi persecution of Jews, homosexuals, gypsies, and other groups that suffered. A small photographic archive is included with each site.
The website "Holocaust on Trial" accompanies a PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) television series originally broadcast in 2000. The website was produced in conjunction with Nova Online and aims to provide supplementary materials for use in teaching about Holocaust of the Second World War, focusing largely on the Jewish experience. Understandably some of the material is not suitable for children and is flagged as such. There is a timeline of Nazi abuses, which describes briefly events from 1933 to 1945. What is interesting about this site is its engagement with contemporary issues that are a legacy of the Jewish Holocaust. The website provides information on scientific data discovered as a result of Nazi experiements and follows through arguments for and against their use. It discusses in depth the subject of Holocaust denial through investigating the trial between Deborah Lipstadt and David Irving. There is a section with a selection of useful links on the Jewish Holocaust, and a few books. For those who do not have access to PBS, there is a transcript of the programme, including a reconstruction of parts of the Irving trial. The resources section could have been much fuller and as is often the case, little attention is paid in this programme/website to the other victims of the Nazis.
The website "Holocaust Personal Histories" is an online exhibition published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Composed entirely of oral history testimonies of people who survived the Holocaust, this is an extremely sobering and moving exhibition. The interviews are divided into twelve separate categories, looking in turn at: children; refugees; survival; ghettos; resistance; liberation; deportations; camps; aid and escape; the aftermath; and individuals. The testimonies are mainly those of Jewish people who lived through the Nazi occupation of Europe, and the Final Solution, their programme of genocide. The accounts can either be viewed as text or on video, which requires RealPlayer to access.
The website "Holocaust Survivors" is supported by the State Affiliate for the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Jewish Community Center, New Orleans. It aims to present the human face of the history of the Jewish Holocaust of the Second World War, by bringing the stories of survivors to a wider audience. The website is the work of an individual who has collected sources and the stories of survivors. Sections include: survivor stories; photo gallery; audio gallery; encyclopaedia; texts; bibliography; and links. The excellent audio sections allows the user to listen to the voices of those who survived, on subjects as varied as defusing bombs with a chisel; nine weeks in Majdanek; and why I am alive. The bibliography is not (as may be expected with this subject), extensive and omits many of the key works on the Holocaust. However, this site is a moving and extremely good resource to complement any level of research into the most tragic events of World War Two. It can be used with A and AS Level students, as well as by researchers and academics.
This website provides an online guide for educators teaching the Holocaust. It would be most appropriate for school-level teaching. It provides a solid account not only of the actions of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in its persecution of the Jews, but also of the cultural and intellectual background that led to the Holocaust, looking at issues of stereotypes and prejudices from the classical world to the twentieth century. The express purpose of the Guide is to "permit students to understand the types of thinking and behaviour which led to genocide during World War II." The site is divided into chapters, each of which contains: historical narrative; a clear set of instructional objectives; a glossary of terms; suggestions for activities and discussion questions; teaching strategies; and a list of evaluation questions. The Guide forms part of a larger site remembering the victims of the Holocaust, and there are links to other relevant parts of this site and to external web resources.
Idea is an ejournal dedicated to discussion of issues relating to cults, mass movements, autocratic power, war, genocide, democide, holocaust, and murder. The subject matter of the journal may seem sensational, but the the editorial board consists of eminent psychologists and psychiatrists, for example Alan Jacobs and Margaret Singer. Idea, then, is a journal of psychological interventions in culture and politics. The journal includes photography and prose fiction, as well as reviews of books concerning trauma. An interesting site, Idea is part of the growing academic industry concerned with holocaust and extremity. The journal will be relevant to anyone working in history, theory or psychology.
The Web Site Images of Polish Synagogues is published by the Institute of Global Communications and compiled by David Dickerson. The site is based on photographs of a selection of surviving or rebuilt synagogues in Poland, and a handful of books on the subject. The synagogues featured at the time of cataloguing were: Łańcut, Noźyk (in Warsaw), Tykocin (near Białystok), and the Rema and Old Synagogues (both in Kazimierz, a district of Cracow). The sections contain a couple of photographs, a few lines on the history of the synagogues prior to their fates during the Second World War and an entry from the Encyclopedia Judaica on the Holocaust. This is an interesting site for those wanting to glimpse an aspect of Polish Jewish culture.
This is the website of the Imperial War Museum, based in London. This immense online presentation includes details of the Museum's unique coverage of Twentieth Century conflicts, especially those involving Britain and the Commonwealth (from the First World War to the Gulf War and the present day), and is a portal to the Museum's further branches: Imperial War Museum Duxford; Cabinet War Rooms; HMS Belfast moored on the River Thames; and the Imperial War Museum North, Manchester. Visitor information is clearly presented as are links to Museum services such as the "Collecting Group", the online shop, "Education", even "Battlefield Tours". Collections online allow the user to access short essays on historical themes.The online exhibitions of the Imperial War Museum London are all accessible here, including many about World War I and the Second World War; also the Spanish Civil War, the Korean War, and the Falklands Conflict; the submarine; and interviews with the women who were living at, or involved with the Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp in the 1980s. There is also a selection of images from the Photograph Archive.These online exhibitions reflect the range of resources and presentations on the Museum's website as a whole, covering all aspects of life in wartime. From here information is provided about the Imperial War Museum's Holocaust Exhibition (the story of the Nazis' persecution of the Jews and other groups before and during the Second World War). Previous exhibits include "Anthem for Doomed Youth" a major exhibition relating to the poets of the Great War (including: Edmund Blunden; Rupert Brooke; Robert Graves; Julian Grenfell; Ivor Gurney; David Jones; Francis Ledwidge; Wilfred Owen; Isaac Rosenberg; Siegfried Sassoon; Charles Sorley; and Edward Thomas). Extracts of oral history interviews held by the Museum's Sound Archive are available, such as short accounts of soldiers in the trenches, the home front and women at war; and the "Lusitania medallion". For the Second World War exhibition themes include the Commonwealth; the Battle of Britain; the campaign in Burma; the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; the factories and workers of Great Britain; codes in wartime, and how the German Enigma code was broken.
The Imperial War Museum's Holocaust Exhibition uses historical material to tell the story of the Nazis' persecution of the Jews and other groups before and during the Second World War. The website acts primarily as an introduction to the exhibition, and does not itself contain a great deal of text or primary material. The site does however provide details of recent publications on the Holocaust, a list of links to related websites, and an education section that provides details for teachers wishing to use the exhibition as a study aid for schoolchildren. The site includes a few secondary articles about the issues surrounding exhibiting and teaching the Holocaust. Details of museum opening hours and tour times are also provided.
The website "International Jewish cemetery project" is part of the excellent site "JewishGen". It is a good resource for both historians and private researchers. This section is comprehensive and allows the user to submit information on various Jewish cemeteries. Coverage is therefore, eclectic and but easy to use. The project is run by the International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies, Inc. (IAJGS), whose aim is to "catalogue every Jewish burial site throughout the world". There is useful instructional information and the site is divided into geographical sectors. Information ranges from full descriptions of burial sites with listings of the deceased to a few lines taken from a travel guide. A good site for researchers and historians of Jewish communities.
This Internet resource was established in 1993 by the International School for Holocaust Studies, which organizes educational programs and produces educational materials for a variety of target populations and educational organizations in Israel and abroad. The organisation adopts an interdisciplinary approach to Holocaust education through art, music, literature, theology and drama. In addition to information pertaining to the many courses and online seminars arranged in several languages by the organisation, visitors to this site can access a vast range of information relating to the Holocaust. The menu on the left hand side of the home page takes users to a list of hyperlinks relating to various aspects of Holocaust studies. These include: The Shoah Resource Centre, a comprehensive database on the Holocaust including photographs, artifacts, testimonies, documents, maps, diaries, research papers, book reviews and Frequently Asked Questions; a chronology of the Holocaust 1933-38, which consists of a timeline comprising of hyperlinks which take users to text documents relating to the topic or event selected; a bibliography, consisting of over 200 books in English that are generally regarded by scholars and teachers as important in the study of the Holocaust; and Documents of the Holocaust, a Comprehensive collection of over 200 documents on the destruction of the Jews of Germany, Austria, Poland, and the Soviet Union. In addition, the site includes a number of online exhibitions relating to the Holocaust and lists those deemed 'Righteous among Nations,' that is, non-Jews who helped Jews during this racial persecution and genocide.
The website 'Internet History Sourcebooks Project', created by Paul Halsall at Fordham University, provides access to online primary source material for a number of branches of history. The project offers a combination of locally hosted material and links (often annotated) to documents on other sites. The three main sourcebooks cover ancient, medieval, and modern history; in addition to these, there are subsidiary sourcebooks, which take a thematic approach. There are, for example, sourcebooks on: Jewish history; Islamic history; East Asian history; history of science; and women's history. The material within the sourcebooks is well organised into categories, and is searchable. The home page provides general information about the sourcebooks project, including details of updates (maintaining a resource of this scope is a considerable task, and consequently some broken links are almost inevitable). Overall, this is a very valuable site, as the sources offered have the potential to be of immense use to historians; however, the user does need patience to browse what can be rather eclectic collections of sources. Also, the editor warns that the site had last been updated in 2006.
The Internet Jewish History Sourcebook, part of Paul Halsall's sourcebook project, is a rich source of primary texts for the study of Jewish history and culture. A significant number of the texts have been digitised by the author, whilst others link to a variety of sites elsewhere on the Web. Major sections in the sourcebook include: the people of Israel; the emergence of Judaism; Jewish middle ages; and life since the enlightenment. Amongst the many sub-topics are: the Jews in the diaspora; Jewish communities in Christendom; Jewish intellectual life; the history of the Ashkenazi in Eastern Europe; modern anti-semitism; the Holocaust (prior to and during the Second World War); and the state of Israel.
This is the website of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. Founded in 1965, the Museum has quickly established an excellent reputation. Information is provided about the main collections, of which perhaps the most important is the Shrine of the Book, which holds the Dead Sea Scrolls. These Essene manuscripts date from the third century BC to the first century AD, and the museum's website provides an informative and well-presented introduction, outlining their historical context and importance. A select bibliography and related links are provided. Details are also given of the other wings, devoted to world art, Judaica and Jewish Ethnography, and archaeology, plus the art garden and the youth wing. Each contains descriptions and images of objects from the collection. There are details of events, lectures and publications, as well as exhibitions past present and future. The website is well presented, and provides all the information a prospective visitor might require about the museum and its resources. One of the highlights among the online exhibitions is a Virtual Tour at the Model of Jerusalem in the Late Second Temple Period. The Museum's website is an excellent example of the productive use of the World Wide Web in offering an accessible and informative introduction to a cultural institution of international importance.
The Web Site of the "Jewish Community in Poland" is in Polish and Yiddish. The site acts as a focal point for disseminating information about the Jewish community in Poland, providing a wide range of information. There is a rich section on associations, with links to their sites, their contact details and a summary of the organisation's activities and remit. There is a map of the Jewish religious communities in Poland, but at the time of cataloguing those links were under construction. The section with educational materials is largely in Polish, and features essays and articles on Jewish religious festivals, the history of various synagogues, customs, and history. An excellent site for those carrying out research in the fields of Jewish Studies, Polish Studies, or History.
The Jewish community of Nevis archaeology project aims to record the history of the seventeenth and eighteenth century Jewish community of the Caribbean island of Nevis through ongoing documentary research and archaeological investigations. This research is supported by the Nevis Historical and Conservation Society, the Nevis Field Research Centre and a grant from The Commonwealth Jewish Council. The small five by seven mile island of Nevis is located in the leeward portion of the Caribbean's Lesser Antilles. During the period - from the mid-17th through late 18th centuries - Nevis was a bustling centre of economic activity in the Lesser Antilles. It is within this context that a vibrant Jewish community clustered in the capital Charlestown existed on the island. The website presents information on four different aspects of the projects' research and a general introduction to the early colonial history of Nevis. The Nevis Synagogue page provides information on the ongoing archaeological search for the location of the synagogue of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis. The Nevis Jewish Cemetery contains general information about the cemetery and the recorded burials and The Cemetery Resistivity Survey presents the results of a resistivity survey carried out on the cemetery site. The final research area is genealogy, and several pages provide information on Nevis and St. Kitts families.
The emergence of new Jewish communities in Britain following their readmission in the 1650s resulted in the creation of a rich and unique heritage of religious building types such as synagogues, cemeteries and ritual bathhouses, but also social spaces such as schools, soup kitchens and hospitals. The decline in the size of the Jewish population and changes in the economic status of congregations since WWII has placed many Jewish buildings of considerable social and architectural importance under threat. This website describes the attempts of a project organised by the Jewish Memorial Council (JMC) and substantially funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund to survey, photograph and archive some 350 surviving examples of Jewish buildings constructed up to the Second World War. The resource includes a map of survey sites in the British Isles, a list of listed synagogues and other Jewish buildings, an outline of sites under risk (or lost, including the last major synagogue in Dublin demolished in 1999) and details of plans for publication and preservation of surviving monuments. Many of the structures under threat are characterised by lavish 19th and 20th century architectural or decorative features and fine craftsmanship, often combing contemporary styles with specifically Jewish features. The resource also provides practical advice for individuals and groups, both members of synagogue communities or the general public, to record any part of the Jewish built heritage which is under threat. This site will interest in particular architectural and social historians and heritage professionals but will also broaden public awareness of this important aspect of the built environment in the British Isles.
The Jewish Internet Guide is an extensive, selected and annotated collection of online Jewish resources, arranged by subject area. While the site has a vast wealth of links that will be of interest to the public, with topics ranging from aliyah to personals pages, there are also links here that researchers and teachers will find useful. Although the site is fundamentally a links portal, the material here and the annotations are substantial enough to merit researchers' attention.
Thus, the site offers quick access to resources related to: museums; libraries; art galleries; professional scholarly associations; newspapers (including some historical newspapers); anti-Semitism; rare Judaica and Hebraica and rare book dealers; academic studies of the Torah; electronic journals; publications in Hebrew and on Hebrew; hypertext versions of Jewish classical texts; Yiddish sources and related sites; dictionaries; libraries and archives; political matters; education; the performing arts; think tanks; traditional Jewish Studies programmes and related institutions; Women's Studies and feminist theory; and Palestinians and the peace process. A collection of sites has been published in book form, available for sale on the site, and has undergone several editions.
This informative and engaging website is the homepage of the Jewish Museum in London (registered charity number 1009819). Established in 1932, the Museum collects, preserves, interprets and exhibits material depicting various aspects of Jewish life, history and religion in this country and beyond. It receives funding from the National Lottery through the Heritage Lottery Fund. This website contains information about its mission, mandate, history and development. It provides details about current exhibitions, events, activities, and the educational resources available from the museum. Viewers can also search the museum's collection on matters like Jewish ceremonial art; Jewish history in Britain both pre and post 1880; and paintings, prints and drawings. They can access without charge the museum's annual reports and online exhibitions on 'The Treasures of the Jewish Museum, London'; 'Yiddish Theatre in London'; and 'Continental Britons'. Links are given to the homepages of relevant organisations.
The Web Site "Jewish records indexing: Poland" is hosted by JewishGen.org and boasts one of the largest collections of information on records of the Jewish community in Poland and the lands of pre-Second World War Poland. As is pointed out on the site, this is not an archival collection of records online. It provides an index to records kept in a variety of Polish local and national archives, which is of immense use to those researching Jewish genealogy or history. It is a mine of information on how to go about carrying out this research, what kinds of records are kept by specific archives, and details of other sources such as those held by the Mormons. Over three million records have been indexed, and orders can be placed for copies of records through the site. It provides a good search with several categories and a facility that locates small villages or shtetls. There is also a comprehensive list of towns, their locations, and geographical co-ordinates. The FAQ section provides needed information on how to use the database and the research guide is posted in several languages. Special subsites include the Warsaw Cemetery Project, the Galician Records Project at the AGAD (Archiwum Glowne Akt Dawnych) archives, and the Karta Archives Project (which deals with recent history of Eastern Europe).
The website "Jewish Virtual Library" is maintained and compiled by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE) and this ought to be borne in mind when using or looking at the site. Obviously the site is dominated by literature on the Jewish Holocaust, but there are also sections on Israeli politics, biography, Israel and religion. One of the best sections of this website displays reproductions and excerpts from Judaic treasures of the Library of Congress. It features some beautiful reproductions along with explanations of the works, textual excerpts and links to vocabularly and terminology that may be unfamiliar. On a more contemporary note, US-Israeli relations are outlined in a state-by-state table, with information on trade, grants and educational exchanges. The information on this site must be used with caution, and independently verified.
This Internet resource provides information pertaining to Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich. It is part of the American Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, which was established in 1993 as a nonprofit nonpartisan organization to strengthen the US-Israel relationship by emphasizing the fundamentals of the alliance. The welcome page of the site consists predominantly of a list of hyperlinks, which take users to informative and well-written text documents, photographs, and diagrams relating to the topic selected. The range of subjects covered is quite broad, concentrating primarily on Hitler's political activity in the 1920s, his rise to power in the 1930s, and finally World War II. In addition, there are sections on aspects of Hitler's ideology, his anti-Semitism, his attitude to cruelty, and the power structure of the Third Reich. Also included are extracts from Hitler's book, 'Mein Kampf.' Users should note that this site forms part of the larger resource the Jewish Virtual Library.
JewishGen is an extensive Jewish online genealogy resource aimed at researchers. The site is divided into a number of sections, each giving users access to a variety of databases and services. For example, the JewishGen Family Finder is a database that connects people who are researching the same surname; and The Family Tree of the Jewish People is useful for people who are seeking to study the distribution of families throughout the diaspora. However, JewishGen is not simply a database portal. The site contains discussion forums for those researching Jewish history and culture. This exchange of ideas is also facilitated by a section that hosts on-going projects, such as a record of the names of those killed in the Holocaust prior to and during the Second World War.
'Jews and the Graphic Novel' is a 22-page documentary comic book created and written by David Gantz. This comic is free to read online, and offers a condensed history of the immense contribution made by American Jewish men to the art and craft of the comic book in the 20th century. The author has the advantage of having worked in the industry since the 1940s, and there is particular focus on the impact of the Second World War on the industry. In 22 pages, this free online comic can only scratch the surface of a history which is now dealt with in a significant number of scholarly history books - such as 'From Krakow to Krypton: Jews and comic books'; 'The Jewish graphic novel: critical approaches'; 'Up, Up, and Oy Vey'; and 'Disguised as Clark Kent: Jews, Comics, and the Creation of the Superhero', among others. It does however give a useful outline introduction for those who are just starting to take an interest in the topic.
The website 'Jews of Kojetin' (Czech Republic) is a private website which focuses on the history of a small Moravian Jewish community which no longer exists, the population having been deported to concentration camps in 1942. Based on the web designer's genealogical interest, the site is quite personally focussed. However, it may be valuable to historians who specialise in Moravian and Czech Jewry and in the Holocaust -- as well as to those members of the general public who take an interest in this topic. A 1929 history of the community is provided online, with citations of archival sources going back to 1566. There is an interesting scanned map of the town dated from 1700. An account of a recent visit to the town in 2001 by site contributors is anecdotal -- like the accounts of the history of the preservation of four Torah scrolls from the town during and after the Second World War -- but these accounts nonetheless provide a continuity with the history provided. Care should be taken in this respect to independently verify all sources. Navigation is marred by the use of varied colours and fonts and by pop-ups .
Jewish Studies, an Internet Journal (JSIJ), based at Bar-Ilan University, Israel, describes itself as "a peer reviewed, electronic journal dealing with all fields of Jewish studies". The Journal's interesting and high-quality articles are in English and Hebrew, and cover such topics as Suicide in the Bible; and the Talmudic Proverb in its Cultural Setting. The Journal is distributed free of charge via the Internet, where its articles are all available either in Word or PDF format. The site is well-designed and easy to navigate. Its articles should prove useful to undergraduate and postgraduate scholars of Theology; Hebrew and Jewish Studies; and Religious Studies.
The website Judaism and Jewish Resources was created by Andrew Tannenbaum in the early nineteen nineties and has continued to grow, as a list of annotated links to websites on Judaism. It is of interest to those who wish to find out about Jewish culture, or who wish to locate Jewish resources. The website is also a good resource for those studying or researching aspects of Jewish Studies or Israel. Although hosted by Shamash, the author is at pains to state his own independence from the organisation. The author has stated his selection policy and users are encouraged to send links that they think might be of interest. At times the author's informality is a little bit jarring, but this is not meant to be an academic site. The website provides annotated links to portals, mailing lists, and a host of websites on subjects such as: the state of Israel; Press in the Middle East; Torah and Talmudic Studies; Jewish sacred texts; Yiddish; museums; and links to the websites of Jewish communities all over the world. Of particular value are links to programmes and websites that translate or teach Yiddish and Hebrew. There are hundreds of links on this site of varying value, but many are excellent.
Karl Marx / Friedrich Engels is a subsite of Stimmen der proletarischen Revolution (Voices of the Proletarian Revolution), an online compendium of primary source documents of revolutionary movements from the 19th and 20th centuries. The Marx-Engels collection here runs from 1837 to 1895. Documents are transcripts of originals in German, ranging from private letters, articles, to manuscript texts and publications. Topics of note include the Jewish Question and emancipation; anti-Semitism; the role of power in history; the working classes in England, Chartists and the Corn Laws; critiques of Hegelian legal philosophy and state law; speeches on free trade and speeches at economic congresses; commentaries on 19th century political affairs in Europe and Russia; the Communist Manifesto; Das Kapital; and remarks on the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. This collection will prove helpful for undergraduates and postgraduates who are just starting their research and the site would also make a good teaching tool. The site has its own search engine, with which users can search through the texts of documents. Bibliographical information is posted with each transcription.
The website 'Kindertransport Association' is the homepage of this non-profit organization for people who were sent as children from of Austria, Germany, Poland, and Czechoslovakia to Great Britain to escape Nazi oppression and genocide. Many members of the KTA or their descendants are now citizens of the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Israel and Australia, among other countries. The site claims that the Kindertransport [transport of children] saved the lives of some 10,000 children. Yet this "small part of Holocaust History" is highly significant. The KTA is currently mandated to educate and inform subsequent generations about this event. Some members can be contacted via the KTA to give public lectures on the subject. A travelling exhibition, 'The Kindertransport Journey: Memory into History,' has a virtual counterpart on the site. Unfortunately, the reproductions of images from the original exhibition cannot be enlarged online. A few short essays on the site give the history of the transport; and another page provides bibliographic information, links lists, names of relevant films, and other details that will help researchers. The site also gives information on the activities, reunions and conferences of formal and informal chapters of the KTA in the United States, Canada and Great Britain. The site accurately conveys survivors' concerns with the current historiographical transition, in which those with direct experience with the Second World War are giving way to historians.
This website describes the Foyle Special Collections Library at Kings College London. Built up over centuries, the library contains some 150,000 items and is particularly strong in the fields of the history of science and medicine, travel and exploration, the history of Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean, the British Empire and 20th century German and Jewish studies. The website describes the collection in detail, and provides 'canned searches' of items within the university's library catalogue.
The KZ Mauthausen-Gusen info-pages is a website devoted to the history of the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camps in Sankt Georgen an der Gusen, Austria, not far from Linz. It is presented and maintained by the camps' memorial committee. According to a remark from one of the survivors, Gusen was one of the least-known camps and its group was the worst component of the Mauthausen complex of more than forty camps. The Gusen camps were involved in aircraft production in the connected 'Bergkristall' underground factories. Gusen included Gusen I in Langenstein, Gusen II in St.Georgen/Gusen and Gusen III in Lungitz; these were in operation from 1941 until American troops liberated them on 5 May 1945. Over 37,000 Jews and prisoners of war died there, which was "nearly one third of all the victims that died in the forty-nine concentration camps all over 'Austrian' territory." The names of specific inmates who worked on the construction of underground installations are listed on the site along with their nationalities. The site's timeline of Gusen's history reveals the bureaucratic banality upon which these terrible crimes rested, as well as Gusen's epidemics, slave labour and brutal conditions. The number of prisoners in the Gusen camps near the end of the war hovered around 24,000 people. The site provides a further history of Gusen and its underground factory complexes (some of which still exist to the present day but are not yet open to the public). This more recent history includes the building, in the late 1950s, of private housing developments on terrain formerly covered by Gusen I. More in-depth history is given on the site's subpages. Among these is an account of the liberation of the Gunskirchen camp, hidden in a forest south of Gusen, along with a link to a contemporary American pamphlet with photographs documenting the liberation. There is also information on the gas chamber at nearby Hartheim Castle. A bibliography will interest researchers in Holocaust Studies, as will the links page. The site has its own search facility and a what's new page with summaries of the committee's latest updates.
"Last Expression: Art from Auschwitz" is a website that was made to accompany an exhibition held at the Block Museum of Art at Northwestern University in September 2002. The project is dedicated to exploring the 'roles, functions, meanings and making of art in the Nazi concentration camps and ghettos during the Second World War, focusing on the notorious site of Auschwitz-Birkenau. The website offers a range of resources. Unfortunately, the 'Search Art' section, which provided images from the exhibition, no longer appears to function. However, the website still includes extensive information about art, music and theatrical performance of the Holocaust, in the form of video interviews and lectures, artist biographies, and essays. There are also a bibliography, glossary and virtual tours of Auschwitz and Birkenau. Plug-ins are required to read or view some of these resources. "Last Expression" utilises the full capability of multimedia in order to explore the issues surrounding the Holocaust and aesthetic activity. Scholars working in Jewish studies, history or aesthetics are likely to find this site to be of interest.
Aimed at anyone teaching or learning about the Holocaust, this website contains a collection of images of artworks created during the Holocaust. The collection can be searched or browsed by artist or by specific ghettos or camps. Each artist is profiled in a biography, and internal links provide more information on camps and related artists. The Learn section contains a teachers' guide, activities for students at different levels and study resources, including an introductory essay, a bibliography, Web directory and essay on camps in France. The third section of the website, Interact, allows users who register (freely) to enlarge works or to create a personal annotated collection. Produced by the World ORT educational organisation and Beit Lohamei Haghetaot (The Ghetto Fighters' House Museum and Study Center), the website is available in English, Spanish, Russian and Hebrew.
This incredibly moving website is published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as part of its online exhibitions collection. The site explores the history of the Jewish children who survived the Holocaust in hiding or disguise. A wide selection of primary sources are used to tell their stories. The exhibition considers three main topics: parents' decisions to send their children into hiding; the experience of being hidden; and the search for family at the end of the Second World War. There is also a section where users can explore digitised artefacts from the museum, including photographs, letters and belongings. The site makes use of much interactive material, including flash and video footage.
The website "Literature of the Holocaust" is maintained by Alan Filreis, a Professor of English at the University of Pennsylvania and acts as a portal to a vast array of online resources involving the Holocaust. The material is arranged rather haphazardly, in an alphabetical list according to the first word of the entry. However, the entries are not named in a consistent way, so a tremendous amount of digging has to be done, or users are recommended to use the search facility at the bottom of the page if they know what they are looking for. Subjects, found in a variety of formats, such as images, newspaper articles, essay, and books include: the controversy over Swiss bank accounts; the Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies; survivors' testimonies; the truth about Oskar Schindler; and Primo Levi. What is interesting is that the site also contains brief information on Africans and German Africans living in Germany during the Nazi period, and on the atrocities in the Balkans in the nineteen nineties. Although the site is constantly updated by its creator, some older external links are broken.
The Bibliothčque Nationale de France makes available online scanned versions of a large number of catalogues for its collection of manuscripts from around the world. The website gives access to all these catalogues, but by clicking on the Manuscrits - Orient option the user is taken directly to a list of manuscript catalogues for the Near East and Africa. These include catalogues for manuscripts in Arabic (11 catalogues); Hebrew (one catalogue); Persian (four catalogues); and Turkish (two catalogues); as well as catalogues for manuscripts in other Near Eastern languages like Armenian and Syriac. The digitisation process is ongoing, and further catalogues will be added in the future. Although the catalogues are scanned as images and therefore not easily searchable, this resource makes available to researchers important catalogues for the library's significant collections of manuscripts for Middle Eastern, Jewish and Islamic Studies.
The website "Mapping the Holocaust" is an exhibition page of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), which uses a variety of very good visual and textual sources to present an extremely comprehensible overview of the geography of the Holocaust. There are excellent animated maps showing the geographical context of the Holocaust. One map shows the general directions of attack and invasion by Allied and Axis forces, another shows the movement of Jewish and other persecuted groups to death and labour camps. There are also animated maps of the Warsaw Ghetto, Auschwitz (Oświęcim), Łódź, and the aftermath of the Holocaust. Photographs, paintings, and text are also used in this exhibition, to great effect. There are also non-animated maps, and many Holocaust Learning Center Articles on topics such as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, extermination camps, rescue, and personal stories of both the rescued and the rescuers. The website has the advantage of referring to other resources within the USHMM on World War II. The website encourages users to browse the Holocaust Encyclopedia, which is available in English, French, Arabic and Farsi. Some of the maps in the online exhibition have Spanish versions. "Mapping the Holocaust" was short-listed for Best Innovative or Experimental Application in the 2003 Best of the Web competition sponsored by the Museums and the Web conference, to recognise achievement in heritage website design.
The Medici Archive Project was founded in 1995 as a resource for the study of the Medici Granducal Archive, housed in the Archivio di Stato in Florence, Italy. The Granducal Archive was established by Grand Duke Cosimo I in 1569, and offers the most complete record of its kind in Renaissance and Baroque Europe. The archive consists mainly of correspondence. The project aims to produce documentary sources for the arts and humanities, with particular emphasis on the documentation of Jewish history, and the history of costume and textiles. Additionally, the project aims to pioneer technological innovation in the fields of archive management and humanities research. The site offers highlights from the archive, in the form of its Document of the Month pages. Selected documents appear both in Italian and in English translation, with suggestions for further reading and research questions suitable for undergraduates working with archival material. Background information on the historical context for each document is also available. This resource would benefit historians with a particular interest in Florentine history, as a source of both primary and secondary material.
"The project Medieval Jewish Studies online is intended to provide an Internet platform for scholars working in the fields of Medieval Jewish history, literature, art and culture." The website's main aim is to connect the many scholars, spread across the world (notably in Germany, the United States, Italy, France and Israel) interested in Medieval Jewish Studies. The website hopes to connect people in this field by providing: an online journal (called Medieval Jewish Studies online); accessibility of sources and collections of sources through the Internet; the presentation of research projects in the field of the Jewish Middle Ages; a forum through which scholars can share their knowledge with others by responding to questions and discussing current scholarly issues; and through electronic discussion in study groups whose members meet regularly to work together.
Under the direction of Frank Unlandherm (East & Jewish Studies Librarian), the Columbia University Libraries have constructed a superior gateway to "research-orientated" Internet resources covering ancient and modern periods in the Middle East and Sinai Peninsula. Part of Columbia University’s larger library network, these easily navigable selections begin with the simple division between Middle Eastern and Jewish resources and then focus on more specific aspects of the region’s history and culture. Links are organized both by topic and nation, and include (but are not limited to) economic, linguistic, religious, and contemporary political issues. Of special interest to researchers will be the very large collection of links to bibliographies, maps, and libraries with major Middle Eastern collections and news resources.
The Web Site "The Miriam Weiner routes to roots foundation, Inc." has been published online by Miriam Wiener, an accredited Jewish genealogist and author of several books on Jewish genealogy. The site caters mainly for those who are trying to trace their family history in the lands that now make up Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, and Moldova. This site features much good advice about the archives, archivists, commissioning research, and accessing archives. The author of Jewish Roots in Poland, and Jewish Roots in Ukraine and Moldova, has placed chapters of the books online along with a couple of maps. The book chapters provide more detailed information on the holdings of the archives, essential, since the records for one area could easily be located in many different archives, due to Eastern and Central Europe's chequered history. A good site for those carrying out research on the Jewish community in the so-called Kresy, or Eastern Borderlands.
The website 'Modern Jewry and the Art', hosted by the Special Collections section of the University of Pennsylvania library, is an online exhibition of Jewish art aiming to embrace a broad range of artistic development within the Diaspora and Israel, and to transcend a homogeneous definition of modern Jewishness. That said, the exhibition appears to reflect fundamentally an American Jewish perspective. In 2001, images related to Jewish art, music, theatre, film and dance were selected by the fellows of the Center for Judaic Studies library, who are also based at a number of other universities. Most examples derive from the twentieth century, with some from slightly earlier. The section on contemporary Jewish music in America offers five sound recordings in MP3 format. Historical explanations which accompany the pieces tend to dominate selected artistic works. The resulting combination would be of interest not only to the general public, but also to teachers and students. There is a bibliography for further reading on sources. The page is archived.
The website 'Museum of Tolerance online: Multimedia Learning Center' is part of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, the Jewish human rights agency. The Learning Center contains a large range of online resources about the Holocaust and the historical context in which it occurred. The Center places an emphasis on primary documents and the special collections section holds around 13,500 electronic documents in English, German and Hebrew. Virtual exhibits tend to focus on more specific topics such as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1943) during the Second World War or images of Polish Jews. The site also features a range of resources designed for teachers including bibliographies; the Simon Wiesenthal Annual for the scholarly study of the Holocaust; answers to frequently-asked questions; and a useful site map.
Published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and based on their collection, this Web resource provides information about particular pieces of music that was composed either in the concentration camps and ghettoes or in response to the Holocaust immediately after the Second World War. Musical samples are also provided (for which RealPlayer is required). The content of the resource is divided into the following areas: concentration camp songs; music of protest; written in hiding; partisan songs; ghetto songs; Roma (gypsies); songs of Jewish displaced persons; songs in Theresienstadt (Terezin); and individuals. Links to related websites and bibliographies are also provided.
The website Museum of the History of Polish Jews is in both Polish and English. The museum, built in Warsaw, is established by the Association of the Jewish Historical Institute of Poland and led by Jerzy Halbersztadt, the Museum Project Director. Its aims are to break down stereotypes held by Jews and Poles about each other and to contribute to the memory of the Jewish culture that was once such an integral part of Polish life. It provides a brief history of the Jews in Poland and points out the many prominent Jews who can trace their roots to Poland or who were born there. The user can also find information on the newest projects envisaged by the museum, including a huge multimedia exhibition and some information about the Jewish Historical Institute. Plans for the content and architecture of the museum are clearly presented and more information will be added as the project progresses. However there is a wealth of information there already. This site is of great interest to those studying Jewish Studies or Polish Studies.
The website of the Muzeum Regionalne: Pinczów (The Regional Museum of Pinczów) is mainly in Polish, but also has a section in English. The town in the Holy Cross (Swietokrzyz) region of Poland was home to a large Jewish population before the Second World War, but now all that remains is a Renaissance synagogue, in which the first inscription dates from 1608-1609. The site provides information about its opening hours, its location and its holdings. There is a brief sections on the museum holdings which consist of archaeological finds, historical manuscripts, books, maps, stamps, militaria and ethnographic exhibits. The history of the synagogue is in English and it is clear that the building still needs a great deal of repair work done to it. It is presently (within the remit of the building's permission) used for exhibitions. Pinczów had three synagogues and was once considered the Jewish capital of southern Poland, having hosted several Congresses of the Four Regions. An interesting site for those researching or with an interest in Jewish or Polish Studies.
Captured German Sound Recordings is a website that describes an important World War II collection at the U.S. National Archives. The site offers a full finding aid for captured Nazi sound recordings. Sixty-four recordings are available for order, including Heinrich Himmler's infamous Posen speech (4 October 1943), in which he speaks openly of "the destruction of the Jewish people" ('die Ausrottung des jüdischen Volkes'). Also available in the collection are other speeches of interest to researchers, delivered by top Nazis such as Hitler, Goering and Goebbels at official ceremonies. In addition, there are copies of monitored broadcasts. Information is provided on how to purchase copies of the audio tapes. The site also has a link to a page on captured German records, reproduced on over 70,000 rolls of microfilm in the National Archives. These can be viewed at the Archives (visiting hours are posted). For researchers who already know what they need, microfilms can be reproduced for a fee. Alongside pre-World War II and World War II German government documents, such as military and navy records which were copied en masse, this collection includes thousands of microfilms of Nazi party and SS records (including party members abroad); microfilms on firms and individuals, with records of private Austrian, Dutch and German Enterprises, 1917-1946, correspondence of Herbert von Bismarck, 1881-1883, and material relating to Joachim von Ribbentrop, 1893-1942. There are records of U.S. Army commands from 1942; general records of the Department of State; World War II war crimes records, both in Europe and the Far East; and records of the international military tribunal at Nuernberg (Nuremberg). Archival staff can direct users to further photographic and print evidence that is connected to both audio and microfilmed primary sources. Navigation of this valuable research aid is straightforward and clear. Registration is required to ask reference questions.
The Nizkor Project is an extensive site devoted to the memory of those who died in the Holocaust. This site addresses a broad audience. It posts many academic articles which constitute the current scholarly discussion on the Nazi period, the Holocaust, and their general historical background and context. The Nizkor Project also presents the material produced by those who deny the Holocaust. There is an large sub-section of articles on the techniques of Holocaust denial, with links back to source articles and source sites. There is also a subsite focussing on Antisemitism with listed examples. Each major camp has its own subsite with annotated links; bibliographies; film listings; contemporary images; and extracts of testimonies from witnesses. There are short biographies of leading figures among the Nazi administration. Primary source excerpts are provided from the Nuremberg trials. The site also has pages on figures and events noted after the Second World War; these include the transcripts of Adolf Eichmann's trial. Functioning in part as a growing archive of a vast array of E-mails, websites and articles on this subject, the Nizkor Project's site content clearly demonstrates the continuity between the tragedy of this past event and present political issues and concerns. There are several specialised bibliographies of primary and secondary sources. The annotated bibliographies take in much of historiographical debates surrounding the Holocaust, and would be a valuable tool for teachers when preparing reading lists for their students. Instructions for ordering pre-prepared courseware via the site's Social Studies School Service are posted. The site has its own search engine and a good sitemap. The site has won several online awards.
The Web Site "Elie Wiesel" is published by the Nobel Foundation, in honour of the laureate of the Peace Prize in 1986. Elie Wiesel, born in Sighet (now in Romania) in 1928, enjoyed world renown as an author, journalist, academic, and chairman of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council. Wiesel is probably most famous for his work "La Nuit" (The Night) published in 1958, which detailed his experiences during the Holocaust in German concentration and extermination camps. The site contains a potted biography of Wiesel, the press release announcing the prize, and the presentation speech. His Nobel lecture at the Nobel Centennial Symposia (2001) is also online and provides an excellent resource for those studying Wiesel and his work.
The Nuremberg Project is a major initiative of Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion. It aims to make available via the Internet a selection of the full primary source text documents held in the Donovan Collection, Cornell University School of Law Library. William Donovan was a special assistant to the US Chief of Counsel during the International Military Tribunal Nuremberg 1945-46. The documents include transcripts of the trials of Nazi war criminals, details of the Jewish genocide, the Holocaust and the persecution of religious and other minorities during the Second World War. In addition to the primary source material, the site will also include academic commentaries on the materials and links to related websites. Users should note that many of the documents are in PDF format and therefore require access to an Adobe acrobat Reader for use.
The Nuremberg Trials Project is an endeavour run by Harvard Law School Library to digitalise its one million pages of documents relating to the Nuremberg Trials (1945-1949). The trial of military and political leaders of Nazi Germany, after the Second World War, occurred before an International Military Tribunal and several US Nuremberg Military Tribunals. The documents which remain include trial manuscripts; legal briefs; document books; and evidence files. This digital project hopes to create and present images of full-text versions of its Nuremberg documents, along with analytical information about each document and general commentary about the trials themselves. 23,000 pages have currently been made available on the site. The documents are presented comprehensively with a photstat of the original; a German typescript; an English translation; and analysis of the document. The site provides information on the leaders of the Nazi regime including key personnel in: government (the Reich Chancellery and ministries); SS; the National Socialist German Workers Party; and the Wermacht. Details of primary and secondary sources, plus links to other sites, provide further information related to the Nuremberg Trials.
The website "Oliver Lustig's Text Presentation of Historic Holocaust Photographs" makes available online a series of images from The Auschwitz Album, a book of about 200 photographs taken by Auschwitz official photographers in May 1944. The images show the arrival and processing of a single Jewish transport at the Birkenau camp. On this site a selection of these images is presented with text by Oliver Lustig, a survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau and Dachau and author of many books about the Holocaust. This commentary forms a narrative account of the events depicted from the author's personal experience. The images are of good quality and would be useful for the classroom; they could be used to help children to visualise the effects of the Holocaust on families, for example. Clicking on each image takes the user to a larger version. The photographs show maily groups of individuals; none show graphic images of the real horrors of Auschwitz, which are liable to cause upset. The text has been translated from the original Romanian into reasonable English, and also into Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Danish, Dutch, French and Russian. It is highly emotive. The site includes links to a brief biographical sketch of Lustig, and to his Concentration Camp Dictionary, a commentary on phrases and words in use at the camps. The Dictionary is very detailed and contains numerous accounts from Lustig's personal experience; the translation is not good, but the material is compelling. Lustig's testimony is by no means impersonal and, again, the tone used is vehement. This part of the website contains typographical and coding errors. The website seems aimed at the general reader, but teachers and schoolchildren might also find some of the material useful. It offers an insight into the effects of Auschwitz and the Holocaust on its survivors, in addition to the images of the transports and their victims. This should help readers broaden their knowledge of the human costs of the Holocaust.
Founded in 1973, the Ontario Jewish Archives collects and preserves historical materials related to Jewish life in Ontario, Canada. The site briefly describes the archive's holdings of these materials as: manuscripts; minutes, correspondence, publications, financial and cemetery records of Jewish organizations; personal papers; diaries; invitations; posters; newspapers; photographs; films; architectural drawings; sound and video recordings of interviews and important events; and selected artifacts (badges, trophies, memorabilia). The archive also collects contemporary items in anticipation "of their future historical importance." Unfortunately, this is a very limited site, with contact details for the archivist available and opening hours listed -- but no online exhibitions or detailed catalogues of holdings to give site visitors an idea of the extent and value of the archive's significance for members of the general public or for researchers in the field of Jewish History.
The website "Open Hearts / Closed Doors: The War Orphans Project" is an excellent online exhibition published by Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre and is part of the Virtual Museum of Canada. Open Hearts, Closed Doors looks at the history of the 1,200 orphaned Jewish children who emigrated to Canada as part of the War Orphans Project. The site uses a range of digitised primary source materials to illustrate the experiences of the children who survived the Holocaust, including diaries, photographs, documents, leaflets and newspaper articles. It can be explored through biographies, themes and learning resources. The site traces the history of many of the children from before the Second World War, through the holocaust, liberation and refugee camps, to their arrival in Canada. The learning resources section provides PDF files of the main content of the site for downloading and classroom use.
This Web page gives access to the full-text of 'Orient: Report of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan' (1960-2004), and despite the word 'report' in the title this is actually a substantial academic journal. Tables of contents, abstracts, and PDF files of articles are all freely available online. The journal was published in English, with occasional articles in German and French, and was devoted to reports and scholarly articles on archaeological and historical topics, with forays into linguistics. Example article titles include: 'Historical problems of the early Achaemenian period'; 'Hadiths as historical sources for a biography of the prophet'; 'A Japanese view of Lord Cromer's rule in Egypt'; and 'A Century of Turkish Studies in Japan', among many others. The latest issue available at 2009 is the 2004 issue, a special on the history of glass and glass-making. This will be a useful full-text resource for those engaged in the historical study of the Near East. The journal issues are held on the Japanese central online archive of ejournals (which is presented in English, but which otherwise contains only scientific journals), and as such the page does not have details of editors and Editorial Board - but these may be found by browsing the preface of recent issues or by searching Google.
This website provides an overview of the holdings of and services provided by the Ottawa Jewish Archives, managed by the Jewish Federation of Ottawa. The Archive possesses a wide variety of primary historical research materials related to the Jewish community in this city, dating back to the late nineteenth century. These include: 400 feet of arranged collections with finding aids; marriage registers (l898 - l950); 2500 photographs and 1000 negatives; biographical files; posters; artifacts; architectural plans; cassettes; video tapes; and the Ottawa Jewish Bulletin (l937 to the present). There are specific details on collections related to congregations; education; a wide variety of communal organisations; personal or family papers; and business records. An attractive online gallery gives visitors a sample of the Archive's historical photographs. Of additional help to researchers in Jewish Studies is the site's links to ARCHEION, Ontario's Archival Information Network. Over 100 fonds from the Ottawa Jewish Archives are described in greater detail on ARCHEION; users can locate this information if they run a search using the term Ottawa Jewish Archives on the ARCHEION site. There is a news section with descriptions of recent and upcoming exhibitions and lectures. The site also has a limited, but useful, list of links to websites of Canadian Jewish archives and historical societies.
The official Polish website of the "State Museum at Majdanek" has Polish and English which vary slightly in content. Majdanek, the second largest Nazi camp of its kind in Europe, was located on the edge of the Eastern Polish city of Lublin and the site is still preserved. The State Museum was established in the autumn of 1944, in the wake of the German retreat. The site provides information on the museum and its role in education, research and preservation on an international level. The well-illustrated site presents a brief history of the concentration/death camp, where it is estimated that over 230, 000 people met their deaths. There is also vital information about the nature of extant archival records, which include documents pertaining to: the Polish Red Cross; Action Reinhard; prisoners' memoirs and recollections; the construction of the camp; and correspondence relating to the looting of prisoners' property. The extensive collection of exhibits held by the museum numbers nearly 300,000. Information about the educational programmes, galleries, and events held at the site is also provided, as well as details of the opening hours.
The website 'The Parkes Institute at Southampton' is the homepage of this research centre for the study of Jewish/Non-Jewish relations. Established in 2000 through a grant from the Arts and Humanities Research Board in Britain, and formerly known as the AHRB Parkes Centre for the Study of Jewish/non-Jewish Relations, the Parkes Institute is the first research institution in the United Kingdom to be devoted to this subject. It is based at the University of Southampton. One of the most notable parts of the site is its description of the institute's impressive library and archival holdings. The latter comprises one of the United Kingdom's most important collections on Anglo-Jewish history, with additional sources on European Jewry. Subsites describe latest seminars, lectures and conferences organised at the institute. Application and funding information are available for potential students from the Undergraduate to the Post-Doctoral levels. There are also helpful -- although not extensive -- annotated links pages describing the main online academic resources in this field. The site provides contact details and research interests of the professional academics who are affiliated with the institute. The site also has its own search engine.
The Web Site of the Regional Archives of Maribor provides the usual information about the access, opening times, location, and holdings of the Slovenian archive. The site is in Slovene with an introductory page in English and German. The archive was founded in 1933 and holds documents dating from 1246 to 1865. Among the holdings are documents on Jewish matters, the revolution in Slovenian Styria in 1918-1919, and manorial and monastic records from the fifteenth century. The site details the publications of the staff, and exhibition catalogues. However, of great use to the researcher is the online database of the archival fonds.
This site, designed by the composer and librettist Ari Frankel, gives access to a rare interview with Primo Levi (1919-1987) first aired on Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) on 25th April 1983. A holocaust survivor, Levi is known for his articulate and humanising documentation of life in Auschwitz. In this interview, Levi speaks to Daniel Toaff about his memories. The interview transcription was translated into English by Mirto Stone. It is spread over 22 pages, and interspersed with book covers, portraits and photographs by Ari Frankel, taken in 1989 during his visit to Turin, the birthplace and home of Primo Levi.
The aim of the Geniza Project of the Department of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University is to develop better methodologies for Hebrew and Arabic scholars working with the so-called 'Geniza fragments', which are documents found in the Geniza chamber of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo in the late 19th century. This project ultimately intends to create a full-text database of transcriptions of the documents and to offer a dictionary and morphological tools to facilitate the study of the Geniza texts. The site's target audience is the scholar interested in Middle Eastern archaeology, history and religious developments. This resource requires Hebrew fonts. The site has its own search engine.
The Web Site "Przewodnik po Warszawie (do 1944 roku )(A Warsaw Guide up until 1944)" is an excellent collection of pictures, postcards, photographs and other illustrations of Warsaw prior to 1944. It is a poignant reminder of the former glory of a European capital, destroyed when it chose to stage not one but two uprisings against its German Nazi occupiers. The city was rewarded with the destruction of over 90% of its area. This site provides an insight into the city as it was before 1944. It is a wonderful and moving trip for anyone interested in the history of the Second World War or the history of Poland, and it also stands alone as an online exhibition. The site is divided into the following categories: streets; monuments; stations; trams; Varsovians; Warsaw life; and new items. There are also helpful reviews of books on pre-war Warsaw and notices of events held in Warsaw.
'Quest: issues in contemporary Jewish history' is a full-text open access ejournal. Quest published its first issue in 2010, on the special topic of "Jews in Europe after the Shoah: Studies and Research Perspectives". This peer-reviewed journal publishes articles, discussion pieces, and reviews. The website is well designed and articles are presented in HTML format only. Example article titles from the first issue are: 'State-sponsored Anti-Semitism in Postwar USSR'; 'The Jews in Poland after the Second World War: most recent contributions of Polish historiography'; and 'West German Jewry: guilt, power and pluralism', among others. The journal is published in English by the Fondazione Centro di Documentazione Ebraica Contemporanea (CDEC) of Milan, Italy. The website has details of the Editor, assistant editors, and the Supporting Committee.
RAMBI, an online index of articles on Jewish studies, is hosted by the Jewish National and University Library. The database has been compiled from international periodicals and other collections of articles, and aims to be a comprehensive listing of important articles in this area. Each record in the database contains full bibliographic information together with subject classification headings. Where available, the records include links to full text versions of the material, although articles published in subscription journals will only be accessible by subscribers. The database can be browsed by author, subject, section or sources. Searching can be undertaken on all fields: author, subject or source. Searches can be further refined, sorted, saved or emailed.
Madame Lily Dehn, friend to Alexandra Feodorovna, last Tsaritsa of Russia, wrote her memoirs of Alexandra and entitled it, "The Real Tsaritsa". The book was published in 1922, and has been made available to readers online in an e-text version. The book is divided into two parts: The Old Russia, and Revolution. Madame Dehn's book intended to reveal the truth about Alexandra, who had been the focus of slander and distrust from the Russian people due to her foreign status, her religious morals, and her association with Rasputin. Lily was one of Alexandra's friends who followed Rasputin, and encouraged Alexandra to trust him. "The Real Tsaritsa" contains Lily's opinion that the Russian Jews were responsible for the Bolshevik Revolution. The site would, therefore, be a good source for those researching anti-Semitism in Russia, or anti-Semitism in general.
Relations of Austria and Israel since 1945 is a subsite of ZIS, the online Information System for Contemporary History which is based at the University of Innsbruck. The majority of information on the site can be initially accessed via a chronological chart of important events related to the founding and history of Israel, as well as Austrian-Israeli relations. Additional information on the timeline posts links to transcribed primary source documents, short videos and scanned images. The site also offers a database of over 1,200 relevant primary source documents that can be searched with an accompanying search engine. The database gives precise archival details for each item, along with the location of different archives. The site has an extensive bibliography, covering the Holocaust and Israel; Austrian-Israeli relations from 1945; and general literature on Israel and the Middle Eastern conflict (English and German sources). There is an additional alphabetised list of important figures who have been active in relations, or in the history of relations, between Austria and Israel in the post-war period. Also helpful is a glossary and an excellent annotated links list. For its elucidation of the links between the History of Central Europe and the History of the Middle East, this site should well serve researchers in the fields of German Studies, Middle Eastern Studies, and European History. It will also be of interest to teachers, students and members of the public.
The website Remember.org or A Cybrary of the Holocaust is an excellent collection of art, photos, poems, memories and factual information on the Holocausts of the Second World War. It is a vast educational resources created by the Alliance for a Better Earth. The site is easy to navigate and presents a variety of information on a varying aspects of the experiences of Jews, Slavs, Roma and others during World War Two. The site contains a wealth of historical information, photographs, and art pertaining to the Holocaust prior to and during the Second World War. Available here is a wide range of valuable primary historical documents, including eye-witness accounts of concentration camp survivors, liberator testimonies, and speeches, letters, and diary extracts of various high-ranking Nazis, such as Himmler, Goebbels, and Hitler. In addition, the site provides a discussion forum, several art and image galleries, an extensive range of links to other Holocaust-related Web resources, as well as information on books by Holocaust survivors which can be ordered via the site. The site also features lesson plans and resources for teachers working at secondary school level, including a teaching guide. A list of books by survivors is a useful selection of a vibrant literature, and excerpts are made available here. Although the site primarily aims to provide information, it also acts as a support site for survivors and the children of survivors. There are accounts by survivors and witnesses, many of which have not been published elsewhere, and a discussion forum. The site is also enhanced by many images and personal accounts; a virtual tour of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camps is possible. What makes this site even more valuable is its coverage of non-Jewish experience of the Holocaust. There is also a list of selected links to sites of a similar nature.
Responses to the Holocaust : A Hypermedia Sourcebook is one of the few websites that explicitly addresses the intellectual impact of the Holocaust. It is basically a defunct site, having not been updated since 1995 and thus there are a number of broken links; nonetheless, its content is unusual and significant enough to merit scholarly attention and it should prove a fertile starting point especially for undergraduate and graduate students. Fields covered by the site include literature, literary criticism and film. There are essays here on films which explore the legacy of the Holocaust. Literary criticism, following Theodor Adorno, questions the ability of literature to 'represent' extreme events whose nature lies outside the realm of aesthetic or even basic linguistic expression. At the same time, philosophers such as Hannah Arendt, Emmanuel Levinas and Jean François Lyotard have all taken the Holocaust as a starting point for their ideas, notably in terms of individual responsibility and of Postmodern Philosophy. From this, the site takes us to a paper on the second generation melancholia of Art Spiegelman's MAUS. But by far the most intriguing and least explored of these influences, however, lies in the realm of Information Technology. There is a good essay here by Robert Leventhal which posts pictures of the Hollerith machine, an early computing prototype which was used by the Nazis to process victims' information and was produced by a subsidiary of IBM. Leventhal presents the actual machinery and technical expertise – whether in terms of computing, engineering, science or medicine – which ensured the practical implementation Holocaust, and points to pressing and increasingly relevant questions on the institutionalized intermingling of information, science, technology and the state. The fact that many of the legacies of the Holocaust have become banal and unrecognised aspects of daily life testifies to this genocide's impact on modern culture, but also to its position as a breaking point not merely in Western, but in world, consciousness.
"Riga" is part of the JewishGen, Inc. group of websites. Of use to those carrying out both personal and academic research, it features, among others, the following sections: brief history; Jewish population over the years; languages; synagogues and Rabbis; the University of Latvia Center for Jewish Studies in Riga; and the Jewish Museum of Riga. The site is illustrated by a gallery of ancestors and images of Riga. The Jewish population had ties to Riga from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and were deported in both the First World War and World War II. It is estimated that there are 9,000 Jews left in Riga now. A listing of the records held by the Latvian State Historical Archives is extremely useful, listing shtetls in the areas of Vitebsk, Livland, and Courland, along with the chronological range of the records held. The JewishGen Latvia database can be accessed from the site, with over 95,000 entries of persons who were registered in this regions. The results of the searches can be seen only by contributors and registered users. Other online databases include: the Poor Jews Shelter in Riga, the Hamelitz index of Lithuanian and Latvian donors to charitable causes (between 1893-1903), names of Jewish survivors in Riga after the Shoah (Holocaust). The site features many links to other webpages with similar interests and contents
This is the website for Salomons Museum, the onetime home and estate of the Salomons family. The Salomons included Sir David Salomons, Member of Parliament, equality campaigner and the first Jewish Lord Mayor of London and his son, the scientist and road transport pioneer Sir David Lionel Salomons. As well as the family's historic home and estate (one of the earliest buildings in the country be powered by electricity and including Sir David Lionel Salomons' purpose-built Science Theatre) the museum is cares for the various collections built up by the family: badges; ballooniana; Jewish history; London; electrical/scientific; estate and family; transport; medals; World War I. The collection’s illustrated catalogue is available online, and the website includes a virtual museum tour and information about public access. Salomons Museum has received AHRC funding.
This site is devoted to the collections related to exile at branches of the German national library, notably the Deutsches Exilarchiv in Frankfurt am Main and related literature collections at the Deutsche Bücherei in Leipzig. Exile in this case refers to a relatively new field of scholarly enquiry into the culture, literature and history of people, especially Jews, who fled Germany, Austria and other parts of Europe leading up to and during World War II. The site primarily gives information on archival holdings (files, private papers and special collections, letters and manuscripts). These holdings will be of particular interest for historians, as they include the records of exile organisations such as the American Guild for German Cultural Freedom; the Emergency Rescue Committee of New York; old BBC broadcasts; deutschsprachiger Autoren im Ausland, London (1953 - 1990) (German-speaking authors abroad, London); Deutscher PEN-Club im Exil (1933 - 1940) (the German PEN club in exile); Club 1943, London; and Schutzverband Deutscher Schriftsteller in der Schweiz (Association for the protection of German writers in Switzerland). Private papers are listed alphabetically according to authors' names, and feature a great range of professionals: writers; artists; scientists; academics; doctors; jurists; journalists; and linguists. Private collections on more famous exiles include: Albert Einstein; Heinrich Mann; Thomas Mann; Franz Werfel; Arnold Zweig; and Stefan Zweig. The printed collection also holds newspapers, books and other materials. Exilpresse Digital is a good subsite on exile newspapers. Of connected interest here are subpages on the Anne-Frank-Shoah-Bibliothek and the Börsenvereinsbibliothek for Frankfurt am Main nach 1945 (the Library on the stock exchange group at Frankfurt after 1945). The site gives further information on access to collections, contact details, exhibitions and related publications.
Scrolls from the Dead Sea is an online exhibit based on the Dead Sea Scroll exhibition held at the Library of Congress, Washington DC in 1993. In spite of its rather primitive layout and sometimes outdated bibliographical references (users should note that the dominant scholarly opinion has shifted since the site was written), it provides valuable information not just about the Scrolls themselves, but also about the Qumran community, about archaeological finds in the area and about the Scrolls' impact on contemporary Jewish and Christian thought. The site includes images of Scroll fragments accompanied by translations of the text, a map of the region, a glossary, resources for teachers and a bibliography.
The Shoah Memorial website offers a range of resources for those studying the Holocaust. Features include: a multimedia encyclopaedia of the Holocaust (or in Hebrew, the Shoah); a timeline of key events between 1933, when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, and the end of the Second World War in 1945; information about relevant publications; and details of the Contemporary Jewish Documentation Center (CDJC) which is housed within the Shoah Memorial premises. The CDJC's database of French Shoah victims and Jewish resistance fighters is available to be searched online. The site also provides information on the Memorial's educational programme, including an online interactive activity aimed at 8-11 year olds (this requires a Flash plug-in). The original version of the site is in French, though most materials have also been translated into English. This site provides a helpful introduction to the Holocaust, along with one or two more specialised resources for more advanced students.
The website "Library and Digital Archive Online Catalogs" is published by the Simon Wiesenthal Center, an international Jewish human rights organisation based in Los Angeles, particularly concerned with the history of the Holocaust. The site is a repository of photographs, diaries, letters, artwork, artifacts and rare books, which can be searched by keyword, category and date. It is also possible to browse the content by collection, which includes a photograph album from the liberation of Buchenwald, photographs of forced labour camps, artwork from Theresienstadt Concentration Camp, goodbye letters written by Jews, and an album of anti-Semitic signs in Germany. The Digital Archive has a facility for users to save items they are interested in, enabling users to create their own collection. Images have good descriptions and copies can be ordered via the site. The site also contains the link to the Center's library catalogue. The digital archives and the library catalogue can be searched together thanks to a recent feature of the site.
This is the home page of the Simon Dubnow Institute for Jewish History and Culture at the University of Leipzig. The site's thematic overview summarises the institute's history since its establishment in 1995, and outlines its development as a centre for international scholarship on the history of Jewish life in Southern and East Central Europe, and East-West Jewish relations in the modern period. It also addresses the context of the non-Jewish environment, especially the Latin, Orthodox and Islamic worlds within and without Europe. There are special concentrations in the institute on political and diplomatic history; the history of migration; intellectual history and the history of ideas. Extensive information on the institute's conferences and colloquia is provided, including some summaries of remarks. The institute's cooperational and internal research projects are described. The site also lists academic fellows along with their recent publications as well as the series of books published by the institute, each volume being described shortly. The library of the institute has an online catalogue. A caution in navigation: although English and German sides of the site appear to be completely parallel translations, the German side is the more complete version. The site has its own search engine.
The site of the Sixteenth Century Society and Conference (SCSC) offers some insight into the aims, activities and publications of this scholarly association based in North America. SCSC is dedicated to gather all scholars interested in early modern studies, from any academic discipline and geographical region. The site announces not only the call for papers and submissions to the annual conference of SCSC but also events and opportunities in related areas of interest put forward by other associations. Information about the forthcoming annual conference and calls for registrations are available on the site; the programme of the previous year’s meeting can be consulted. SCSC publishes The Sixteenth Century Journal quarterly, although it is not substantially presented on the society’s homepage. The site encourages membership in the society, which enables access to Iter: gateway to the Middle Ages and Renaissance, along with an annual subscription to the journal. The prizes offered by SCSC for books in early modern studies and the prize committees for each category are listed.
The website Sobibor: the Forgotten Revolt commemorates the most successful revolt of prisoners within the Nazi concentration camp system during World War II. It took place at the Sobibor camp in Poland on 14 October 1943. The site's content is based upon the personal experiences and research of Holocaust survivor Thomas 'Toivi' Blatt, who escaped from Sobibor during the revolt. Copies of historical documents, drawings and photographs accompany a narrative of events, including some background on the Nazis' 'Final Solution'; the construction of the camp; a list of transports into the camp, with cities of origin and numbers of prisoners, where known; the assembly line procedures that led to extermination in the gas chambers; and the planning and execution of the revolt itself. 320 Jews escaped across a minefield into the forest after a shoot-out with SS guards; many were caught and killed, with only 53 final survivors. Nazi retribution "under the code-name Erntefest (Harvest Festival)" came 20 days after the revolt, in November 1943, when 43,000 Jews were killed in six days at different camps. Pictures and profiles of both the surviving Jews and of Sobibor's leading Nazis are posted. But researchers will perhaps be most interested by transcripts of interviews conducted by the site's author, Blatt: one interview was conducted with one of Sobibor's former SS commanders, Karl Frenzel, in Germany in 1984; another was conducted in Rostov, U.S.S.R. in 1980 with Alexander Pechersky, leader of the revolt. Blatt outlines his further work advising on memorials of the some 250,000 Jews and 1,000 Poles who died at Sobibor. He also posts information on his books and the award-winning 1987 television film, "Escape from Sobibor."
Soviet Jewish culture is a wonderful resource based on an oral history project led by historians Zvi Gitelman and Anna Shternshis. The project interviewed over 500 Jews born in Russia, Ukraine or Belorussia before 1928 about their daily lives in the Soviet Union. From the main menu the user may link to ten of these interviewees or to a section called 'in their own words', which makes available PDF texts in Russian by the author Shmuel Shapiro. The ten edited interview transcripts in which interviewees discuss their pre-war lives may be downloaded as PDFs, with detailed explanatory footnotes, accompanying photos, maps or videos illustrating songs or places mentioned by the interviewee. Other sections include: a description of the project; a PDF glossary of names and terms; a substantial bibliography; useful links. This attractive and easy to navigate site will be of most use to teachers and students of Soviet Jewish culture and identity, but also of interest to researchers and teachers of Soviet history.
This web page for the Holocaust Collection is from the University of Sheffield Library's website, and is part of the Special Collections and Archives Department. The Holocaust Collection is a PDF format bibliographic compilation of books and documents on the subject of the Nazi genocide of the Jewish and other targeted groups, which included Communists, Gypsies, homosexuals and the disabled, during the Second World War. Most of the entries are English-language titles, but there are a substantial number of German and French texts listed too, and a handful written in other European languages, including Polish and Spanish. The Holocaust Collection is just one out of 150 collections held in the Special Collections and Archives Department.
"Birobidzhan Stalin's Forgotten Zion" is a fascinating and excellent online version of an exhibit created by the Judah Magnes Museum of Swarthmore College, California (curator Robert Weinberg). It tackles a little known era of modern history - in 1934 the Soviet government tried to create the Promised Land or Birobidzhan, the Jewish Autonomous Region, in a sparsely populated area some five thousand miles east of Moscow (located on the Bira River and the Trans-Siberian railway). The exhibition was created in collaboration with State Historical Museum of the Jewish Autonomous Region, Birobidzhan, Russia.The site ably details yet another example of Joseph Stalin's contradictions - he recognised the importance of a geographical base for a group of people, then he later denied those same people the right to life during his purges. This is the experiment's story and is told in the form of a presentation, with archive photographs and multimedia, (textual commentary, images, time-line audio and video footage - all with their memory size described for ease of download). The site is presented through over 30 attractively designed pages (which can be viewed in sequence or via the time-line).
This website provides information on opening hours, access rules, and its location. Part of the Polish state archives, the branch in Białystok, was formally established in 1952. It contains records on the eastern area of Poland, and of its Jewish population and those of the Augsburg confession. Another important collection is that of the documentation pertaining to the State Forest of Białowieża. The oldest document dates from 1640. There are details on the site of the archive's publications. This site is of great use to those who are researching the eastern borderlands of Poland (Kresy), and the lands that were formerly Poland, now in Ukraine, Lithuania, and Belarus.
The Web Site of the "Archiwum państwowe w Łodzi (State archive in Lodz)" provides information on the archive and its opening hours, locations, and collections. The archive was formally founded in 1926 and a history of the archive is featured on the site. The archive has departments in Pabianice and Sieradz, and its Łódź headquarters divides holdings into pre-1945 and post-1945 sections. There is an online catalogue of the holdings available in RTF form as a ZIP file, or in smaller lists of the records. Holdings include judicial, financial, administrative, educational, and military records. They can be searched via the databases SEZAM, IZA (inventories), PRADZIAD, and ELA. This is a site of interest to those researching the nineteenth and twentieth century history of the ?ód? area.
The Web Site of the "Archiwum Państwowe m.st. Warszawy (State archive of the capital city of Warsaw)" is in Polish and English and provides information about the opening hours, collections, and location of the archive. The holdings of the archive are not confined to the capital city, but also cover the terrain of parts of Mazowsze (Mazovia). As common with Polish archives the territorial range of the collections does not conform to a geographically defined area, so the helpful map provided gives the user a better idea. The site features a brief history of the archive and its destruction during the Second World War. There are details of the archive's publications, including the journal 'Kronika Warszawska' and of current exhibitions. The capital's archive has departments in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Mława, Łowicz, Pułtusk, and Otwock. Two interesting online exhibitions are featured; photographs of the occupation (1940-1944) taken by an unknown German and postcards of Warsaw (nineteenth century to 1939). These provide an opportunity to see vistas of Warsaw which were eradicated forever during World War Two. The collections can be searched via the internet databases hosted on the site of the Polish State Archives: SEZAM, PRADZIAD or ELA. Guidelines for searching are provided in English as well.
The Web Site of the Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas (Foundation for the memorial to the murdered Jews of Europe) is in German and English and reflects the creation, aims and projects of the foundation. Although the name would imply that the project is confined to remembrance of the Jewish population, the foundation's charter extends to "endeavouring to ensure that all victims of National Socialism are remembered and honoured appropriately". The site features information on the project, measuring over 19,000 square metres, based in Berlin, along the edge of the Grosser Tiergarten. The project produces a newsletter in German, press releases and photographs of the memorial site. The memorial has been the subject of great debate. Its location in the area of government and parliamentary buildings is aimed at reflecting the role the German state played in the horrors inflicted by National Socialism, and to facilitate German self-awareness. The designer Dagmar von Wilcken has worked closely with architect Peter Eisenman on this project to make the memorial as personal as possible. The site has an "information in simple language" version in both German and English. The publications are also featured, encouraging those interested to purchase them from the foundation.
Part of an extensive resource for those teaching about the Holocaust, the Art pages cover four different kinds of art works associated with the Holocaust: work produced by those interned in concentration camps and ghettos; art approved and sponsored by the Third Reich; art the Nazis labelled as "degenerate"; and art produced after the Holocaust as a way of memorialising or coming to terms with it. These four sections include many links to art works, photographs, videos and related websites. A fifth section 'Teacher Resources' includes a glossary, bibliography and lesson plans.
Part of an extensive resource for those teaching about the Holocaust, the Music pages cover four different kinds of musical aspects associated with the Holocaust: music produced by those interned in concentration camps and ghettos; music approved and sponsored by the Third Reich; the Nazis labelled as "degenerate"; and music produced after the Holocaust as a way of memorialising or coming to terms with it. These four sections include many links to information about music, musicians and composers associated with the Holocaust, photographs, videos and related websites. A fifth section 'Teacher Resources' includes a glossary, bibliography and lesson plans.
The Literature section of the online Teacher's guide to the Holocaust, provides a practical guide to Holocaust literature for educators, researchers and students. Part of a broader site, these pages outline the scope and diversity of literary writing related to the Holocaust. Divided into seven sub-sections, these pages cover: writing by victims; survivor testimonies; accounts of resisters; narratives about rescuers; texts which offer an insight into the cultural, social and political context in which Nazism grew and gained momentum; and a selection of literary and critical reflections which have emerged since. Some of these address the moral issues facing contemporary society in the aftermath of the Holocaust, whilst others focus on commemorating victims and survivors. A final sub-section provides a collection of pedagogical resources which includes: a glossary; discussion topics; student handouts; detailed bibliographic material; and a sequence of lesson plans. Whilst these materials are designed for teachers within an American educational context, the detailed overview the section provides will also be useful to those teaching and studying within Further and Higher Education in the UK, offering as it does an accessible and reliable grounding to Holocaust literature.
A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust is a website offering an overview of the people and events of the Holocaust through photographs; historical documents; art; music; film; and literature. The site is primarily a resource for teachers and students and includes general and specialized bibliographies of Holocaust-related works. In addition, the site offers a wide range of primary source materials on a broad range of topics, including Anne Frank, Bergen-Belsen, and the Berlin Jewish Museum. The site also includes galleries containing over 2,000 Holocaust photographs, drawings, and paintings, all of which are helpfully grouped into thematic categories. In addition, there is a timeline section which focuses on the history of the Holocaust, tracing the years from the rise of the Nazi Party during the 14 years following the end of World War I to the aftermath of the Second World War in which Nazi perpetrators of war crimes faced retribution for their war crimes and survivors began rebuilding their lives. In sum: this is a very well-designed website that contains a wealth of information. It will be of value to students and teachers alike.
The website for the "Terezín Initiative Institute" provides information about the organisation that has been set up to gather information about, and provide support for, Jewish Holocaust survivors in the Czech Republic. The website is in Czech, English and German. Founded in 1991, its aims are to reunite fellow-prisoners of Terezín, represent survivors of the Holocaust, and take care of their social and cultural needs. The Institute organises commemorative and educational events with a particular focus on the Terezín concentration camp. The institute publishes a newletter in Czech and the "Terezín Memorial Books" with details of the names and fates of Terezín prisoners, compiled from a database. The whole of the database is not available online, but there are lists of transports in and out of Terezín. A yearbook with articles in Czech, German and English (there is a list of the articles in each journal) is also published by the Institute. Research is being carried out in many areas, but one of the projects described on the website is on the movement of Jewish refugees into and out of the Czech lands between 1933 and 1945. The Institute also provides an online catalogue only reachable from the Czechinterface, as well as some practical information about its library.
The website "The Holocaust : crimes, heroes and villains" has been compiled by Louis Bülow, and was started in 1996. The authors claims to have published extensively in the press. It is a comprehensive site which does contain some graphic images. It unfortunately features adverts, but has some good basic information on subjects such as: Oskar Schindler; Nazi biographies; Holocaust poetry; a timeline; and essays on the Holocaust. The real value of the site is in the aspects which focus on the individual, some taken from the work of Sir Martin Gilbert. Tales include the story of Jane Haining, a Scottish woman who died in Auschwitz with her Hungarian Jewish charges, Herschel Grynszpan, and Julian Bilecki. A good resource for those seeking more personal information on the Holocaust.
The website "The Holocaust Beyond Auschwitz" is an online exhibition that resulted from a study trip undertaken in 2001 by students of the Department of Jewish and Hebrew Studies, University College, London. The aim of the trip was to discover Jewish culture and society prior to 1939 and during the Holocaust. The site has pictures of Jewish synagogues, cemeteries, and of concentration and work camps. The commentary is that of an observer, and is not academically qualified. Although the site is easy to use and very basic, it serves rather as an illustration of places connected with the Jewish community that are rarely visited by tourists, rather than an informative resource.
The Holocaust History Project consists of a collection of documents and essays concerning the genocide of the Jews by the German Nazis during the Second World War. The site's authors pay especial attention to refuting the arguments of Holocaust-deniers such as David Irving.The site contains a number of reproductions of documents contemporaneous with World War II. Most of these are in English translation, and several are also available as digital image captures of the original German documents. Primary documents of particular note include: several volumes of the proceedings of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg; reports on the effects of Prussic Acid; letters between Nazi officials; and a number of documents from the Auschwitz concentration camp.Aside from these documents, there are a number of good secondary essays posted on the site. Theses vary in length from around 1,000 to 30,000 words, and are all in scholarly format with footnotes. Some of the essays include images and recordings. Many of the essays are on various aspects of the Auschwitz camp. Other subjects include: David Irving; the 'Einsatzgruppen'; the notorious propaganda film, 'The Eternal Jew'; the decision behind and the timing of 'the final solution'; and the position of the Jews with regards to Stalin and Bolshevik Russia.This is a fine site that should certainly be visited by anyone studying the holocaust. The material is interesting and well written, and argues against the Holocaust-deniers with some vigour.
Professor Ben Austin's website on the Holocaust is published on the Middle Tennessee State University website. Featuring a range of resources relevant to the study of the Holocaust, this site is aimed primarily at university students and their tutors. The site is simply laid out, and contains a variety of documents, some primary sources, but mostly short essays on particular subjects. Amongst the topics addressed are Kristallnacht, euthanasia, the Final Solution, specific groups, such as children, homosexuals and Romany gypsies, the Nuremberg Trials, and Holocaust deniers. There is also a glossary of terms, a chronology of events, and a selection of web links.
The website of the Shalem Center think-tank in Jerusalem offers a comprehensive and accessible overview of the Center's activities, which are primarily geared towards researching and writing on all the major issues relevant to world Jewry. This includes Jewish and Zionist intellectual, social, cultural, and political history, Biblical archaeology, as well as more contemporary subjects, such as economics and social policy. With strong ties to the American neo-conservative movement, the stated aim of the Shalem Center is to conduct research in the interest of "enriching and strengthening the State of Israel," and its scholars are, by and large, positioned on the political and religious right. They include Michael B. Oren, Yossi Klein Halevi, Martin Kramer, and Natan Sharansky, whose writings and various media appearances are collected on the website. Furthermore, the site offers briefings and analyses of current affairs from their fellows. In addition to its research, the Shalem Center operates its own publishing house and puts out a scholarly journal, Azure, which is available in both English and Hebrew. From the site, it is possible to sign up for the Center's newsletter for those interested to keep abreast of its activities.
Then and Now is an online exhibition which is a subsite of Remember.org. This exhibit shows artworks by former inmates of the Auschwitz concentration camp and juxtaposes the rendered scenes of camp existence with photographs of the camp as it now stands. Users can click on the images to flip back and forth between the image 'then' and the image 'now.' The startling contrasts would particularly serve as a teaching tool. The current lonely and barren scenes in the camp testify to a key problem that teachers and researchers of Holocaust Studies confront: namely, that the physical skeleton of the camp remains a mute wreckage of history which is stripped of its essential human element that told the true story. This exhibition seeks to replace that missing element in a clear way. The exhibition is based on 24 years of study by writer and photographer Alan Jacobs and his son, Jesse, who together photographed the scenes to match reproductions of original art pieces provided by the Auschwitz Museum Archive in 1979. Of particular note is the basement of interrogation Block 11 in Auschwitz, the horror of the prison inside the prison; thus the site comments: "If Auschwitz was the end of the line either for gassing or for forced labor, Block 11 was the end of the line at the end of the line." The exhibition gives an idea of the camp's conditions, from the comment that prisoners of war, especially the Soviets, were treated so terribly that they sometimes resorted to cannibalism to stay alive, to the extremely limited toilets, washing and sleeping facilities. This exhibition reveals that camp life became a struggle to preserve these basic aspects of human existence (eating is not depicted) in the face of all attempts to eradicate them.
The website 'Tradition and its Discontents: Jewish History and Culture in Eastern Europe' is an online exhibition from the Center for Advanced Judaic Studies at the University of Pennsylvania. The exhibition is based on the specific history of Eastern Europe as the main centre for modern Jewish civilisation over the past three hundred years. Expanding studies are now being pursued in this field, based on new access to archives in the former Soviet bloc. Exhibited images are scanned from primary sources going back to the sixteenth century. However, the majority of images and sources concern the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. They take in religious, communal and political themes of Jewish life in the region; they also highlight key figures. Some foci of interest treated here from this latter period include: immigration from the Russian Pale of Settlement and its consequences in Central Europe; pogroms; development of the newspaper press; ritual murder; Jewish scholarship and history; election campaigns in Austria-Hungary; Yiddish and the development of an Eastern European Jewish aesthetic; the founding of the Yidisher visnshaftlekher institut (YIVO -- Yiddish Scientific Institute) in 1925. Explanations of each image are supported by hypertext links to appropriate recommended reading in a good bibliography. There is also a list of contributors, which includes their university affiliations.
Tsentr i fond "Kholokost" is the website of a Moscow-based centre which promotes research and teaching about the Holocaust in Russia. The site offers: information on the centre's history, aims and activities; their archival collections and publications; Russian-language material on the history of the Holocaust aimed at students and teachers. Of most interest are the descriptions of the Centre's own archival collections, which include: oral testimony; personal items; documents relating to the lives of Jewish partisans, ghetto inhabitants, Soviet soldiers and members of the Jewish Anti-fascist Committee; plus evidence collected about Russian citizens who helped save Jews from the Nazis. Descriptions of the Centre's own publications (some downloadable), and of library items secured by them, will also be of interest to teachers and researchers working on Soviet history and the history of the Holocaust, as will the pages that outline their research projects (most significantly, a Russian language Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust). A limited version of the site is available in English and German.
This site describes the Unique Collections at Concordia University in Montréal, Québec, Canada. This department holds private papers, manuscripts, donated documents, and rare books. The site provides a detailed description of each special collection, including: 80 antique maps, showing early cartographers' work in Upper and Lower Canada; the Azrieli Holocaust collection, with European sources and references to Canadian anti-Semitism and Canadian war-time refugee internment camps; first editions of the works of the English playwright Christopher Fry; Canadian and American political cartoons; letters and books of D'arcy McGee, one of Canada's Fathers of Confederation; an international gay and lesbian literature collection from the 19th and 20th centuries; a collection of Hilaire Belloc's first editions; sources on silent era cinema; documents and manuscripts from the papers of the poet Irving Layton; donated private libraries from Lillian Davies and Dr. Max Stern; the records of the non-Francophone interest group Participation Québec, which was active from 1976-1981; a series of Canadian collections dealing with Québec politics and bilingualism in the 20th century; the Rochlin collection on South African political and trade union organizations from 1912 to 1960; and the Hannah Masonic collection. Details for researchers regarding rules of access are provided.
The website "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum" introduces America's national institution for the documentation, study, and interpretation of Holocaust history, which serves as the country's memorial to the millions of people murdered during the Holocaust. The site is an amazing and extensive resource which provides a comprehensive history of the Holocaust. Whilst the emphasis is mainly on the Jewish experience from 1933-1945, the persecution and extermination of other groups such as homosexuals, Communists, Jehovah Witnesses, Slavs, and the disabled is also covered. An extensive Holocaust Encyclopedia covers all the major issues related to the events in Europe during the WWII. There is a dedicated education section that caters for teachers, students, families, adults, and undergraduates, and there is also a learning centre. In addition, the site features a well-pitched introduction, personal histories, interactive maps, and online exhibitions. Access is provided to the online catalogue of the Museum Library, which includes photo and document archives. The website also carries information about the museum's Registry of Holocaust survivors, plus other research facilities.
This website on the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (not to be confused with the Warsaw Uprising in August-September 1944) in Nazi-occupied Poland is published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. It is linked with the NBC miniseries, "Uprising," which documents the resistance movement in the Warsaw ghetto. On the site, users can access a range of resources to help them learn more about events in Warsaw in 1943, including biographies, photographs, video interviews, maps and articles. The site also features a few questions to encourage users to think about the Holocaust in greater detail. The video clips require users to have RealPlayer, which can be freely downloaded from the Internet. The site includes links to further resources on the history of the Warsaw ghetto, on the deportation of Jews to and from the Warsaw ghetto, on the Holocaust and other ghettos. This is an excellent resource for teaching and study purposes.
This website documents the special collections held at the University of Southampton. The collection is important as the custodians of the Wellington, Mountbatton and Palmerston papers. Additionally the library holds the Survey of the Papers of Senior UK Defence Personnel and the Survey of Jewish Archives. Other collections of printed material include: local studies material relating to Hampshire and the Isle of Wight; Parkes Library on Jewish/Non-Jewish relations; the Moir Collection of Spanish drama; Oates Collection on slavery and Africa; Perkins Agricultural Library; Rosicrucian Collection. There are also archives and collections relating to the University’s own history. Items are accessioned into the library’s online catalogue, which is searchable from the website and some collections form the basis of other significant online databases.
The Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library houses rare books, special collections, manuscripts, archived documents and the official records of the University of Toronto. The Library now holds some 600,000 volumes and approximately 2,500 linear metres of manuscripts. The highlights of this collection are made available online through a series of virtual exhibitions. These include: etchings of the seventeenth century Bohemian artist, Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677); Anatomia, 1522-1867, with historical studies of the human anatomy from sources spanning that time period; the Barren Lands, with over 5,000 images from surveys conducted in 1893 and 1894 of Canada's north (now Nunavut) by James Tyrrell and J. B. Tyrrell; pre-1930 Canadian Pamphlets and Broadsides; Canadian Printer and Publisher, showing the history of the Canadian publishing industry through historic trade journals; the Discovery and Early Development of Insulin; and a classical Papyri collection. An additional 'Images from the Collection' subsite provides a wealth for images related to Canadiana; English and European Literature; Hebraica and Judaica; and Philosophy, Theology and Religion. The site posts exhibition catalogues and other library publications.
Researchers can refer to the Index to Collections, which offers detailed archival information. Those working from the medieval to modern periods should pay particular attention to the Manuscript Collection Index, with notable holdings on Middle East manuscripts; Byzantine manuscripts; a Galileo collection; early modern medical casebooks; 16th century Portuguese poetry; medieval and early modern Hebrew manuscripts; manuscripts and proofs by D.H. Lawrence and Charles Dickens; and valuable sources on early Canadiana. The rare book holdings are equally rich. In this area, historians will especially note a 1968 Czechoslovakia collection; a French Revolution collection; a Spanish Civil War collection; a Polish Solidarity collection; and a collection on Australia. Also not to be missed are important Canadian theatre history collections; special collections relating to philosophy (Aristotle, Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Russell) and the history of philosophy.
The site also gives information on the annual Kenny Prize, for scholarly writing by a Canadian on Marxist, left or labour studies.
Rules for access, registration, photocopying and similar information for visitors are provided. Some images from the collections can be made into postcards, cards and posters which users can order from the site. Navigation is fairly clear and the site has its own search engine.
University over the Abyss: Lectures in Ghetto Theresienstadt, 1942-44 is a website describing lectures which were held by the inmates of Theresienstadt (Terezin), a fortress near Prague which the Nazis converted into a transit concentration camp during the Second World War. Site authors remark that the "prisoners were mainly professional Jews from Czechoslovakia, Germany, Austria, Holland and Denmark, many of them a part of the European cultural elite." Site creators collected information regarding inmates' lectures which was scattered around archives and libraries in Europe, Israel and the United States. They now possess a computer database with over 480 names and about 2,300 lecture titles, along with related documents. Of these, the time and location of most have been determined, but texts and listeners' notes of only some 80 remain. A book has been published on the basis of this research, as has a second, enlarged, reedited edition in 2004. Ordering details, as well as information on further research, translations and publications, are on the site. The main page lists a brief collection of lecture titles within the fields of Jewish Studies; Humanities (including Art, Music and Drama); Social Studies; Law; Medicine; and finally, sociological lectures on the camp itself. The site's most impressive feature mirrors this research, with an alphabetical list of lecturers at Theresienstadt, the cities from which they were deported, and their deportation dates to Auschwitz. There is another column indicating camps in which they survived, for the tiny number that did so.
This is the website of the University of Southern California Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education. Its collections were brought together by the Survivors of the Shoah Foundation, which was established by Steven Spielberg during the filming of 'Schindler's List.' Between 1994 and 1999, the foundation collected some 52,000 testimonies of Holocaust survivors and other witnesses, including liberators, from 56 countries in 32 languages; about 90 per cent of the survivors are Jewish, the rest are "Jehovah's Witnesses, Sinti and Roma, homosexuals, political prisoners, and survivors of eugenics policies." The site states that the testimonies have been primarily collected for the purposes of education in order to inform students about the Holocaust as well as other genocides and to combat racism and prejudice. Altogether, the testimonies make up 120,000 hours of video which are searchable on this site. The Shoah Foundation has made several award-winning films based on its testimonies, as well as CD-ROMs for educational purposes; the site also describes the Foundation's ongoing educational projects. For researchers in Holocaust Studies, it is worth noting that, while some short video excerpts and the testimony catalogue are available online, the site does not provide immediate access to the videos. The catalogue offers information on witnesses, such as city and country of birth, religion and wartime experiences. In the autumn of 2005, the Shoah Foundation became part of the University of Southern California, where researchers can make appointments to gain direct access to the collection. Procedures for gaining access are provided on the site, although online instructions seem to be aimed primarily at institutions and teachers; there is, however, a Visiting Scholars Fund to support graduate students and post-doctoral researchers who wish to consult the archive.
Contemporary History is a subsite of the Virtual Library History (Virtual Library Geschichte). The Virtual Library History is in turn part of the Virtual Library (VL), established in 1991 and one of the oldest catalogues of the Web. This particular site focuses on Contemporary German History. The site provides a search engine which brings up reviewed lists of links to outside sites with specialised historical content. In the general Katalog index, users can find links arranged under a great array of thematic headings, from euthanasia, to the Weimar Republic, to Jewish life after 1945. They can also search special, but still general, categories which bring up itemised indexes of links. These are: Deutsche Kaiserzeit (German imperial period); First World War; Third Reich; Holocaust; Second World War; Post War period; sources; didactics; subject portal; exhibitions; E-publications; institutions; and resources. A side menu lists the site's other online partners. Users can register with the Webmaster for further information. The site will serve as a good research aid for academics, postgraduates and undergraduates, although proficiency in German is required to use it.
The main purpose of the Virtual Library Zeitgeschichte (Modern History) is to provide an overview of selected online resources relating to the history of the Third Reich during the Second World War, with a particular emphasis on German language resources. Topics covered include: the Holocaust; resistance; business and politics; and historiography. The language of the site is German. The catalogues of sources is hosted by the Historisches Centrum Hagen. This contributes to the central catalogue for the WWW-Virtual Library network of indexes to historical materials online. It is intended for general public use.
This site is a PDF online publication of a scholarly paper from 2000 in the 'University of Sussex Journal of Contemporary History' by Jacob Westergaard Madsen. It is posted by the Department of History at the University of Sussex. Madsen's paper is on the Historikerstreit (Historians' fight) which occurred in the mid 1980s in German academia over the causes of the Holocaust and its interpretation and impact on the present. The paper places the Historikerstreit in the context of Cold War politics; it then highlights aspects of the debate, especially between Ernst Nolte and Jürgen Habermas, which are important from a post-Cold-War perspective. Madsen asserts that the core of the Historikerstreit was not about the details of the Holocaust and the Second World War, which were basically not questioned, but about how those details were presented and interpreted, with huge political implications.
The conservative side of the Historikerstreit (the Tendenzwende) reflected in part a larger, general western trend during the 1980s toward glossy nationalist and imperialist histories. Madsen takes equal issue with the assumptions at the heart of the left wing counter arguments. Current lurking historical reinterpretations of the Second World War haltingly revisit these polarized trends, and make Madsen's paper worthwhile reading for students, teachers and scholars of historiography. Moreover, they confirm Habermas's assertion that the struggle for control over the past determines the present and future.
The website "The Voice of Jacob, or, The Hebrews' Monthly Miscellany" is part of the Australian Cooperative Digitisation Project, 1840-1845, hosted by the National Library of Australia. The aim of the project is to make digital copies of all Australian serials and fiction monographs first published between 1840-1845. Over seventy titles have been digitized and 'The Voice of Jacob' is one of these. The first volume dates from 27 May 1842 and at the time of cataloguing three volumes had been placed online. The journal is available in PDF format requiring Adobe Acrobat. It is a wonderful source of opinion on Jewish matters of the time, focusing both on Australian voices and European issues. There is an interesting summary of the census of 1841 which reveals the size and extent of Jewish communities throughout Australia. This is a good reflection of late nineteenth century debate and is of interest to those studying Jewish history, Australian history and nineteenth century media.
Voices of the Holocaust is an online resource published by the British Library as part of their"Learning" pages. The site is centred around recordings of Holocaust survivors memories, made as part of the British Library's Sound Archives Oral History Programme. Designed for use by school-age students, it is a well-conceived project and valuable for students at many different levels of education. The recordings cover the Jewish experience in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, dealing with deportations, the ghettos, resistance, concentration camps, death marches, and liberation. These are accompanied by background material in the form of maps, transcripts of the audio files, a timeline, and a glossary. Student activities and teachers notes are present on the site, too.
This website showcases the Wiener Collection in the Elias Sourasky Central Library, Tel-Aviv University, Israel. The collection relates to Jewish European communities; Europe during the interwar period and the Second World War; German Third Reich publications; and anti-Semitism and Fascism globally. The collection on Nazi Germany was begun in Amsterdam in 1933 by Dr. Alfred Wiener (1885-1964), who foresaw the importance of documenting the rise of the Nazi régime. His library was transferred from Amsterdam to London in 1939, forming the basis of London's Wiener Library. In 1980, Wiener's Collection was transferred to Israel. Publications in the Collection include some 150,000 books, pamphlets and journals; over one million newspaper clippings; unpublished memoirs and interviews; approximately 40,000 documents related to the Nuremberg trials; extensive materials on 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion'; dossiers on war criminals; Gestapo and other Third Reich documents on the Jewish Question; and over 500 sources on microfilm and microfiche which refer to the Holocaust and Holocaust denial. Items can be searched online in the Sourasky library catalogue. Further sources, according to the site, were being transferred from card catalogues into an online catalogue at the time of review. Teachers, students and researchers should note the site's virtual exhibitions which illustrate the extent of the Collection. The collection is open to researchers and the public and rules for access are provided.
The website "Women and the Holocaust" is an online project and magazine published by Judy Cohen, and provides a range of excellent resources on women and the Holocaust. The site aims to investigate the Final Solution and the Nazi's views on gender, and looks at the experience of women as victims of genocide, and also as the perpetrators and collaborators of the Nazi regime. The site provides primary sources like survivor testimonies and poetry, book and film reviews, a bibliography, and web links, as well as a good range of both academic and general articles and essays. These explore subjects like partisans and resistance fighters, forest-dwellers, survivor's stories, and women involved in the Nazi regime.
This is the website of the World Monuments Fund, a New York-based non-profit organisation dedicated to preserving and protecting endangered works of historic art and architecture around the world. The World Monuments Fund compiles a list of the 100 most endangered sites every two years. This list is published on the website and is viewable by a clickable map. Each site has a short entry with photograph and a description of the site, its history and the threats to its survival. A page lists information on specific projects sponsored by the World Monuments Fund. A news page has articles relevant to the World Monuments Fund's activities. Another page describes the Jewish Heritage Grant Program, a project responding to the widespread neglect of the rich architectural heritage of Jewish communities around the world.
The website "Yad Vashem" represents the institution with the same name which is the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. The website includes photos, diaries, maps and albums from the Yad Vashem archives and the Yad Vashem museum in Jerusalem, Israel. It includes educational material in various languages, mainly resources for schoolteachers in the fields of history and the Holocaust. Besides, it contains Holocaust history, timeline, a bibliography of English and Hebrew scholarly works on different aspects of the Holocaust, history of some Jewish communities in Europe (Grodno, Lida, Olkieniki, Vishay). Online resources include a database of Holocaust victims' names and other databases related to the Holocaust, a library catalogue and a photographic archive. This website hosts online exhibitions dedicated to the "Untold stories" (the site of the murdered Jews in the former USSR) and to the childrens' home in Otwock, Poland. The Yad Vashem runs the "Righteous Among Nations" programme, which is also featured on the site.
The Web Site "Yedwabne: history and memorial book (Poland)" is part of JewishGen, Inc. and one of their series of Yizkor (memorial) books. Published online in book form, the work is also known as the Sefer Jedwabne: Historiya ve-zikaron, and was published in 1980. It charts the appalling massacre of the Jewish population of Jedwabne (numbered here at 1440) on July 10 1941. The victims were forced into a barn and burnt to death. The event has been the subject of bitter dispute, stoked by the publication of Jan Gross' book "Neighbours". This online book provides the testimonies of seven Jews and one gentile from Jedwabne, who survived the massacre. The site is an amazing insight into a lost community that perished in the Holocaust of the Second World War. It is a good and moving resource for teachers to use, and for students of World War Two, Jewish Studies, and social history.
This site, Yiddish Web, is administered by the Maison de la Culture Yiddish in Paris and gives information on the history of the language and current course schedules offered by the organisation. The subsite of the organisation's library, Bibliothčque Medem, highlights the library's history, hours, collections, recent acquisitions, publications and exhibitions. A newsletter, Tam-Tam, can be downloaded in full and is archived online going back to 1996. There is additionally a link to a radio station which hosts a show in Yiddish. Users can click on sound samples of Yiddish poems being read aloud, as well as excerpts from the radio show. There is a small gallery of famous Yiddish writers and an essay on Yiddish in cinema. Another page provides a bibliography of Yiddish books; an online bookstore offers research publications put out by the Maison de la Culture Yiddish. The alphabet is listed, alongside its script form and phoenetic descriptions of characters. Famous Yiddish phrases and relevant links are also posted. All-in-all, researchers in this field will find this site to be a useful resource, although navigation is somewhat hampered by a multi-coloured scheme on the site that makes it difficult to read.
Zeitgeschichte-online (ZOL) is a large and valuable website for academics working on German Contemporary History and Cultural Studies. A cooperative effort of the Centre for Studies in Contemporary History, Potsdam and the National Library, Berlin, ZOL is a portal and a platform for online essays, bibliographies and press debates on European, and especially German, historical themes. These themes include the First World War and its aftermath; a retrospective on an American television series on the Holocaust from 1979; the expulsion of Germans from Poland and Czechoslovakia after the Second World War; and the end of the Second World War. Further topical foci are afforded through ZOL's cooperation with the socio-cultural German online forum, H-Soz-u-Kul (HSK). From HSK, ZOL gleans relevant articles; reviews; calls for papers; and research, accommodation and employment information. There is an unusually good and extensive collection of links with accompanying reviews. Links pages are arranged according to the following subjects: archives; research institutes; universities; academic associations; libraries; museums and memorials; publishers; government and public authorities; online biographies and biographical dictionaries; home pages of historians of contemporary history; academic discussion forums; research projects; dissertations; articles; online document collections and primary sources; monograph publication listings; journals; photographs and scanned images; publications on film; maps and atlases; online sound collections; virtual exhibitions; bibliographies; dictionaries; indexes; Web portals; virtual libraries; and library catalogues. An additional databank of essays requires user registration. ZOL has an online journal, Zeithistorische Forschungen (Studies in Contemporary History). The website has its own search engine.
This is the home page of the Centre for Research on anti-Semitism (ZfA) at the Technical University of Berlin, which was founded in 1982. The site opens with a list of the Centre's current lectures and colloquia and a link to its newsletter, available online in full-text versions running back to 1996. A Forschung subsite outlines the main concerns and research aims (Aufgaben und Forschungsschwerpunkte) of the Centre as the interdisciplinary study of German-Jewish History and the Holocaust. The ZfA also focusses on contextual issues surrounding racism and xenophobia, such as changing economic and social conditions and immigration. Geographically, the Centre deals with Germany, Austria, East-Central Europe and the Baltic regions; it has also addressed the plight of other minorities, such as the Roma. Topics for special research projects and conferences have included: Anti-Semitism in Italy and Germany in comparison, 1870-1914; the history of concentration camps; exile and emigration to the fifth continent; German-speaking musicians in exile in Australia; solidarity and help for the Jews, 1933-1945; the rescue of Jews in National Socialist Germany, 1933-1945; and the murder of the European Jews and German society, 1941-1945. Latest projects are outlined in detail on a special subpage. The Forschung subsite also lists a chronology of the main events related to the founding and functioning of the Centre, going back to 1978. Other subsites provide information on holdings in the ZFA's library and archive; a wide range of ZFA publications; course offerings; affiliated academics; and an association for friends of the ZFA. Of particular note is the ZFA's Jahrbuch für Antisemitismusforschung (Yearbook for Research on Anti-Semitism); the site gives the journal's contents and abstracts.
Zeitungszeugen, 1933-1945 is an article written by Carsten Volkery about a republication project under the same name, which started in January 2009, of Nazi magazines and newspapers produced during the Second World War under the editorship of Joseph Goebbels. This article, published by 'Spiegel Online,' provides some images from the reprinted material, which start with the election announcement of Hitler in newspapers from 30 January 1933. The 'Spiegel' article in itself opens some interesting questions for historians and scholars working in Media Studies about the impact of reprinting historical material from the war and selling it on newsstands today. These speculations will be a good starting point for students and teachers to ponder the power of the media and their historical context, their educational value, and attendant hazards. The Nazi newspapers have been compiled by British publisher Peter McGee and are accompanied by analyses written by recognised historians.