"Liberty Rhetoric" and Nineteenth-Century American Women is a website intended to illustrate the use of liberty rhetoric, of the kind used in the Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of the rights of Man, in arguments for women's rights. The site introduces the significance of liberty rhetoric and examines three issues in greater detail: the origins of liberty rhetoric in the revolutionary tradition; the use of liberty rhetoric among Lowell Mill girls; and the 1848 Declaration of Sentiments. The Lowell Mill girls were women employed to work at the Merrimack Company's cotton mills in Lowell, Massachusetts. They achieved notoriety by organising strikes against low pay and working conditions in 1834 and 1836. The 1848 Declaration of Sentiments was the result of a convention held in New York, and was written in imitation of the Declaration of Independence. For each subject area, the site offers a number of transcripts and reproductions of primary sources, each accompanied by Questions to Ponder. The questions would be most appropriate for school students. Primary sources in some instances include plans and early photographs. The Declaration of Sentiments page allows side-by-side comparison of the 1848 document with its 1776 inspiration. This is an archived site, created in 1998 as a resource for students.
This short exhibition on Chinese Women in Canada is part of the Global Gathering Place Project published by the Center for Instructional Technology Development at the University of Toronto. The exhibition looks at the experiences of Chinese women in Canada throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and features digitised photographs and artefacts, drawn from the Ontario Archives and private collections, accompanied by a narrative. The five chapters of the exhibition look at the first Chinese pioneers, employment opportunities, second generation immigrant experiences, community life and activities and the gradual integration of the Chinese Canadian community into Canadian society.
The 300 Women Who Changed the World website is published by the Encyclopaedia Britannica. It is a pleasingly designed site that provides a wealth of useful information for those engaged in the study of women's history. At the heart of the site are an overall introduction, a number of time-lines which highlight individuals and events during these years, an A-Z list of biographies of prominent women, and a number of categories describing the lives and activities of the women (for example, what they did; where they lived; when they lived; and so on) . Along with these narrative resources there is also a media gallery of audio and video files, which requires QuickTime, and a primary documents collection. Also included are lists of web links and recommended reading for further study, as well as a study guide suggesting how this site can be used for teaching women's history.
A Petal from the Rose: Illustrations by Elizabeth Shippen Green is an online presentation published by the Library of Congress of an exhibition formerly held at the Library's Swann Gallery of Caricature and Cartoon from 28 June to 29 September 2001. The site recounts the life and career of Green as one of the most renowned illustrators at the turn of the nineteenth to twentieth centuries for Harper's Monthly Magazine. Green's style strongly reflects the Art Nouveau school of the period, and the site comments on her use of domestic themes. Subpages describe Green's working methods and then provide scanned works in themed sections entitled, Gardens; Darkness; Youth; and Storied Past. The Darkness section has a particularly striking illustration of the return of Halley's Comet to the night skies, published in Harper's Monthly Magazine on 21 May 1910. There is also a Further Reading page with a short bibliography which should help students. The site contains links to the larger Library of Congress site as well as the Library's Swann Foundation for Caricature and Cartoon.
The website "Abney Park Cemetery" describes a project to index almost 200,000 burials (between 1840-1978) in Abney Park Cemetery, Stoke Newington. An excellent example of one of London's urban Victorian cemeteries, recent years have seen vast improvements to the cemetery. This website, however, is of use to local and family historians and genealogists. Although the site features pop-up advertisements which are extremely distracting, the site provides useful and clear information. At the time of cataloguing, around 950f surnames had been indexed and added to the database, along with burial details for most pre-1919 entries and around 400f entries between 1919 and 1936. The website also features a helpful user guide. Information is provided in tabular form and is easy to use. The database was last updated in 2001 but the information stored on the site is of great value for anyone interested in London local history.
The "Academic Guide to Jewish History" website is published by the University of Toronto Libraries, and is the product of a collaborative effort by librarians from eleven research institutions, including Princeton and Yale. The Guide was established to provide a consolidated list of Jewish history resources, which are all of an academic nature and have been carefully selected. The material listed falls into several categories; information gateways, encyclopaedias and biographies, libraries and archives, indexes and bibliographies, primary documents and journals. The focus is on English-language material, although major works in Hebrew, German, Russian and other languages are included. The contents consist of both electronic and print titles, and currently more than five hundred resources are included. The entries are annotated where appropriate and active links are also provided. In addition to this, the Academic Guide to Jewish History offers a built-in search engine for keyword searching, along with a pull-down menu to locate materials by one of four subjects, the Holocaust, Israel and Zionism, Jewish Communities and Jewish Women's History. There is also a list of contributors and an introduction for new users, along with a FAQ section.
The website African American Women Writers of the Nineteenth Century has been developed by the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture at the New York Public Library.The site provides a searchable database of African American women's writing during the period. It is possible to search by genre such as biography and autobiography, fiction or essays, or by author or title of work. The collection includes the first published book of poetry by an African American, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral by Phillis Wheatley (1773); the first book of essays by an African American, Essays by Ann Plato (1841); texts by writers such as Mary Prince and Harriet Jacobs that have become more widely-known in recent years, alongside writings by much lesser-known women. To support accurate attribution of the collection, the site also offers MLA-style citations for each of the texts in the collection.In addition to the online texts, the site provides detailed biographies of a number of women whose work figures in the collection. The site provides information on topics such as slavery and missionary work and would be of interest to historians working in a range of fields other than the history of female emancipation, black emancipation or women's writing.
This site is maintained by the Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College Northampton, MA. It provides online access to a number of primary source documents relating to the history of the women's feminist and civil rights movement in the United States from the 1930s-1980s. They also cover issues relating to the interplay of sex, class and race.The contents includes papers, letters, resolutions posters and documents from Dorothy Kenyon (lawyer); Constance Baker Motley (civil rights attorney); Mary Kaufman (civil rights attorney); Frances Fox Piven (welfare rights advocate); Gloria Steinem (feminist writer); the Women's Action Alliance and the National Congress of Neighborhood Women. The site also contains a section with guidance and lesson plans for teachers.
The website 'Centre for the Study of the Domestic Interior' (CDSI) is the homepage of this multi-disciplinary research project funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and located at the Royal College of Art. The center aims to produce innovative histories of domestic interiors and social spaces by combining traditional architectural and design histories with more recent academic interests sensitive to cultural and visual context, consumption studies and gender and subject-oriented approaches. The website provides abstracts of current CSDI projects, ranging from Italy 1400-1600 A.D. to the Cold War interiors of the 20th century, which are accompanied by short bibliographies and recent publications as well as details of research personnel in addition to news, information of forthcoming conferences and meetings. The various projects differ from traditional studies of domestic space in that they attempt to evolve new types of spatial typologies and to place them within a synchronic historical context. There is a clear emphasis on 'total' histories of domestic contexts combining history, archaeology, design and consumption studies with contemporary research in sociology and philosophy. One major emphasis is the importance of subjective responses to interior design based on ethnography, oral histories, popular publications and personal diaries. Various projects also question traditional assumptions about the role of gender, class, social status and consumption patterns in the construction of domestic spaces. This project is a collaborative venture with the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Bedford Centre for the History of Women at Royal Holloway College, University of London. The holistic, cross-disciplinary approach adopted by the CSDI projects will appeal to a wide and diverse audience interested in the relationship between social attitudes and the built environment and will interest historians and archaeologists in many fields of study.
Published by the Library of Congress American Memory project, the “American Women” website is an online gateway to the American women's history resources available at the Library. This site is an expended version of the Library of Congress’ print publication, “American Women: A Library of Congress Guide for the Study of Women’s History and Culture in the United States”, and offers a fully searchable online version, with added illustrations and a number of links to digitised materials. The guide offers tips on how to search for material in the Library’s catalogues, a table of contents, detailed summaries of collections and catalogue record descriptions. Also featured are online exhibitions and audiovisual material in the form of lectures, readings and symposia. This site is a wonderful tool for researchers working in the field of American women’s history.
The website "Anna Jameson, Harriet Martineau and their friends: a bibliographical and biographical database of the interpersonal transactions as recorded by and in their letters" is part of the Victorian Women Writers' Letters Project and provides information on the interpersonal relationships of the authors Anna Jameson (1794-1860) and Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) in the form of a searchable database of their personal correspondence. Both were involved in the reform campaigns of the day, such as the abolition of slavery and "the woman question", and had contact with other important literary women (most notably Elizabeth Gaskell and Elizabeth Barrett Browning). Their letters offer an insight into women's history as well as literature. Jameson and Martineau wrote extensively and their works include "A Lady's Diary" (later published as "The Diary of an Ennuyee"), "Characteristics of Women", "Sisters of Charity", and "Deerbrook", "The Crofton Boys", and "Letters on the Laws of Man's Nature and Development" respectively. The database contains detailed records of both women's correspondence, although the letters are not available in full-text. Each record details the author, addressee, people mentioned in the letter, and bibliographic information for the location of the actual source. Biographical information is provided for the author, addressee, and those mentioned and there are also links to relevant external sites. It is possible to search the databases individually or simultaneously, and in both search forms there is the option to search for author, addressee or people mentioned. As such it is possible to execute very specific searches. The project has been funded by the SSHRC (Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada), the University of Toronto, Simon Fraser University and is part of the Simon Fraser University electronic documentation centre.
This online annoatated bibliography was compiled by Linda Krumholz and Estella Lauter and is part of the website of the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Arts and Humanities. The main part of it is on performance arts covering subjects such as film, music and theatre. There is a supplemental listing of books and articles pertaining to the visual, performing and verbal arts through 1991.
The "Archive for Sexology: History of Sexology" site is part of the wider Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology website, published by an academic at the Humboldt-Universität in Berlin. Although not the best designed site, it holds a great deal of useful information for students of the history of medicine and sexuality. There is a brief history of sexology, which traces the development of the discipline, and a chronology of research divided into three sections - predecessors, antiquity-1892, pioneers, 1896-1936, and modern sex research, which highlights important figures and their research. A larger section on pioneers of sexology contains resources on twelve individuals, including Magnus Hirschfeld, Iwan Bloch, and Harry Benjamin. The biographies include primary source material such as letters, photographs and documents. In addition to this users can also access the full-text of Vern Bullough's 1994 book Science in the Bedroom - the History of Sex Research, and several journal articles, on subjects like the Nazi persecution of homosexuals and fertility.
The Archive of Women in Science and Engineering aims to preserve the historical heritage of American women in these fields. The collection is held at the Special Collections Department of Iowa State University and is intended to serve as a local, regional, national and international resource. The website gives details of the archive and the motivation behind putting the archive together. Descriptions of each collection are provided and include biographical information and details of the scope and content of each collection. Bibliographic details of the rare books held by the archive are also available from the site. Other features of the site include details of an oral history project being undertaken, a bibliography and related links.
The Web Site "Archiwum Państwowe w Olsztynie (State archive in Olsztyń)" provides the usual information about the location, collections, accessibility, and organisation of the regional branch of the Polish State Archives. The site features a brief history of the archive, which was formally founded in 1948. Unfortunately there is not much information on this site on the holdings, but there is a link to the databases IZA and SEZAM on the national archives' (AGAD) site. The holdings include administrative, regional, local, ecclesiastical, municipal, and fiscal records. Specialists from the Olsztyń archives have completed the project of digitisating the ledgers and inventory books of the former Prussia Museum in Kaliningrad (Königsberg).The site is of interest to those who are studying German or Polish history.
The Association of Wrens was Formed in 1920 to maintain the esprit de corps of the Wrens (Women's Royal Naval Service) who served during the First World War. The Association is based in the UK and membership is open to retired members of the WRNS, WRNR, QARNNS, VAD and to women who have served, or are serving, in the Royal Navy and Royal Naval Reserve. The site includes a list of the Association's branches (including overseas branches), members' stories and details of events. There are also links to sites of related interest.
The BBC History Web page "Mary Wollstonecraft: A 'Speculative and Dissenting Spirit'" features a brief seven page biography of the authoress best known for her pioneering treatise "A Vindication of the rights of Women" (1792). The biography also examines her relationships with William Godwin, Henry Fuseli, and others, and the birth of her daughter, Mary Shelley. The site contextualises Wollstonecraft's life and achievements and provides suggestions for further reading. The biography was written by Professor Janet Todd.
"Women's Work" is a BBC website examining the role of women in the Victorian period, more specifically, those women that either chose to work or were forced to work by economic pressures. As women, their first and foremost purpose was to act as wife and mother. Over the 19th century the number of women who chose not to marry increased, and women in the work force became more common. This essay contains information about female occupations such a governess and teacher, and less domestic roles as shop girls and office assistants. Women in industry became more prevalent as the century saw advances in the women's movement. This is an excellent essay on the dual life of women during a dynamic period that set social boundaries it could never keep. For further reading see the bibliography. On the web page there are links to related resources on BBC or external sites, such as: articles; interactive content; historic figures; timelines; and links.
The "Victorian Britain" is a BBC website about Victorian social history. The information featured on the site is arranged under six headings: Industry and Invention; Earning a Living; Social Conditions; The State, Education and Health; Women at Home; and Women Out and About. Under each section are two printable articles (one informative and one dealing with methodologies and sources), one interactive activity and one quiz. The articles are written by academics so are of a high standard and the quizzes act as useful revision aids. The site is well illustrated, very well laid out and exciting to use.
'Before Victoria: extraordinary women of the British romantic era' is a website that accompanied a 2005 exhibition at the New York Public Library. The website introduces the lives of notable women who lived in the the period between the French revolution and the time of Queen Victoria. There are short illustrated sections essays on "First of a New Genus"; "Fables for the Female Sex"; "The Modern Venus: Politicians, Gamblers, Lovers, and Other Improper Ladies"; "Female Patriots"; "The Stronger Passions of the Mind: Writers and Artists"; and "Rational Dames and Intrepid Travelers". There are about 30 large images, each carefully annotated. The website also has details of an accompanying book, 'Before Victoria' (Columbia University Press, 2005), and a short list of suggested books for further reading.
This website, for the Bluestocking online journal, investigates the intellectual and artistic achievements of women throughout history. The journal's main aim is to prove de Beauvoir's statement, in 1949 in 'The Second Sex' that young women lacked the stimulus of emulation in the pursuit of knowledge and therefore failed to contribute to the arts and any intellectual pursuits, as fundamentally wrong. Instead, the journal argues, women have made significant - if sometimes ignored or even stifled - contributions to all aspects and levels of human understanding; and it is an exploration of, and interest in, these female advances that the journal wishes to promote and study. The Web pages are very eloquently designed and contain information on the journal's main aims, its current issue (with links to the full articles), its past issues (again, with links to the full articles), and details of editorial members and so on. The journal is run by students at the University of Oxford and the editorial members change on a termly basis.
Letters of privileged women (16th-18th c.): relationships and frames of reference (Briefe adeliger Frauen (16.-18. Jh.): Beziehungen und Bezugssysteme) is a subsite of the Department of History at the University of Vienna. It is a special research project of the Department, and features an excellent collection of online primary sources which will complement study and teaching of the Early Modern History of Gender in Austria and Central Europe. In some cases, sources are provided in full, in others they are described in short abstracts. Sources posted include: letters; wills; documents related to marriage; inventories; and bibliographies of secondary literature. There are also family trees of five families who are mentioned in the sources, as well as convenient historical maps tracing the women writers' movements or places of residence. One of the most interesting parts of the site is the Bezugssysteme (frames of reference), which provides site visitors with an illustrated 'cultural matrix' describing the castles in which the women lived and their places in the social hierarchy, along with other historical contextual details. The site is further bolstered by a historical timeline and a search engine for finding the primary source texts. The site describes the original aims and scope of the project and lists its sponsors. It is easy to navigate, and rather creative in design.
Britain 1906-1918: Contrast Contradiction and Change is an online exhibition available on the The National Archives Learning Curve website. The Learning Curve is an online teaching resource, designed with the current history curriculum, from Key Stage 2 to 5, specifically in mind. This exhibition looks at life in Britain during the Edwardian period, concentrating on three main areas, Welfare Reforms, Women, Society and the Vote, and War and Chance in Britain. Each section looks at important topics within the subject, providing a range of resources to aid understanding of the key themes. The resources include digitised primary source material, which is accompanied by questions to help users assess it properly, a glossary of terms, a timeline, and a background section that helps to place events and actions in a wider historical context. In addition to this there is a Review and Revision section, devised to help users consolidate their learning and revise key points.
The British and Irish Women's Letters and Diaries project aims to provide the largest collection of such materials ever assembled. The database is available online to subscribing institutions. When complete, it will contain in excess of 100,000 pages of primary materials spanning several centuries. The web service also provides biographies of the 1,000 or so women whose writings are to be included, and an extended annotated bibliography. The website includes a sophisticated search engine that may be restricted to returning certain types of result, and flexible browse options. Contents may be listed by author, date, place, source, or according to associations with particular historical or personal events.
The "By popular demand: 'votes for women' suffrage pictures, 1850-1920" website, from the Library of Congress, provides access to thirty-eight pictures relating to the women's suffrage movement in the United States between 1850 and 1920. The online collection includes cartoons commenting on the movement, as well as photographs of prominent figures in the movement, and of parades and pickets. The site includes background information to the collection and a short bibliography. This site has been created as a partner site to the 'Votes for Women:' Selections from the National American Woman Suffrage Collection, 1848-1920 website, also from the Library of Congress.
This section of the "Gendercide watch" website focuses on the witchcraft persecution in both its historical and modern-day contexts. It is part of the website of an organisation called Gendercide Watch, a varied site dealing primarily with modern gendercide. Gendercide is defined by the organisation as "gender-selective mass killing", a term first used by Mary Anne Warren in the 1980s. These pages appear as a case study for a broad audience who are interested in the supposed historical background to gendercide. According to many scholars of witchcraft historiography, the appropriation of the witchcraft persecution in this way is not entirely, if at all, justified. The article is based on large quotations from a variety of other secondary sources such as academic work on the historical phenomenon of witchcraft published by Jenny Gibbons, Brian Levack, and Robin Briggs. There are attempts at addressing the causes, locations and motives for the witchcraft persecution. Opinions on the gender aspect of the persecution are somewhat contradictory, as with other points raised. Few firm conclusions are provided as to the historical aspects, but it is, somewhat controversially, employed to contextualise recent so-called witch-hunts in Zimbabwe, Kenya, and South Africa. Unfortunately, some of the links pertaining to newspaper articles are broken.
The Centre for Contemporary British History (CCBH) is a research department of the Institute of Historical Research, University of London. Their site provides information about conferences, seminars and publications produced by the CCBH and others on contemporary British History. Access is also provided to primary source material and related data from their extensive witness seminar programme - also branded 'Oral History Programme' on the website. These are group discussions led by a scholar, in which key individuals revisit an important event or development in the recent past. are being built up into an online archive. The texts of many of these discussions and the associated papers are made available through this site - some for free (just require you to register and login), others will be posted to you on CD for a fee. Seminars already online include: Anglo-German Relations and German Reunification; Britain and Europe; 'The Poor Get Poorer Under Labour': The Validity and Effects of CPAG's Campaign in 1970; the development of Concorde; the Rise and Fall of the Bretton Woods Agreement; the Development of North Sea Oil and Gas; the Origins and Establishment of the Internal Market in the NHS; the Resistance to the Poll Tax; Rhodesian UDI; Section 28 and the revival of Gay, Lesbian and Queer Politics in Britain; The Abortion Act 1970; the British Response to the Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI or Star Wars) in the 1980s; the Historiography of the Communist Party of Great Britain; Intelligence Services in the Second World War; The Nott Review; and the role of the British Embassy in Moscow, and in Washington; the Role of the Speaker in the House of Commons; the Move to the Sandys White Paper of 1957.
'CW3 Journal' is a peer-refereed full-text ejournal publishing... "research into Romantic-era writing by women". The journal aims to produce two issues per year, and is produced from Sheffield Hallam University in the UK. At June 2009 there are three issues online, with articles freely available in HTML form. The journal also publishes reviews. Example titles include: 'Mothering the Novel: Frances Burney and the Next Generation of Women Novelists'; 'Corinne in Distress: Translation as Cultural Misappropriation '; and 'Early British Children's Books: Towards an Understanding of their Users and Usage', among others. The journal website has details of the Editor, Editorial Board, and the submissions process.
The website Dangerous Graces describes a project on female musicians at the courts of Ferrara and Parma between 1565 and 1589. This site is of interest to those studying or researching early modern court, Italian, or music history. It is also of use to those researching the d'Este and Farnese families, or early modern women in Italian society. Although the site has been marked as under construction for some time now, it still contains a lot of valuable information about the project. Musicologist Laurie Stras and the ensemble Musica Secreta have collaborated to investigate both historically and practically performance practices in the courts of the Farnese and the d'Este in the second half of the 16th century. The website provides historical information about the musicians, the courts and the cultural interaction between performer, patron and court. The website contains score that can be listened to on RealPlayer and the site also uses Sibelius. There are texts available on the site, which have been set to music. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the research grants scheme.
The website "Distinguished Women" is an amateur site, which provides information on a random variety of women in many fields. It is of use, primarily, as a reference source and provides annotated (sometimes) links to information on prominent women mainly of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. However some entries have been written by the author of the site. For ease the women's biographies are split into professional fields such as: veterinary medicine; philanthropy; military and warfare; politics and government; history; and journalism. The subjects can also be searched by name. The material relates predominantly to American women. A useful reference site for undergraduates in women's studies and for anyone wishing to locate more information on eminent women.
DoHistory is an interactive website, created by the Film Study Center at Harvard University, aimed at helping the user explore and piece together the lives of ordinary people in the past. Skills and research techniques are shown through the case study of Martha Ballard who was a midwife and healer in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Two in depth studies based on her diary are presented on the site. More general information about how to use primary sources and how to plan research and history projects is also available. As well as providing help on how to carry out research the site has an archive of primary sources. This archive provides access to letters, maps, newspaper and journal clippings, pictures, public and private records and diaries (including the diary of Martha Ballard from 1785-1812).
'Dry Drunk' is an online exhibition, created by New York Public Library, investigating the culture of tobacco in seventeenth and eighteenth century Europe through a selection of prints held by the library. The site has been divided into the following eight sections: travel and discovery; herbals and health; the great debate; question of gender; costume and identity; the culture of smoke: high life; the culture of smoke: low life; and the sneezing cure allegory and fantasy in smoke. Each section has a brief introduction to the topic and descriptions of prints illustrating the topic. A number of the descriptions are accompanied by images of the prints.
Early Canadiana Online (ECO) is the website of a collaborative research project designed to provide web access to a digital library of primary sources in Canadian history from the first European contact to the early 20th century. The collection is particularly strong in the subject areas of: literature; women's history; travel and exploration; native studies; and the history of French Canada. The ECO collection is made up of seven individual online collections totalling 3 million pages. After browsing or searching by title, author, subject, or keyword, and finding a text, one may view a scanned image of the page of the volume. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has been performed on the images to enhance searching and accessing the texts. This site provides access to a vast and extensive collection of resources which should be of great interest to scholars in this field.
The website "Early Eighteenth Century Newspaper Reports: A Sourcebook Compiled by Rictor Norton" has been created by Dr Rictor Norton, an expert in and author on Queer History. The site includes a convenient search engine and material is also arranged thematically. The emphasis is on crimes and wonders, reports of which have been compiled from newspapers such as: The British Gazetteer; London Journal; Mist's Weekly Journal; and Daily Journal. It is an excellent resource for historians of early modern crime. Thematic sections include: Trials at the Old Bailey, Hangings at Tyburn, Famous Criminals, Mobs and the Pillory; Love and Marriage, Abandoned Children, Rape and Infanticide, Sodomites, and the Drury Lane Ladies; Popular Amusements from Bear-Baiting to Fashionable Assemblies, Races, Magicians, Music, Play and Literature, and the Latest Fashions; Bills of Mortality, Suicides, Natural Catastrophes, Horrid Accidents and Funeral Customs; Health and Beauty and Advertisements for Quack Medicines; and Religion, Witchcraft, Jews, French Protestants. The texts from the newspapers have been retyped for the site, and under the various headings the author of the site compiled pieces of news from different papers and journals. It is a pity that there the site does not offer an index to all the titles of newspapers. As it is the material has been selected and categorised according to the compiler's interests with no indication as to the time frame or range of newspapers consulted. Those researching aspects of social and cultural history of eighteenth century Britain however will find this site of good use.
Historical Abstracts is an online research aid prepared by Ebsco Publishing. This site posts a database of journal abstracts from over 1,700 academic periodicals that are devoted to modern world history, from 1450 to the present, excluding the United States and Canada. Most fields of history are covered, from military history, to women's history, to social history; social scientific journals are also represented. The journals whose contents are listed here run from 1955 to the present. A general title list can be viewed in various formats, but the site requires a subscription and user registration for full access to the site's resources. The larger site, of which this site is one part, includes professional information for publishers and college administrators. The academic level of the periodicals will particularly support post-graduate research.
The online version of a lecture given 21 June, 1995, at Brown University, by William A. Ward deals with the status of women in ancient Egypt society. Although pharaonic Egypt was in most respects a male society, with men holding positions in public life while women dominated the private life, Ward points to the fact that there is plenty of evidence that women, throughout ancient Egyptian civilisation could own, bequeath and inherit land. Furthermore women seem to have been able to hold positions of some importance in administration and there are examples of female scribes. Ancient Egypt was not an egalitarian society in any modern meaning of the word but it seems as if women were not barred from public life or prevented from getting education or owning land. This site is of interest to anyone interested in ancient Egyptian civilisation and the status of women in particular.
The 'Eighteenth Century England' website presents a collection of projects created by final year literature students at the University of Michigan in the United States. The aim of each project is to create a multimedia learning resource on an aspect of eighteenth-century cultural history. There are currently fifty-four projects available from the site covering topics such as advertising, marriage, capital punishment and food. As well as providing access to the student projects the site has research advice for students. Some of this advice is specific to the students carrying out projects for this site but much of it is of a more general nature and includes, for example, information on how to create a bibliography, how to carry out research using both print and electronic sources, and on creating a website. Although some of the sources take a more humorous approach (for example, magical time portals to the eighteenth century), the site is generally of a high standard.
The web page 'Eighteenth-Century Women: Studies in their Lives, Works, and Culture' provides information about the annual print journal (hardcover serial publication) with the same title. The series first volume was published in 2001. It offers a list of authors and articles published in prior issues and information for those wishing to submit their own work. There are instructions on formatting accepted work and for book reviewing. The journal itself 'aims to be a record of women's lives and accomplishments', and concentrates on the literary, social, and cultural history of women from 1660 to 1815. It is not limited to any specific geographical region. The editor discourages the use of technical jargon.
The Elizabeth Blackwell, America's First Woman M.D. (Medical Doctor) website is an online version of an exhibition held at the National Library of Medicine from January to September 1999. The site provides a basic outline of the training and work of Elizabeth Blackwell, who in 1849 was the first woman to graduate from a medical school in the United States. This narrative is interspersed with a number of primary source documents held by the National Library of Medicine. The documents have been scanned and are available as facsimile images. Transcriptions of the documents are provided. The website is divided into four main sections: admission; college life; graduation; and career.
The Emma Goldman Papers project was started in 1980 with the aim of collecting, organising and editing documents by and about Goldman from around the world. Emma Goldman (1869-1940) was a prominent American feminist, anarchist, and social commentator. She was involved in advocating free speech, birth control, women's equality, and events such as the Russian Revolution and the Spanish Civil War. Since this date the project has dealt with tens of thousands of documents. The website provides information about the project and provides a sample of primary source documents. These online primary source documents include extracts from Emma Goldman's writings, documents (letters, telegrams and handbills which have been scanned from the originals), images of Goldman and her contemporaries, and moving images. The site also has a detailed guide to her life and the documentary sources. Other features of the site include an online exhibition, newsletters and a list of links to related websites and resources.
The website "Enterprising Women: 250 of American Business" is an online exhibition published in 2002 by the Schleslinger Library of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, at Harvard University. It looks at the life histories of forty American women who have had an impact on American business, from the mid-eighteenth century to the end of the twentieth century. The site features biographies of people like Elizabeth Murray, Lydia Pinkham, Helena Rubenstein, Brownie Wise and Oprah Winfrey. The biographies are all illustrated with primary source materials, such as photographs, letters and documents. There is also an interesting archival section of advice letters from figures like Amelia Earhart and Susan B. Anthony. The site also features interactive games, classroom resources, and suggestions for further reading.
Epistolae is an online repository of letters, originally written in Latin, sent by and to women in the Middle Ages. The letters were collected and translated by Columbia University's Professor Joan Ferrante, who collaborated with the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning to make both the Latin and modern English texts of most of the letters available on this website. Over 850 letters are included on the site, most taken from printed sources, with recipients and authors including: Eleanor of Aquitaine; Margaret of Scotland; Emma, queen of the Franks; and Isabel of Angoulême. The letters date from the 4th to the 13th centuries, and are accompanied by biographies of the women cited. The letters can be browsed alphabetically by sender and also searched by: keyword; sender; or recipient. The biographies can also be browsed or searched, and letters relating to a particular person can be accessed from their biography page. Texts of the letters are often accompanied by a short paragraph giving historical context, as well as: details of printed and manuscript sources; any related scholarly notes; and translation notes. Users are also invited to contribute suggestions and corrections to the site. This resource would be especially usefully for those interested in prosopography and the role of women in the religious and political life of the Middle Ages.
This website, from the Claremont Colleges Digital Library, provides a wealth of resources on fashion - both male and female - from primarily the nineteenth century. The site can be searched by keyword; or it can browsed by contributor, by historical decade, by historical period (i.e. 'United Kingdom - Early Victorian, 1837-1860'), or by subject (i.e. 'apron' or 'mustache'). Using these tools, it is possible to view a large number of images of fashion in very high detail. Each image also has a description and details about its production and information on the fashionable items displayed. The Myrtle Tyrrell Kirby Fashion Plate Collection comprises 650 images of primarily nineteenth century (although much of the eighteenth century, and some of the early twentieth century, are also covered) fashion images from the Macpherson Collection of the Ella Strong Denison Library at Scripps College. The colour images have been taken 'from a variety of women's periodicals and other mass-circulating works published between 1789 and 1914' and cover primarily the United Kingdom, the United States, France and Spain. This website will be of significant value to anyone interested in fashion, high culture, or the history of design and clothing manufacture.
Feminae: Medieval Woman and Gender Index, edited by Margaret Schaus (Haverford College, Pennsylvania), is a website which indexes: journal articles; book reviews; and essays in books about: women; sexuality; and gender during the medieval period. The Index has been compiled by volunteers since 1996 and covers publications from 1990 to 2006. Almost 500 journals are indexed and include articles in English, German, French, Spanish and Italian. The Index can be searched by: author; title; subject source; primary evidence; language; geographic area; and year of publication. The site also includes a full list of subject headings used within the database, and listings of the journals and essay collections indexed. A short links page lists other sites devoted to medieval women and users can register to receive email notification of updates to the collection. This site would be of use to researchers or students of medieval history and literature, or anyone interested in the role of women in history.
One of a series of Research Guides produced by the National Archives, this site provides information on records held at Archives on women's services during World War I. By 1916, the British government began organising women's auxiliary military services, so that male workers would be free to fight. Services covered by this collection include: the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps; the Women's Royal Air Force; medals and awards; and the Women's Royal Naval Service. Women worked in the Ministry of Labour; Board of Trade; Ministry of Munitions; Ministry of National Service; and the War Office. The sources here feature administrative records, service records and registers available for the army, navy and air force in this time period. Collections are described only on at the general level, not at the file or individual piece levels. Nonetheless, using these general criteria materials can be pre-requested online from the Web site.
The 'Five College Archives Digital Access Project' website provides access to a selection of material held at Amherst College, Hampshire College, Mount Holyoke College, Smith College and the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. It encompasses fifty-four online collections amounting to over thirty-eight thousand items. The material included on the site relates to 19th and early 20th century women, in particular the education of women. The type of material on the site includes letters, photographs, articles, diaries and official college publications. Details of the archives which have been included from each of the colleges can be found on the site. It is possible to search the collection. The search engine will, in the majority of cases, search the text of the description of documents as most of the documents have been put on the site as images. The collections of the colleges can be searched individually or together. The site also maintains a set of links relating to the digitization of archival collections. The site is now archived.
The website 'Focus On - Women in Uniform' is an online exhibition published by the Family Records Centre, and traces women's wartime roles over a span of almost 100 years, from the beginning of the Crimean War in 1854, until the end of the Second World War in 1945. Six topics are featured, covering: nurses in the Crimea; nurses in the British Army; the Almeric Paget Military Massage Corps; Scottish Women's hospitals; the Women's Royal Naval Service; and roles during World War II. With each topic there is a profile of an individual woman and information about the organisations they served in, accompanied by digitised primary source documents. These are all sourced from the Family Records Centre, and include census returns, service records, diaries, and pension records. Also in the exhibition are suggestions for further reading, and a selection of related web links. The website is easy to navigate with relialbe information backed by interesting primary sources.
Frauen Wählet! (Women May Vote!) is an online exhibition commemorating the 85th anniversary of the granting of universal female suffrage in Austria (1919-2004). The site posts a series of essays which provide a narrative history of the struggle for women's access to the vote in Austria after the First World War. The essays are liberally illustrated with scanned images of primary source documents held at the Austrian National Library. The site goes back to 1848, and takes care to describe the political context surrounding the connected development of universal manhood suffrage, attained in 1907. Each essay is bolstered by subsites with illustrations, short explanations and biographies of key events and figures. Notably, a reproduction of the 1918 law is scanned from the book of laws of German Austria. The site discusses the political effect of the expansion of the vote during the subsequent election campaign of 1919 and gives an overview of the varying styles of bids made by different parties to female voters. Female Members of Parliament are also discussed: there are special biographies of the first eight women who sat in the Parliament. Also of interest are additional pages which provide a comparative assessment of the campaign for female suffrage in England, France, Switzerland and Finland. Finally, a timeline lists the granting of the vote to women in different countries, with the most recent being Liechtenstein in 1984. For its informative essays and use of primary sources, this site should prove of great interest to teachers, students and researchers, as well as members of the general public.
The Freedom Archives aim to provide a narrative of the groundbreaking steps towards freedom and equality taken since the 1950s and 1960s. '8000 hours of audio and video recordings documenting social justice movements locally, nationally, and internationally from the 1960s to the present. The Archives features speeches of movement leaders and community activists, protests and demonstrations, cultural currents of rebellion and resistance.' The website is at times a little awkward to navigate around, but the volume of information available means that this website will prove to be very valuable to those interested in the Civil Rights Movement and the struggle for equality in general. Users can download various audio clips and recordings and a short blurb of information is available on each source. Users should note that the site is somewhat 'commercialised' with the option to buy numerous works/publications available.
The website "From History to Her Story" is published by the West Yorkshire Archive Service in association with the New Opportunities Fund project CitizenshipPast. The site has been conceived with a range of learners in mind, with a particular emphasis on life-long learners, although the material is extremely accessible to researchers. The site provides online access to primary sources concerning the lives of Yorkshire women from the twelfth to the twentieth century. There are several sections on the site: women in history; women's lives; women's organisations; feature archives. Each section organises the resources alphabetically or by category. The database is inevitably dominated by nineteenth and early twentieth century resources. The learning materials includine the casebooks from the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum and the First World War diaries of Florence Lockwood in the section Women and War. There is a degree of overlapping of listings between the sections and sometimes the links to the primary sources (transcriptions or images) does not work from each section. The gallery offers a direct search through the entire holdings of the database, consisting of 85,000 entries. Highlights of the collections are the correspondence of the Brontë sisters and the diaries of Anne Lister. This is a promising resource, with a great deal of interesting material about the lives of ordinary women.
The Web Site of the "Fundacji Archiwum i Muzeum Pomorskie Armii Krajowej oraz Wojskowej Służby Polek w Toruniu (The Foundation of the Pomeranian Archive and Museum of the Home Army and Polish Women's Military Service in Toruń)" is in Polish with a more limited English version. It was founded by Professor El់ieta Zawacka, who had an extremely distinguished career during the Second World War as a military instructor of women, fought in the defence of Lwów, and in the Polish underground. As the courier 'Zo' she was famous throughout Europe for her journeys and bravery and was later arrested by the Communist Security Forces in 1951. The Web Site contains information on the archives and holdings pertaining to the role of Polish women in World War Two. It also features accounts by women of their experiences, and details of academic meetings and conferences. This is an excellent site for those interested in women's history, military history, the Second World War, or Polish Studies.
The website "Gay and Lesbian History at the National Archives: An Introduction" is an online research guide published by the National Archives. It is concerned with gay and lesbian history, and how to find the resources relevant to research in this area that are held in the National Archives. The leaflet begins by discussing the difficulties of researching this 'hidden' history and how to uncover sources in the archives holdings. It continues with mention of various areas that could be profitable for researchers, including: legislation and the law; gay and lesbian politics; single sex organisations; and public health, medicine and the welfare state. The website also notes tips on how to search the National Archives online catalogue and get results, and provides a list of suggested reading. A glossary of terms can be consulted on the site.
Gay History and Literature is the work of Rictor Norton, a historian of queer history. It is an excellent site crammed with information and resources relating to gay and lesbian history. On the home page users will find over 50 short essays on different aspects of queer history, under topics headings like the history of homoerotica, lesbian history, the history of homophobia, queer culture, and the homosexual pastoral tradition. In addition to these articles, the site also contains a section on John Addington Symonds, primary sources on homosexuality in eighteenth-century England, book reviews, articles on social constructionism and queer theory, and a range of web links. Extensive bibliographies are available on a connected subsite, covering a range of historical periods and geographic regions.
This is a free online archive of the UK magazine 'Gay Left', which ran from 1975 until 1980 and was edited from London. It is now of historical interest, and each issue has been scanned and placed online. Issues can be freely downloaded as PDF files, and these contain OCR text that can be copied and pasted. The journal regularly carried essays and reviews by notable names such as Richard Dyer, Jeffrey Weeks, Emmanuel Cooper, Ann Oakley, and Simon Watney, among others. Jeffrey Weeks has written a special new overview essay for the website archive. The archive and new essay will be of interest to those researching radical politics and sexuality in the UK during the late 1970s.
This well-designed site on gay history is an excellent starting point for scholars of this subject. Written by an enthusiast, it covers the history of homosexuality from 1700 to 1973, focusing mainly on the United Kingdom and the United States. The main resource in the site is the timeline, which currently covers the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, although there is some information about twentieth century events and individuals. Each date links to an article, which appears in a summarised and a longer format. In addition to these useful slices of reference there is also a glossary, a selection of web links, a bibliography, and even a number of quizzes.
Gender Forum is published by an academic at the University of Cologne. It is a multi-discipline online journal dealing with women and gender studies, covering areas such as feminist theory and queer studies. The full-text of all issues is available running back to 2002, with articles on subjects as diverse as witchcraft, mental illness and feminism. The contents are generally a blend of historical and contemporary comment. The site also features conference listings, news briefs, and a discussion forum. There is also a good selection of web links, divided into four categories, publishers, online bookstores, journals, and databases, metapages and projects.
Gender Inn is a searchable online database of resources relating to gender studies, accessible in English and German. Over 7,000 records are available on the site, which is published by the English Department at the University of Cologne. The whole dataset has a browse function, but this is rather hard to locate in the site; the search function is readily evident. The records are of books and articles that are concerned with gender and feminist issues, and cover a range of disciplines, including education, sociology, history and psychology. Each record contains a synopsis of the contents, and is cross-referenced to other sources with hyperlinks. In addition, the site also features web links and bibliographies and is connected to the internet journal Gender Forum.
The Genesis Project aimed to identify and develop access to women's history sources in the British Isles. The project has developed a database of over 2,000 library, museum, and archive collection descriptions from forty-five institutions relating to women's history. This database is freely available on the website, and may be searched according to various fields and limits. The project has also produced a list of web resources relating to the study of women's history. This includes both British and International sites. Unfortunately the web guide is not annotated, but the sites may be browsed according to various categories. The Genesis Project is based at the Women's Library at Old Castle Street, London. The GENESIS Project receives funding from the Research Support Libraries Programme (RSLP).
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Genevan Sex Crimes Database, c.1440-c.1790' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), Universities of Essex and Manchester (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to download. The study examined in detail over 300 criminal trials surviving in Geneva relating to sexual deviance (homosexuality, male rape/sexual assault, paedophilia, lesbianism, bestiality, adolescent sexual experimentation, female rape/sexual assault, adultery and fornication). These trials, in which verbatim testimony and numerous depositions by witnesses survive, give an ideal place to test pre-Freudian ideas of sexual development, sexual categories and sexual self-awareness. The data collection contains details of over 1000 individuals gleaned from over 300 trials for the period c.1440 - c.1790 (although the overwhelming bulk of of the data come from the period 1530 - 1680). This represents, on average, over six people per year directly involved either as defendants or witnessess in trials relating to deviant, criminalised or violent sexual conduct. The database does not include the large number of magistrates who would have been present as judges and observers. This large number of 'participants' as well as the excellent and detailed information preserved in the trial dossiers means that it has been possible to identify extremely subtle yet consistent ideas of sexuality and sexual preference among judges, defendants and witnesses. The voices of the 'deviants' are sufficiently evident to evaluate early modern views on sexuality, sexual identity and sexual preference. These views have been compared with early modern ideas as well as modern ideas about the development of these assumptions and presuppositions in an historiographical context. It has been demonstrated that the participants in these trials had very clear ideas of differing types of deviancy as well as firm convictions that criminals came to these types of crimes through diverse paths of sexual development. The main variables include: the gender, age, occupation, place of origin and civic status of defendants and witnesses; the names and civic status of their parents and spouse; the crime they were charged with details of the interrogation, verdict and sentence; and cross references between cases.
The Gerritsen collection is published by Chadwyck-Healey. It is a subscription service that offers a huge variety of primary and secondary source material charting the history of feminist consciousness and women's rights in several countries, some of which is very rare. It contains over 4,700 digitised pamphlets, books and periodicals from Europe, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, covering the sixteenth to the twentieth century. The content is all digitised to a high standard and its ASCII text can be searched by keyword, and page images downloaded in PDF format. A full list of the works in this collection can be downloaded in Excel format.
The Glasgow Caledonian University Library Special Collections web pages provide information on the archives held at the university. The site gives basic information about the location and opening hours, the catalogues and access requirements, of the collections. The Library's acquisition policy is described and links provided to the journals the Library subscribes to. Each of the special collections is described, and its content summarised. Further information may be accessed about the individual who assembled and donated each collection, along with the collections' detailed contents list. A search engine is provided.Almost all of the special collections consist of left-wing political material. Socialism, trade unionism, communism, and Labour party history, are all well-covered subjects. Other subjects covered in the archives include the Spanish Civil War, the Anti-Apartheid movement, and women's rights issues. A couple of archives dealing with domestic science, needlework, and cookery, reflect the College's history 'at the forefront of domestic science teaching'. The journal collections also reflect the University's commitment to Communism and Anarchy.
The 'Golden Age Romance Comics Archive' aims to be "a resource for scholars and fans interested in golden era romance comics, containing full scans of issues." The comics shown here date from 1949 to 1960, although the Golden Age is usually said to be 1933-1954. There are about 35 examples of the front covers of romance comics, presented as large scans. There is also a complete readable online romance comic, Girls' Romances No. 53, April-May 1953. The website has a short discussion of the genre, details of methods used for scanning, a copy of the author's project proposal, and a small selection of useful external links.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Great Britain Historical Database : Census Data : Marital Status Statistics, 1931' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as tab delimited files, UK higher education users may also download the data through the CHCC (Historical Census Collection) system. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation.To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. The data includes comprises conjugal condition at county and burgh level for Scotland in 1931.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Great Britain Historical Database : Economic Distress and Labour Markets Data : Marriage Statistics, 1841-1870' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as tab delimited text files, UK higher education users may also download the data through the CHCC (Historical Census Collection) system. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. The resource consists of Registration District marriage statistics 1841- 1870.
The Great Britain Historical Database is a large database of British nineteenth and twentieth-century statistics. The online (GBHD Online) version provides registered users with web-based access to a significant part of it. The database includes information such as: marriage and mortality statistics from the Registrar General's reports; and demographic and employment statistics from the census. The History Data Service receives funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). This description is based on the one supplied by the JISC Resource Guide for the Arts and Humanities.
"Greenham Common : The Women's Peace Camp" is an online exhibition from the Imperial War Museum Sound Archive. The exhibition provides a brief account of the anti-nuclear protests from 1981-2000 against the decision to site Cruise Missiles (guided nuclear missiles) in the UK, at Greenham Common Air Base near Newbury, Berkshire, and what became known as the "Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp". The Peace Camp remained as a continuing protest against nuclear weapons after all missiles sited at Greenham were removed after the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty between the US and the Soviet Union, and after the United States Air Force left the base in 1992 soon to be followed by the RAF. The exhibition is divided into: "Life in the Women's Peace Camp" (includes how the women constructed makeshift homes and methods of non-violent protest); and "Life in Greenham Common Air Base" (includes accounts about the difficulties faced by the police and army in dealing with the Greenham women). The main resource are 14 extracts from the Sound Archive's interviews from the 1990s with women who were living at, or involved with the Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp, as well as military personnel working inside the base. The Greenham interviews are part of a larger project covering the Anti-War Movement from 1914 onwards. All these interviews are available to listen to at the Imperial War Museum Sound Archive. Each audio clip requires Real One Player. There is also a transcript of each clip, as well as the archive's reference number for the interview.
This website is an online exhibition curated by The Imperial War Museum. The website provides information concerning its recordings of those who participated on the Greenham Camp which protested against the siting of cruise missiles near Newbury, Berkshire, England. These recordings form part of a broader anti-war movement project. There is a brief history of the Greenham Common Camp and an overview of what it was like to live there. There are also more detailed accounts of what it was like to live on the military camp.
This Web page on the 'Grrrl Zine Network' website links to and hosts academic texts covering the subject of fanzines made by girls as part of the riot grrrl movement. The texts are free and in full-text form. The page contains, among others, substantial work with titles such as: 'Scratching the Surface: Zines in Libraries'; the British M.A. dissertation 'Unearthing the underground: a comparative study of zines in libraries'; and the PhD theses 'What is a girl? Producing subjects in feminist and visual culture pedagogies' and 'Congregating Women: Reading the rhetorical arts of third wave subcultural production'. There are also some abstracts and links to other resources.
The website "The Hall of Remembrance", although hosted by a Wiccan organisation, contains some generally useful information on what they call "The Burning Times", in other words the witchcraft persecution. The site features an FAQ, a defunct message board, library, list of victims, and the Burning Times Encyclopedia, which only covered letters A and B at the time of revies.There is a section on book reviews of both neopagan literature and of a dozen or so scholarly books and articles on witchcraft. This is useful for highlighting some essential material in the sea of publications on witchcraft. There are archived discussion threads, which mainly consist of neopagan topics, but occasionally throw up useful information. There is an excellent section on the discussion of witchcraft in penitentials. The danger of this site for inexperienced researchers of historical witchchraft is in the neopagan slant on witchcraft, which can be confusing. On the other hand, those researching contemporary aspects and attitudes, or the anthropology of witchcraft may find this site useful. Also, the site does not appear to have been updated since 2002.
This is the website for the Hall-Carpenter Archives, which is part of the London School of Economics Library website that provides a guide to its archive holdings. Founded in 1982, the Hall-Carpenter Archives are the largest source for the study of gay activism in the late twentieth century, from the publication of the Wolfenden Report in 1958 onwards. The archives are comprised of four main collections, the periodicals collection, the archive of gay organisations and activists, the Lesbian and Gay Newsmedia Archive, and the oral history collection. The archives are split across three sites, the London School of Economics Library, Middlesex University Library, and the National Sound Archive.
This website tells the story of one of the most famous military women. Hannah Snell (1723-1792) lived as a man circa 1745 to 1747, serving in the Navy and carrying out many acts of bravery, finally ending her days in the Bethlehem Hospital, known more popularly as Bedlam. Born in 1723, she married, was abandoned by her husband during her pregnancy and decided to don male disguise in order to pursue her husband. Pressed into the English Army, she then joined the Navy and fought in India. Finally revealing herself as a woman, she became a publishing sensation and even secured a pension. The author of this page is Matthew Stephens, who has written a detailed biography of Snell, which challenges the popularly accepted beliefs about her. The site contains a brief summary of her life, a chronology, genealogy, and ballads, and examples of other women who worked as men, as well as links to other sites dealing with female soldiers and 18th Century resources. A useful site for anyone studying military, women's, or social history.
'Historia del Siglo XX' is a vast website devoted to 20th century history, with particular emphasis on Spanish history and international relations. Navigable in Spanish, and French and English to a limited extent, this site acts as a useful reference resource for students. It provides summaries of key areas of Spanish history, including: the crisis of the old regime (1808); the construction of the liberal state (1833-1875); Alfonso XIII and the crisis of the Restoration (1902-1931); and the II Republic (1931-1936). Annotated links to other historical Web resources are also provided and cover the Spanish Civil War, and general Spanish history from the 18th century onwards. In addition to this, the history of international relations during the 20th century features prominently on this site, including articles on: the two World Wars; the Cold War; and biographies, maps, chronologies, statistics and other useful materials related with these topics. To consolidate knowledge, the site offers a series of interactive quizzes on 20th century European history. The site takes a strong pedagogical approach, and offers guidelines on how to use the Internet in the classroom and activities that may be used independently and in conjunction with the material provided on the site. There are various other sections of interest on the site including: the EU and European citizenship (in both English and Portuguese); and the Suffragette movement and feminism. This is a valuable site for both students and teachers of Spanish history in particular, and European history in general.
Professor Don Mabry's "Historical Text Archive" is a wide-ranging directory of texts, articles and images which pertain to random subjects in History. The author is an academic at Mississippi State University. The site is of use to anyone interested in History and is arranged by geography and theme, including sections on: the Persian Gulf War; Science History; Psycho History; Africa; Islamic History; the USA; Womens' History; Terrorism; and many more. However, coverage varies and whilst for example there are over forty references for European History, other areas contain only three or four items. The material ranges from digitalisation of complete books, to articles penned by the site's author. There is also a helpful section of essay questions, and book recommmendations by Amazon. This site has won over twenty awards, but is a rather random collection of material, with no visible collection policy.
This online bibliography has been compiled by Stefan Blaschke, a German academic, and covers the history of rape, sexual abuse, forced prostitution, and the wider topic of general sexual violence. The bibliography is wide-ranging and thorough, listing articles, books, conference papers, and both printed and electronic resources. It began as a by-product of the author's dissertation about rape in Germany during the Weimar Republic. Most of the titles listed are German or English, although a small amount of Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish and Swedish resources are also listed. The contents can be browsed alphabetically, chronologically, geographically, or topically, and also by resource type. It is also possible to search the site. There are links to research projects and other tools. Please note that to access the main bibliography, you will need to download it as a zipped file. Unfortunately the individual pages are no longer linked, but it is possible to access an archived version of the original bibliography via the Internet Archive. The site would be useful to those studying violence in literature, as well as to students of gender studies, history, and law.
The website "History of sexuality" is essentially a gateway to a range of resources on the history of sexuality. Authored by Lesley Hall, a leading expert in the field, it brings together a mixture of research, reviews and articles. Amongst the subjects covered are the condom, the clitoris, abortion, and Victorian sex myths. Also available are reviews of books and articles on the history of sexuality, a list of recommended reading, and the full-text of three of Lesley Hall's articles, one on syphilis, one on Victorian sexuality and one on gender and the archives. Researchers will also find the useful history of sexuality research register, listing those researching in this area, and the email discussion list Hist Sex.
The website 'History of the Gay Male and Lesbian Experience during World War II' is authored by an enthusiast with an interest in gay history. Although the title sounds quite broad, the site actually deals with the subject of the persecution of gay men in Nazi Germany, who were required to wear a pink triangle for identification. The site is comprised of a mixture of transcribed primary sources and author explanation, and features a lot of witness testimony. The site hasn't been very thoughtfully laid out, but as it is small this doesn't detract too much. Amongst the areas covered are the Nazi classifications of prisoners, paragraph 175 of the Nazi penal code, which related specifically to homosexuality, and information about the camps gay men were sent to. There is also an exploration of the lesbian experience in Nazi Germany. People should be warned that the opening page of the website publishes very distressing accounts of treatment in the camps.
The website "History's Women" is an online magazine which aims to highlight 'the extraordinary achievements of women throughout history and recognises the obstacles they have had to overcome in order to reach their goals. The website presents a massive amount of information on the leading women in history. The website is split into various themes (such as Women of Faith, Social Reformers, Early America, Amazing Moms and so on) with long lists of women under each category. Each of the women then have quite detailed essays describing their lives and their main achievements. The website's scope is very large, and users will benefit greatly from this. The site allows for a simple search through all its content. A free newsletter is available for those interested to subscribe to it. The website's design is a little cluttered and clichéd, but this ought not to detract from the historical significance of the Web page. Users have to be aware that the author states that the site has a Christian viewpoint.
The site aims to disseminate information about the non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust, which number over 5 million. The author of the site (Terese Schwartz-Pencak) is widely published on the subject, is the daughter of Holocaust survivors, and has converted to Judaism. The site features extracts from Nuremberg trial documentation and an excellent page of links to resources on the Holocaust. Individual stories of survivors along with pictures and images enhance the site. Those given a voice here, Afro-Europeans, Roma and Sinti, Poles, Homosexuals, the disabled, and Jehovah's Witnesses, are among those frequently by-passed by Holocaust histories. The site is of use to those seeking an individual insight into the Holocaust and those who were both victims and heroes.
The website "Holocaust Education Resources" is essentially a teaching pack designed for those teaching on the Holocaust in schools and universities, and so is of interest also to those learning about it. Notes for students and teachers are provided, including an excellent section on how to deal with Holocaust denial. The interesting aspect of this resource, is that it is based on material from survivors and refugees. Produced by the Centre for German-Jewish Studies at the University of Sussex, the teaching pack draws on their extensive archives, expert academics and the centre's consultations with survivors and Jewish groups.The course is divided into twelve topics, including: History of Antisemitism; History of the Third Reich; Women in the Holocaust; Survivors; and Holocaust Education. Each section provides a paragraph introduction to the theme and images, films, oral accounts, personal correspondence, or links to further information. The pack makes particular reference to and use of the Arnold Daghani collection and one of the most moving sources is a letter from a young man in Auschwitz (Oświęcim) to his mother. The site deals almost exclusively with the Holocaust of the Jewish populations, mentioning briefly some groups, such as the Roma/Gypsies, but omitting others. At the time of last review, the last update on the site was from 2003 therefore the bibliographies and links might not be entirely up to date.
Homosexuality in eighteenth-century England is an online collection of primary source documents relating to gay history. The collection is comprised of over a hundred transcribed documents, including poems, newspaper articles and trial proceedings. The collection spans the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, from 1624 to 1791, and provides a lively portrait of an English subculture. Molly houses, cross-dressing, and trials for sodomy are all mentioned in these sources, as well as same-sex attraction in general. Also on the site is an article written by Rictor Norton on gay subculture in eighteenth-century London, which provides a useful background and wider context to the primary sources found here. A related subsite provides a collection of Norton's essays on the subject. The site has some broken links.
This is the website for the Human Sexuality Collection (HSC) housed at Cornell University Library. The HSC has been established to preserve primary documents on the history of sexuality, with particular emphasis on the gay and lesbian history in the U.S. from the nineteenth century onwards, and the politics of pornography. Although users cannot access the full-text of any of the collection's holdings online, the site offers several useful resources. These are the Sexuality Research Guide, which provides information on how to approach the subject, a history of the collection and a detailed content list of its holdings, and bibliographies of useful texts and journals.
The website titled: "Images of Circe and Discourses of Witchcraft, 1480-1580" presents an excellent essay by Professor Charles Zika, of the University of Melbourne, probably the world's leading authority on the iconography of witchcraft. Combining the discipline of art history with the study of witchcraft has enabled the visual significance of the iconography of witchcraft to have a more meaningful role in the study of witchcraft. Imagery played an incredibly important role in the conceptualisation of witches, witchcraft, the devil, and ideas of sin. This examination of the classical figure of Circe, legendary enchantress, illustrates the evolution of the portrayal of women as wielders of magic. The subject of interest by Boccaccio, Boethius, Virgil, and Augustine, Circe was a popular representation of the contemporary female in a variety of eras. A magnificently illustrated essay, which would appeal to those with an interest in art history, and history more generally. The paper - which appeared in the online journal "Zeitenblicke" - can be downloaded in full-text as a PDF file.
This is the website of the Imperial War Museum, based in London. This immense online presentation includes details of the Museum's unique coverage of Twentieth Century conflicts, especially those involving Britain and the Commonwealth (from the First World War to the Gulf War and the present day), and is a portal to the Museum's further branches: Imperial War Museum Duxford; Cabinet War Rooms; HMS Belfast moored on the River Thames; and the Imperial War Museum North, Manchester. Visitor information is clearly presented as are links to Museum services such as the "Collecting Group", the online shop, "Education", even "Battlefield Tours". Collections online allow the user to access short essays on historical themes.The online exhibitions of the Imperial War Museum London are all accessible here, including many about World War I and the Second World War; also the Spanish Civil War, the Korean War, and the Falklands Conflict; the submarine; and interviews with the women who were living at, or involved with the Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp in the 1980s. There is also a selection of images from the Photograph Archive.These online exhibitions reflect the range of resources and presentations on the Museum's website as a whole, covering all aspects of life in wartime. From here information is provided about the Imperial War Museum's Holocaust Exhibition (the story of the Nazis' persecution of the Jews and other groups before and during the Second World War). Previous exhibits include "Anthem for Doomed Youth" a major exhibition relating to the poets of the Great War (including: Edmund Blunden; Rupert Brooke; Robert Graves; Julian Grenfell; Ivor Gurney; David Jones; Francis Ledwidge; Wilfred Owen; Isaac Rosenberg; Siegfried Sassoon; Charles Sorley; and Edward Thomas). Extracts of oral history interviews held by the Museum's Sound Archive are available, such as short accounts of soldiers in the trenches, the home front and women at war; and the "Lusitania medallion". For the Second World War exhibition themes include the Commonwealth; the Battle of Britain; the campaign in Burma; the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; the factories and workers of Great Britain; codes in wartime, and how the German Enigma code was broken.
The Channel 4 website "In Clio's Bedroom: Sex in History, History in Sex" features an essay in which eminent historian Dr James Davidson of Warwick University examines the impact of the relatively new interest in the role of sex in history. Influenced largely by his classical background, Davidson discusses the impact that paying closer attention to the role of sex in the political, private, and public spheres, has had on historical interpretation. Biography, social and cultural history have all benefited from this analysis and from some anthropological cross-fertilisation of conceptualisations. Davidson explores many subsequent theories on varying forms of sexuality, including those of Foucault, Weston la Barre, and Sergent. An excellent thought-provoking essay. The site accompanies the actual TV documentary broadcast on Channel 4 in 2002. Further reading online and in printed books is suggested on the site.
This is the website of the museum "In Flanders Fields" in Ypres (Ieper), Western Flanders, in Belgium, that includes a clickable timeline of the major events of the First World War in Ypres and the rest of Europe, and detailed information about life on and behind the Western Front (the trenches, the battles, "no man's land", the weapons, medical care, fatigue, entertainment, mental health... "And how did civilians cope?"). There is also a virtual walk through the Museum, and information for visitors. Museum artefacts have been chosen for online presentation to show "what was it like to be a soldier" during World War One, with links to quotations and anecdotes. Biographies of historical figures ("Characters") from the Great War (soldiers, prisoners of war (POWs), women, children, officers and others). An Archive presents articles and other documents from the In Flanders Fields Museum. Some of these are in Adobe PDF-format and can be quite long. There are also briefly annotated links to other websites and Museums with information on World War I.
Established in 1922, the Department of Economic and Social History at the University of Vienna is one of five departments and one institute which offer courses and special studies in history. This homepage outlines the Department's preferred academic methodology. All affiliated faculty and postdoctoral researchers are posted with their areas of interest and contact details. Connected research projects are listed on their own subsites, focussing mainly on the social and economic study of Austria and German Europe in the twentieth century. Two of the most interesting are the Vienna Database on European Family History and the Bibliography of Western Sexuality, 1700-1945. The Department's various publications are mentioned, as are finished dissertations. There is a brief description of the Department's library, which holds some 120,000 volumes focusing on Austria, Central Europe and Latin America. The site provides information for students in the University on its latest course offerings, posting course lists of currently registered undergraduates. This section of the site is unusually well organised and comprehensive, with information on available departmental resources, examination dates and deadlines all plainly posted. Site visitors should note that the English parallel site is very incomplete and the use of frames hampers rather than aids navigation.
The website of "The International Joan of Arc Society / Société Internationale de l'étude de Jeanne d'Arc" (IJAS) provides information about the online association which makes available resources relating to Joan of Arc via the Web. The site includes details of: an email discussion forum; information about a collaborative project to make available primary and secondary texts for the study of Joan of Arc; a bibliography of manuscripts, trial transcripts and modern scholarship; and links to further resources. The site is directed by Bonnie Wheeler (Southern Methodist University) and Jane Marie Pinzino (University of South Florida) together with members of the Society. One of the most notable features of the website is the online version of texts of her trials of condemnation and nullification. Also featured on the site are: interactive maps of Joan's journeys; lists of films about Joan; and syllabi of various courses on Joan of Arc. This site would interest not only those studying Joan of Arc herself, but also medieval historians and those interested in gender studies.
The website 'Internet History Sourcebooks Project', created by Paul Halsall at Fordham University, provides access to online primary source material for a number of branches of history. The project offers a combination of locally hosted material and links (often annotated) to documents on other sites. The three main sourcebooks cover ancient, medieval, and modern history; in addition to these, there are subsidiary sourcebooks, which take a thematic approach. There are, for example, sourcebooks on: Jewish history; Islamic history; East Asian history; history of science; and women's history. The material within the sourcebooks is well organised into categories, and is searchable. The home page provides general information about the sourcebooks project, including details of updates (maintaining a resource of this scope is a considerable task, and consequently some broken links are almost inevitable). Overall, this is a very valuable site, as the sources offered have the potential to be of immense use to historians; however, the user does need patience to browse what can be rather eclectic collections of sources. Also, the editor warns that the site had last been updated in 2006.
The Internet Women's History Sourcebook is a large resource of documents and secondary sources which reflect the variety of approaches to women's history. The material on the front page is divided into broad historical periods - ancient, medieval and modern - and then arranged geographically.Within these sections a thematic approach is taken, reflecting the different methodologies available to students of women's history. These ranges from traditional studies of great women of the past through to more theoretically informed examinations of female agency and the construction of gender. The site also contains links to Paul Halsall's other Internet history source books.
This is an electronic version of the book, 'Inventing home : emigration, gender, and the middle class in Lebanon, 1870-1920' by Akram Fouad Khater, published by the University of California Press in 2001. Khater relates the stories of those Lebanese peasants that emigrated to the Americas in the period before the French mandate of 1920, tracing the rise of a new middle class, and the phenomenon of return immigration. Khater also looks at the importance of gender and family roles, and how these were articulated and challenged. The full-text of the printed book is available, divided by chapter headings. Footnotes and bibliographical details are provided in proper scholarly fashion.
Adrift in a sea of polemics and postulation, the wonderful 'Islam and Islamic studies resources' website is a truly welcome presence on the Internet for its commitment to collecting and evaluating useful Internet resources on the Islamic faith. Maintained by Dr Alan Godlas at the University of Georgia, these pages seek to provide a scholarly overview of Islam, and Islam related issues, with the site divided into a series of categories that introduce the reader to an array of historical and contemporary discussions, but which are detailed enough to entice the most discerning of users. By combining introductory summary material with links to additional external sites, the author provides not only a brief tutorial in Islam but simultaneously identifies and critiques the best Islamic resources on the net. Categories include everything from the basic divisions in Islam, to mysticism, science, women's issues, history and art. Most sections offer additional bibliographic material, and new students will find the collection of bibliographic links and glossary of terms especially helpful. Those who wish to learn about Islam through electronic resources while remaining confident of the quality of material would do well to begin here.
This site provides access to an online exhibit maintained by the Fry Collection which is based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. It comprises a collection of photographic images, posters, pamphlets and propaganda material relating to Italian fascism from 1922 to 1945. Topics covered include: Mussolini's rise to power; Italian fascist foreign policy; fascist propaganda; fascist youth organisations; the relationship between women and fascism and information distributed by opposition groups. The site includes basic accompanying text about the history of the period.
The Iter project offers a series of online bibliographic databases pertaining to the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (400-1700). Access to the databases is available only to members of subscribing institutions and individual subscribers: subscription information is available from the site. The main Iter database contains more than a million bibliographic records for books, journal articles, reviews, and other scholarly material, and is updated daily. Lists of journals and essay collections indexed are provided. Other resources accessible via the Iter interface include a John Milton bibliography; Iter Italicum, a catalogue of Renaissance humanistic manuscripts; Baptisteria Sacra, which offers descriptions of fonts from the early Christian period to the 17th century; and the International Directory of Scholars. A number of journals can also be accessed through the site.
The website "Joan of Arc Museum" is in French with a good English version. It is the website of the Museum, opened close to the spot where the French saint (Jeanne d'Arc, or La Pucelle as she was known) was burnt at the stake on 30 May 1431 in Rouen. This site provides very basic information on the life of a woman who attracted the label of both saint and witch and who divided society's opinion for centuries. The most useful section is probably the one that lists the films made about Joan, and others that briefly discuss her trial (with quotations), her sword, and her banner. There is also a helpful resume of the Hundred Years War. This site is probably of most use to A/AS Level students. The French version of the site contains rather more information, such as a discussion of the origins of Joan's name, and other young heroines. The site provides practical information about the museum, its opening hours and how to arrange school visits. The website is rather basic in design and in the material it offers.
The Journeys in Time website is a result of a collaborative project between the State Library of New South Wales and Macquarie University Library. The project makes the full transcripts of the Lachlan and Elizabeth Macquarie journals from 1809-1822 available online. As well as providing online access to the journals other aims of the project were to create a bibliography of primary and secondary sources relating to the Macquaries and to add to the documentation of historical research material relating to early Australian colonial history. The website provides a background history to the Lachlan and Elizabeth Macquarie journals. The journals can be browsed by year and are available as transcripts which can be viewed with or without notes. Notes on the transcripts are also provided. The site has an index of people and places, a couple of maps and information on ships. A bibliography and a chronology are available. Other features of the site include a list of related topics and information about the project.
The web site Kobiety w średnowieczu (Women in the Middle Ages) is a site in Polish. It is an amateur and basic site, but provides a good basic introduction to some famous women of the medieval period, including Eleanor of Aquitaine, Christine de Pisan, Marie de France, Dobrawa, and Ethelfred (Ethelfled on the site). The site deals with aspects of the lives of women in general during the period and touches on the subjects of: work; family; abortion; politics; religion; and antifeminism. A brief bibliography of major books on the topic, in their Polish translations, is also provided. A site which can be used by the interested student for snippets of information, or by the teacher of Polish as a good source of linguistic material.
'The Last Picture Show' is a well-designed academic website that seeks to investigate the question "Is the way photographs are collected and stored changing forever as the digital age takes an ever-firmer grip on traditional 'snap-shot' photography?". It has been created as "an artist initiated research project" by Marjolaine Ryley. This free website contains four full-text essays or talks by Ryley, including an "extended version of a talk given at ... The National Portrait Gallery, 2006". The website hosts online galleries by eight visual artists whose work takes family photography as its subject matter. There is also ten galleries of what appear to be antique 'found' family photographs. There are selected links to external websites.
The website Letters of a Victorian Lady is a compilation of a series of letters sent from abroad, from Ada E. Leslie (b. 1860) to her cousin, Mary Ann Galsworthy (1853-1920). While Ada is not a recognisable figure in history, her letters are valuable resources for the information they hold. She travelled a great deal as a governess, from England to India, initially, back to England, and then, what appears to be constant travel for the next 10 years. Upon her arrival in Berlin she was employed by the future Kaiser Wilhelm II, and eventually became a lady in waiting for his sister Sophie, the granddaughter of Ada's own queen, Victoria I. She records in her letters, descriptions of cities, activities of the royal family, and an insight into the life of a Victorian governess. This site offers all this information about the author of the letters. They are now owned and published by the great grandson of the addressee of the letters. This page could be of use to those researching workingwomen, governesses, travel, and the royal families of Europe.
This resource consists of letters written by Dorothy Moore, a mid-seventeenth century intellectual who held a significant role in religious, political, scientific and educational change in the period 1635-1661. It attempts to gather into one place her letters in order to provide an insight into women's work in the commonwealth period, and into developments in rhetorical communication. This resource is available via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website, as a downloadable Microsoft Word file. It is necessary to apply for approval from the OTA before download, and a link is provided to the terms and conditions of use, and a form to apply for permission.
"Letters on demonology and witchcraft by Sir Walter Scott" has been published online as part of the Sacred Texts project. It is based on a text published in New York in 1885, which originally appeared between 1829 and 1847. The letters are an interesting commentary on most issues pertaining to witchcraft and demonology in a style typical of the 19th century interest in the occult, and other such fascinations with the supernatural. Topics discussed include: the Gods of Valhalla; The Prophetesses of the Germans; fairies; Merlin and Arthur; Reginald Scot; and Isobel Gowdie. It is a curious mix, of most use to the literary historian, the historian interested in the portrayal and representation of witchcraft and demonology, or alternatively those in the field of 19th century English studies. A straightforward site presented as pages of consecutive text.
The Literature & Culture of the American 1950s is a gateway to online resources related to American culture in the 1950s.The site was set up as part of a course on the 1950s by its editor, Professor Al Filreis of the University of Pennsylvania. Authors featured include Ralph Ellison, Jack Kerouac and Arthur Miller. Subjects include McCarthyism, Freud in the 1950s and women in the 1950s. There are also links to sites on film and rock music. This is a comprehensive set of links for those interested in American culture during the 1950s, or in any writers or events from that decade.
The Smithsonian Institution Libraries website has provided this online exhibition featuring books from their collection on the subject of women and their role in home making in the 19th century. The exhibition can be browsed by subject area (for example, care of the house, decorating, fashion, dining, and raising children), by images, or by the books that are in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries' collections, relating to this subject. Each image includes the title, caption and subject headings, featuring book covers as well as illustrations of interiors and how-to carry out various tasks. An overview of the exhibition is provided, as well as a bibliography and further reading on domestic economy.
Mapping Margery Kempe is an online digital library of resources relating to the contextual study of Margery's and her spiritual biography (known as the 'Book of Margery Kempe'). The site is based at the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachussets, USA, and provides various resources, including an online, original-spelling edition of the Book of Margery Kempe itself. The text of the book has been formatted so that users can locate particular sections and chapters quickly and easily, and is supported by an online glossary and bibliographical resources. The website also offers an excellent range of contextual material including biographies of some of Margery Kempe's most significant influences and contemporaries, and material relating to: medieval piety; pilgrimage; saints' lives; and church history. There are also detailed photographic resources relating to the church in Norfolk that Margery Kempe attended. Mapping Margery Kempe would be of interest not only to literary scholars but social and cultural historians of the medieval period. It is an ideal resource for those interested in contexual approaches to Margery Kempe's writing.
The website of the Margaret Sanger Papers Project is devoted to the collection and publication of letters, manuscripts and articles by the birth control pioneer (1879-1966). The Project, sponsored by the Department of History at New York University, has so far produced a microfilm edition of the Sanger Papers, details of which are on the site. Free registration is necessary to access all the material on the site. A transcript collection of some of Sanger’s articles and speeches is provided, alongside a useful capsule biography, histories and staff details of the various organisations with which Sanger was involved. There are also comprehensive primary and secondary bibliographies, and details of the Project’s newsletter. An mp3 file of a speech by Sanger in 1953 is available, as well as regularly updated details of news, events and publications relating to Sanger's work. There are also links to Sanger-related documents (mainly facsimiles and transcriptions of her work) held at other sites.
This is the official website of Marina Warner, the novelist and expert on the cultural history of the fantastic. This substantial website offers full bibliographic details of publications, novels, exhibitions and other works, plus a C.V. and details of agents used. There is a listing of recent and forthcoming 2009/10 publications by Warner - although this list may not be as up-to-date it could be (at July 2009, the website was last updated in 2008). There are only six substantial extracts from novels, and no full-text essays or audio lectures are available. This website is a useful overview of the range of work produced by one of our most innovative and interesting independent cultural thinkers.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the "Marital Breakdown in Scotland, 1684-1832" dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as plain text. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. The aim of the project was to transcribe and analyse the records of all cases of divorce, separation and annulment in the Edinburgh Commissary Court between 1684 and 1832 (the period for which registers of extracted decrees are available). The data consist of transcriptions of the gist of all successful and unsuccessful cases of divorce, separation, nullity and simple adherence in the process papers and registers of decrees for the Edinburgh Commissary Court between 1684 and 1832. Topics covered include marital breakdown and domestic violence.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Marriage Litigation in Scotland, 1694-1830' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as plain text files. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. The aim of the project was to transcribe and analyse the records of all declarator of marriage and declarator of freedom cases in the Edinburgh Commissary Court between 1684, when a register of extracted decreets began to be kept, and 1830, when the court was wound up and its functions transferred to the Court of Session. Marriage in Scotland could be 'regular' (a ceremony in church after the proclamation of the banns) or 'irregular', the latter being as legally binding as the former. An irregular marriage could be constituted in three ways: per verba de praesenti (a mutual agreement to marry at that moment), per verba de futuro subsequente copula (a promise to marry in the future followed by sexual intercourse), and 'habit and repute' (cohabiting in such a way as to imply that mutual consent to marriage had been given). As witnesses were not required, the scope for equivocation, not to mention outright fraud, was great, and litigation was an inevitable result. Until 1830 the Edinburgh Commissary Court was the only one in Scotland that could declare a marriage legally valid, though litigants had the right of appeal to the Court of Session and, after 1707, to the House of Lords. Two types of actions could be raised: a declarator of marriage to prove a marriage and a declarator of freedom and putting to silence to disprove a marriage. The data consists of transcriptions of the gist of all declarator of marriage and declarator of freedom cases between 1684 and 1830 in the process papers and registers of decreets of the Edinburgh Commissary Court (or, where the papers were missing, in printed Session Papers in the Signet Library). There are 506 declarator of marriage and declarator of freedom cases, plus 24 cases of legitimacy and bastardy, raised when one or both parents were dead.
This online edition of Marie Carmichael Stopes's "Married Love" is published as part of the "A Celebration of Women Writers" project at the University of Pennsylvania Library. The website is very simple, providing a transcribed version of Stopes's book, with hyperlinks to take readers to the beginning of each chapter. With this book, Stopes (1880-1958) provided a valuable source on attitudes towards sex and relationships in Britain in the early twentieth century; the book, available here in its 1918 edition, is a useful resource for those interested in gender and social history.
The "Masculinity and Imperialism Bibliography" website is an online bibliography published on H-Women, one of the networks on H-Net. The bibliography has been compiled by a postgraduate student, and is specifically concerned with the history of masculinity and men, and imperial/colonialism. The bibliography only contains secondary sources that deal directly with these themes, and currently contains around 30 titles. Users can also find related gender bibliographies on the H-Women home page, although not many of these are directly connected to masculinity. The site was created in 1994 and not updated since, therefore the list of titles does not reflect the latest publications in the field but can still be used as a starting point.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the "Mathematical Women in the British Isles, 1878-1940" dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as tab delimited text files or Excel files. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. The aim of this study was to supply some facts about the position and role of women in British mathematics in the period 1800-1940: their access to mathematical training and to career structures within mathematics, and the nature of their involvement with particular emphasis on bibliographical contributions. It is intended to provide a far broader basis for analysis than has previously been available. The dataset consists of a complete listing of all women honours graduates in mathematics (circa 2500 individuals) sorted by university, year and class of degree. It also includes some biographical information (especially concerning subsequent academic achievement), and an indication of whether an individual published. The numbers of male mathematics graduates, sorted by university, year and class of degree, are also included for the purpose of comparison.
The "Military and War" site on women's roles throughout military history is part of the About.com website, and it offers links to a mixture of articles and websites that provide a wealth of information on the role women have played in wars and conflicts during history. Subjects such as female participation in the armed forces, women's work on the home front and the effects war has on gender roles and relations. The focus is primarily on American women involved in 20th century conflicts, such as the First and Second World Wars, although there are a handful of sections covering the female experience in other wars including the Crusades and the Mexican Revolution. The content is laid out that it can be easily browsed, and there is also an option to search the site if the number of results needs to be narrowed down. The resources are internal and external to about.com; although credit for the information is given, this is a popular search site and should be included in academic work with care.
The award-winning website "The Monastic Matrix" presents online collaborative interdisciplinary research being carried out by scholars working on the subject of Christian women between 400 CE and 1600 CE. It is of interest to those working on the period from the perspective of history, religion, women's history, archaeology and history of art, among other subjects. The project is ongoing and also provides an excellent example for those interested in humanities computing. The aim is to "document the participation of Christian women in the religion and society of medieval Europe." The project makes the data widely available and drawing on a range of textual and non-textual sources, bases the project on "Monasticon" - a database of profiles of communities of religious women. The Monasticon may be searched by period, geography or name to reveal details about a community’s history, foundation, population and residents. The site is divided into the following sections: vitae (over 600 potted biographies); Cartularium (primary source documents); Bibliographia (a searchable database of titles); Vocabularium (glossary of Latin and specialist terms); Commentaria (an archive of articles); and Figurae (a visual library). The project allows the reader to examine issues such as the organisation of the religious communities, their relationships with the Church, the nobility, and each other. As the study of female religious orders and communities becomes more popular this source will be useful to an increasingly broader audience. For those working on communities in Western Europe, this is an excellent resource which can be used for teaching and research.
The website of the National Museum of Women in the Arts provides details on the museum that is based in Washington, DC. The museum was incorporated in 1981, and is now housed in a former Masonic temple. Home to over 3,000 works, it is a library and research centre as well. The collections begin with the sixteenth century and continue up to the present. Each epoque is accompanied by a brief account of the various factors that affected female artists at the time. Images from the museum's permanent collection are browsable by historical period and there is information about a selection of artists from each period. The holdings include work by artists such as: Elisabetta Sirani; Lavinia Fontana; Angelica Kauffman; Camille Claudel; Georgia O'Keeffe; and Frida Kahlo. This stunning collection also features the work of female silversmiths, embroiderers and photographers. The site publishes information on forthcoming and past exhibitions, and the museum's admission charges, opening times and location. Of great use to researchers is the research centre and library with its extensive holdings of artists' books, archives on women artists and over 18,500 resources.
The web site Nationalism and communism in east central Europe is an excellent resource for teaching Eastern European history compiled by Professor Anna Ciencala of the University of Kansas. It is the frontpage of an extremely replete set of twenty lecture notes on the history of East, Central, and South Europe, which provides an excellent introduction to the history of the area prior to the eighteenth century, but which takes as its main focus the period of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. There are comprehensive sets of lecture notes covering subjects such as: the decline and the partitions of Poland; the national renascence of the Balkan peoples in the 19th century; the coming of the war and Eastern Europe in WWII; The Magyars and Hungary 1790-1914; Czechs and Slovaks 1790-1914; and post-communist Eastern Europe. The real treasure of this site is the tripartite bibliography, which represents probably the largest and most comprehensive online bibliography of English resources on the history of the area. A separate course syllabus is available in DOC format. An excellent resource for both students and teachers of: nineteenth and twentieth century history; the First World War; the Second World War; Communism; or East, Central, or Southern Europe. Those interested should note though that this site and thus the bibliography offered have not been updated since 2004.
This website is one of the online exhibitions published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. It deals with the Nazi campaign of persecution and violence against German homosexuals from 1933 to 1945. The site is easy to navigate and provides a comprehensive overview of the experience of gay men living in Germany during the Third Reich. The chronological chapters take the user through the years of National Socialist government, and the measures that were taken against homosexuals during this time. The text is interspersed with historical photographs, prisoners' art, images, artefacts and video clips, which highlight the Museum's collection of primary source materials. To listen to and view the audio and video clips, users need the RealOne Player. In addition to this there are related articles that provide illustrated background on Hitler's regime and the victims thereof; links are posted for further online material and a teacher's section is provided.
'The Nazi persecution of homosexuals' is a straightforward website published by professional historian Gerard Koskovich, on a University of Maryland server. On it is published a detailed bibliography of primary and secondary sources on the persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany, 1933-1945. The bibliography lists books and articles alphabetically, and provides a lively and opinionated review of each source, mentioning how much relevant material there is, and how helpful it is to researchers. There is also a much shorter separate listing of documentary films and unpublished oral histories.
'Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies' is a full-text online ejournal. The menu navigation uses Flash, and so any Flash-blocking software will need to be disabled in order to use the website. At January 2009 there are ten issues online, with articles in HTML format. Two issues are themed, as: 'Disability and the Body in Nineteenth-Century Britain'; and 'The New Woman and Sexuality'. Example article titles include: 'Fanged Desire: the New Woman and the Monster'; 'Sexing the Aesthete: the Autobiography and Apostasy of Edmund Gosse'; and 'Reader, Beware: Images of Victorian Women and Books', among others. The website also has details of the Editorial Board and submission procedures.
This is the free ebooks page of the Ohio University Press. The page offers the full-text of four non-fiction history books, for free download as PDF ebooks. All the books are about aspects of British history, and no registration is required before access. The titles are: 'Music Hall and Modernity: The Late-Victorian Discovery of Popular Culture'; 'The Wake of Wellington: Englishness in 1852'; 'Bleak Houses: Marital Violence in Victorian Fiction'; and 'The Cut of His Coat: Men, Dress, and Consumer Culture in Britain, 1860-1914'. These books may be useful sources for those researching aspects of gender, masculinity, and popular culture during the second half of the 19th century, and will be useful additions to the electronic holdings of many university libraries.
The ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives Web page provides free online access to bibliographic information on a collection of resources held by the archives on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history. The website includes a searchable catalogue of books, articles, magazines and images held by the ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives. Moreover, there are separate sections for searching the database for audio and visual resources, including interviews with LGBT activists and lectures from the ONE, Inc. lecture series. Although these resources are not yet available through the website (they can, however, all be found in the ONE Archives in Los Angeles, California), the website provides extra details and annotations about the available resources in a more detailed manner than an ordinary catalogue. The Web page is affiliated with the University of Southern California and is run by volunteer workers to provide a variety of resources on LGBT issues, including information on public and private aspects of the day-to-day lives of members of the LGBT community and a quarterly newsletter. The website is easily navigated by the use of links on the left of the page and the search engine - which uses Java - is quick and effective. There is also a link to the University of Southern California's LGBT time-line, which includes information on the civil rights movements and campaigns amongst the LGBT community from the 1940s to the present day, as well as biographies of significant or well-known activists.
The Oral History Online project has been developed by the Regional Oral History Office at the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. The project provides access to full-text oral histories which can be searched. The Oral History Online project currently provides access to five main collections. These are the Universities History Series which focuses on oral histories relating to the Free Speech Movement, the Suffragists Oral History Project, Disabilities rights and Independent Living Movement, The Earl Warren Oral History Project and Health Care, Science and Technology. The transcripts from the interviews have been marked up in SGML (Standard General Markup Language) using TEI (Text Encoding Initiative). Files are also available in PDF format for viewing. It is possible to carry out keyword searches or to browse the collections. The collections can either be searched individually or as a whole. The website also has links to three other oral histories which are not included in the searchable database.
This website tells the story of England's most famous witches, the Pendle or Lancashire Witches. The witches, of which there were thirteen in total, were tried for witchcraft in Lancashire gaol in 1612 after the murder of seventeen people in the local area. The website gives general information on the witches and their trial on the home page, but, more importantly, has transcriptions of the confessions of several of the accused. There are, furthermore, links to a time-line of events, a fact file, a virtual tour (which opens in a separate window), a gallery of images, and a list of books (both fiction and non-fiction) on the witches and their trial.
This is the website for the Perdita Project, a collaborative project for the study of early modern women's manuscript compilations, hosted at the Warwick University department of English and Comparative Literary Studies, (previously based at Nottingham Trent University 1997-2005. The project was partly funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB, now the Arts and Humanities Research Council - AHRC) within the Research Grants scheme). A database is available online, of manuscripts of early modern women's writing from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This writing includes poetry, religious and devotional writing, autobiography, and writing relating to aspects of household management, such as cookery and accounts. The manuscripts are drawn from collections around the world and offered as a research tool for both historians and literary scholars. There is also information relating to the project's methodology and details of publications which have arisen from research undertaken for the Perdita project.
The website "Picturing Women" is published as part of a collaboration between Bryn Mawr College, Library Company of Philadelphia and Rosenbach Museum and Library. The Picturing Women project explores representations of women throughout history, and how female identity has been culturally constructed. On the site are a wide range of images, juxtaposed in groups of four under the categories: figuring; fashioning; portraiting; and telling. These primary source images can all be enlarged, but there is little additional narrative information. Instead the text asks questions of the viewer to encourage analysis. There is a section for teachers containing PDF lesson plans, and also a collection of suggested links.
The Channel 4 website "Pink Triangle" accompanies the Secret History series, and discusses the Nazi persecution of homosexuals. The death of at least 15,000 gay men is explored by journalist Danny Lee in a comprehensive essay on the site. The change in attitude towards homosexuals is traced, together with its increasing criminalisation and linkage to paedophilia. Lee discusses the use of the infamous Paragraph 175, added to the Reich penal code in 1871, providing a legal authority upon which to base the persecution. A short bibliography and a related links list are provided for those who want to explore the subject further; new historical works, such as that by Rictor Norton, are recommended. This site offers a good, albeit brief, essay which presents another aspect of Second World War history; these pages will be of use to those studying Hitler's regime, and gender or queer history.
This website is concerned with theories of colonialism and post-colonialism, and is part of a larger website dealing with English post-colonial and post-imperial literature. Developed by Professor George Landow of Brown University, the site provides a useful reference guide for those studying post colonialism and imperial history. As its title suggests, this website is primarily concerned with the theories surrounding its subject, rather than the experiences in individual countries.The contents of the site have been split into eight sections. Firstly, Themes and Issues, which provides introductions to key themes along with essays and articles; secondly, Theorists, which gives an outline of the stance of key theorists in the field; thirdly, Terms, a selective glossary of words and phrases used in the post colonial discussion; and, lastly, Gender Matters, which features essays on the role of gender in the post-colonial debate. In addition to this there is Historical Contexts, which provides the political and historical background to post-colonial themes and individual countries, Symbol and Image, which explores the motifs of the subject, and an extensive Bibliography. Lastly, there is a Conferences and Events section, where the details and papers of past conferences can be found, along with calls for papers and information about forthcoming events.
This is the website of Puke Ariki, a museum, library and heritage visitor centre for Taranaki. The site provides information about this 'knowledge centre' that houses a full public library, museum and visitor information centre, and provides digital access to some of the resources on New Zealand history available there. The site also contains comprehensive information about the centre itself and its facilities, resources and exhibitions. The main focus of the online content is the Taranaki Stories that provide biographies and oral histories of important historical individuals. These are divided into a variety of topics, including leading women, immigration, farming and conflict. There are also a few online exhibitions, immigration passenger lists and historical photographs.
The website 'Renaissance Secrets' is published by the Open University and the BBC as a companion to a series of short programmes about this period of history. Subjects covered include the architecture of the dome of Florence Cathedral; Venice; Italian Renaissance medicine and healthcare; and the question of whether Gutenberg really did invent movable type, as has usually been believed. For some of the subjects, full transcripts of the programmes are provided. There are also reading lists, together with biographies of the academic experts involved. The course also includes interesting insights from non-academic experts, such as Daniel Libeskind and Cecil Balmond. Additionally, there are links to pages on four major historiographical approaches, including those connected to Marxist theories and women's history. The website is obviously intended to be used in conjunction with courses on the Renaissance, in particular that of the Open University. The subjects are not covered in depth, but the site serves as an entertaining and basic introduction to the topics covered. The site is well laid out, and excellent images are also interspersed with the texts.
"Renaissance studies" is the website for the journal published in electronic form and hard copy by Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. It requires a subscription to see the full journal texts. "Renaissance Studies" is a multi-disciplinary publication of the Society for Renaissance Studies, which addresses all aspects of Renaissance history and culture. As well as publishing critical articles, the journal also publishes editions of historical documents from the period. These documents are published with a full critical apparatus and notes. The journal also publishes a wide range of book reviews in each edition. The site allows users to search an archive of editions of the journal which dates back to 1987. Full abstracts of the articles are available for all users, and subscribers to the print version can access the full online version at no additional cost. An early view of articles online before they go to print it is also possible for subscribers. Unfortunately it is only possible to search through the archive by date of publication. The site is best used for those wishing to locate a specific article, for which the user already has full references. Users wanting to browse for material by subject or author may find that a search takes some time.
The website 'Resource Guide in Sports History' is an online annotated bibliography for academic writing on the history of sport in Britain, including boxing, rugby, horse racing, football (soccer or Association football) and cricket. It is a PDF file, created by Dr Martin Johnes, Senior Lecturer in Sports Studies at the University of Cumbria. It is published on the website of the Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, part of the Higher Education Academy (HEA). This is just one of the many resource guides available from their website. The annotated bibliography addresses the subject under the following headings: Introductions to Sports History and its Importance; General Histories of Sport in Britain; Sports Historiography; Individual Sports; Sport and Class; Sport and Women; Sport and Identity, examining sport in the nations of the UK (Scotland, Wales, Ireland and English cities and regions); Local Studies (of possible interest for local history); and Sporting Heroes. There is a brief annotated guide to peer reviewed academic sports history journals, and to Internet resources like guides to the Olympic games, as well as to some other resources like a couple of fiction books or films ('Chariots of fire' and 'This sporting life'). There is also a suggested programme for an introductory sports history module for level one sports studies students who are often new to history as a discipline.
Providing access to a variety of work on Latin America, Robert McCaa's home page is an extremely useful website for researchers into the history of Mexico. An established scholar in the Department of History of the University of Minnesota, Robert McCaa has undertaken extensive research, particularly into the social and economic history of Mexico, both in the modern and early colonial periods. Providing full-text online versions of much of his work, both preprints and unpublished essays on modern society and the Nahua or Aztec peoples, this site deals with an extensive range of subjects, issues of gender and population among the most prominent. Also containing a number of PowerPoint presentations, the images of which are unfortunately omitted, this is a thorough and generous resource of McCaa's research, providing access to detailed data from a number of the projects to which he has contributed.
This website provides information about the Royal Naval Museum. Current exhibitions include: The Story of HMS 'Victory'; Trafalgar; Horatio Nelson: The Hero and the Man; The Sailing Navy; and The Royal Navy in the 20th Century. Permanent collections include artefacts (medals, uniforms, weapons, ship relics, floating craft, personal memorabilia); fine art (including Rowlandson caricatures); manuscripts; oral history (including interviews of personal experiences in war and peace of naval life in the 20th Century); photographic; and the Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS). The website also includes links and information to education, publications, visitor information, the library, the Wolfson Research Centre, a shop and conference listings.
Russian gay culture is a unique website created by Professor Kevin Moss from Middlebury College, offering several pages on Russian and Soviet gay culture: a description of "Out of the Blue", a pioneering collection of gay-themed literature in English translation from the early 19th century to the post-Soviet period, edited by Moss; a few lines on symbolist writer Mikhail Kuzmin, with an English translation of his poem "Antinous"; a more detailed overview of Soviet writer Yevgeny Kharitonov; an overview of gay-themed Russian films. Other sections focus on the history of homosexuality in Russia, including an 'out' list of alleged homosexuals from Prince Boris (1056) to the pianist Mikhail Pletnev (b. 1957). Some names are hypertext links to other sites with more detailed information. A Russian gay culture sampler provides images and photos with limited commentary. A list of Russian gay journals includes links to online versions where available. The site also advertises the informal GLBT Slavicists community and listserv. There is a limited gay links page and a page linking to human rights organisations able to help with bi-national couple issues. The most useful feature (albeit in need of an update) is a bibliography of academic literature on the subject.
The website "The Salem Witch Trials" is part of the city guide to Salem, Massachusetts. It features a chronology, although not an exhaustive one, of the infamous trials for witchcraft of 1692, upon which Arthur Miller's famous play "The Crucible" was loosely based. Beginning with the strange and erratic behaviour of Elizabeth Parris and Abigail Williams, it traces the development and dynamics of the trials, which resulted in the execution by hanging of at least 25 people and accusations of witchcraft ranged against over 160 people, between February 1692 and April 1693. The site provides a useful quick contextual overview for undergraduates and A/AS level students in history, and those studying English literature who are working on Miller. A link is provided to images of the tombstones of the 19 who were executed and the one person who died in jail.
The Salem Witch Trials documentary archive and transcription project is a website which provides access to primary source material on the witchcraft trial in Salem Village (now Danvers), Massachusetts in 1692. This material includes archival documents from: the Essex County Court Archives; Peabody and Essex Museum; Massachusetts Archives; Massachusetts Historical Society; Beverly Historical Society; and the University of Virginia Special Collections. There are lists of accusers, defendants, 'afflicted girls', members of the jury, judges, and Puritan ministers involved. The site includes the verbatim transcripts of the 1692 trials compiled by Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum. These transcripts can be viewed by complete volume, browsed via a contents page, or searched. It is also possible to carry out a keyword or phrase search, which can be narrowed down according to date, name of accused or title of archive. Maps of Salem and Andover, and a map of how the witchcraft accusations spread are also provided. The creators of the site have reproduced four books on witchcraft from the late 17th century: 'More Wonders of the Invisible World', by Robert Calef (1700); 'Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits', by Increase Mather (1693); 'A Modest Inquiry into the Nature of Witchcraft', by John Hale (1697); and 'Some Miscellany Observations on Our Present Debates in a Dialogue Between S. and B.', by Samuel Willard (1692). This site is an excellent resource of primary sources for the study, on all levels, of the Salem Witchcraft trials.
This is the website of the Scottish Oral History Centre at the University of Strathclyde. This research centre was established to support the use of oral history within the academic community and in cognate areas such as archives and museums in Scotland. The Centre also provides training in the use of oral techniques for historians, and in the design of research questionnaires. It is open to postgraduate researchers at the University but also to a wider public through workshops and training events. At the time of review the site was under construction. The site announces forthcoming events, such as training seminars and conferences. Current research projects and publications of the centre are introduced only briefly. Staff and research fellows profiles give a better idea about the interests and scope of the centre.
'Secreted Desires: The Major Uranians, Hopkins, Pater and Wilde' is a 500-page ebook on literary homosexuality in the British Isles. The book is freely available online as a full-text PDF file, an exact version of the print edition (Masaryk University, 2006). The book examines "Gerard Manley Hopkins’s eroticism" and offers a "close reading of Hopkins’s ‘Epithalamion’", then examines "the breach between Pater and Oscar Wilde". The final section examines the possibility of a "Uranian continuum" that stretches to the present day. The author states that the work is free "to redistribute, [and] include in databases". The author teaches at the Department of English and American Studies, Masaryk University.
The website Sexbiblio: Bibliography of the History of Western Sexuality is an online bibliographical source based on the research of one of the senior academics in the Department of Economic and Social History at the University of Vienna. At time of review, the bibliography listed over 25,000 secondary works on the history of sexuality in Europe, the United States, and Canada from 1700 to 2008. It also contains titles which focus on the history of ancient and medieval sexuality, as well as some sources for non-Western societies. Online resources are also included in the latest edition of the database. Beyond this, the exact character of the list is difficult to determine, since the only access to the bibliography is via an online search engine. Subject categories may additionally seem somewhat arbitrary. Nonetheless, there are detailed instructions to aid in the use of the search engine, and the site should prove valuable for those doing work in the history of gender and related fields.
The site of the Sixteenth Century Society and Conference (SCSC) offers some insight into the aims, activities and publications of this scholarly association based in North America. SCSC is dedicated to gather all scholars interested in early modern studies, from any academic discipline and geographical region. The site announces not only the call for papers and submissions to the annual conference of SCSC but also events and opportunities in related areas of interest put forward by other associations. Information about the forthcoming annual conference and calls for registrations are available on the site; the programme of the previous year’s meeting can be consulted. SCSC publishes The Sixteenth Century Journal quarterly, although it is not substantially presented on the society’s homepage. The site encourages membership in the society, which enables access to Iter: gateway to the Middle Ages and Renaissance, along with an annual subscription to the journal. The prizes offered by SCSC for books in early modern studies and the prize committees for each category are listed.
The Web Site "Social Sciences and History Web" is based at the University of California, San Diego. It is essentially an annotated list of links to websites on the following subjects: Area Studies, Economics, History, Human rights, Immigration and Migration Studies; Political Science; Roma; Statistics; and Women's Studies. There is also a separate section on resources for Great Britain and Northern Ireland.The History section contains links to a variety of sources, both primary and secondary. Resources are listed by period, area, topic and are really quite randomly collected. The Area Studies section lists rather general links and the specialist is not terribly well-catered for. Each subject section contains between five and ten links to general sites.
The Society for Medieval Feminist Scholarship (SMFS) website gives information on: the Society; its aims; publications; activities; and membership. The SMFS was founded in the 1980s, with the goal of encouraging study into every aspect of the lives of women in the Middle Ages. Today the Society has a worldwide membership of scholars from all disciplines. SMFS produces a twice-yearly journal, 'Medieval Feminist Forum', subscription and submission details for which are available on the site. Visitors to these pages will also find: a directory of SMFS officers; calls for articles; a mailing list; links to other websites of interest; and details of the annual SMFS book/article prize.
This website, for the Society for the Study of Early Modern Women (SSEMW) aims to foster and promote the academic study of women, and gender issues, in the early modern world. The website contains information on the society (including, for example, its constitution and history), information on the committees and officers of the society, and details of prizes and awards. There are additional details on calls for papers, the society's conferences, a links list, a listserv to which users can subscribe, and letters from society presidents, past and present. Some internal links were broken at the time of last review.
The website "Soper Lane" has been compiled by a group of women who have studied the working lives of 15th century silkwomen. The site is interactive in nature: there is a discussion forums and a chat room, and users are able to upload their own work and comment on that of others. Some features of the site require user registration, which is free of charge. Information is provided about events attended by the group, and there are also short articles and bibliographies. The articles include discussion of the lives and trade of historical silkwomen, including, for example, Beatrice Fyler, who died in 1479. Other topics covered on the website include: medieval merchants: clothing; netting; and tabby weaving. The site is of interest to those researching cultural and social history, history of textiles, womens' history and history of London.
SOPHIE is a digital library of works by German-speaking women. This site has grown from a research project at Brigham Young University, entitled 'Sophie: A Digital Library and Resource Center for Early German-Speaking Women's Works 1740-1923.' The project's main aims have been to stimulate undergraduate participation in advanced research and to sponsor scholarly enquiry into the work of marginalised female authors. There is an extended statement of these research aims on the site. Further pages in this section provide guidance and suggestions for undergraduate instruction using the resources in the digital library, making the site especially valuable for teaching and study purposes within German Studies. The site also possesses an excellent collection of themed bibliographies; links pages; glossing and research tools; and a beautiful online image and portrait gallery. The highlight of the site is the library itself, divided into five areas: literature; music; journalism; colonial/travel; and drama/film. This truly outstanding resource provides illustrated biographies of the authors in question and samples of their work.
There are editorial essays prefacing the samples, and other useful aspects, such as glossaries for archaic words and the availability of texts in modern print styles. The music section provides site users with online recordings and text versions of lyrics. The journalistic subsite focusses on articles and Feuilletons of women journalists who worked for the Neue Freie Presse of Vienna, Austria between 1921 and 1923. The colonial/travel section offers excerpts of travel literature and a map of colonial Africa. The subsites on drama and film are equally impressive. The site also hosts an online periodical, The Sophie Journal.
This site is maintained by project by the Brigham Young University. It provides free access to a collection of texts, articles and writings by early German-Speaking women 1740-1923. They include examples of women's literature, journalism, travel literature and accounts of life in German empire and colonies during the 19th century. The materials offer a fascinating insight into the social history and role of German women during this time. They would also be of value for researchers of the history of colonialism. The site also includes teacher's notes, bibliographies, an image gallery and suggestions for further readings. Many of the articles are offered in German only.
This website is devoted to the Soviet women's participance in the Great Patriotic war (WWII). Thousands of Russian women fought in the Soviet Air Forces, and in 1942 three air regiments were formed from female volunteers. The site provides detailed information about eight most prominent women pilots: Litvyak, Budanova, Myeklin, Yegorova, Khomyakova, Raskova, Zelyenko, and Nechayeva. The information provided contains their biographies as well as tables describing how many German planes they shot down and which aircraft they were flying in. The site also provides images of their planes and their photos. A special section deals with "The Night Witches" - the 588th Night Bomber Regiment. The site also contains links to other sites on this subject. It is optimized for viewing at 800 X 600 resolution.
The website "Stonewall and Beyond: Lesbian and Gay Culture" is an online exhibition published by the Columbia University Libraries, based on the exhibition held in 1994. It was put together for the 25th anniversary of the Stonewall riots that took place in New York in 1969, and provides an introduction to key elements of gay history. The exhibition uses digitised primary source material and well-written narrative to explore gay and lesbian history before and after the Stonewall riots. Topics covered include the riots themselves, early writings on homosexuality by people such as Margaret Mead, Edward Carpenter, and Sigmund Freud, homosexuality across the centuries, and queer diversity. Also covered is how the imagery of gay men and women has changed since Stonewall, AIDS activism, and Hispanic gay culture.
'Studies in Scarlet' is an online document collection provided by Harvard University Library and Harvard Law School. Access is free and does not require registration. The collection provides "over 420 separately published trial narratives" which cover "American, British, and Irish cases 1815-1914 involving domestic violence, bigamy, seduction, breach of promise to marry, and the custody of children, as well as trials for murder and rape". The collections are searchable by keyword and phrase, and there is also a simple alphabetical A-Z index. Search histories can be saved. At May 2008, the link to the 'Help' file does not work, giving only a "404 not found" message. This may be a useful resource for those investigating aspects of the social history of the period. Although, since the documents are said to be drawn from "Harvard Law School Library's extensive trial collections" it is to be expected that the trials veer strongly towards the most sensational, and are thus perhaps not always representative of the great mass of trials during the period. Indeed, all three samples tried by this reviewer were found to come from cheap pamphlets and book series that specialised in packaging sensational 'true crimes' for public reading.
The website 'Studies in Slavic Cultures' (SISC) is the homepage of this peer reviewed academic journal for graduate students produced by the Slavic Department and the Center for Russian and East European Studies at the University of Pittsburgh. The journal annually publishes analytical articles by graduate students who study the verbal, visual, aural, or performative culture in Russia and Eastern Europe. Thematic focuses include gender history and the history of the body. Instructions for submission are posted online, with a style guide included. Full texts of the journal are available online from Volume 1, which appeared in 2000. Each issue covers a single theme, with the call for papers for the next volume appearing on the main page. Articles are in English.
This webpage describes an AHRC-funded project analysing the political action of Asian women through their experiences as “active participants in labour struggles” during the Grunwick strike of 1976-7 and the Gate Gourmet strike in 2005.
"Suffragettes and Women's Rights" is a well informed website about the struggle for female emancipation in both the United States and Britain. There is a list of dates in which different countries gave women the vote for comparison. Mary Wollstonecraft's "Vindication of the rights of Women" was one of the leading arguments for the reform in women's rights. This website gives ample attention to the document, and its affects on society. There is biographical information on many of the women in America involved in the suffragette movement such as Sarah and Angelina Grimké, Abigail Adams, Susan Anthony, Lucy Stone,Lucretia Mott and movements such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union. In the final portion of the web page the author addresses the suffragette movement in Britain. In 1889 Emmiline Pankhurst formed the Women's Franchise League. The history of this league and those involved is outlined. You can find information on the controversial Cat and Mouse Act of 1907, and the suffragettes who starved themselves in prison in order to present resistance to the law. This website is well presented, and informative; I would recommend it to those researching women's rights, law reform and the suffragette movement.
This site provides free access to a collection of online archive films and recordings relating to the history of women's struggle to achieve the vote in the UK. They include radio broadcasts and interviews with suffragettes containing personal accounts and oral histories of events leading to the 1918 Representation of the People Act and the election of the first woman MP. Copyright and technical information is displayed on the website.
The Suffragists Oral history project has been developed by the Regional Oral History Office at the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley and is part of the Oral History Online project. The material for the project was collected in the early 1970s when interviews were carried out with twelve leaders and participants in the woman's suffrage movement. The transcripts of seven of these interviews have now been marked up in SGML (Standard General Markup Language) using TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) and are available from the site. The interviews included on the site include those with Alice Paul (leader of the National Woman's Party), Burnita Shelton Matthews (District of Columbia federal judge) and Jeannette Rankin (Montana suffrage campaigner and the first woman elected to Congress). It is possible to carry out keyword searches or to browse the full-text of the interviews. The text of each interview can be searched individually or all the interviews can be searched together.
Online resources for teachers of social history at key stage 3 and sixth-form students based on primary source material digtised from the Metropolitan Police Historical Collection and which has been virtually unobtainable for historians in the past. Teaching packages are being added to this, currently two are available: on the role of the police during the Second World War (1939-1945); and to generate discussions about the responsibilities of citizenship (with documents from the whole of the 20th century). Topics have associated work sheets with suggestions of how the material might be used, and the project is run by Professor Clive Emsley of the Open University (OU) Department of History (Faculty of Arts). These resources are published by the OU International Centre for Comparative Criminological Research and were funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund and an AHRC Knowledge Transfer Fellowship run in conjunction with the Metropolitan Police. Some of the documents used in the tutorials are long and complex and might be challenging for university students as well as those at GCSE or A-level.
"Ten common errors and myths about the witch hunts" is a collection of notes and essays from Professor Pavlac on the witch hunts of medieval Europe. As a lecturer at a Catholic College, he includes a discussion of the role of the Church as well as social and cultural factors in the persecution of witches, and tackles some of the more common misconceptions about the nature of the persecutions. This set of notes, written to complement a course in women's history, contain a link to related articles on the causes of the witch hunts.
The website "TIME Newsfile: women's history" is part of Time Inc publications and features a collection of informative articles on famous women from all walks of life. The special edition includes: coverage of women in World War II; Hilary Clinton; Eleanor Roosevelt; Madonna; Mary Robinson; and Rosa Parks. There is something refreshing about reading what was said about these women by Time magazine at the height of their importance or significance. The contemporary reporting is a historical document in its own right and one can see the evolution in reporting on women and by women through reading the articles which date from the Second World War. The site has a useful search facility and provides a selection of women who have graced its front covers.
The UK Gender and Medieval Studies Group (GMS) website lists the organisation's sole aim as 'putting together an annual interdisciplinary conference, which furthers the study of medieval gender'. To this end the site publicises the annual conference, with: location and timetable; calls for papers; and registration information. The main part of the site also gives details of: the group's steering committee; related publications; and information on the GMS travel fund, which helps postgraduate students who would not otherwise be able to attend the annual conference. Also provided are details of past conferences and links to a few related websites. The GMS group is keen to encourage postgraduate participation in its activities, as much as that of more established scholars, and so this site would be of interest to anyone working or undertaking further study in this field.
The Union Makes Us Strong: Trades Union Congress (TUC) History Online websote is the result of a partnership between London Metropolitan University and the Trades Union Congress, funded by the New Opportunities Fund (NOF). The project is making available a digital collection of images of historic materials held in the TUC library and developing a set of learning resources about specific events or themes. The site is arranged around a series of five learning resources that deal with various aspects of labour history, including one on the Match Workers Strike Fund Register of July 1888, with a digital facsimile of the Strike Fund Register, and of other documents and images. Further resources are in development for the General Strike, Robert Tressell's The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists and 100 years of Congress Reports from 1868 to 1968. There is also a timeline covering the years 1815-2000, which contains short essays about the history of the British trade union movement. Topics covered include: Chartism, 'New Model' unionism, The National Federation of Women Workers, the Labour Party, Socialism, the First World War, the General Strike, the Spanish Civil War, the Second World War, the British Labour Government 1945-1951, and International Trade Unionism. Links to relevant images or external sites are available in each topic.
A partnership between London Metropolitan University and the Trades Union Congress has produced this site of information, history and images concerning the history of trade unionism in Britain. The resources include a timeline of trade union history from 1815 and a history of the Match Workers Strike of 1888 incorporating a digitised browsable copy of the original strike register. There is a also a facsimile edition of The Ragged Trousered Philanthropist (with transcript) fully available online.
The website "Victorian Britain" is an online syllabus for a course offered in the Department of History at the University of Durham by Alan Heesom. The site provides: an outline and aims of the course; detailed subsites with bibliographies, definitive quotations, lists of overheads and themes for each lecture; sample examinations; examination feedback from the past few years; tutorial arrangements; comments on textbooks; and Heesom's responses to questionnaires filled out by students who have previously taken the course. Perhaps the most useful content in terms of the information imparted by the course itself are a historical chronology, as well as a list of short biographies of important contemporary historical figures. Also of interest is a short annotated links page, which is under development. All of this information is clearly laid out and the site is easy to navigate. It is aimed at undergraduates taking the course, but could prove useful for other senior academics who could look to the site's structure and content as a model for online syllabi. Although the site has not been refreshed since 2002, it holds valuable resources for students and teachers alike.
The Victorian Web provides a comprehensive general overview of nineteenth century British history and literature. The site is divided into sections: on political, social, and economic history; gender matters; philosophy; religion; science; technology; genre and technique; authors; visual arts; and Victorian design. Within each section commentaries present a useful introduction to the topics, abstracts from primary sources, links to other web resources and a bibliography. The Victorian web was created under the direction of George Landow, Professor of English and Art History at Brown University. The site was originally designed as a resource to aid in the teaching of courses in Victorian literature. All the material is in English and is available free of charge.
The Victorian Women Writers project aims to provide access to highly accurate transcriptions of works from British women writers from the nineteenth century. The project aims to encode all its texts using Standard Generalised Markup Language (SGML) according to the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) guidelines. Further information about the project and SGML and TEI are available from the site. The site provides access to a wide variety of material by over 40 writers; this material includes anthologies, novels, political pamphlets, religious tracts and children's books. All works can be viewed as HTML or SGML files or can be downloaded. Full bibliographical details are provided for each item. The works can be browsed alphabetically by author. It is also possible to search the site by carrying out either a simple keyword search or a boolean search. The site also has a list of works currently available and a list of those currently under preparation.
'Virtual World of Girls' is subtitled: "an ebook about girl power, girls' school stories and the future of reading in an electronic age", and was created by the British artist and disability arts consultant Ju Gosling. The ebook was published online in 1998, and contains the following chapters: 'The History of Girls' School Stories'; 'The World of the Chalet School'; 'The Critics of Girls' School Stories'; 'The Parodies of Girls' School Stories'; 'The Fans of Girls' School Stories'; and 'The Significance of Girls' School Stories'. The book appears never to have been published in paper form. In addition to the main ebook there is a text on 'Researching & Creating Virtual Worlds of Girls' which provides a useful guide to resources in the field as they existed in the mid 1990s before the emergence of Girl Studies. The book is available to purchase in disk form, which also contains the documentary film 'The Chalet School Revisited' (1997).
'Visual Culture & Gender' is a peer-reviewed academic ejournal. It is published annually, and at January 2009 there are three issues freely available online. Example article titles include: 'A Commentary on Women Creating Spaces in Welsh Visual Culture'; 'Re-constructing Self within the Family: Re-building the Family Album'; 'The Role of Motherhood Symbols in the Conflict Imagery of Northern Ireland'; and 'Thank Heaven for Little Girls: Girls' Drawings as Representations of Self', among others. Articles are offered in PDF format. There are also videos, reviews, and 'visual essays' available at the website. The website has details of the editors, the VCG Review Board, and the submissions process.
This is the website of the "ViVa" bibliography of women's history in historical and women's studies journals. "ViVa" is named for the Dutch for Women's History in Professional Journals (Vrouwengeschiedenis in het Vaktijdschrift). ViVa is compiled at the International Institute of Social History, with contributions of New Zealand history (from Massey University) and contributions on women in African history from "AfricaBib" (based at University of Arkansas-Little Rock), and contributions on the history of medicine (from SUNY Upstate Medical University). The bibliography refers to articles on women and gender from historical journals and history from women's studies journals, and focussed especially on social history, in particular labour history. Related topics are also included, such as: prostitution; witchcraft; housework; sexuality; birth control; infanticide; the family; gynaecology; and masculinity. The journals covered are mainly English and American titles, as well as a few journals from India. Contributions are solicited of German and French titles.
Voices of Civil rights is a joint project of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), the Leadership Conference on Civil rights (LCCR) and the Library of Congress to collect the testimonies on the history of the struggle for civil rights in USA. The focus of the collection is to provide access to the oral histories and personal memories of people involved in civil rights in the United States throughout the twentieth century. Sections include: The Voices; Unfinished Business; Timeline; Civil Rights and 50; New Voices; Music Video. Material on the African American, Chicano, and gay civil rights movements is available, and the oral histories can be searched or browsed. The site also publishes interactive resources such as a timeline and quizzes, photographs, video footage, essays, and project updates. There is also a good bibliography listing books, oral history collections and websites.
The website 'Votes for women : selections from the national American woman suffrage association collection 1848-1921' from the Library of Congress consists of 167 full-text items relating to the American women suffrage movement. The material on the site represents a part of the larger National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) collection donated to the Library of Congress by Carrie Chapman Catt, a former NAWSA president. It is possible to carry out free text searches on the material. These searches can be limited to either searching the bibliographic record or the full-text of the document. Other features of the site include a brief bibliography, biographical information on Carrie Chapman Catt and a timeline. This site forms part of the American National Memory Collection and is now archived.
The War, Women and Survival website is based on an exhibition curated by the University of Nottingham's Manuscripts and Special Collections department, in partnership with the Midland East Region of Soroptimist International, from September - December 2005. This online version of the exhibition reproduces material originally shown on the display boards in 2005, along with images of some of the exhibits. The material here covers a range of conflicts, from the English Civil War to 21st-century conflicts in Rwanda, Afghanistan and the former Yugoslavia. The exhibition is divided into themes, including: 'Propaganda aimed at women'; 'Women in modern wars'; 'Supporting the troops'; 'Food rationing'; and 'Women survivors of recent conflicts'. Each section is illustrated with images and quotes from women (often from several different countries or time periods) highlighting themes common to all conflicts. The exhibition is an interesting and poignant look at the ways in which wars affect women all over the world, and would be of interest to those in the field of women's studies and social or cultural historians.
The Welsh Political Archive is housed by the National Library of Wales, and provides a repository for a range of material concerning political activity in Wales throughout the twentieth century. Some of the archive holdings can be searched, the printed material through the catalogue of the National Library of Wales, and some of the archival lists on the ISYS: web system. In addition to this copies of the archive newsletter are on the website. Access is also provided to the text of recent Archive annual lectures, some of which are available in Welsh only. These lectures include: David Jenkins - Sleeping with the Enemy: trades unions in Wales during the Thatcher years'; Lord Crickhowell - The Conservative Party in Wales, 1888-1998; Cynog Dafis - Plaid Cymru and the Greens: flash in the pan or a lesson for the future?; Deirdre Beddoe - Women and Politics in Twentieth Century Wales; Ron Davies - Reflections; Merfyn Jones - The Politics of Lifelong Learning in Wales’; Hywel Williams - ‘Of Princes, Power and Plots: Deciding and Advising in Government’; Dai Smith - ‘Out of the people: a century in labour’; Neal Ascherson - ‘The yes road: a reflection on two devolution campaigns’; Angela John - ‘'Chwarae teg': Welsh men's support for women's suffrage’; John Davies - Plaid Cymru since 1960’; Sir Wyn Roberts - Fifteen years at the Welsh Office; Christopher Harvie - ‘Europe and the Welsh nation’. This website lists the resources held in the archive, which include national and local records for the main political parties active in Wales, the papers of Welsh politicians, including those of David Lloyd George, T.E. Ellis, Samuel T. Evans, Thomas Jones, and J. Herbert Lewis, and the records of organisations, campaigns and pressure groups, such as the Association of Welsh Local Authorities. Also housed in the archive is a collection of leaflets, pamphlets and ephemera, which include election campaign literature and newspaper and periodical articles, and a sound and moving image collection.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range, and availability of the dataset 'Wills and Inventories of Single Men and Women in Norfolk, 1605-1687', hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). From this Web page you may download PDF and HTML files giving introductory information about the study. The data itself is available to order from the HDS as a tab delimited text file, though to make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS: further information is supplied giving instructions. This dataset is derived from a project designed to consider the cultural, economic and social impact of single women's participation in money-lending in 17th century England. Aims of the data collection included consideration of: the definitions applied to the probate documents of never married men and women; the extent and nature of their money lending; how it fitted into their daily lives; the problems single women experienced as a result of their lending; and how they were portrayed in the contemporary literature. The dataset contains probate material collected from the surviving records of single men and women in the Consistory Court of Norfolk during the 17th century.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range, and availability of the dataset 'Wills and Inventories of Single Women in Durham, 1611-1700', hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). From this Web page you may download PDF and HTML files giving introductory information about the study. The data itself is available to order from the HDS as a tab delimited text file, though to make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS: further information is supplied giving instructions. The dataset is derived from a project designed to consider the cultural, economic and social impact of single women's participation in money-lending in 17th century England. The aims of the data collection included consideration of: the definitions applied to the probate documents of never married women; the extent and nature of their money lending; how it fitted into their daily lives; problems experienced as a result of their lending; and how they were portrayed in the contemporary literature. The dataset contains probate material collected from the surviving records of single women in the Consistory Court of Durham during the 17th century.
"The Witchcraft bibliography project" is an impressive textually-based website that provides a downloadable (PDF) bibliography of books and articles on the historical subject of witchcraft in both Europe and North America. To ease selection, the material is divided into both subject area (such as demonology, social sciences, historiography, art and literature) and geographical area (for example, former USSR, Eastern Europe, USA). However, as the bibliography lacks internal hyperlinks, and the only search function is that standard to PDFs, this is not the easiest of resources to navigate. Predictably, the areas that have undergone most study, such as France, Germany, and the USA are more comprehensively covered. A welcome addition is the chapter listing modern editions of standard Early Modern works of demonology. This site is invaluable for anyone with an interest in the historical aspect of the Early Modern witchcraft persecution, whether compiling a school project, undergraduate essay or doctoral thesis. There is scope for submitting entries and contacting the project manager. The project is run from the University of North Texas, by an academic authority on witchcraft, Dr Richard Golden, and the information is also available on the department's history site.
"Witchcraft, magic and witch trials in Finland" is a website that deals primarily with early modern witchcraft trials in Finland. It is the work of Timo Kervinen (a lawyer and criminologist) and Dr Marko Nenonen of the University of Tampere, authors of the book "The Wage of Sin is Death". The site offers a collection of articles, including a synopsis of the Finnish trials from 1500-1750, together with an extremely useful map, which shows the frequency and location of the trials. The information is based on an analysis of over 1,200 trials of those accused of witchcraft. Finnish shamanistic traditions and their connections with witchcraft are also covered, as is the subject of male witches and witchdoctors. There is a section on witch-drums and an illustration of the devil from a church in Kalanti, west Finland. The site also offers bibliographic information, including a useful list of articles published either in English or German. There are also links to other sites on the subject of Scandinavian culture and folklore. Overall, the site is of a good academic standard, with all scholarly conventions respected. This resource, which is available in both English and Finnish versions, may be of use to undergraduates or researchers interested specifically in Finland.
"The witching hours" is a website that provides information on different aspects of the persecution of witches and the subject of witchcraft. However, the content of some sections could be considered to be of an adult nature. This site does not claim to be of an academic nature, but is a textual collection of many random subjects connected to witchcraft; examples are nonetheless taken from scholarly literature, fully credited on each section and in the bibliography. As an introduction to the subject, there is a lot of good material. There are seven clearly marked sections: documents of the witchcraze; magic, spells, and potions; the witchcraze today; people of the witchcraze; punishment, torture and ordeal; supernatural creatures of the witchcraze; and traits of the witches. Each section contains sub-sections with specific information, for example, people of the witchcraze includes paragraphs on Gilles de Rais, the Pappenheimers, Stedinger, Paracelsus, and Faustus, as well as over 100 other individuals.There are parallels drawn with the present-day, an ever-common feature on sites on Early Modern witchcraft, which is not always relevant. The information presented is rather random, it must be said. In a rather hit or miss fashion, the site can be useful for research if the reader seeks a particularly specialist piece of information, but also for those interested in the phenomenon of witchcraft as a general subject. It is extremely easy to navigate but the material is of varying academic quality. The search engine is helpful, but also features advertising. The question and answer forum, was not, at the time of writing, available. There is a good links section, which is divided into sections, including demon possession, Jeanne d'Arc, the European witch craze, and the American witch craze. The links are accompanied by a sentence or phrase of explanation.
The website "Women and Books : From the Sixteenth Century to the Suffragettes" has been adapted from an exhibition of the same title at the University of Glasgow. It features sections on: books written, translated, and compiled by women; books for, and about women; books owned, illustrated, or published by women; and books on women's education. This exhibition and website reminds us that women, although rarely prominent in the earlier period of publishing as authors, still had a role to play as: dedicatees; patrons; collectors; or readers of books. The books that were on display are accompanied by a paragraph of commentary and full bibliographical detail, with some excellent images of folios. There is also an interesting section on suffragette literature. This virtual exhibition would be of interest to those studying the history of the book, or involved in gender studies.
Women and Gender in Early Modern Wales [circa 1500-1800] is an online guide to sources and further reading from the Department of History and Welsh History at Aberystwyth University. This bibliography is designed to complement the printed version by the same authors Michael Roberts and Simone Clarke, that itself sought to complement Deirdre Beddoe's works on the subject of women during modern Welsh history (1800-1945). This guide is designed for historians interested in women's and gender history in early modern Wales, circa 1500-1800. It is especially of use for the beginner as an introduction to works that might construct an understanding of the society and culture of Wales and its gendered dimensions in the period. Therefore, many entries will be familiar to historians of Wales, and as the authors are aware there is a bias towards accounts in English. However, little annotation is offered. The Web page has been converted from Microsoft Word, and is very basic in design, (no navigation is provided for example). However, the arrangement of the bibliography is simple and easy to follow and includes the following sections: women's history; the history of Wales; views of women; women and family; marriage; household structure and kinship; household management, home life, estate management, living standards; motherhood, child/parent relations; family size, limitation, illegitimacy, impotence; widows; legal status of women; women and health; women's sexuality; women and work; women and consumption; professional employments; women and the wider world; women, politics and power; royal and aristocratic women; women and crime; witchcraft; women and religion; the Reformation; Catholic women; Protestant women; radical and non-conformist Protestant women; piety and religious experience; women and education; women and the arts; women and writing; women as historians; studies of masculinity and manliness in Wales.
Women and Marxism is part of the Marxist Internet Archive (MIA). This is a well maintained site that provides a broad range of writing on women's issues and Marxism from almost fifty nineteenth and twentieth century writers. Though not all the authors are Marxists their contributions are included to give context and reference to the cultural and political milieu in which women worked and agitated during their struggles. There are few references to contemporary Marxism-Feminism, the majority of transcriptions being represented by classic texts. Simple to navigate the site is divided into three sections; non-fiction authors, fiction and poetry, and subjects. Subjects is sub-divided into fourteen sections including sex relations, marriage, family, reproduction, labour and suffrage. The larger MIA site is administered and built by volunteers from all over the world, most of whom are non-academics.
The Women and Social Movements in the United States 1600-2000 (WASM) is an editorial website developed and published by the Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender at the State University of New York at Binghamton. The site provides access to over forty editorial projects on topics relating to the history of women's involvement in social movements undertaken by undergraduate and graduate students at Binghamton. Each project is a self-contained learning module, providing a narrative of an event or topic along with a selection of relevant primary sources, designed to encourage the process of historical analysis. Projects are accompanied by an introduction, bibliography, biographies, notes and related links as appropriate. Each project also has links to the Teachers Corner that provides lesson ideas. The website has recently been extended but access to the new material is only available to subscribers.
The website "Women and the Holocaust" is an online project and magazine published by Judy Cohen, and provides a range of excellent resources on women and the Holocaust. The site aims to investigate the Final Solution and the Nazi's views on gender, and looks at the experience of women as victims of genocide, and also as the perpetrators and collaborators of the Nazi regime. The site provides primary sources like survivor testimonies and poetry, book and film reviews, a bibliography, and web links, as well as a good range of both academic and general articles and essays. These explore subjects like partisans and resistance fighters, forest-dwellers, survivor's stories, and women involved in the Nazi regime.
Published by the Mariners' Museum, the website "Women and the Sea" is an online exhibition that looks at the history of women's involvement in seafaring occupations. Concerning itself broadly with women's experiences in Britain and the United States, the exhibition covers several centuries, from the eighteenth century to the present day. The chapters cover a wide range of topics, including the female role in nautical myth and superstition, life for the families of sailors, women as sailors and lighthouse keepers, women in the Navy, women's involvement in yachting and racing, and seafaring women in the twentieth century. There is a fair amount of multimedia resources, including digitised images, a timeline, and video material. In addition there are bibliographies for both adults and children, and a list of web resources.
This website is the online version of an exhibition held in 1995 by the Library of Congress on American women journalists, photographers and broadcasters who gained recognition during the Second World War. It covers the experiences of eight women, including Dorothea Lange and Therese Bonney, who worked in a variety of capacities in the media during World War Two, and who experienced an unprecedented degree of professional opportunity as a result of the hostilities. It illustrates amply how war helped to chip away at the traditional gender roles, as women successfully took on employment in previously male dominated industries, but also how swiftly this changed at the close of the war. This exhibition features facsimile images of articles, photographs and private papers, as well as short biographies of each woman.
Women in America forms part of the University of Virginia's Democracy in America website and provides access to extracts from accounts of visitors to America during the period 1820-1842. These extracts aim to provide an insight into the lives of American women in this period. The writings of eighteen travellers are incorporated into the site, including: Charles Dickens, Gottfried Duden, Alexis de Tocqueville and Charles Lyell. Short biographical information on all the authors is also available. The accounts can be browsed either by author or topic. The accounts have been broken down into the following thirteen topics: courtship and marriage; employment; religion; Indians; health; wilderness; asylums and penitentiaries; law and government; education; race; arts and entertainment; appearance and fashion; and travel.
The website "Women in Irish Society Project" introduces this research project (WISP) is funded by the higher education Authority and based at the National University of Ireland, Cork. WISP is the result of collaboration between three separate departments, and is focused on highlighting how women's lives have changed during the twentieth century. WISP is made up of three strands, the Irish Women's Movement Project, the Oral History Project, and the Munster Women Writers Project. There is information about each of the projects on the site, explaining their aims, background and achievements. Also listed are any events, publications, and resources connected to the project. On the Oral History Project pages users can access extracts from the archive. The link to the Irish Women's Movement Project was broken at the time of review, which just one of the downsides of the site not being updated since 2003.
The website "Women in world history" was compiled by Lyn Reese, who has a masters in History from Stanford University. She has worked on many women's studies programmes and has co-edited an anthology of cross-cultural writings. The site features biographies, lessons, essays, and reviews on women's history and is aimed at a basic audience and can be used for teaching, especially in conjunction with the curriculum section. The bibliography is obviously not extensive but is a good starting point for those seeking a basic introduction to famous women, rather than women's history. The biography section features: Eleanor of Aquitaine; Anna Comnena; Queen Sondok; Trotula; and Empress Zoe. Although aimed at US curriculum, this site can be of benefit for UK teachers and students.
Women who Ruled is website supporting an exhibition developed by the University of Michigan Museum of Art. The exhibition explores the visual representation of female power in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and comprises over 100 works of art. The website includes a virtual tour, being a series of 360 degree images of each gallery, and an illustrated gallery guide. Selected images with accompanying text are also available via ten stories, with subjects including Aphrodite, Christina of Sweden, Elizabeth I, Joan of Arc and Judith. The works of art represented online include Paris Bordone, 'Athena Scorning the Advances of Hephaestus'; Guillaume Martin, 'Portrait of Catherine de' Medici'; 'Royal Grant showing initial "E" with miniature of Queen Elizabeth I'; Fede Galizia, 'Judith with the Head of Holofernes'. The exhibition supports the University of Michigan's Literature, Science & the Arts theme semester, "Gender, Power, and Representation".
The Women's History section of the WWW Virtual Library, part of the WWW VL History Network, is maintained by the Netherlands Economic History Archive in Amsterdam. It contains links to organizations, archives, libraries, museums, research institutions and resources around the world on the history of women and gender - including a list of women's studies journals. As well as browsing the links by category and in alphabetical order, it is also possible to search the collection of links, and using the same search engine you can interrogate other resources hosted by the International Institute of Social History, (including: Labour History; Labour History News; Labour History Journals; Economic and Business History; LabNet; Asian Labour; Dutch Company Archives; Digital Social History; Alternative Germany; Russian Archives; Communist Posters; and Art to the People). Although this resource is presented in HTML only, the links collected here can be viewed using a Lynx Text Browser, accessible via the History Network's Central Catalogue. The collection is kept up-to-date, and statements such as "New", "Updated" and "Lost" identify recent changes.
This website, from About.com, gives information on women's history, quotations by women, biographies of notable women, and so on. Although a little cluttered, the website gives a vast amount of information on women's history, women's rights, women's biographies, major issues and events in women's history and is generally well crafted. There is, furthermore, the option to browse by subject (for example, African American Women, Ancient Women's History, Military and War Women, Social Reform Movements and Sports and Athletics) and each of these broad categories has a wealth of details on various relating subjects. The website will be of great use to anyone interested in gender studies or women's history.
The website 'Women's History at the IIHS' is a subsite from the online presence of the Amsterdam-based International Institute of Social History (IISH). The site has a clear presentation of the contents offered. The highlight of the webste is ViVa, a sizeable, searchable bibliography of articles regarding women's history which have appeared in academic journals since 1995, indexed under historical periods. In addition, the site contains an extensive and well organised list of links to other websites concerned with the study of women's history. A virtual library of resources for women's history is a useful gateway for related Web pages. Further resources include: a Dutch mailing list on women's and gender history; socialism and sexuality network; the Dutch yearbook for women's history; women's work in the early modern period; and homosexuality in the Netherlands.
The website 'Women's History Network' introduces this scholarly association which was founded in 1991 to promote the study and research of women's history at all educational levels. Its other aims are to collect and publish work relevant to women's history, and to establish a database of research and study interests of members and organisations. On the website details of meetings and conferences can be found, information about the Network's magazine, a discussion list, and a directory of courses in women's history available in the United Kingdom. The newsletter can be read on the site in PDF format. There is also a selection of useful web links, and details of how to join the Women's History Network.
Women's History Network (WHN) founded in 1991. WHN is an organisation of academics, teachers, women in libraries, independent and amateur historians, working to encourage research and writing in women's history. The web site provides details of their annual international conferences and other events, their newsletter and discussion groups and list.
The Women's History Project website is a collection of sources relevant to Irish women's history published by the National Archives of Ireland. The mission was to form a comprehensive list of useful sources and to make it available via the Internet for public use. The Society also publishes said documents, as well as secondary material on the subject. The collection of nearly 100,000 pieces was gathered from 14,000 collections between October of 1997 and August of 2001. The site has three sections: Sources of Womens' History; Women in the 20th c. Ireland; and The Womens' History Project. The search engine is based upon keyword search in databases hosted on the website of the National Archives of Ireland.. The sources are located in the National Library of Ireland, the National Archives of Ireland, the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, the Irish Film Archive, and many other collections within Ireland. A glossary of terms relating to archival holdings is published on the site.
The Web Site of the Women's History Review provides information about submitting articles to, contacting, and subscribing to the journal (ISSN 0961-2025). It is published by Routledge. The major international journal provides a forum for new scholarly articles covering a range of disciplines and a broad chronology. The Review is published four times a year. Contents and abstracts of all issues, since volume 1, 1992 are available online. Back issues up until volume 13, issue 3, 2004 are freely available as PDF-files. The journal is edited by Professor June Purvis of Portsmouth University. An excellent site for those studying, researching, or teaching women's history.
Women's History Scotland (formerly the Scottish Women's History Network (SWHN)) aims to promote study and research in women's and gender history, particularly for those working in Scotland or working on Scottish themes. Not only academic in ambition, the site also aims to attract people working in education, community groups and the media. Based at the University of Glasgow, the site contains details about the network, conferences on women's history, resources useful for researchers in the field, and details of relevant forums and societies. The site also hosts details about the work-in-progress of individual scholars.
To date little research has been carried out on early women lawyers and the way in which the profession has changed as a result. The Women's Legal History Biography project aims to further research in this area and extend the historiography of women as lawyers in the United States. The main focus of the project is to collect biographical information on individual women lawyers; this work is primarily being carried out by students studying at Stanford Law School. Features of the site include an alphabetical list of lawyers being researched, articles, bibliographies, research leads, obituaries, photographs and links to other relevant sites.
Drawn from the collection of the Women's Library, this online resource documents a wealth of banners and artwork associated with the struggle for women's voting rights in the early twentieth century. It is centred round the work of the artist-based suffrage organisations the Artist's Suffrage League and the Suffrage Atelier. There are approximately 250 images of textile banners with associated banner designs and other material such as cartoons, posters and postcards. The Artist's Suffrage League designed posters for the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, and also produced postcards and illustrated pamphlets promoting the campaign for women's enfranchisement in Britain and North America. The Suffrage Atelier was founded in 1909 by Clemence and Laurence Houseman as 'An Arts and Crafts Society Working for the Enfranchisement of Women'. The collection can be searched via the powerful interface of the Visual Arts Data Service (VADS), which allows searching via keyword and a range of other metadata, such as material, date, creator, together with a useful 'Lightbox' facility allowing images to be stored and shared.
This is the homepage of the Association of the Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS). The WRNS were once part of the Royal Navy, before being integrated into the Royal Navy in the early 1990's. The site includes links to WRNS organisations in England, Canada, and Australia, with details on the history of the WRNS, memories, mailing lists, and information on locating former WRNS.
The website 'Women's studies digitization project: early modern French women writers' was published by the Wilson Library's Electronic Text Research Center (ETRC), which was based at the University of Minnesota. Although the ETRC is no longer in existence, the website remains accessible as a research tool. The site provides information on the project and its aims, which were primarily "to serve as a research and teaching tool, rather than a major preservation effort". Coverage begins at the start of the fifteenth century and ends with the dawn of the eighteenth century, discussing ten or so writers. Among those featured and afforded biographies are the following: Christine de Pisan; Marguerite de Navarre; Diane de Poitiers; Anne (Ninon) de Lenclos; and Marie Le Jars de Gournay. There are plans to increase this to about 20, and the list of writers under consideration includes: Anne de Marquets; Anne du Noyer; Madame de LaFayette; and Henriette-Julie de Castelnau Murat. Texts were selected to be representative of women's writing of the early modern period, and to present texts not readily available to the general reader. Primary texts are featured on the site, and where these are not available external links are provided. An excellent site for those interested in women's studies, early modern history, and French history and literature.
Women's Writing is the online home of a peer reviewed international journal of the same name, which focuses on women's writing up to the end of the long nineteenth century. The journal prints literary, theoretical and historical perspectives, with articles on gender, culture, race and class and is likely to be of interest to researchers at undergraduate level and above. This site offers contents listings for the print version of the journal, along with abstracts, and a free sample issue is available on request (placing a request requires registration, which is free). Titles of forthcoming articles and special issues are also featured on the site, alongside full details on subscription, advice for contributors, and information about the editorial board.
This website is a guide to the business manuscript collections at the Baker Library Historical Collections Department, at Harvard Business School. Aimed at students and academics interested in gender studies the site complements the online catalogue in a topical manner by describing what is available in women's history materials. Unfortunately there are no plans at present to digitise the manuscript collection so contact with or a visit to the Baker library is needed. However this is still a very interesting site for scholars and researchers interested in the field of women in work and business, and female entrepreneurs, managers and landowners. The collection is divided into five sections comprising women at work - manual labor, women at work - professional labor, women, finance and investment, women and the law and women at home and abroad; these are further subdivided.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the "Women, Work and Trade in the English Industrial Revolution, 1773-1828" dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as a tab delimited texts and DBF databases. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. This database records details of women's trade and business activities in Manchester, Leeds and Sheffield between 1773 and 1828. The data is drawn from trade directories and newspapers published during sample years between these dates. This study aimed to show that businesswomen were central to urban society and to the operation and development of commerce in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century northern towns. It presents a rich and complicated picture of lower-middling life and female enterprise in three northern English towns: Manchester, Leeds and Sheffield. The stories told by a wide range of sources - including the trade directories and newspaper advertisements which form the basis of the database - demonstrate the very differing fortunes and levels of independence that individual businesswomen enjoyed. Yet, as a group, their involvement in the economic life of towns and, in particular, the manner in which they exploited and facilitated commercial development, force us to reassess our understanding of both gender relations and urban culture in late Georgian England. In contrast to the traditional historical consensus that the independent women of business during this period - particularly those engaged in occupations deemed 'unfeminine' - was insignificant and no more than an oddity, businesswomen are presented by the project findings not as footnotes to the main narrative, but as central characters in a story of unprecedented social and economic transformation.
This online historical library of primary source material is published by the Worcester Women's History Project, which was set up to promote research into women's history, and the early years of the women's movement in the United States in particular. The library site holds a variety of transcribed primary source documents connected to the nineteenth century women's movement. They are divided by topic, which include the first National Women's rights Convention in 1850 and male voices on women's rights, the latter with commentaries such as "Ought Women to Learn the Alphabet?" (1859). The material includes speeches, letters, and newspaper articles. There is also a selection of links to other related online primary sources. Students, teachers and researchers who work on the history of women's rights will find this site useful as well for its documents on related political questions such as the abolition of slavery.
The website "Zeitenblicke 1 (2002) Nr. 1: Hexenforschung aktuell" features the first issue of the historical German ejournal Zeitenblicke, which took the subject of research into witchcraft as its topic. The main language of the journal is German, although there are versions of the introduction, plus occasional articles, in English and French. This edition features an article by the eminent expert in the iconography of witchcraft - Charles Zika. He discusses the influence of the imagery surrounding the ancient sorceress Circe, especially in printed woodcuts, on the formation of the discourse on witchcraft in the 15th and 16th centuries. Other coverage includes: an interview with Carlo Ginzburg; a virtual conversation with Wolfgang Behringer (University of York); sections on sources, digitisation projects, and regional studies of trials for witchcraft such as those of Trier and Luxemburg; and reviews. Since this first issue, Zeitenblicke has been published three times a year: later editions can be accessed via the journal's archive.