This is a Web page detailing the context, range, and availability of the dataset '1891 Census Project, Spitalfields', hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive, University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). From this Web page you may download PDF and HTML files giving introductory information about the study. The data itself is available to order from the HDS as a set of tab delimited text files, though to make use of this material you must first register with the HDS (further information and instructions are supplied). The Census Project was set up by the Jewish Historical Society and the Board of Deputies Community Research Unit. A database was compiled of the population of an area in Spitalfields in the East End of London in 1891, working from photocopies of the microfilm of the enumerators' books. The area was chosen because of its high concentration of Jewish population, as shown on the Russell and Lewis Jewish East London map of 1901. The database contains the complete population of the area.
The website "Abbays et Sites Cisterciens d'Europe" is an online database listing Cistercian establishments in Europe and, where available, providing links to their websites. The site has some English content but the full version is available only in French. Sections on the site include: The charter; History; and Abbeys. A forum and a members area are also part of the site. The abbeys can be browsed alphabetically or by country or region via an interactive map. Very brief general information and a picture where possible are given for each abbey, and in some cases a more detailed history of the place is also available. The historical information about the Cîteaux abbey and the Cistercian movement is detailed and reliable, albeit rather brief. The statutes refer to the modern regulations of the Cistercians. The latest issue of the Newsletter can be downloaded from the site in PDF format, in French, English and German. The site also acts as a representative of the Cistercian federations in eight European countries that adhered to the 1993 Charter.
An extensive website, "The Abbey of Saint-Germain of Auxerre" covers the history and archaeology of the Abbey, thought to date originally to the 5th century when it was a simple oratory for the housing of relics. St. Germanus, the Bishop of Auxerre noted for his miracles and suppression of the Pelagian heresy in Britain, is held responsible for this original building and was buried there after his death in 448 AD. The website gives information on the Saint himself and the various stages of building that were erected over and around his burial place in honour of his cult - resulting in the transition from oratory to basilica to abbey. In addition to the history and archaeology of the Saint and Abbey, a discussion of the intellectual influence, liturgy and architecture that were associated with the site. A virtual tour of the abbey is also available through photographic and 3D computer reconstructions.
The website"Medieval History" from About.com provides access to information about Medieval history in general. The website gives both very basic introductions to the Middle Ages (with articles about 'What are the Middle Ages?' and 'Who's Who in Medieval Times' and so on) and more detailed information on specific topics and events. The home page has a list of current articles and brief descriptions of their contents. There is also the option to keyword search through the website at the bottom of the page. Most of the content is split into several thematic headings (for example, People and Places; Castles, Knights and Armour; Crusades, Wars and Warfare; and Religion and Philosophy) and each of these contain a wealth of articles. The website is simply designed and easy to navigate, and provides access to an excellent amount of information. The complex advertisements, which often include videos, may cause the website to load slowly for some users.
Preston Hunter's website Adherents.com is one of the most valuable tools available on the Internet for researchers needing statistical information on religious groups or organisations around the globe. The site is easily navigable and may be searched by either geographic location or religious affiliation. Though the bulk of information relates to American religious demographics, those digging for information will be hard pressed to find any belief system omitted, as virtually all-major cultures are included somewhere in these pages. Appropriate for students and academics at all levels, inquiries produce detailed information on various sects and denominations within a faith, their distribution, the number of adherents, the percentage of the population, and (when available) the number of congregations or churches. Thankfully, the editors have taken care to provide the source information for each entry and often a link to the referring page for electronically published data. Limited amounts of historical population statistics are also available through this site. The site features advertising but it is not obtrusive.
The AHRC Early Modern Worship Network (EMWN) is a current AHRC research network based at Durham University. It aims to be a network for "historians, literary scholars, theologians, musicologists and other early modernists [who] all share an interest in the practice of religion in the early modern world" and in particular for the examination of "religious practice and its meanings in early modern British culture". The EMWN has two mains themes: "collective and public worship; and private and household devotions". Two major EMWN conferences will be held on these topics in Sept 2008 and June 2009. The website also has news of a £20,000 EMWN fund to send academics to selected conferences during 2008 and 2009. The website has full details of the aims, steering group, members, and funding.
The Am Baile: highland history and culture website provides an online database of learning and research resources covering the history, culture, and language of the Scottish Highlands and Islands, from the Picts to the twentieth century. It is managed by the Highland Council as part of the Highland Libraries. The site publishes a range of primary source material, including photographs, documents, letters, and video footage, and these can be searched by keyword or browsed. All of the material on the site can be accessed by browsing through the categories of economy, society, places, religion, environment, people, and culture, and there are short essays and bibliographies for each topic alongside the digitised primary sources. Also available on the site are a number of great interactive games that use traditional Gaelic stories to help users practise Gaelic, and access to the Highland Sites and Monuments Record. The site is well designed and easy to navigate, and can be accessed in either English or Gaelic.
Ambrose in Anglo-Saxon England was prepared for the collaborative reference work, Sources of Anglo-Saxon Literary Culture (SASLC). The online edition is a corrected version of the print version by Dabney Anderson Bankert, Jessica Wegmann, and Charles D. Wright entitled 'Ambrose in Anglo-Saxon England with Pseudo-Ambrose and Ambrosiaster.' The overall purpose of Ambrose in Anglo-Saxon England is to compile evidence for the circulation of works by (or attributed to) Ambrose (337-397) in Anglo-Saxon England. The publication is structured by genre and then specific works. Each work falls under the following headings: manuscripts; booklists; Anglo-Saxon versions; quotations; citations or references. The main entry includes a summary of the work and its structure together with other relevant information and pointers to secondary sources. Genres include: exegetical; moral and ascetic; dogmatic; miscellaneous; pseudo-Ambrose; Ambrosiaster. The site also provides short introductions to Ambrose, Ps-Ambrose and Ambrosiaster, a bibliography, a list of standard editions, and research tools. The entries may also be searched using keywords.
This website, publishing the American Jewish Yearbook from 1899 to 2007 is from the American Jewish Committee Archives (AJC Archives). The American Jewish Yearbook is regarded by some as the authoritative account of trends and happenings in Jewish society. The website is very simple to use: the yearbooks are split into 20 volume blocks (e.g. volume 1-20, covering the years 1899 to 1999 and so on) at first, and then further subdivided into the yearly publications. Each of the yearly volumes is then further divided (into, for example, table of contents, forematter, calendars, index, and yearly issues). The yearbooks are available in PDF format.
Conceived by Dr. Brian Turley (West Virginia University) and developed by both himself and an ensemble of other religious scholars from across the United States, "The American Religious Experience" seeks to promote the publication of articles, manuscripts and images related to the past and present expressions of faith in America over the Internet. One part gateway and the other showcase; the site offers a mix of articles and teaching resources of interest to those working in a number of areas such as women in religion, Judaism, and new religious movements. Users will also find within these pages book reviews, a question centre, syllabi, and an impressive collection of links to religious topics in America. Accessible through this site is "The Journal of Southern Religion", of which all issues are freely accessible online. Both the American Religious Experience site and the journal are fully searchable by key word, which is the easiest method to locate documents. As for the former, students will find that the articles presented provide an excellent introduction to their subjects though, at present, the entire project lacks somewhat in resources and it is hoped that in time more will be added. As this project began as a teaching resource for a course on religious history, teaching staff will be especially interested to observe how the Internet has been integrated into the classroom and may find this site provides a useful template. As portions of "The American Religious Experience" are part of an online course, some sections may not be accessible without registration. Unfortunately, the site has been put into 'hibernation' at present, but this does not detract from the wealth of resources available.
This is the website of the American Society of Church History, founded in 1888 as an organisation dedicated to encouraging scholarly research into both church history specifically and the relationship between religion and society more broadly. The Society convenes twice annually, in January and Spring. The principal scholarly outlet of the Society is the quarterly journal entitled, 'Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture.' Tables of contents and abstracts are available for recent issues. The Society also promotes historical research by awarding five prizes for outstanding historical research, three of which are on an annual basis. Details of the various prizes are made readily available. The site is well presented and accessible.
This website is published by the Maharajah Duleep Singh Centenary Trust (MDSCT) with funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund and English Heritage. The Anglo Sikh Heritage Trail aims to highlight Anglo Sikh history and provide resources for those studying and researching this area. The site lists all of the relevant locations, institutions and artefacts in the United Kingdom related to Anglo Sikh history, which can be browsed by region or searched by keyword. Also on the site are articles about particular historical figures like Maharajah Duleep Singh, events such as the nineteenth century Anglo-Sikh wars in India, and on topics such as Sikhs and the British Empire. The site is connected to facebook and offers a newsletter to keep subscribers up to date on the latest research and events. There is a kids section for younger students.
The website 'Archiwa Panstwowe' (State Archives), was created by the Naczelna Dyrekcja Archiwów Panstwowych (NDAP) 'National Headquarters of the State Archives' and provides an excellent guide and overview of the Polish State Archives as well as access to the three main online Polish archival databases, IZA, SEZAM, and PRADZIAD. This site is of interest to anyone carrying out archival or genealogical research on Poland, Belarus, Lithuania or Ukraine. The site acts as a gateway to the websites of individual local state archives, which, for the most part, do not have an English version. The site is in Polish and English, however the translation is not excellent, and not all of the material on the Polish version is to be found on the English pages. Access to the online databases enables the swift location of records. The site is easy to navigate and includes details of new publications of the NDAP, a history of the archives, and their organisational structure. There is an excellent index of the archives complete with contact details and access policies. A link to the offical journal of the Polish State Archives called ARCHEION lists the contents of the journal which is published once or twice a year.
The Web Site "Archiwum Państwowe w Olsztynie (State archive in Olsztyń)" provides the usual information about the location, collections, accessibility, and organisation of the regional branch of the Polish State Archives. The site features a brief history of the archive, which was formally founded in 1948. Unfortunately there is not much information on this site on the holdings, but there is a link to the databases IZA and SEZAM on the national archives' (AGAD) site. The holdings include administrative, regional, local, ecclesiastical, municipal, and fiscal records. Specialists from the Olsztyń archives have completed the project of digitisating the ledgers and inventory books of the former Prussia Museum in Kaliningrad (Königsberg).The site is of interest to those who are studying German or Polish history.
The Web Site of the Archiwum Państwowe w Siedlcach (State archive in Siedlce) is in Polish with good English and French versions. It features information on the opening hours, collections, and location of the archive. The chronological range of the holdings spans 1651-1997. There is an online description of the collections, which consist of: administrative; judicial; police; fiscal; property; and institutional records. The strength of the collection really lies in the nineteenth century range. The birth, death, and marriage records are also useful for the genealogist or historian. Charters of the city are preserved, as well as records pertaining to eminent Polish families such as the Kuczyńskis, Czartoryskis, and Wierzejskis. Publications of the archives are well presented and the possibility of online purchase is offered to the interested. A good but basic site of use to those carrying out research on Siedlce and its environs.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Suwałkach (The state archive of Suwałki)" provides information in Polish on this branch of the Polish State Archives. The archives have a long tradition in this area, but were formally founded in 1921. During the twentieth century, its records were taken by the Russians and the Germans and at the end of the Second World War were to be found scattered in Belarus, Moscow, Lithuania, and St Petersburg. The archives also have a department in Ełk and contact details are also provided for this archive. The holdings date from the seventeenth century, which mainly consist of Radziwiłł and ecclesiastical privileges. The nineteenth century is far better represented. A selection of important documents (registers, privileges) is offered digitised on the site. The holdings of thie archives can be consulted on the national databases SEZAM, IZA and PRADZIAD. A good archive for those interested in the history of Poland's new eastern borderlands (Kresy) and their varied populations.
The Web Site of the "Archiwum państwowe w Bydgoszczy (State archive in Bydgoszcz)" is in Polish, with brief versions in English and German. The site provides the usual information about the archive's opening hours, location, and collections. The archive also has a branch in Inowrocław. The site features a listing of the main holdings which include: state and local government; judicial institutions; the military and the police; religious organisations; municipal and village records; and maps and plans. The municipal records date from the fourteenth century. The collections of the archives can be searched through the main database hosted on the web site of the central State Archives in Poland. This site provides a good resource for the researcher who is working on German (Bromberg) or Polish history.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Gdańsku (State archive in Gdańsk)" is in Polish with a less detailed but useful English version, and provides details of the opening hours, location, accessibility, and holdings of the archive. The collections of the archive reflect the history of Gdańsk, which was formerly the German city of Danzig and the Free City of Gdańsk. The site features the history, structure and preservation of the archive. Of use to the researchers is the information on the access to holdings. The records are divided into the following categories: state and local administration records between 18th and 20th century; records of the cities of Gdańsk and Elbląg, records of smaller Pomeranian towns; church, monastic, and public register records; judicial records; guild and merchants' records; and records of scientific, educational, and cultural institutions. The archive also has a good collection of maps and private papers. The catalogues of the holdings can be searched via SEZAM, the database run by the State Archives of Poland with several town archives and significant cultural institutions of the country. The archive is part of the Baltic Connections project. An excellent site for those researchign Polish, German, or Pomeranian history.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Krakowie (State archive in Cracow)" is in Polish and English and provides information on the archive's opening hours, locations, and collections. The archive is divided into separate sections, located in various departments and the earliest documentation comes from the thirteenth century.The archive holds much of the early state documentation for Poland, from the period when Cracow was the Polish capital. There are details of the archive's conservation, educational, publishing, and training activities. Of use to researchers are the forms which can be downloaded for requests to the archives for reproduction and borrowing services. The online exhibitions on the archive's holdings, stamps, iconography, cartography and temporary exhibitions enrich this site. The holdings of all branches of the Krakow state archive can be search throught the SEZAM database, however the keywords and strings are available only in Polish.
The Web Site "Archiwum Państwowe w Lublinie (State archive in Lublin)" is in Polish with a very substantial English version. The site provides the usual information about the archive and its reproduction services, opening hours, and location. There is access to the SEZAM, PRADZIAD, IZA, ELA and GENEBA databases. The territorial range covered by the archive covers the lands between the Bug, San, and the Vistula. The archive has a wonderful collection of early modern records, as well as the founding charter of Lublin from 1317. The collections include: guild; judicial; financial; administrative; municipal; Jewish; and ecclesiastical records. The site is of interest to those researching the area of Lublin or those carrying out geneaological research.
The Web Site of the "Archiwum państwowe w Płocku (State archive of Płock)" is in Polish, with good English and Russian versions. The archive also has departments in Kutno and Łeczyca. The archive is one of the oldest in Poland, established as the Płock Castle Archive, and its interesting history is told in the site. The holdings focus mainly on the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries and are particularly strong for the period of the PRL or the Polish People's Republic. The usual information on opening hours, location and accesibility are provided, as well as an online enquiry form. This is a site of interest to those carrying out research on Płock, Mazovia or Poland in general.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Przemyślu (State archive in Przemyśl)" provides information about this branch of the Polish State Archive. The site has good versions in English, German and Ukrainian. There are the usual details on accessibility, collections, opening hours and reprographic services. The collection contains holdings dating from 1291. One of the most interesting and extensive collections is that of documentation from the Greek-Catholic Bishopric between the end of the thirteenth century and 1946. There are also rich collections on eminent aristocratic Polish families such as the Czartoryskis, Lubomirskis, Potockis, and Tarnowskis. There are also records of the Jewish community. Comprehensive listings are available online of the ecclesiastical, municipal, judicial, and legal records throught the SEZAM, ELA and PRADZIAD centralised databases. The site also features the tables of contents of the "Historical-Archival Yearly". This is an informative site for those carrying out research on Przemyśl and its environs.
The Web Site "Archiwum Państwowe w Radomiu (State Archive in Radom)" is in Polish and English. The archive has been functioning since the early modern period, and found itself in the hands of the Austrians during the partitions. This is elaborated on in the brief history of the archive featured on the site. The archives are stronger in nineteenth and twentieth century holdings, but do have some municipal records from the early modern period. Of interest to genealogists and historians, are the registry records of Roman Catholic, Jewish, Orthodox, and Protestant communities. For those interested in the post-war history of Poland, the Radom archives are extremely rich in holdings on the PZPR. The link to SEZAM is useful for searching the records, as well as the publications list. The Polish variant of the site has a guest book.
The Web Site "Archiwum państwowe w Rzeszowie (The State Archive in Rzeszów)" is in Polish It provides the usual information on opening hours, holdings, accessibility, and the location of the archives. It has a particularly strong collection of records on the Jewish community, which is assigned to a dedicated department (The Jewish History Research Centre) within the archive. The Rzeszów holdings date from 1406 and consist of administrative, fiscal, agricultural, judicial, industrial, political, union, and military records. It has a good collection of family records of the Lubomirskis, Jaworskis, Potockis, and Mycielskis. A good site of use to those carrying out genealogical or historical research in this area of Poland.
The Web Site "Arhiv republike Slovenije (The archives of the republic of Slovenia)" provides information on the Slovene national archives, based in Ljubljana. The site is in Slovene, and English. The usual information about opening hours, accessibility, location, and collections are to be found on the site, as well as a brief history of the archive. Some of the holdings date from the ninth century, and consist of municipal, manorial, personal, ecclesiastical and judicial records. Collections can be searched on the online database. There is also a link to the section containing film archives. A travelling exhibition on "Slovene Towns Through History" is also posted on the site in PDF files. This is an excellent site for those carrying out research on Slovenia.
This is the main page of the BBC History website's section on genocide under the Nazis before and during World War Two. The site covers the period 1933 to 1945, offering a range of articles on topics such as the descent into genocide; the identity of the guilty parties; and various controversial questions that have arisen, including discussion of those who try to deny that the Holocaust ever happened. The articles are supplemented by a timeline, an interactive map of the Auschwitz concentration camp, and image galleries. Links to other relevant Web resources are provided - a short list is given at the bottom of the main page, with longer selections alongside individual articles. This resource is perhaps best suited to those wanting a general overview of the subject (new undergraduates, for example, or those teaching introductory courses), although some sections do contain articles by eminent scholars. The site is attractively presented and easy to use.
This excellent website provides access to discussion of the development of the church and state through the Reformation in the British Isles, along with discussion of the changes in the nature of both churches and palaces during this time. The easy-to-use website has several subject headings (church architecture; before the Reformation; the early palace of Westminster; shaping the modern church; and the later palace of Westminster). Each of these headings has various subsections which explain and discuss the topic at hand. There is a wealth of information available on this site, and it will be of particular use to undergraduate users starting research or study. Each heading mentioned above has an 'activity' to go along with it (which provides further information) and a quiz.
The Beatus of La Seu d'Urgell is a 10th-century illuminated manuscript held at the Urgell Diocesan Museum in Catalunia, Spain. It contains Beatus of Liebana's Comments on the Apocalypse. Sadly, this resource gives no details about the origin or the history of the manuscript, nor does it transcribe the comments themselves. What it does provide the user with is twenty-five of the manuscript's illustrations, which are stunningly beautiful and very well preserved, given their early date. Unfortunately the images are not accompanied by a description of their content.
This truly superior online collection of citations and bibliographic material has been compiled by Barend J. ter Haar at the University of Leiden. The main introductory page of his Bibliographies on Chinese History and Culture leads to eight different extensive (and usually annotated) bibliographical resources on Chinese society. While this includes references for literacy and education, violence, and protest and dissent, many categories are specifically devoted to religious themes including the Yao religion, Shamanism, and the Falun Gong movement, as well as more general collections on twentieth century religious life and culture in mainland China. The bibliographies are organised in a series of logical sub-divisions, and include details of electronic resources. However, a basic search engine to retrieve references by author or exact subject would be a welcome addition to the site. In any case, undergraduates and academics at all levels who wish to enlarge their knowledge of Chinese secondary sources will find these lists useful, whether they are searching for books or material on the Web. New lecturers may also wish to avail themselves of the Teaching Aids section, which takes the form of an extended annotated exploration of Internet, encyclopaedic and print resources.
The Bibliography and Methods in Medieval Studies website is an online course outline with detailed bibliographies and links to resources for bibliographic research in medieval studies. The site is divided into sub-sections, representing the topics covered each week in the course, including: general bibliographies and Internet sources; medieval history sources; ecclesiastical sources; Latin authors and texts; interpretations of the Bible; the liturgy; hagiography; iconography; manuscript research; science; and popular culture and folklore. Each section is linked to a bibliography, covering "the major reference guides, encyclopaedias, bibliographies and electronic databases". Some of the links to electronic resources are only available to students and staff of the University of Illinois, but those that are freely available are worth looking at. There are also eight library exercises designed to train the undergraduate medievalist in the scholarly tools which make the discipline possible.
Part of James Winslow Dow’s (Department of Social Anthropology, Oakland University) online collection of anthropological course material, the Bibliography for the Study of Magic Witchcraft and Religion is an extensive introductory citation list that would be of benefit to any undergraduate student researching or writing papers on anthropology of religion. Unfortunately, at time of writing the bibliography does not list material published after 1998, but it is nevertheless a useful guide to older works in the field. The selection of material covers groups from all over the world, however references for North and South American culture groups are especially strong. The lists themselves are organised into four major sections: Comparative studies and theoretical works; Ethnographic reports; Historical works; and finally Shamanism and healing. These topics are then further subdivided by geographical zones and organised alphabetically by author.
The 'Bodleian Library Broadside Ballads' website provides information on, and a database of digitised images of, ballads in the Bodleian Library. The collection consists of over 30,000 ballads from the 16th to the 20th century. Broadside ballads (popular songs) are an important source of information on popular, social, political, and religious culture, often as an alternative to more formal primary sources. The ballad broadsheets are also an excellent source of illustrations and as such inform the study of popular art. There is an integrated catalogue online and the ballads which are accompanied by notation have a sound file provided. Images (mainly woodcuts) can be searched using ICONCLASS. The documents can be searched by type, date, subject, and other fields; the images are large and of excellent quality. There is a strict access and usage agreement that must be agreed to before entering the site. This resource is likely to be of use to those with an interest in history, music, or English. The site has been updated last in 2005 thus some of the links are broken.
The web site Borderland is the English name for the Polish site called Pogranicze and introduces the activities of the Borderland Foundation which was created in 1990 to promote and liaise with borderland communities all over Europe. It is located in the Polish town of Sejny, located on the border with Lithuania - a town previously home to Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Orthodox, and Old Believer communities. The web site has been redesigned and functions now as a portal for all the projects run by this foundation. The foundation publishes the Krasnogruda journal, and the site introduces the latest issue. There are many writers and artists featured on the site, with presentations of their works and interviews. The documentation centre of the Borderland Foundation holds over 10,000 books, 5,000 magazines, 2,000 films and other forms of documentation on Central and East Europe. There are details of the Borderland school, a one-year training programme for managers and leaders in cultural, educational, and social organisations in Central and Eastern Europe. The site holds details of the many events in which the foundation takes part.
Breaking the Seal is the Open University website to accompany the television series of the same name, which investigates documents, what we can learn from them and the use and misuse of documents as evidence. The series was broadcast on BBC2, as part of the Open University's Open2 presentations. The website is divided into the subjects of the programmes: Domesday (the Domesday Book); Tax; History from Open2; Church records; Legal issues; and Land law. Written and presented by Bettany Hughes, there are expert contributors from archivists, curators, librarians and researchers from a wide range of institutions. From each subject page users can access a synopsis of that programme, the full script, a reading list, biographies of the experts involved and related web links including archives and local and family history. Each programme features one or more members of the public, who present a 'problem' linked to the programme's theme; this is then solved by using the document(s). This useful introduction to manuscript studies for school students, life-long-learners and undergraduates covers palaeography, archives administration, how to locate primary sources, how to use archival catalogues and indexes and how to interpret documentary evidence. There are links to Open University courses. Some links are broken.
This Britannica.com website contains an extract from Gervase of Canterbury's Thomas Becket's Life, from his History of the Archbishops of Canterbury. Gervase (d.1205) was a monk in Canterbury who knew Becket. The extract concerns Becket's time as archdeacon of Canterbury during the reign of Henry II; political events during his rule as archbishop; Becket's disputes with the king. The extract is short, but is a fascinating insight into perceptions of Becket during the period in which he lived. The excerpt is taken from 'The Church Historians of England,' published in 1853. The source provided here would be a good study aid or teaching tool to complement a larger history course at the secondary or early undergraduate level.
"British Origins" is a service of Origins.net for genealogy and family history research and genealogy data in England and Wales. The website provides exclusive access to the Society of Genealogists' records: indexes to marriages, wills, witness depositions and apprentice records that relate to England and Wales. The Society's collections bring together thousands of source materials such as parish registers and bishops' transcripts, monumental inscriptions and censuses, local history, as well as a collection of members' deposits of research notes on families. As important are the unique indexes and finding aids that have been compiled from a number of sources that enable access to a vast fund of useful genealogical data. These indexes and abstracts are only available online via British origins. The database available here contains records dating from 1538 to 1850 which can be ordered online (for a fee and for limited search periods) and contain over one million names covering 1568-1850. These indexes allow you to locate otherwise inaccessible source documents created by the Church of England Courts and London Livery Companies, including: Boyd's Marriage Index, 1538-1840 (from English parish marriage registers, Bishop's Transcripts and marriage licences for a growing number of English counties); Vicar-General Marriage Licence Allegations Index, 1694-1850; Faculty Office Marriage Licence Allegations Index, 1701-1850; Bank of England Will Extracts Index, 1717-1845; Archdeaconry Court of London Wills Index, 1700-1807; London City Apprenticeship Abstracts, 1568-1850; London Consistory Court Depositions Index, 1700-1713; Apprentices of Great Britain: 1710-1774; Boyd's Inhabitants of London: 14th-19th centuries; Boyd's London Burials; and Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills: 1750-1800. Although English Origins provides access to information about people who lived in or had connections with England, it will inevitably include items of interest for Wales and Scotland. (Probate courts would examine estates that included property outside of England, and for certain periods the bishops' transcripts of Welsh parishes would have been lodged in England.There is an excellent introduction to starting to trace your family history offering pointers towards research techniques and resources such as archives, libraries, Internet resources and societies - but emphasising the value of one's own living relatives. Another useful tool is the ability to restrict searches to the most recent and updated records from some of the datasets - allowing you to only look up the new records that have been added since you last searched the database.
Edited by John Thomas and Angela Constantinides Hero, and housed within the Dumbarton Oaks online research library and collection, 'Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents' is the electronic version of an academic publication of the same name offering details and translations of Byzantine 'Typika' (the technical term for these foundation documents) from the 7th to the 15th centuries. Byzantine Typika essentially outline the customs and regulations of a monastic community of a given Orthodox Church while delineating their legal and economic status. However unlike the Rules of the Latin west, they could also be highly personal and not strictly focused on the foundations or structure of a monastic institution. This electronic text contains over 50 distinct documents from the Orthodox Church making this resource, according to the editors, the only collection of Typika ever assembled for academic study. Chapters are organised by century and then listed either by author or by the community to which they are attached. For those unfamiliar with this topic, each section, and the entire book itself, is prefaced by a brief historical introduction that will assist the uninitiated in orientating themselves. Thus, as all of these texts are available in English translation, this resource will be of interest to both students and researchers focussed on monastic communities, regulations or simply generally curious about the Byzantine Middle Ages. At the end of the almost 2,000 pages of this publication, there is a substantial bibliography covering not only monastic traditions, but also a wide variety of Byzantine cultural topics.
This excellent website, the Byzantine Monuments of Attica, provides a wealth of information on the history of Athens during the Byzantine rule of the city. Looking at the ways in which the Byzantine Empire sought to Christianise the city, its buildings and its inhabitants, and the ways in which the Empire looked to destroy the Classical traditions, practices and learnings, this website provides information on the buildings and ruins of Athens and the various objects (mostly artworks including sculptures and paintings) and their role in the history of the city. The website is easily navigated, being split into three main sections: a comprehensive and detailed introduction to the history of Athens during this period; lists of monuments (listed alphabetically, by type, or geographically on a map); and objects (listed under two broad headings of sculpture-mosaic and wall paintings). There is, furthermore, a list of terms relating to the information presented. It is somewhat unfortunate that no keyword searching is available on the site, but this barely detracts from what is an exceptionally valuable academic and visual resource.
The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church is a digital resource created and published by Salvador Miranda of Florida International University. The site provides biographies of the cardinals from the sixteenth to the twenty-first century and of the events and documents concerning the origin of the Roman cardinalate and its historical evolution. Users will also find on site a picture gallery of late nineteenth and twentieth century cardinals, a guide to events and documents from 76-2003, a bibliography, and a general list of cardinals from 112-2003.
The website of the Ohio State University Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies (CMRS) provides information about: the centre; its programmes; its staff; and their research interests. The Center focuses on: art; music; literature; religion; history; philosophy; and government. It also publishes a twice-quarterly newsletter entitled Nouvelles Nouvelles (selected issues of which are available in full-text at this site) and has served as the headquarters for the New Chaucer Society. The Center houses the Hilandar Research Library and the resource Center for Medieval Slavic Studies. The site has a useful section of links to resources on various subjects including: Arthurian; numismatics; Byzantium; warfare; Vikings; conferences; history of art; and religion. A good resource for students of the medieval and Renaissance periods.
The website "The Centre for English Local History" introduces this research institute from the University of Leicester. study of English local history at the University of Leicester goes back to 1948, and it was the first University to offer an MA in that subject. Among other projects it houses the English Surnames Survey and the Nichols Archive project. The site contains a useful history of the department, information on its courses, and details of the module seminars for the MA degree. These seminars are linked to substantial web-based resources in various aspects of local history, including landscape history, medieval migration and manorial accounts. The pages give details of the Centre's seminars (given by visiting speakers), publications, and theses and dissertations. There is a link to course materials on medieval and early-modern palaeography. The Centre hosts web pages for four related organisations, the Whittlewood Project, the Friends of English Local History, the Vaughan Archaeological and Historical Society, and TASC (the Trans-national Database and Atlas of Saints' Cults).
The Centre for Medieval Studies at the University of York website is the online home of one of the UK's largest interdisciplinary centres for research into the medieval period. The website introduces the centre and its courses, as well as providing information about the various medieval research projects hosted at the University. There is also: an online directory of staff and students at the Centre; a diary of forthcoming lectures and events; and links to other relevant websites. This site would be of use to students studying or contemplating the study of the medieval period.
The Web Site "Centrum Dialogu i Modlitwy w Oświęcimiu (Centre for Prayer and Dialogue in Oświęcim)" has versions in English, Polish, German, Italian, and French. It provides information about the centre, founded in 1992, whose aim is to promote understanding and discussion about the Nazi Holocaust. Located in the Polish town of Oświęcim, known more familiarly to the world as the site of the death camps Auschwitz-Birkenau, it holds regular programmes and meetings for the inhabitants of the town and for school groups that come from abroad. The programme includes meetings with survivors, experts, discussions on ethics and religion, and retreats. The centre also provides accommodation, research facilities and a conference hall. This Catholic-run Centre aims to promote inter-faith dialogue and to commemorate those who died in the camps. The most useful elements of the site for researchers are in its Resources section, which offer essays in Polish and English and a few scanned images.
Lambeth Palace Library, in conjunction with the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, is digitising all the plans in the archive of the Incorporated Church Building Society (ICBS) to be presented here in 'Church Plans On-line'. Lambeth Palace Library is the principal library and record office for the history of the Church of England, (and the province of the Church in Wales). Some 11,800 plans and drawings are available from the ICBS archive covering the period 1818-1982, and includes plans and records of "where a church has been restored, converted or demolished" from the whole of England and Wales. Funded by the New Opportunities Fund and undertaken by Lambeth Palace Library working in partnership with University of Newcastle, Structural Images of the North-East (SINE), this archive is a record of the most significant period in church building since the middle ages and the single largest source for plans of new and existing churches in the country. Online, there is access to the catalogue, with digital images of all plans and drawings in the archive. The database provides a guide to the ICBS files and minute books. It records the church applying for a grant, the parish where it is not a parochial church, the county and diocese in which it was located, the reasons for applying for a grant, the covering dates of the papers, the numbers of plans or photographs, the names of architects or other professionals involved in the building project, and references to the minute books. In advanced searching all of these features are access points into the database. There is a 'Simple Search' facility by which you can interrogate the database of ICBS files by selecting one by place, area, people or firms, and/or by the date. There is a facility to zoom-in to view details of plans.
The "Civil War" website offers detailed analysis of the personalities, events and battles of the English Civil War era. It considers the sixteenth and seventeenth century history of upheaval, during which the English Civil War was "a truly profound political event in Europe... part of a wider struggle for supremacy between Catholics and Protestants in Europe". During this period, the Stuart kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland, and the Principality of Wales were ripped apart by religious and political unrest. The "aftershocks" continue to affect British and Irish politics to the present day. The website accompanies Tristram Hunt's television series of the same name for BBC2/the Open University. This was filmed in a fresh style, with Hunt's narrative, reconstructions and re-enactments bringing seventeenth century events and individuals to life in "a vivid and engaging manner" - which viewers either loved or hated. There is so much content - text, images and multimedia - and so many ways to navigate the resources that the home page, at first, seems cluttered and confusing. However, familiarity soon takes over as a consistent placing of navigation bars aids the user's journey through this online experience. There is also an excellent "About This Site" section that is visible from all pages. Here you can find out very swiftly how to navigate through the six main chapters and 21 sub-sections of the site - and how to jump to video overviews, and use the interactive time-line, or find particular crucial events of the Civil War, for example: each of the six chapters begins with an Overview, accompanied by a short two to three minute video in which Tristram Hunt summarises the story and key contents of each section. Viewing these videos in quick succession offers a summary of the entire history of the Civil War in less than twenty minutes; If you are looking to examine a specific point in the Civil War period, use the interactive time-line which arranges the story chronologically and links to specific points in time; as an examination of Europe, Ireland and Britain is crucial to an understanding of the Civil War, the site presents a series of maps looking at these dimensions; Profiles of the key players in the Civil War era (including Oliver Cromwell and King Charles I) provides further background on their motivations and the parts they played. Learn More explains how the website and TV series relate to the Open University syllabus, and contains a reading list of recommended books and links to other online resources; and you can also download a complete transcript of the website (rich text file - .rtf). The website's design reflects the TV series' fresh, heavily designed style, and offers additional insight into the era's personalities and tensions, while standing-alone from the TV series as an independent and valuable resource.
The Clergy of the Church of England Database is an online relational database containing records of the careers of all clergymen of the Church of England between 1540 and 1835. The database provides an extensive research tool for historical researchers who wish to find biographical information about individual clergymen in early modern times, making it possible for the user to trace individuals across parishes, chronological and geographical patronage, and more structural investigations of the Church of England. The database contains records from all 27 dioceses of England and Wales which are held at 51 diocesan repositories and other archives and libraries. The primary records listed from the diocesan collections include registers, subscription books, licensing books, and liber cleri or call books. Where these records are fragmentary, other types of records have been consulted, including bishops' transcripts of parish registers, wills, taxation records, and surveys of clergy. The website also features a list of people involved in the project, and an explanation of the database. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) within the Research Grants scheme.
The website of the Conference on Faith and History provides information about this organisation, which is composed of Christian historians and scholars dedicated to considering the relationship between faith and historical studies. The Conference aims to provide a forum for discussing recent historical scholarship and to foster scholarship in the general area of faith and history. The Conference meets once every two years, and publishes a journal entitled 'Fides et Historia' twice a year. The site makes available the tables of contents of a number of past issues of the journal, while the book reviews can be downloaded in full in PDF. The Conference also publishes a newsletter periodically containing news of recent activities and events, and this can be viewed on the site in PDF format. The Conference is affiliated with the American Historical Association. Information for those wishing to become members of the Conference or subscribe to the journal is available.
The Web Site "Cornell University Library Witchcraft Collection" provides an excellent and annotated description of the holdings of the university library, which are quite exceptional in the field of witchcraft, demonology and superstition. The collection comprises over 3,000 titles (including manuscripts of witchcraft trial records), of which the majority were acquired in the 1880's through the perseverance of Andrew Dickson White and George Lincoln Burr. The site provides details of the titles and editions, as well as an essay on the literature of witchcraft by Edward Peters, Henry Charles Lea Professor of History at University of Pennsylvania. The collection includes fourteen Latin editions of the Malleus Maleficarum, and boasts a copy of the extremely rare first edition printed before April 1487. Other staples of demonology were also acquired such as works by de Lancre, Bodin, Boguet, Loos, and Mather. Alphabetical listing is by author or by title and through clicking on the link the user can read the text either in its original form or transcribed. At the time of cataloguing the search facility was not working and not all of the titles were available. This project represents an invaluable resource for those researching, studying or writing about witchcraft in early modern Europe and North America. Coverage predictably is confined more or less to Western Europe, which is its only weakness.
The Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi (CVMA) collection is hosted by the Visual Arts Data Service (VADS), and this Web page provides introductory information and access to the searchable collection through the VADS interface or the CVMA's own website. The CVMA was founded in 1949 and has committees in twelve countries. In Britain it is a British Academy Research Project whose activities include the creation of this picture archive. The image collection contains over 18,000 images, most provided by the National Monuments Record, with others from sources such as the Centre for Medieval Studies, York, and several private collections.
The website "Credenda Agenda" provides information about the bimonthly journal, which explores "all areas of life from a biblical, classical Protestant perspective". It is part of the Christ Church and Canon Press ministries and offers a support letter twice a year. The site includes a statement of faith, affirming the journal's doctrinal editorial policy, which is based on classical Protestantism. The page includes a search engine, back issues, and articles by column, as well as information about subscriptions. The journal covers a lively range of topics including: in praise of escapism; the Salem witch trials of 1692; a reformed appreciation of C.S.Lewis; sex and the reformation; poetry and the Anglo-Saxon mind; and the Jewishness of Christianity. The site is an interesting source of alternative views on a variety of contemporary and historical issues.
Cahiers de recherches médiévales (CRM) is the website of a French journal devoted to interdisciplinary study of the Middle Ages. The journal's official languages are French and English, but articles in: Italian; Spanish; Portuguese; and German will also be considered (depending on subject). The journal also looks at the interpretation of the medieval period during the Renaissance and up to the present day. Each issue of the journal presents articles on a main theme and several sub-themes, together with book reviews. The full text of articles from issues more than three years old are available on the site, which can be searched via an author index, or alternatively via the site's keyword search facility. The website also provides a statement of the journal's aims, as well as: contact details; details of the editorial board; subscription information; notes for submission of articles; and details of the themes for forthcoming issues. This site would be of interest to scholars and students studying any aspect of the Middle Ages, especially those interested in Europe.
Conceived and developed by Dr. E. L. Skip Knox at Boise State University, 'The Crusades' is an online undergraduate course that covers these wars. The course is taught for credit via the university, but Knox has made the vast majority of his site accessible to anyone interested in the subject. Each unit of the module comprises a series of recommended readings, of which the majority can be accessed via links to external sites. Knox has also written and posted a substantial quantity of lecture notes on each of the crusades, and includes map of the relevant geographical areas, plus a timeline of the period. All are openly available and together they offer a thorough and complete introduction to this turbulent and frequently bloody period, suitable for the undergraduate level. Though obviously designed for students new to the subject, this site may also be of considerable interest to more advanced academics, as a model for constructing an effective Internet-based learning environment.
Culture of Barbarous Europe is a site containing the doctoral thesis of Alex Fantalov a Russian anthropology student. The thesis has been translated from Russian and unfortunately the text is unclear and over complicated in places. The thesis explores images and characters from European mythology concentrating specifically on: Celtic deities; Scandinavian gods; Thraco-Dacian mythological characters; Illyrian characters; Scythian-Samatian characters; Baltic mythological images; and Slavic images. A comprehensive bibliography provides further points of reference. This site is of use to those studying comparative mythology, or the mythologies of individual peoples.
Witchcraft historian Owen Davies is the author of the Cunning Folk website, devoted to the study of those who were variously known as wise-women, wise-men, healers and herbalists. This site is produced in tandem with Davies' book Cunning Folk, Popular Magic in English History. A lecturer in history at the University of Hertfordshire, Davies is an expert in the later, and less frequently studied period of witchcraft, from 1736 to 1951 (when the last witchcraft act was repealed). There is a bibliography of his works and extracts from his books and articles. The cunning folk made up an entity distinct from those accused of witchcraft, and although cunning folk were accused of witchcraft on occasion, they were more likely to be those purporting to carry out beneficial practices, love magic, or locating lost items. The information provided here will be of use to undergraduate students, and for those desiring further information, a brief but helpful list of books and articles on related subjects is provided.
Der Mittelalter Server is a Web resource in German which provides a wealth of information for Medievalists. The site should prove useful to undergraduates and post-graduate students, although some of the historical commentary on the site should be treated with caution. The site is most valuable for its information and scanned primary source materials related to: battles; historic maps; the Crusades; notable people; contemporary Germanic currencies; and a medieval songbook (Liederbuch). The site also contains an extensive annotated links list, downloadable fonts and graphics, and its own search engine.
The Web Site of the "Diecezja Drohiczyńska" is in Polish and contains information about the Drohiczyn diocese's archive and museum. It is quite a rich archive with holdings mainly pertaining to the ecclesiastical records, but with a substantial section on the Jewish community. A brief history of the archive reveals its relatively new history. The site provides a listing of the holdings which include: parish records; monastery records; episcopal and diocesan records; memoires; plans and maps; early manuscripts and printed sources; and a collection of photographs, microfilms, and videos. The catalogues of the holdings can be downloaded in MS Word .DOC files. The site is of great use to those researching the history of different confessions, ethnicities, and Jewish communities in Poland and the areas now within Belarus and Ukraine.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Digest of Welsh Historical Statistics: Religion, 1669-1974' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to download as a compressed (zip) file. This is a machine-readable version of part of John Williams' ‘Digest of Welsh Historical and is intended to provide a service for those working on the history of modern Wales. The main tables are: Church of England. Number of incumbents, by diocese, 1832, 1879-1890; Church in Wales (before 1920 Church of England). Number of incumbents, baptisms, Easter communicants and Sunday scholars, by diocese, 1885-1974; Church in Wales. Number of churches, by diocese, 1832-1973; Nonconformist congregations, by county, 1672, 1716 and 1742; Baptists. Number of churches, members and Sunday scholars, by association, 1839-1865; Baptists. a) Members, 1669-1860; b) number of churches, chapels, pastors, members, Sunday school scholars and baptisms, by county, 1861-1972; Calvinistic Methodists. Number of chapels, churches, ministers, lay preachers, communicants, Sabbath scholars and adherents, by county, 1860, 1885-1973; Methodists. Number of members, by districts, 1767-1968; Congregationalists and Welsh Independents. Number of churches, ministers, members and Sabbath scholars, by county, 1861-1891 and 1897-1975; Roman Catholics. Number of clergy and churches (from 1838), schools, Catholics, baptisms, marriages and conversions (from 1911), by diocese, 1838-1974; Religious Census of 1851, summary table for Wales; Communicants, by county and denomination, 1905; Marriages, by type of rite, quinquennially, 1839-1972.
The Digital Atlas of England Project aims to satisfy the need for publicly available information on the UK's churches in an easily accessible form through the creation of a permanent digital image bank of architecturally and historically interesting sites in England. The Atlas only records those buildings recorded in Nikolaus Pevsner's Buildings of England series built prior to 1900 and as a result does not cover those in most large towns and cities. The project director is focusing on Anglican parish churches, and their structure and contents (including Royal Arms, pews, stained glass, pulpits and of course tombs). This site displays sample images, although it appears that the aim is to produce a range of CD-ROMs containing the images, and featuring the Panorama programme which is used by the project. Details for the purchase of the CD-ROMs are given, though at the time of writing this they were out of print. The good quality sample images indicate the standard of this project. The Atlas website provides information about the project, including a record of the number of photographs created. The website also contains a record open and locked churches in England, an interesting photographer's blog with contributions from the photographers for the project, and an invitation to join an email discussion list of the site. Free registration is required in order to access the full content of the View Buildings section of the site.
The website 'Jewish History Resource Center' is an online project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The website is a selective gateway for Jewish history, with links to over 4,500 sites. All have been checked by the Center's staff, and deemed relevant to the subject. Brief descriptions of the resources are provided. The sites listed cover Jewish history from biblical times until the 20th century, including a section devoted to the Holocaust. There are also sections on online texts and documents; relevant institutions (libraries, archives, and museums, for example); study and research resources (such as details of academic programmes, bibliographies, and journals); plus thematic sections on archaeology, genealogy, Jerusalem, and gender studies. The index of sites is searchable, or can be browsed by keywords. Also provided is information about the Dinur Center, including details of recent publications online and in print. A well-maintained and valuable resource for all those working in this area.
'Discovery and Reformation' is a history website introducing students to the period between the discovery of the New World and the end of the Thirty Years War. The site focuses on the impact of the discovery of the Americas, and the Reformation and its consequences. It forms part of an online course called 'World Civilizations', run by the Washington State University, and aimed at first-year university undergraduates. The site is divided according to various headings such as 'the Spanish Empire', 'John Calvin', or 'Religious Wars'. Each section consists of a basic narration of the key events and ideas, sometimes including links to glossary entries or other resources. There are extracts from Calvin's 'Institutes' about civil government, and from Martin Luther's 'The Freedom of the Christian'. The site is attractive and clearly laid out. It should provide a useful introduction to this period of European history for those previously unacquainted with it.
This website describes AHRC-funded work on a multi-authored print publication (with online supporting materials) ‘A History of the Dissenting Academies in the British Isles, 1660-1860’. Established after the Act of Uniformity in 1662, Dissenting Academies provided higher education and preparation for the ministry to Protestant students excluded from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, for some 200 years. The project aims to provide the first modern study of the academies in thirty years, and will include online databases “with relevant details of academies, tutors, and students, and a bibliography of source materials”.
The Dumbarton Oaks Hagiography Database assembles a considerable amount of reference material on hagiographic texts concerned with the lives of Byzantine saints and their activities between the eighth and tenth centuries. Inside the database, a record has been created for each saint's 'vita' detailing the name, location, date of death, and author of the 'vita', as well as the approximate date of composition. The structure of the database is quite sophisticated. One can either consult the general name lists of saints and/or hagiographers, or use the search features to isolate specific thematic categories or even exact phrases that appear in the text of the vita. The result offers brief bibliographic information on each saint and, most importantly, details of full-text publications. All users of this database should consult the introduction, accessible through a PDF-file: in addition to helpful background information, this section includes ninety pages of biographical material, listing virtually every saint from this period. Each of these entries briefly summarises their lives and recent academic studies and resources about them.
The Durham Liber Vitae Project was a joint project between the AHRB Centre for North-East England History, University of Durham and the Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King's College, London. The project ran from 200-2003. The Durham Liber Vitae is one of seven surviving libri memoriales from the Carolingian period, and the only English example of its date. The book contains several thousand names of persons in some way associated with the church of St Cuthbert from the 8th to the 16th century. Libri Vitae have the potential to cast considerable light on how major churches interacted with contemporary lay and ecclesiastical society and what these interactions can show about the basis of the churches' position and their role in defining the communities and the regions to which they related. The website gives information about the project, including: details of research publications, bibliographies and seminars; some brief information about the computerised edition project; and a description of British Library, MS Cotton Domitian VII which contains the Durham Liber Vitae. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) under the Resource Enhancement Scheme.
The Ecole (Early Church On-Line Encyclopedia) Initiative is a reference resource about the Christian church during its first 1,500 years. The site offers three main tools: first, a glossary which contains hundreds of brief descriptions on major figures within the early church. Secondly, a collection of longer articles covers major topics in medieval and classical Christianity. Thirdly, a chronology gives brief details of significant events in ecclesiastical and secular history from 55 BCE to the end of the 15th century. Hyperlinks between the sections are provided where relevant. The site also offers a bibliography and a list of links to related resources; however, the site is unfortunately no longer being maintained, and remains online chiefly for archival purposes. Consequently users should note that the bibliography will not include the most recent works, and it is likely that the external links will decay over time. Nevertheless, the locally hosted material offers a useful introduction to early church history.
This site is published by ExLibris, and it provides a useful reference guide to religious dissenters in seventeenth century England. The site covers groups that appeared before and during the English Civil War, as well as those present throughout the Interregnum. Twenty-one dissenting groups are listed, including the Adamites, Jacobites, Levellers, Lollards, Muggletonians, Puritans and Quakers. For each group there is a general history, biographies for key individuals, and a guiding list of primary and secondary sources. There is also a wider bibliography on dissenters in general available, and a selection of relevant websites. A related subsite deals with early English music from 1385 to 1714.
This is the website for the English Monastic Archives (EMA) Project, which is working to reconstruct the archives of English monasteries and to research the origins of record-keeping in England. The ongoing project presents the results as three online searchable database, covering 'Religious Houses', 'Properties' and 'Archives'. The project is based in the History Department of University College London and is directed by Professor David d'Avray. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
This website forms an online history course, run by Professor Ellis L. "Skip" Knox at Boise State University, on the Renaissance in European history (classed as running from 1300 to the start of the Reformation in 1517 on the website). Although aimed primarily at his own students, the website provides very valuable information to all interested in the Renaissance. The website is an excellent example of a completely online history course: all information relating to the course structure, and high-quality learning materials can be found here. The learning materials are split into thematic approaches to the Renaissance (politics, society, religion, economy and culture) and each of these sections has essays written by Professor Knox along with various relating primary sources. There are also various resource sections which provide maps, time-lines, bibliographies, and general reference information. The major focus of the website is on France, England, the Empire and the Italian States.
The ExLibris website provides detailed discussion on religious dissenters prior to, during, and just after the English Civil Wars and Interregnum. The website also provides an extensive list of English music's greatest works (and, where available, the composers) from 1385 to 1714. The discussion of the dissenters is divided by religious grouping (so, for example, there is a section on Baptists and a section on Muggletonians) and each area provides details on the group's aims, goals, achievements and influential leaders. There is a considerable bibliography which, although missing a few details on some publications, is of very wide scope and highly beneficial to any student or researcher in English religious, social or political history. The English 'musick' section is split into chronological order, with seven separate areas, and also has a very detailed and lengthy bibliography.
The website Folklore and Mythology at Harvard provides information on the study of those subjects at Harvard University. It is useful to those already in the field or who are thinking of studying these subjects. It provides a good explanation of the disciplines and how they are taught at the university as well as an outline of the faculty and their specialities. The site emphasises the position of folklore studies in between the social sciences and the humanities, and its very interdisciplinary nature with the possibility of specialising in regional and/or themed areas. The course summaries are also online, which enables the potential student to examine the degree classes more closely and gain a better idea of the types of subjects studied at this level.
The website of "The Folklore Society" (FLS) provides information about the society which was founded in 1878. Based in London in the Warburg Institute, it is devoted to the study of aspects of vernacular or popular culture and tradition, including music, folk medicine, folklore, traditional sayings, proverbs etc, and aims to make its research available to all. It provides details of forthcoming conferences and academic events, as well as membership rates. The society has a rich stock of holdings on the subject and also publishes a peer reviewed journal entitled "Folklore" three times a year. The site is of interest to those studying popular culture, folklore, folkloristics, ethnography, or social history.
The Franciscan Archive is an all-in-one gateway for information about Franciscan life and history as well as the order's major thinkers and figures. Maintained by Brother Alexis Bugnolo, the layout of the home page is reminiscent of a newspaper with articles divided up into a variety of sections that include theology, liturgy, documents and history. When selected, the user discovers that each section is constructed out of external links and transcriptions from original spiritual texts that are available in English, Latin and occasionally Spanish. Not surprisingly there is a massive amount of information available on St. Francis of Assisi and the establishment of the Franciscan order including biographies, medieval hagiographies, legends and the Saint's writings. However the site goes on much further by offering brief histories of other Christian saints associated with the Franciscan movements. Students at all levels will find this resource easy to use and appreciate the depth and variety of material collected. Scholars too will welcome the ongoing addition of electronic texts from and about medieval Franciscan figures.
The Franks Casket website is entirely devoted to the interpretation of the language and symbolism of the famous 7th-century carved whalebone casket, now kept in the British Museum. The examination of the object itself is divided into seven sections, beginning with an overview of the casket's history and decoration, and continuing with an examination of each panel in turn. The site's author, Dr Alfred Becker, looks at the images depicted on each panel and also at the accompanying runic inscriptions and how these fit into an overall scheme. The study is well illustrated with details of the carvings, and contextualises the casket with historical and religious detail. This site would be of use to those studying the Anglo-Saxon art or history, especially in the context of the intermingling of pagan and Christian ideologies. This site is available in German or English versions, both accessible from this URL.
The website "German 363: Witches - Myth and Historical Reality" has been published online by Professor Susan Cocalis of the University of Massachusetts. As well as essay guidance for undergraduate students, she also provides a cursory section on illustrations, and interestingly, a section on contemporary reports on witchcraft. Of most use to the student or even teacher, new to the field of witchcraft, are the lecture notes. These materials give a good impression of the material covered in the course and of useful topics. Subjects covered include: the importance of Tituba in the Salem witch trials (1692); possession; Puritanism; and the demonisation of medieval heretics. These can be read in PDF format. There is a lot of emphasis on pagan perspectives and media portrayals of the witch.
German History in Documents and Images (GHDI) exhibits primary sources online to present a narrative of Germany's political, social, and cultural history from 1500 to the present. The site includes historical narrative overviews and original German texts, accompanied by new English translations. Short secondary historical narratives are prepared by a variety of current scholars who are specialists in relevant fields. The site is divided into ten sections according to historical time periods, with each addressing the following themes: government and administration; parties and organizations; military and war; economy and labour; nature and environment; gender, family, and generations; region, city, and countryside; religion; literature, art, and music; elite and popular cultures; and science and education. Primary sources and texts can be downloaded from the site, which is extermely useful for teaching, research, and study purposes. The site prohibits commercial use.
Gravely Gorgeous is a website devoted to the explanation, study, and admiration of gargoyles and grotesques. This site would be of great interest to anybody studying architecture, literature based upon architecture (such as Ruskin's "Stones of Venice", Thomas Hardy's novels in general, and most especially, Victor Hugo's "The Hunchback of Notre Dame"), or the concept of the grotesque in general. A brief history is given to explain the medieval development of the gargoyle (the water spout) and the grotesque (corbels and capitals). However, the site is more focused on the Gothic Revival in the Victorian period, especially in England and France. The title for the page, is, in fact, taken from the words of Nathaniel Hawthorne on describing Pugin's design for the New Palace of Westminster that was built mid 19th-century. Notre Dame and the Troyes Cathedral are discussed at some length as some of the best examples of Gothic architecture with examples of gargoyles and grotesques. Charles Maryon and Seraphin Mederic Mieusement are given due attention because of their devotion to Gothic architecture in Paris and France. The gallery of images is stunning, and for that reason this site is highly recommended.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Great Britain Historical Database : Census Data : Religion Statistics, 1851' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as tab delimited files, UK higher education users may also download the data through the CHCC (Historical Census Collection) system. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation.To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. The data is taken from the 1851 Census of Religious Worship for Great Britain.
In the Gregorian Chant Home Page, Peter Jeffery has brought together a selection of links to online text documents and audio files on Gregorian chant, ranging from sites about medieval musical theory and resource guides to medieval chant performance, to pages on liturgy and Gregorian chant workshops. The website is simply presented and hence easy to navigate, with the links (many of which are annotated) divided into categories for ease of reference. This resource refers to American as well as European societies and institutions, but is primarily aimed at American musicology students. The site also offers a small selection of Princeton University course materials related to Gregorian chant.
The website "Hiatt Holocaust Collection " provides information about this collection of Holocaust material at the College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA, USA, which was created in 1979. The Hiatt Holocaust collection consists of holdings mainly in English that focus on the roles of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus) and the wider Roman Catholic Church during the Second World War. There is also an emphasis on the post-war relationship between Christians and Jews. The collection is coordinated by the Rev. Vincent Lapomarda, who has published works on the subject. There is a useful link to the Holy Cross archives and to related sites. Sections include information on Jesuit victims of the Holocaust, information on Saint Edith Stein, and the Jesuit Righteous Among Nations. There are also images of the liberation of Buchenwald and the text of a dedication speech made by Elie Wiesel. The collection can also be searched using the Holy Cross Libraries catalogue. This site is useful for those who are studying World War Two and its Holocausts and for A and AS level students.
The website 'Hilandar Research Library and Resource Center for Medieval Slavic Studies' is the homepage of the library and research centre based at the Ohio State University. The Hilandar Library (HLR) has the largest collection of medieval Slavonic manuscripts on microfilm in the world. The collection contains over two million pages of manuscript material including early Slavonic and Greek manuscripts from the Monastery of the same name. The Cyrillic manuscripts originate from major public and private collections in Russia, Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria. Over 700 early Cyrillic printed books have been copied onto microfilm and the library provides a specialised reference collection. Access to over half of the manuscripts is available online through an online catalogue (Oscar) and many can be copied for academic purposes. The Polata knigopisnaia, a guide to early Slavic texts, can also be searched via the Knowledge Bank of the Ohio State University Library. Links are given to other Slavonic centres and access is provided to the Hilandar Research Library Newsletter. The Research Center for Medieval Slavic Studies (RCMSS) works closely with the HRL, supporting research into the culture, linguistisc and history of medieval Slavic languages. This is an important site for those wishing to access documents online and those wishing to locate manuscripts.
Professor Don Mabry's "Historical Text Archive" is a wide-ranging directory of texts, articles and images which pertain to random subjects in History. The author is an academic at Mississippi State University. The site is of use to anyone interested in History and is arranged by geography and theme, including sections on: the Persian Gulf War; Science History; Psycho History; Africa; Islamic History; the USA; Womens' History; Terrorism; and many more. However, coverage varies and whilst for example there are over forty references for European History, other areas contain only three or four items. The material ranges from digitalisation of complete books, to articles penned by the site's author. There is also a helpful section of essay questions, and book recommmendations by Amazon. This site has won over twenty awards, but is a rather random collection of material, with no visible collection policy.
This website has been created by Steven Kreis for post-16 and undergraduate students. It contains complete contents listings for three undergraduate courses in European history and is divided into 90 lectures, from ancient Sumer to the fall of Soviet-style communism in 1989. All the lectures are divided into four topics: ancient and medieval European history; early modern European history; modern European intellectual history; and 20th century Europe. It contains an extremely useful guide for historians and another introductory historiographical section which defines history. Lectures on modern European intellectual history concentrate mainly on the French revolution and the development of ideologies, while lectures on 20th century Europe cover topics such as: the Russian October revolution and its influence; totalitarian regimes of Stalin and Hitler; and the origins of the Cold War. The lecture on George Orwell and the Last Man in Europe, which is about the writer's drafting of '1984,' is of special note. All the texts contain highlighted names and historical events, which users can click on to gain access to other websites covering the people and events concerned. For example, the lecture on the aftermath of the Bolshevik revolution provides links to biographies of Lenin and Trotsky and full-texts of the English versions of important documents, such as: The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the Decree on Peace; materials on the Russian civil war; and war communism.
The History of Medieval and Renaissance Europe Web page forms part of the larger EuroDocs site which was created at the Brigham Young University by Richard Hacken. EuroDocs offers provides access and links to selected primary source documents as: transcriptions; facsimiles; or translations. Documents and sites are selected on the basis that they offer access to primary source material relating to key historical events. The History of Medieval and Renaissance Europe page provides links to individual documents and gateways. The links (some of which are annotated) are arranged in chronological order, which makes browsing a lengthy process, but a search engine is provided. The linked resources are in a number of languages, including: Latin; English; Italian; French; and German, and cover a wide range of subjects, such as: literature; church history; law; and manuscript studies. Users who feel they can contribute to the website are encouraged to apply for a login which will enable them to edit the wiki for this site. Editing access is confined only to those individuals who have been authenticated. Students and researchers working in the Medieval and Early Modern periods will find many useful links on these pages.
The website "Holy Wells in Devon" is a useful site for those interested in local history or the history of local and popular religion. As well as a location map and a list of the holy wells, there is a brief history of holy wells and their importance. The traditional association of wells, or water-sources with magical and religious practices has a long history and is instrumental in understanding settlement locations and the origins of place names. The site explains the importance of wells to Celtic, Celto-Christian, and Christian beliefs. As Christianity spread and became more standardized, opposition was raised to these local sites of veneration, rarely sanctioned by the Church. But some wells were acculturated into mainstream Roman Catholicism and dedicated to Our Lady, the Virgin Mary for example.The site contains photos of wells (intended to encourage more visitors to the locations) and is not intended as an academic study. However, the culmination of a year-long project to rediscover the holy and ancient wells around Exmoor and Dartmoor, has resulted in this rather informative website. The website was also well-received by researchers on the WELLS-AND-SPAS@JISCMAIL.AC.UK email list community.
The website titled: "Images of Circe and Discourses of Witchcraft, 1480-1580" presents an excellent essay by Professor Charles Zika, of the University of Melbourne, probably the world's leading authority on the iconography of witchcraft. Combining the discipline of art history with the study of witchcraft has enabled the visual significance of the iconography of witchcraft to have a more meaningful role in the study of witchcraft. Imagery played an incredibly important role in the conceptualisation of witches, witchcraft, the devil, and ideas of sin. This examination of the classical figure of Circe, legendary enchantress, illustrates the evolution of the portrayal of women as wielders of magic. The subject of interest by Boccaccio, Boethius, Virgil, and Augustine, Circe was a popular representation of the contemporary female in a variety of eras. A magnificently illustrated essay, which would appeal to those with an interest in art history, and history more generally. The paper - which appeared in the online journal "Zeitenblicke" - can be downloaded in full-text as a PDF file.
The website "Index Verborum : Martin Luther's German Writings 1516-1525" is an excellent project based at Boston College. Begun by Heinz Bluhm, and continued by Keith Moorehouse and Agnes Farkas, the project has placed online a reference guide to over 323 of Luther's works in German. It is exceptionally useful for theologians, historians and Germanists, as the works can be searched by word, and number of instances is provided. Textual and linguistic analyses can be more easily carried out. Several examples of the range of meaning a word was assigned within Luther's work are provided here. There is also a helpful list of 'unessential' words not included in the index, and indices of the works are provided. An excellent tool for all those working on the Reformation, Germanic Studies and Theology.
This is the website of the Institut des Traditions Textuelles. The institute conducts interdisciplinary research in philosophy, history, history of religion, and history of science in many languages, including Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Arabic, Coptic, Ethiopian, and Syriac. It was created in 1996 by bringing together four research units of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS): Histoire des doctrines de la fin de l'Antiquité et du Haut Moyen Âge; Centre d'études des religions du livre; Centre d'histoire des sciences et des philosophies Arabes et Médiévales; Laboratoire de médiévistique occidentale de Paris. The website provides only basic details for access to the institute and its library. A separate Web page is dedicated to the collection entitled 'Textes et traditions' published by Librairie philosophique J. Vrin. There is a list of titles already published, which leads through hyperlinks to each book's title page (including a scanned image), a brief abstract and / or the table of contents.
The International Association for the History of Religions (IAHR), founded as an organization in 1950, is dedicated to promoting the academic study of the history of religions through international collaboration between scholars. The association holds a major congress every five years, and holds regional and special conferences annually. The principal scholarly outlet of the association is its official journal, 'Numen: International Review for the History of Religions.' In addition, the Association publishes the 'Numen Book Series,' which now comprises over eighty volumes. Further information on publications of the IAHR, as well as information regarding membership is readily available on the site.
Developed by Association Paléographique Internationale: Culture, Écriture, Société, the Index of Medieval Books Recently Acquired by Public Libraries provides information about new works acquired by major libraries. Works may be displayed by country, library or within a general index. The types of work acquired include: psalters; missals; brevaries; and books of hours, and a brief description is given for each item. The information is available in French and English.
The website of "The International Joan of Arc Society / Société Internationale de l'étude de Jeanne d'Arc" (IJAS) provides information about the online association which makes available resources relating to Joan of Arc via the Web. The site includes details of: an email discussion forum; information about a collaborative project to make available primary and secondary texts for the study of Joan of Arc; a bibliography of manuscripts, trial transcripts and modern scholarship; and links to further resources. The site is directed by Bonnie Wheeler (Southern Methodist University) and Jane Marie Pinzino (University of South Florida) together with members of the Society. One of the most notable features of the website is the online version of texts of her trials of condemnation and nullification. Also featured on the site are: interactive maps of Joan's journeys; lists of films about Joan; and syllabi of various courses on Joan of Arc. This site would interest not only those studying Joan of Arc herself, but also medieval historians and those interested in gender studies.
"Irish witchcraft and demonology by St John D. Seymour" is a book published online as part of the Sacred Texts collection. Originally published in 1913, it is one of the few sources for Irish witchcraft and features the case of Dame Alice Kyteler of Kilkenny. The book also discusses the contingent practices of sorcery, exorcism, divination, possession, and hauntings. It is clearly a book of its time and is of interest as a historical document in itself, as well as a basic point for starting the study of Irish witchcraft. The period covered is 1324-1807. Topics discussed include: the Carnmoney witch; witchcraft in County Antrim; the Magee witch-trial; Dr Williams and the haunted house in Dublin; and the devil among the Quakers. A related CD-ROM is available for purchase through the site.
This website details the architectural history of the city of Isfahan (or Esfahan) in Iran. Isfahan is a designated UNESCO world heritage site, with an architectural history dating back to the eleventh century CE. This site describes, and provides photographs of, all the minarets, bridges, palaces, mosques, and shrines in the city that were built before the twentieth century. There is a section on the fundamental concepts of Persian architecture, which explains the religious significance of the design and colouring of the several parts of the Persian mosque. The site also provides basic introductions to: Shi'ism; the influence of Sufism in the development of Iranian culture; and the historic events that have affected Persia/Iran. The site includes an extensive bibliography and links section, which references: publishers that produce works on Iranian/Persian history; other websites that refer to Isfahan; sites concerned with Iranian religion, culture, and literature; and Iranian newspapers.
This website describes Islam and its historical origins. Some of the central qualities and assumptions of the religion are outlined, generally accompanied by comparisons with Christianity. The historical part of the site begins with pre-Islamic Arabic culture. It then introduces the prophet Muhammad, the Qur'an (or Koran), and goes on to describe the Caliphate under Abu Bakr, the Civil war and Umayyad Dynasty, the Shi'a schism, and finally the Abassid Dynasty. A separate section on the Arabic language emphasises its centrality to the Islamic faith. An 'Islam reader' consists of sections of the Qur'an translated into English. There is also a glossary of terms and a list of links to other sites. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates. The site is a decade old, seems to be archived.
Adrift in a sea of polemics and postulation, the wonderful 'Islam and Islamic studies resources' website is a truly welcome presence on the Internet for its commitment to collecting and evaluating useful Internet resources on the Islamic faith. Maintained by Dr Alan Godlas at the University of Georgia, these pages seek to provide a scholarly overview of Islam, and Islam related issues, with the site divided into a series of categories that introduce the reader to an array of historical and contemporary discussions, but which are detailed enough to entice the most discerning of users. By combining introductory summary material with links to additional external sites, the author provides not only a brief tutorial in Islam but simultaneously identifies and critiques the best Islamic resources on the net. Categories include everything from the basic divisions in Islam, to mysticism, science, women's issues, history and art. Most sections offer additional bibliographic material, and new students will find the collection of bibliographic links and glossary of terms especially helpful. Those who wish to learn about Islam through electronic resources while remaining confident of the quality of material would do well to begin here.
This is the website of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. Founded in 1965, the Museum has quickly established an excellent reputation. Information is provided about the main collections, of which perhaps the most important is the Shrine of the Book, which holds the Dead Sea Scrolls. These Essene manuscripts date from the third century BC to the first century AD, and the museum's website provides an informative and well-presented introduction, outlining their historical context and importance. A select bibliography and related links are provided. Details are also given of the other wings, devoted to world art, Judaica and Jewish Ethnography, and archaeology, plus the art garden and the youth wing. Each contains descriptions and images of objects from the collection. There are details of events, lectures and publications, as well as exhibitions past present and future. The website is well presented, and provides all the information a prospective visitor might require about the museum and its resources. One of the highlights among the online exhibitions is a Virtual Tour at the Model of Jerusalem in the Late Second Temple Period. The Museum's website is an excellent example of the productive use of the World Wide Web in offering an accessible and informative introduction to a cultural institution of international importance.
This website, edited by Yashwant K. Malaiyais, is devoted to the history of the Jain religion. Emerging in 8th century BC India, Jainism has a long history. As a result, it is part of the purpose of the site to separate myth and tradition from truth. To this end, a detailed time-line is provided that traces the development of Jainism from its origins to the present. Many names or events on the time-line are linked to further information and articles. However, the site also contains a separate, and very large, index of Jain resources, including texts, images and organisations.
The emergence of new Jewish communities in Britain following their readmission in the 1650s resulted in the creation of a rich and unique heritage of religious building types such as synagogues, cemeteries and ritual bathhouses, but also social spaces such as schools, soup kitchens and hospitals. The decline in the size of the Jewish population and changes in the economic status of congregations since WWII has placed many Jewish buildings of considerable social and architectural importance under threat. This website describes the attempts of a project organised by the Jewish Memorial Council (JMC) and substantially funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund to survey, photograph and archive some 350 surviving examples of Jewish buildings constructed up to the Second World War. The resource includes a map of survey sites in the British Isles, a list of listed synagogues and other Jewish buildings, an outline of sites under risk (or lost, including the last major synagogue in Dublin demolished in 1999) and details of plans for publication and preservation of surviving monuments. Many of the structures under threat are characterised by lavish 19th and 20th century architectural or decorative features and fine craftsmanship, often combing contemporary styles with specifically Jewish features. The resource also provides practical advice for individuals and groups, both members of synagogue communities or the general public, to record any part of the Jewish built heritage which is under threat. This site will interest in particular architectural and social historians and heritage professionals but will also broaden public awareness of this important aspect of the built environment in the British Isles.
The website "Jewish Virtual Library" is maintained and compiled by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE) and this ought to be borne in mind when using or looking at the site. Obviously the site is dominated by literature on the Jewish Holocaust, but there are also sections on Israeli politics, biography, Israel and religion. One of the best sections of this website displays reproductions and excerpts from Judaic treasures of the Library of Congress. It features some beautiful reproductions along with explanations of the works, textual excerpts and links to vocabularly and terminology that may be unfamiliar. On a more contemporary note, US-Israeli relations are outlined in a state-by-state table, with information on trade, grants and educational exchanges. The information on this site must be used with caution, and independently verified.
The 'John Foxe's Book of Martyrs' website provides searchable online texts of the four editions of Foxe's 'Acts and Monuments of the English Martyrs' published during the author's lifetime, in 1563, 1570, 1576, and 1583. In this work, Foxe (1516-1587) sought to represent the Protestant Reformation as 'a transforming experience in the religious history of England and Europe'. The various editions may be displayed side-by-side to enable easy comparison, and the online texts are accompanied by editorial commentaries and critical apparatus, including hypertext annotations, plus a searchable bibliography. The project originally received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board and is supported by the Humanities Research Institute at the University of Sheffield. This material can also be downloaded from the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS), although registration is required to access the HDS version.
The Web Site "Karaylarin üyi/ Karaim home page" is in English and is devoted to the Crimean Karaites (Karaim), a Turkic people who were dispersed throughout Europe. A mixture of Alans, Cumans, Kipchaks, and Khazars, these people followed a monotheistic Abramic religion. One of their most important spiritual leaders and teachers was Anan ben David who recognized Moses, Jesus Christ and Mohommed as prophets. The site has a wealth of information on the Crimean Karaites, including: geographical distribution of the current community (mainly in Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, France, Turkey, Israel, and the USA); a feature on the religion of Karaim-Turks; and other articles by leading experts of the origins, history and culture of the Karaim. This is a fascinating site with contributions from Dr Dan Shapira, Mehmet Tüt7uuml;ncü, and Joseph Pashka. It also features a photographic exhibition of daily life in Trakai (Troki) and an essay on Turkic and Slavonic language contacts, focusing on Karaim in Lithuania and Ukraine. This site has not been updated since 1999 but the informatiion provided is still a good introduction into the history and traditions of Turkic peoples.
This Web page, part of the website of economics consultancy Volterra, describes the AHRC-funded knowledge transfer partnership between Volterra economist Paul Ormerod and Glasgow University academic Dr Andrew Roach. The partnership is applying network theory to the choices people made about religious allegiance in history. Outcomes to date have included published work on the medieval inquistition and forthcoming work on martyrs and English Protestantism in the 16th Century. The Web page links to Roach’s academic profile which includes further information about his research.
L'édit de Nantes et ses antécédents (1562-1598) is one of the subsites of ELEC; the online publications page of the National School of Charters at the Sorbonne. This site provides a scholarly critical edition of four different versions of the Edict of Nantes; the royal decree of 1598 which protected the religious rights of French Protestants. It also posts 11 earlier historical edicts and other relevant primary source documents related to efforts to pacify upheavals during the religious wars of 16th century France. A lengthy introduction by the director, Bernard Barbiche, explains the rationale, methods, and scholarly background of the project, as well as the history of the Edict of Nantes itself. Students at the school participated in the production of this website, under the guidance of their professors. The site has a number of online tools to aid thematic research: an alphabetical index; a search engine; and a glossary. It should be of special interest for professional academics, postgraduates and undergraduates working in various branches of 16th and 17th century French History, Religious Studies, and French Studies.
"La Mort dans l'Art" is an attractively illustrated website providing a survey of representations of death from the Middle Ages to the present day as featured in a number of media such as murals, illuminated manuscripts, engravings and paintings on canvas. Many of the basic attitudes to death and the afterlife in the Middle Ages are reflected by the French legend of the three living and the three dead (whose punchline is the title of the site) which first appears in manuscripts in the 13th century and which was widely represented in art until the 16th century. The wealth and status of this world are contrasted with the rotting corpses of the dead, prompting the message of humility and moral awareness in the face of inevitable mortality. This gloomy message had an extraordinary impact on the mediaeval mind and on the artists who provided devotional and decorative images for use by churchman and laity alike and provide an fascinating insight into popular perceptions of eschatalogical themes. Other featured iconographic themes include the 'dance of Death' (which includes depictions from Scandinavia, Eastern Europe and the former Yugoslavia and a useful chronological survey), 'Death and the maiden' and the 'triumph of Death' as well as some miscellaneous representations. A short bibliography is also included. This resource, which is available in English and French, will interest in particular students and researchers of mediaeval history and religion, art and archaeology.
The website "Murals of the XIIth to the XVIIth century in France and elsewhere" is an amateur site created by Yves Impens to offer detailed information and images of the painted churches of Brinay (Bourges region) and Jenzat (Clermont region) in France together with images and outline commentaries on similar structures elsewhere in France, Belgium and Switzerland. Together these pages comprise a useful online corpus of French religious mural painting between the 12th and the 15th centuries AD. French churches, unlike their English counterparts which suffered from the iconoclasm of the Reformation and the 17th century, contain a wealth of mediaeval wall-paintings featuring images of the life of Christ and the saints or eschatalogical themes such as the Last Judgement. The sections on Brinay and Jenzat provide an account of the architecture and history of the church with interactive plans while more general sections of the site discuss techniques of mural painting and the pigments employed by the artists. A recent addition to the site, which is an on-going project, is an inventory of painted churches in France and Swizerland with interactive maps for easy browsing which provide gazette-style information on many more examples than are featured in the photo gallery. Many of the entries are conveniently linked to the Google maps providing geographical information for those not familiar with the often remote locations of many of these churches. Useful links to related sites and references are also posted on this site. The resource is a valuable source of colour images for students and researchers of mediaeval French art and archaeology and provides useful complementary material for those more familiar with painted churches on this side of the English Channel.
This extensive Latin American prehistory web page is part of the eMuseum at the Minnesota State University. It describes the peoples and events of Mesoamerican prehistory from the first settlers to the Spanish conquest, covering the Aztecs, Incas, Maya, and other significant cultures. The main page links to short articles on themes such as: the peopling of Central and South America; big game hunting; the transition to domestication; the history of Latin American archaeology; and the arrival of the Spanish. There are menu pages for Mesoamerican and South American sites and cultures. These contain pages for each major group and for important archaeological sites associated with them. The pages are organised according to the traditional time periods of the region: preclassical, classical, and postclassical. Each page offers a brief overview of the history of its subject, accompanied by illustrations and a short bibliography. A 'technology and society' section contains information about calendars, sports and games, religion, farming, social structures, and other aspects of everyday life in Mesoamerican societies. The site provides a straightforward overview of Latin American history before the arrival of the Europeans, and is suited to school use or as a reference guide for those with no specialist knowledge of the field.
The website Lectures in Medieval History is precisely what its title suggests - a comprehensive online collection of lectures offered for open access courses by Dr. Lynn Harry Nelson, manager of the Kansas Heritage gateway and Emeritus Professor of Medieval History at the University of Kansas. The lectures were prepared as basic resource material for US college students studying western civilisation, but also form a useful tool for swiftly familiarising oneself with key events and movements from the transformation of the Roman Empire to 1492. There are fifty-two lectures available, ranging from topics such as 'The Hundred Years War', Medieval Philosophy' and 'The First Crusade'. The style of the lectures is readable and thoughtful, offering an accessible springboard for ideas and further study. They read like lectures, rather than conference papers, so are casual in tone, with the strong sense of a confident speaker that makes them good introductory resources. Within some of the broad headings are lectures entitled 'Thoughts on reading...' which address ways of considering key texts for that area. These include 'Beowulf', 'El Cid' and 'The Little Flowers of St Francis'. These lectures are concerned with ways of reading and focus on the idea that depth of study continually opens up new areas of interest, rather than ever becoming definitive.
The website "Les sorcières: entre mythe et réalités" is published by the Cercle Zététique and comprises a fourteen page essay in French on the subject of "Witches: Between Myth and Reality". The essay provides a good introducton to the historiography of the study of witchcraft. First, the author discusses the much disputed and by now almost universally dismissed theory of Margaret Murray and others, that maintained that witches really existed and were a secret sect. Citing experts in the field such as Robert Muchembled, Norman Cohn, and Jean-Michel Sallmann, the author provides an adequate but not terribly sophisticated introduction to the subject of witchcraft before he goes on to the main concern of the essay which is the accusations of witchcraft ranged against la Voisin, Madame de Montespan (1641-1707) mistress to Louis XIV, which shocked Paris in 1679. Thought to have celebrated black masses, sacrificed new-born babies and used the services of diviners and witches, Madame de Montespan was arrested along with numerous others. The essay concentrates on questioning the empirical nature of witchcraft, and what the label of witch might mean, when all interpretations were variable. A good essay for undergraduates.
'Life in Elizabethan England: A Compendium of Common Knowledge 1558-1603' is a collection of Elizabethan knowledge for those writers and actors looking for commonplaces which would assist in the development of their character. While it would be useful for artists, it is also useful to students studying the Elizabethan period as it clarifies the language and everyday events of Elizabethans. There are numerous trivial details which could clarify Elizabethan texts, such as the placement if 'j' instead of an 'i' at the end of roman numerals finishing with more than one 'i' (8=viij). There are pages on Elizabethan pastimes: drinking, whoring, cards, tennis, etc. For those needing help reading Elizabethan accounts or money details there is a very useful page explaining Elizabethan money. There is information about Catholicism in England, the Church of England (established by Henry VIII), Puritanism, Calvinism, and also Elizabethan ideas about Ireland and Scotland, both predominantly Catholic countries. This resource should provide a helpful reference source for students in further education or beginning undergraduate studies.
The website "LITNET" is run by the Academical and Research Network in Lithuania, made up of senior scholars and funded by the Ministry of Science and Education. The site is in Lithuanian and English. It provides a wealth of details on Lithuania, from ancient religion and mythology to tourist information. There is a short and rather superficial essay on the history of Lithuania, which although the translation is not of the highest quality, is useful for the novice. Sections include information on: cultural life; the political and state structure; geography and climate; and genealogy. There is also a very useful link to a summary of political research carried out at the Department of Public Administration at Kaunas University of Technology. A list of links to the academic institutes and student organisations in Lithuania is also extremely helpful.
This is the website of the Living Spring Journal (LSJ), a peer-reviewed electronic journal for the study of all aspects of holy wells and waterlore, edited by Richard Pederick of the University of Bath. Although only two issues of the LSJ appeared (in May 2000 and November 2002), the journal was widely acclaimed and contributed to by the community of local history and academic researchers it served. The value of the LSJ to its community can be seen by consulting the archives of the Wells-and-Spas JISCMAIL list ("Water talk, the email discussion list for springs and spas enthusiasts"). The full text of both issues is accessible from this website. The scope of the journal is stated as a forum for the study of wells and their place in the community, their history, construction, architecture, archaeology, sociology, hagiography, religious significance, folklore, and ritual. It also gives a broad picture of the study of water-sources, so that holy and healing wells may be set in the wider context of water in the community. However, LSJ is not a forum for the study of industrial or commercial wells and boreholes, although some spa wells are featured.
The Lollard Society website provides information about this academic association dedicated to the study of Lollardy. The site is presented in blog format, and offers relevant news and announcements, including calls for papers and conference details. Available elsewhere on the site are society membership information, and perhaps most usefully for the serious scholar, a series of bibliographies, covering both primary and secondary texts. Where the texts listed are out of copyright, a PDF version of the full work is sometimes provided. Also known as Wycliffism (because its member followed the teachings of John Wycliffe) Lollardy was a religious and political movement which flourished in England between the mid 14th century and the Reformation, and which was characterised by criticism of the western church.
The website "The Malleus Maleficarum" presents a transcription of Montague Summers' translation of the Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches), together with a summation and commentary. The site was created by two enthusiasts. It is easy to navigate (there is a search engine) and the text is well presented. It has been argued that this book was one of the most influential books of the late medieval and early modern periods, purportedly acting in some cases as a handbook for the identification, accusation, and trial of witches. Most historians recognise that its importance has been greatly inflated, however, it is of primary interest to students of the witchcraft phenomenon, and can be used as a reference text for researchers. The work was first published by two Dominicans - Kramer and Sprenger - in 1486, and was prefaced by a Papal Bull. On this site there are also introductions to Summers' translations (published in 1928 and 1948), and links to certain notes and references cited. This site is extremely useful for those seeking information about the work, or quotations, but it must be remembered that the accuracy of Summers' translations has been the subject of doubt. Additionally, whilst the site is worth using for an overall view of the work, it should be used with caution: the transcriber's summation and introduction reflect many stereotypical beliefs about the witchcraft persecution, which have been disproved by recent scholarship.
This site provides listings of magical manuscripts and early printed books from the classical, medieval and early modern periods. The material has been gathered by Frank Klassaan of the University of Saskatchewan and is a work in progress. The listings are divided in to four themed areas: 'Ars notaria' and 'Liber visionum'; Necromantic and other ritual magic manuscripts; 'mage magic, Arabic image magic, and other Arabic magic; and the 'Sworn Book of Honorius' or 'Liber sacer'. Records are listed alphabetically by place of repository. There are also list of manuscripts by author (where known) and an index of incipits (first lines). This site will interest historians of magic, of science, of religion and theology.
The website 'Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity' is the homepage of the a division of the Max Planck Society, based in Göttingen, Germany. The institute was created in 2007, replacing the former Max-Planck-Institut für Geschichte (Institute for History). The first language of the site is German but most of the materials and publications are posted in English, while an English version of the interface is also available. The main page offers the latest news and updates, as well as blogs, job offers and publications. The institute is an autonomous research organisation and affiliated fellows and graduate students are listed, as are conferences and recent publications. The institute's library has a subsite here, with a searchable catalogue. Research is listed with projects according to various departments, namely: Department of Socio-Cultural Diversity; and Department of Religious Diversity. The Working Paper Series published by the Institute offers the reports and articles by staff and affiliated researchers, which can be read and downloaded in full in PDF format.
Despite its broad title, Prof. Kelly's Medieval Literature and Culture website focuses entirely on the study of Old and Middle English literature, and reflects the contents and structure of Prof. Kelly's university course in medieval English literature. As such, the site provides practical reading lists on a number of topics: the 'idea of history'; travel literature; the medieval perception of the body; and religious writings. There are also hyper-links to a great number of primary texts (and modern English translations) of: medieval romances; lyrics; and prose. These primary texts are frequently hosted on other websites. The site has a pleasant lay-out (including some illustrative picture material) and benefits from a very straightforward navigation. However, the 'medieval' font used for the main menu page may cause somewhat uncomfortable reading. On the whole, the main strength of this site is its providing and systematizing links to primary texts, whereas its other features generally only offer minimal information and depend upon elaboration in a teaching context.
The website 'Medieval Manuscripts of Canon Law and Roman Law' provides access to a list of Canon law incipits compiled and maintained by Dr Giovanna Murano, and to a database of Canon law and Roman law manuscript shelfmarks developed by Gero Dolezalek at the University of Leipzig. The website aims to provide a comprehensive cumulative inventory of all manuscripts of Canon law and Roman law mentioned in catalogues or in legal-historical publications. It is designed as a tool for scholars in order to assist with the discovery of who published what, where and on which manuscript. In addition, the website also provides a gateway of annotated links to other web resources related to manuscripts of medieval Canon Law and Roman law and to some general medieval manuscripts sites. The Canon Law incipit list can be downloaded as a compressed file.
The Medieval Wall Painting in the English Parish Church website provides an online catalogue of churches in England that are decorated with medieval wall paintings, dating from the twelfth to the fifteenth century. The catalogue can be browsed by geographical location using a county map of England, or by subject via a page of thumbnail images. Photographs of all the paintings are provided. The images are accompanied by useful descriptions and notes on their importance and context. The paintings have been separated into categories which include, among others: pre-1200 paintings; Genesis scenes and the Tree of Jesse; the early life of Christ; the Virgin; the Saints; the Doom and the weighing of souls; the Passion cycle; and devotional scenes. In addition to the main catalogue there is also: a general introduction to medieval wall paintings; a bibliography; and a selection of pertinent links. This website would be invaluable to anyone studying medieval art and religious iconography, although it should be noted that this is an ongoing project and coverage is not complete.
The website, Medievalismo, acts as a portal to online resources and contacts useful for those working on Spanish medieval history and literature, although the site equally pays attention to the European medieval period in general. It offers a good agenda of conferences and seminars in this field, which are to be held across Spain, Latin America, Europe and USA. Extensive lists of international societies and of medievalists across the world will assist in the location of 'likeminds' and users may click on the names to access the home page of the individual in question. Of interest for the researcher, too, will be the site's listing of scholarly journals (in Spanish, French and English) devoted to medieval studies: scrolling over the titles in the list reveals publication and contact details for most of the journals. The site also publishes the monthly bulletin, 'Medievalismo Digital', featuring news, reviews and short articles related to this period of European history. For the tutor, there is a dedicated section with links to pedagogical resources, including thematic articles, videos, maps, and a list of online bibliographical databases. This is a promising gateway for those wishing to locate and identify relevant journals and research groups in their field. The site is equally navigable in Spanish, French, English, German and Italian, although most of the resources are available in the first two only.
The essential premise behind the electronic book 'Misconceptions about the Middle Ages' is that there are common misconceptions students tend to have about the Medieval period, which need to be corrected by those teaching medieval studies. Edited by Stephen J. Harris (University of Massachusetts) and Bryon L. Grigsby (Centenary College), Misconceptions about the Middle Ages comprises a number of essays on a range of topics including: the Crusades; the myth of the mounted knight; medieval medicine; medieval drama; medieval children; and the corruption of the medieval Church. The site is part of ORB: the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies.
Mistress of the Vatican: The true story of Olimpia Maidalchini: The Secret Female Pope is a website about the popular social history of the same name by Eleanor Herman, which was published by William Morrow in 2008. The site provides a history of and historical context of Olimpia Maidalchini (1594-1657), who was the sister-in-law of Pope Innocent X (reigned 1644-1655). Maidalchini became Pope Innocent X's de facto advisor after the death of the pope's brother, her husband. The site's historical content, particularly its short biographical sketches of relevant historical contemporaries and its overview of seventeenth century Rome, is sufficient enough to warrant the site's merit as a introductory study aid for undergraduates. The site also provides further information about Eleanor Herman.
The Web Site "The Modern World of Witchcraft" is an essay written by Professor Craig Hawkins, the President of Apologetics Information Ministry (AIM), a somewhat radical Christian organisation that aims to provide pertinent Biblical information on a range of issues, including cults, the occult, and world religions. The essay examines neopagan witchcraft from a fundamental Christian perspective, and traces the development of contemporary occult cults from the legacies of Gerald Gardner and his acolytes. He discusses the differing types of neopagan beliefs and the role of animism, pantheism, and polytheism, as pillars of faith, and the primary importance assigned to experience. This site is a good example of Christian attempts to demolish neopagan beliefs and as such can be a guide to alternate perspectives of the latter tradition.
This website, Monastic Wales, presents a database of medieval monastic sites and related bibliographic and archival resources which can be used as both a research and a teaching tool. The project aims to make both scholars and the public aware of Welsh monastic history during the Medieval period, and to situate it truly within the wider European understanding. The website presents online access to a database of primary and secondary sources on Welsh monastic history and will prove to be invaluable to historians of this period.
The website 'Museum of Tolerance online: Multimedia Learning Center' is part of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, the Jewish human rights agency. The Learning Center contains a large range of online resources about the Holocaust and the historical context in which it occurred. The Center places an emphasis on primary documents and the special collections section holds around 13,500 electronic documents in English, German and Hebrew. Virtual exhibits tend to focus on more specific topics such as the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1943) during the Second World War or images of Polish Jews. The site also features a range of resources designed for teachers including bibliographies; the Simon Wiesenthal Annual for the scholarly study of the Holocaust; answers to frequently-asked questions; and a useful site map.
The Web Site of the "Muzeum archidiecezjalne sztuki religijne w Lublinie (Lublin archdiocesan museum of religious art)" is in Polish. It provides the usual information on the museum's opening hours, collections, and location. The site has details of past and current exhibitions, and includes a brief history of the museum. The museum is famed for its Trinitarian Tower and close links to the Jesuits from the sixteenth century. The site features descriptions of the ongoing preservation of historic buildings and objects and a brief gallery. The site is well illustrated and of interest to those researching Polish ecclesiastical history, or the area of Lublin.
The website "Myth*ing Links" is the work of Dr Kathleen Jenks, emeritus lecturer of Pacifica Graduate Institute. Described as "an annotated and illustrated collection of worldwide links to mythologies, fairy tales and folklore, sacred arts and sacred traditions", it is a useful resource for those interested in the history of belief systems, social, cultural and religious history. A reference page is devoted to helping students with research techniques, searching for materials, and with a good links section. There is also a page for teachers. The site appears to be rather too linear for the vast quantities of information that are placed on it, the search engine helps if you have a specific area of interest, but otherwise the site is not terribly well-designed. There are collections of regional resources, for some continents, but the West European materials are collated thematically. An interesting collection of links, useful both to the student and the researcher.
Part of the British Library's website, 'Turning the Pages' presents digitised texts of books, missals, psalters, atlases and other important documents that are held at the British Library. Based on the award-winning interactive display system used within the library itself to provide virtual public access to these rare texts which include: Leonardo Da Vinci's notebook; the Lindisfarne Gospels; the Sherbourne Missal; and Sultan Baybars' Qur'an. To view the books that are listed, a Macromedia Shockwave plug-in is required - although there are alternative versions for some of the texts. The Shockwave versions provides interactive animation that allows the user to turn the pages digitally, and also use zoom features to look at sections in detail. An introduction is provided for each book, along with audio descriptions of each page, which requires the use of a Real Audio player. Also of interest is a "highlights" tour of the texts, and a showcase of other manuscripts housed at the British Library.
An even more sophisticted version of Turning the Pages is available online now on the british Library website, for users who have fast broadband and Windows Vista.
The website by the Spanish Medieval historian F. Javier Villalba Ruiz de Toledo offers complementary materials for his lectures, which may be of interest to other lecturers and students of European and Spanish medieval history. The site provides historical texts; maps; and a bibliography (although at the time of cataloguing the latter was not available). The texts section includes fragments from a wide variety of historical sources, covering topics such as: Al-Andalus; feudalism; Christian Spain; the fight for the 'Dominium mundi'; and feudal monarchies. The author has also made available very useful historical maps such as: Europe by the end of the 5th century; Islam in times of Mohammed; England by the beginning of the 10th century; and the First Crusade. Users should note that all materials are in Spanish only.
This website tells the story of England's most famous witches, the Pendle or Lancashire Witches. The witches, of which there were thirteen in total, were tried for witchcraft in Lancashire gaol in 1612 after the murder of seventeen people in the local area. The website gives general information on the witches and their trial on the home page, but, more importantly, has transcriptions of the confessions of several of the accused. There are, furthermore, links to a time-line of events, a fact file, a virtual tour (which opens in a separate window), a gallery of images, and a list of books (both fiction and non-fiction) on the witches and their trial.
The Web Site of the Regional Archives of Maribor provides the usual information about the access, opening times, location, and holdings of the Slovenian archive. The site is in Slovene with an introductory page in English and German. The archive was founded in 1933 and holds documents dating from 1246 to 1865. Among the holdings are documents on Jewish matters, the revolution in Slovenian Styria in 1918-1919, and manorial and monastic records from the fifteenth century. The site details the publications of the staff, and exhibition catalogues. However, of great use to the researcher is the online database of the archival fonds.
The Powys heritage online website provides access to information about the local history of the region. The site was originally created in 1999 as the "Powys digital history project". The current site acts as a portal to sites and projects dealing with the histoy of Powys. The main section of is dedicated to local history, aimed for schools. All the material on the site is available in Welsh and English. The site provides information on the local history of the following six districts, as part of the original project: Machynlleth and the Dovey Vallhe current site acts as a portal to sites and projects dealing with the histoy of Powysey; Llanidloes and district in Montgomeryshire; Rhayader and the Elan Valley; Presteigne and the Marches in Radnorshire; Hay and the Wye Valley; and The Upper Swansea Valley in Breconshire. The topics covered, although there are variations according to district, include education, the poor, religion, transport and old trade directories. Specific events such as the Revolt of Owain Glyndwr 1400-1415 are also covered. A themed menu covering: crime and punishment; education and schools; religion in Wales; and care of the poor is also available for browsing. Links to external sites are: Powys: A day in the life project and Powys county archives office. The site provides an interesting general introduction to the history of the area.
The aim of the Geniza Project of the Department of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University is to develop better methodologies for Hebrew and Arabic scholars working with the so-called 'Geniza fragments', which are documents found in the Geniza chamber of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo in the late 19th century. This project ultimately intends to create a full-text database of transcriptions of the documents and to offer a dictionary and morphological tools to facilitate the study of the Geniza texts. The site's target audience is the scholar interested in Middle Eastern archaeology, history and religious developments. This resource requires Hebrew fonts. The site has its own search engine.
Project Wittenberg, created under the direction of Reverend Bob Smith of Concordia Theological Seminary in Fort Wayne, Indiana, provides a gateway to Lutheran texts, texts by Luther, texts about Luther and works of other Lutherans. The end aim of the project is the production of an international electronic library of Lutheran texts. The site includes works by Reformation writers such as Luther, Melanchthon, Chemnitz and Eber as well as works by seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth century authors. Documents on the site include Luther's Ninety-five Theses, Luther's Catechisms, the Augsburg Confession and the 1580 Book of Concord. The site also includes biographies and hymnals. All the documents provide full bibliographic details of the original source of the text. The home page of the site provides links to selected resources. To access documents via a chronological author list select the 'Project Wittenberg's Electronic Lutheran Web' link from the home page. Although the site can initially be a little confusing to navigate it does provide online access to a large number of primary sources.
The Quaker Archives Database from the University of Leeds Special Collections department is an online index of names from many of the older documents in the University Library's Carlton Hill archive. This archive relates mainly to Quaker records of West and North Yorkshire. Seventy minute books have been indexed; creating a total of almost 40,000 records. A list of the documents which have been indexed for inclusion in the database is available from the site. It is possible to limit searches to particular types of data, for example name, place or meeting. The results can be displayed by name or by meeting. The results provide references to the documents in the archive containing the search terms used. Online help on how to use the database is available from the site, as is a longer guide in PDF format.
'Quest: issues in contemporary Jewish history' is a full-text open access ejournal. Quest published its first issue in 2010, on the special topic of "Jews in Europe after the Shoah: Studies and Research Perspectives". This peer-reviewed journal publishes articles, discussion pieces, and reviews. The website is well designed and articles are presented in HTML format only. Example article titles from the first issue are: 'State-sponsored Anti-Semitism in Postwar USSR'; 'The Jews in Poland after the Second World War: most recent contributions of Polish historiography'; and 'West German Jewry: guilt, power and pluralism', among others. The journal is published in English by the Fondazione Centro di Documentazione Ebraica Contemporanea (CDEC) of Milan, Italy. The website has details of the Editor, assistant editors, and the Supporting Committee.
This Internet resource provides information relating to the Reformation and some of its key figures: Martin Luther; Phillip Melanchthon; Calvin; and Zwingli. In relation to Luther, visitors to the site can access online versions of his selected works, including the Ninety Five Theses (in Latin and English) and his Letter to the Christian Nobility. In addition, the site contains electronic texts of Luther's hymns (in English and German), and a textlink to an online version of his famous German translation of the Bible. The site also offers a selection of hyperlinks to other Luther-related websites. The resource provides several electronic texts by and relating to the other figures listed above. Most notably, there are pages devoted to Phillip Melanchthon, which include electronic text versions of his 'A History of the Life and Actions of the Very Reverend Dr. Martin Luther,' and 'Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope.' A few links were broken at the time of review.
The Web Site "The Reformation and Counter-Reformation" is a simple and useful brief summary of the Protestant and Roman Catholic movements in the early modern period. The site is a good crib-sheet for A/AS level students, as it provides a quick overview of a subject that sees a new book appear virtually weekly. The author condenses the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries into one paragraph per topic, including: The Reformation and Art; Martin Luther; Europe Divided; The Visual Arts; Architecture; and the Aftermath. The site displays the usual West European bias, with little mention of Central or Eastern Europe.
The website "Reformers of the 16th Century: An Online Study" is an interesting amateur site compiled by Barry McWilliams, an ordained Teaching Elder of the Presbyterian Church in America. He teaches a course on Protestant Reformers and this material is intended for his class. It provides a good and basic introduction to prominent Protestant figures of the Reformation such as: Luther; Melanchthon; Zwingli; Bucer; Calvin; and Oecolampadius. Readers must bear in mind that the author is a church elder and that religious bias is evident in his writing, however, this provides a good example of textual and critical analysis for students, to vary the usual sources studied for the Reformation. There are links to a variety of resources, some of which, at the time of cataloguing and reviewing, were not available.
The website "Religion" is part of the Spartacus collection of resources for AS and A Level History. It is equally of use to teachers as well as students, providing a valuable reference or revision source. The site contains biographies, images and descriptions of the key individuals, groups and events in the religious life of the United Kingdom from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. There is information on all the major religious movements from the Protestant Reformation to the Victorian Christian Socialists. The site is easy to navigate in a tabular form and contains the following sections: religious leaders; religious groups; Unitarians and social reform; Quakers and social reform; the Evangelical Movement; religion and politics; and the Christian Socialist Movement. Each section contains a narrative with embedded links to pertinent places, people or events described elsewhere in the Spartacus resources.
This is the website of the Religious History Society, formed by Bruce Mansfield of the University of Sydney in 1998, and dedicated to promoting scholarship in all areas of religious history, with particular attention given to Australasian religious history. The Society convenes every two years in conjunction with the Australian Historical Association. The principal scholarly outlet of the Society is the Journal of Religious History, published three times a year. Information for those wishing to subscribe to the journal and/or order back issues is provided. Additionally, information pertaining to membership in the Society and upcoming conferences is readily available. The site is well presented and accessible.
This is the website of the Renaissance Society of America, a scholarly society with interests covering every aspect of the humanities in the Renaissance period (specified by the Society as 1300-1650). This site presents comprehensive details of the Society's meetings, publications, and membership. In addition to the usual 'about this society' and membership information, there is: information about the Society's publications, which include the journal Renaissance Quarterly and a series of books; details of the annual meeting; information on grants, awards and scholarships offered by the Society and other organisations; and a posting board for announcements (mainly regarding academic appointments). The RSA Links Database provides a searchable annotated list of links to relevant online resources. The Society's newsletter and current and past conference programmes are freely available on the site, but Renaissance Quarterly can only be accessed by members. Style sheets and submissions information for the Society's journals are also published, although these do not appear to be readily available on the Publications page (found via the site search facility from the home page). The design of the site is simple and it is easy to navigate. It will be primarily of interest to postgraduates and Faculty members.
The Ricci Roundtable database, maintained by the Ricci Institute for Chinese-Western Cultural History at the University of San Francisco, provides a collection of electronic reference resources focused on the relationship and impact of Christianity and Christian missions in China during the past few centuries. The site contains an impressive guide to archival resources on this topic from all over the world, with each entry detailing the institution that houses the relevant archive and listing the documents in question. Users are able to search through the online database and isolate specific library holdings in China or the United States or locate a specific resource by employing the search and index utilities. The site itself is directed towards the larger academic community, including both students and scholars. Among the tools that will appeal to both groups is a strong collection of fully searchable bibliographic and biographic material. The biographies themselves are brief, but include helpful pointers to additional resources. In addition, for those at more advanced stages of research, there is are directories of both institutions and individuals interested in Chinese-Western cultural relations. Those with a serious interest in this field will also wish to explore the main site of the Ricci Institute, accessible through the link on the site's front page.
This website describes "The Roger Morrice Entring Book Project", a project that aims to publish Morrice's incisive work on the political and religious history of England between 1677 and 1691. This project is of interest to all those studying the political, social and religious history of the reigns of Charles II, James II, and William III. The Entring book reveals information on a variety of aspects of Restoration society: urban growth; London commerce; livery company politics; the culture of anti-popery; printing; and promotion and control of the press. The Entring book contains over 900,000 words and has been published in six volumes, which include a companion volume and biographical dictionary, by Boydell and Brewer. The site offers the titles of each volume and names its editors. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council within the Research Grants scheme.
The website Roman Numeral and Date Conversion, with Roman Numerals Calculator and Roman Numerals Test, has been constructed by Steven Gibbs, a freelance enthusiast based in Guernsey.The site provides online tools for the calculation of dates in the Gregorian calendar in Roman numeric form. The site not only provides help with converting year dates into Roman numerals, but also in translating dates from the Gregorian calendar into their equivalent Julian form. The dates are expressed either in full Latin text, or in the more abbreviated form used by the Romans. For each date entered, users will be offered five variant forms.The site also offers useful notes on the historical development of the calendar, and the transition from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. There are links to other web resources relating to calendars, and a short bibliography of works on the subject.There is also an online tool for the conversion of Arabic numbers into Roman numerals. Other features include a Roman calculator, which carries curiosity rather than practical value.The site will be a very useful resource for those needing help with conversion of Roman dates and numbers, and could prove especially useful as a classroom tool.
The website "The Salem Witch Trials" is part of the city guide to Salem, Massachusetts. It features a chronology, although not an exhaustive one, of the infamous trials for witchcraft of 1692, upon which Arthur Miller's famous play "The Crucible" was loosely based. Beginning with the strange and erratic behaviour of Elizabeth Parris and Abigail Williams, it traces the development and dynamics of the trials, which resulted in the execution by hanging of at least 25 people and accusations of witchcraft ranged against over 160 people, between February 1692 and April 1693. The site provides a useful quick contextual overview for undergraduates and A/AS level students in history, and those studying English literature who are working on Miller. A link is provided to images of the tombstones of the 19 who were executed and the one person who died in jail.
Scriptorium - Buchproduktion im Mittelalter (Book production in the Middle Ages) is a joint online project of the University of Heidelberg Library and the University's Institute for Art History. The site contains a collection of digitized late medieval illustrated manuscripts from the Bibliotheca Palatina, the library of the Palatine Duke electors. Heidelberg University Library holds over 26 fifteenth century illustrated manuscripts which were produced by three of the most prominent German workshops. The manuscripts are organised according to these workshops: the "Elsässische Werkstatt von 1418"; the workshop of Diebold Lauber at Hagenau; and the workshop of Ludwig Henfflin, which was probably based at Stuttgart. The site features illustrated historical essays explaining the techniques practised by each workshop. There are additional essays giving the historical background of the period, and a piece on the later impact of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). Each essay provides a bibliography of secondary sources.The site claims that the manuscripts cover the spectrum of medieval literature. They include: religious and devotional works; chronicles; medieval callendars; epic literature; works on natural history; and legal literature. Online quality of the manuscripts themselves is excellent, and site visitors can see both writing and illustrations clearly. There is a search engine which allows indexed iconographic searches; there is also a good links page. The site posts press reviews of its content. The images can be ordered on CD-ROM; ordering costs and instructions are given. The site is beautifully designed and illustrated. It will serve researchers, undergraduate instruction, and those interested among the general public.
The Scrolls from the Dead Sea website, prepared by the Library of Congress, takes the form of an online exhibition. The exhibition provides an overview of the historical context of the scrolls and the Qumran community. An account of the discovery of the scrolls in 1947 is also provided, as is an outline of the controversy that surrounds the them. The website was also created with the aim of encouraging a better understanding of the challenges and complexities connected with the researching the scrolls. Images of fragments of the scrolls and photographs of artifacts from the Qumran site, including a scroll jar and its fastenings, are also available.
The Shi'a Islam website provides a basic introduction to the differences between the Shi'a and Sunni religions, and describes the origins and subsequent history of the Shi'ite Muslims. There are pages on 'Ali, Muhammad's cousin and the foundational figure in Shi'a history; Husayn, the third Imam; the Imamate; Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth Imam known as the 'hidden Imam'; medieval Shi'a; and the Safavids. This history extends to modern Iran and the Iranian revolution. A page on Islamic republicanism attempts to explain the principles behind 'rule by jurisprudence' and Islamic fundamentalism. However, at time of review this resource had not been updated in several years, and users should note that this means there is no coverage of more recent events and developments in the Islamic world.
In addition to the overview of Shi'ism, there are images of some of the key holy sites of Shi'a Islam; a glossary of Shi'a terms and concepts; and a glossary of more general Islamic terms. There is also a list of links, but unfortunately this has suffered through a lack of maintenance. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
This Uppsala University website is devoted to the Codex Argenteus, the "Silver Bible", which was written in silver and gold letters on purple vellum in Ravenna in about 520 CE. It contains fragments of the four gospels in the 4th century Gothic version of Bishop Ulfilas (Wulfila). The Web page for the Codex includes a digitisation of the 1927 photo facsimile edition. This includes supplementary images from other codices, plus the 'Alphabeta Gothica' (which compares the script alphabets of several different codices, including the Codex Argenteus), but is somewhat lacking in descriptive or explanatory material. The site also provides links to a small number of papers, and other research material relevant to the study of this Bible and its early medieval historical context. Navigation of the site is unfortunately not always intuitive: for example, a bibliography for the Codex Argenteus is listed under the heading 'Database of the Gothic language' in the Books and Links section.
This is the home page of the Simon Dubnow Institute for Jewish History and Culture at the University of Leipzig. The site's thematic overview summarises the institute's history since its establishment in 1995, and outlines its development as a centre for international scholarship on the history of Jewish life in Southern and East Central Europe, and East-West Jewish relations in the modern period. It also addresses the context of the non-Jewish environment, especially the Latin, Orthodox and Islamic worlds within and without Europe. There are special concentrations in the institute on political and diplomatic history; the history of migration; intellectual history and the history of ideas. Extensive information on the institute's conferences and colloquia is provided, including some summaries of remarks. The institute's cooperational and internal research projects are described. The site also lists academic fellows along with their recent publications as well as the series of books published by the institute, each volume being described shortly. The library of the institute has an online catalogue. A caution in navigation: although English and German sides of the site appear to be completely parallel translations, the German side is the more complete version. The site has its own search engine.
This is the website of the Società Internazionale per lo Studio del Medioevo Latino (SISMEL) based in Florence, Italy. The website provides information on the Society's activities, events, courses, research fellowships, access to the Society's online library catalogue, and lists of SISMEL's current and past publications, including Edizioni del Galluzzo. Additionally present are links to significant research resources for medieval studies produced by SISMEL. These include: Medioevo Latino (MEL), an annual bibliographical bulletin of European culture from Boethius to Erasmus (6th-15th century); Bibliotheca Scriptorum Latinorum Medii Recentiorisque Aevi (BISLAM); Compendium Auctorum Latinorum Medii Aevi (500-1500) (CALMA); the works, manuscript tradition and life of Gregorio Magno; Guide to patristical Latin manuscripts; Corpus of Latin Rhythmical Texts (4th-9th century); Collection of inventories, catalogues and lists of manuscripts from western medieval libraries (8th-15th century) (RICABIM); Music in the Middle Ages - medieval music bibliographical bulletin (MEM); Biblioteca agiografica italiana (BAI); the Italian Bible; La Mistica; CODEX - an inventory of medieval manuscripts from Tuscany.
This is the website of the Society for the Anthropology of Religion. Created in 1997, and associated with the American Anthropological Association, the society is dedicated to facilitating teaching and research in the anthropological study of religion and to promoting international discussion among scholars. The Society convenes annually in conjunction with the American Anthropological Association. The site provides a list of publications produced by members of the society, as well as information on upcoming conferences and other society activities, including details of an electronic mailing list. Information for those wishing to become members of the society is readily available. The site is straightforward in design and accessible.
The web page "Spirits, Witches and Science: Why the Rise of Science Encouraged Belief in the Supernatural in 17th-Century England" presents an essay written by Richard Olson, for the Skeptics Society. The essay discusses one of the most important intellectual debates and shifts of the early modern period, which had consequences for religious, social and even political issues. The early modern theological and scientific debates on the existence of spirits and their forms has recently been the subject of renewed interest by witchcraft historians. The often-claimed juxtaposition between the rise of scientific belief and the decline in the belief in witches, has received a variety of attention. The author traces changes in the perception of demonic power, citing several interesting and well-known examples, before he embarks upon the central point of his essay - the scientific defender of witches, Joseph Glanvill. Glanvill, a member of the Royal Society, is famous for his treatise "Saducismus Triumphatus: or Full and Plain Evidence Concerning Witches and Apparitions" published in 1689, at a time when scepticism was evinced towards belief in witchcraft in most English circles.
The St Albans Psalter website makes available text and images from the medieval St Albans Psalter, with additional English translation, commentary and contextual information. The St Albans Psalter is an illuminated manuscript created in the 12th Century for Christina of Markyate, an anchoress at St Albans. The miniatures, painted by the so-called Alexis Master, are among the finest examples of English Romanesque painting. Essays on the site cover topics such as: Christina of Markyate and the Abbot Geoffrey de Gorham; iconography; codicology; the Alexis Master and the other artists; the scribes; miniatures; and the calendar. The book itself can be browsed by page, and viewed with commentary, or with translation. The reproduction quality of the pages is very high. A less extensive version of the site is also available in German. The site is a collaboration between the History of Art and Historic Collections departments of the University of Aberdeen, and has received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (now the AHRC) and the Faculty of Arts and Divinity at University of Aberdeen. Anyone studying or researching medieval iconography; manuscripts; or history would find this impressive site of interest.
This website provides information on opening hours, access rules, and its location. Part of the Polish state archives, the branch in Białystok, was formally established in 1952. It contains records on the eastern area of Poland, and of its Jewish population and those of the Augsburg confession. Another important collection is that of the documentation pertaining to the State Forest of Białowieża. The oldest document dates from 1640. There are details on the site of the archive's publications. This site is of great use to those who are researching the eastern borderlands of Poland (Kresy), and the lands that were formerly Poland, now in Ukraine, Lithuania, and Belarus.
The Web Site of the "Archiwum państwowe w Łodzi (State archive in Lodz)" provides information on the archive and its opening hours, locations, and collections. The archive was formally founded in 1926 and a history of the archive is featured on the site. The archive has departments in Pabianice and Sieradz, and its Łódź headquarters divides holdings into pre-1945 and post-1945 sections. There is an online catalogue of the holdings available in RTF form as a ZIP file, or in smaller lists of the records. Holdings include judicial, financial, administrative, educational, and military records. They can be searched via the databases SEZAM, IZA (inventories), PRADZIAD, and ELA. This is a site of interest to those researching the nineteenth and twentieth century history of the ?ód? area.
This is a website published by a local history enthusiast, Simon Knott, which aims to catalogue all of the Anglican and Catholic churches in Suffolk, with descriptions and accompanying photographs. Currently there are around six hundred churches featured on the site, and these can be searched or browsed by place name. Each entry contains: a short history of the church; details of architectural changes made to the buildings; and location and access details, as well as Simon's personal view of the building and its features. In addition to the main catalogue, there are also: suggestions for further reading; a glossary of unfamiliar terms; and audio files of programmes and interviews the author has participated in for BBC Radio Suffolk. This site would be of interest to those studying church architecture (particularly medieval) and archaeologists.
The Web Site "Szlak templariuszy (The Templar Route)" is in Polish and English. It has been compiled by a group of amateur enthusiasts, who also include among their number some doctoral students and professional photographers. This excellent site is richly illustrated, but unfortunately not all the illlustrations are identified. The site follows the many paths of the Knights Templars, the first military order, founded in 1118 and disbanded in the fourteenth century. This site focuses on the activities in a number of locations, including: London; Paris; Tomar; Jerusalem; Rurka; Chwarszczany; and Lietzen. Exhibitions feature Gothic cathedrals, a catalogue of place linked to the Templars, their clothing, and their sites in Poland. The site features a chatroom active once a month, galleries, and the description (in PDF format) of an exhibition organised by the Toruń Local Museum. Reviews of relevant medieval history books are posted regularly on the site, although they are written only in Polish.
The British Library website's Treasures in Full feature offers two digitised copies of the Gutenberg Bible, the first major book printed in the West using movable metal type (ca. 1454-1455). The site offers images of each page of the British Library's two copies of the Gutenberg Bible - one on paper, the other on vellum - which can be compared side by side. Information on the history and background of Johann Gutenberg and the printing of the Bible is also available, along with further reading suggestions, and a small number of links to relevant external resources. The British Library has collaborated with researchers from Keio University in Japan to provide these electronic versions to improve access to scholars around the world. It is hoped that this will result in less wear and tear on the originals.
"Tudors.org" is an authoritative, academic website, produced by one of the most eminent experts in Tudor history (1485-1603), Professor John Guy from the University of St Andrews. This website is based on a collection of essays, and aims in its own words "to dispense some of the most up-to-date information regarding Tudor England that is available". This site is of great use and interest to undergraduates, researchers, and postgraduates alike, as it presents alternative views on one of the most popularly taught subjects of English or British History - the Tudors. The site is organised into two main sections: "History menu" and "Tudor history discussion". Each classify their content according to a selected education level: AS/A2 and Undergraduate. Under "History menu" public lecture notes and links to primary sources are posted, while the "Tudor history discussion" links to the forum where books by John Guy and Julia Fox are debated. The site has been redesigned and now contains a forum. Advertisments are present on the site but they are tolerable. The main page announces the latest additions to the site.
The Tyndale Society is dedicated to the biblical translator and Reformation theologian William Tyndale (1495?-1536). The Society's website provides information about the organisation's aims and events, especially the conferences, lectures and social activities which it organises. Helpfully for the historian and student of theology or religious studies, the site provides a search facility for the Tyndale Society and Reformation journals; and for the complete text of the Wycliffe Bible. This beautifully-designed site is divided into sections on: events; Tyndale's genealogy; links; membership details; publications; and an introduction to Tyndale's life and work. A distinguished panel of trustees and editors ensures the quality of material contained in the site.
The website 'UCL library services: Huguenot library' is a resource of value to both postgraduates and researchers interested in the study of the Huguenot communities. The University College London collections were formed from the libraries of the French Hospital, the Huguenot Society, and from institutions such as the Westminster French Protestant School, Friendly Societies, and family papers. The collections boast two copies of the 1535 edition of: Calvin's Bible; La France Protestant by the Haag brothers; French Protestant Exiles by D.C.A. Agnew; and a complete set of the Bulletin of the French Protestant Société in Paris. The site provides details of access to the collections, opening hours, and catalogues. There is useful information on resources for those researching the communities in North America, Australasia, Germany, and the UK. A selection of links to other organisations and websites should also prove of interest to researchers.
The United Church of Canada Archives at Victoria University, University of Toronto, is the 'Central Archives' for the Church's General Council and national offices. The Church, a union of four Canadian Protestant denominations (Methodist, Presbyterian, Congregational and Evangelical United Brethren), is divided into regional jurisdictions called conferences. Besides national-level records, the Central Archives additionally preserve the records of five of the conferences located in Ontario (Bay of Quinte, Toronto, Hamilton, London, and Manitou). According to the site, Victoria University will no longer host the United Church Central Archives after the end of April, 2008; thereafter, Victoria University will host only its own archives for its constituent colleges, Victoria College and Emmanuel College. Researchers are advised to check the website regularly for upcoming changes. Besides the national administration of the Church, the Central Archives has aforementioned Ontario holdings on: births; marriages; deaths; congregational matters and organizations; local church history; photographs; personal papers (a special finding aid for personal papers can be requested); clippings; audio-visual records; directories of ministers; annual reports; and a library collection of journals, pamphlets and rare books. The holdings can be searched through Ontario's archival gateway, ARCHEION. The Central Archives should offer material of interest for researchers working on Canadian history and for genealogists. Sociologists and social historians will note that under the federal 2006 Indian Residential Schools Settlement agreement, the Church has apologized for past treatment of Canadian aboriginal children in native schools. The site declares that it is cooperating with a 'Truth and Reconciliation Commission' and is committed to facing "the ugly realities of the residential school system," while preserving that system's history. Rules for access and visiting are provided.
The website of the Muslim Student Association of the University at Buffalo (the State University of New York) is aimed at students and individuals at an early stage of exploration into the issues and texts affecting Muslim communities. It provides a substantial guide to electronic resources on Islam and, to a lesser degree, Islamic history. While the initial pages provide some limited discussion on its principles of belief, the site’s most useful facility is the compilation of sacred scriptures and prophetic texts. From here, one can access copies of the Qur’an (Koran) in a variety of translations as well as electronically stored Hadith and other writings on Islamic law and tradition. Students writing essays on some aspect of Islamic religion or history may also find the annotated bibliography especially helpful.
The Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library houses rare books, special collections, manuscripts, archived documents and the official records of the University of Toronto. The Library now holds some 600,000 volumes and approximately 2,500 linear metres of manuscripts. The highlights of this collection are made available online through a series of virtual exhibitions. These include: etchings of the seventeenth century Bohemian artist, Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677); Anatomia, 1522-1867, with historical studies of the human anatomy from sources spanning that time period; the Barren Lands, with over 5,000 images from surveys conducted in 1893 and 1894 of Canada's north (now Nunavut) by James Tyrrell and J. B. Tyrrell; pre-1930 Canadian Pamphlets and Broadsides; Canadian Printer and Publisher, showing the history of the Canadian publishing industry through historic trade journals; the Discovery and Early Development of Insulin; and a classical Papyri collection. An additional 'Images from the Collection' subsite provides a wealth for images related to Canadiana; English and European Literature; Hebraica and Judaica; and Philosophy, Theology and Religion. The site posts exhibition catalogues and other library publications.
Researchers can refer to the Index to Collections, which offers detailed archival information. Those working from the medieval to modern periods should pay particular attention to the Manuscript Collection Index, with notable holdings on Middle East manuscripts; Byzantine manuscripts; a Galileo collection; early modern medical casebooks; 16th century Portuguese poetry; medieval and early modern Hebrew manuscripts; manuscripts and proofs by D.H. Lawrence and Charles Dickens; and valuable sources on early Canadiana. The rare book holdings are equally rich. In this area, historians will especially note a 1968 Czechoslovakia collection; a French Revolution collection; a Spanish Civil War collection; a Polish Solidarity collection; and a collection on Australia. Also not to be missed are important Canadian theatre history collections; special collections relating to philosophy (Aristotle, Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Russell) and the history of philosophy.
The site also gives information on the annual Kenny Prize, for scholarly writing by a Canadian on Marxist, left or labour studies.
Rules for access, registration, photocopying and similar information for visitors are provided. Some images from the collections can be made into postcards, cards and posters which users can order from the site. Navigation is fairly clear and the site has its own search engine.
'Utopia Britannica' is a large free online gazetteer that details utopian communities that have existed in the British Isles. The work is said to have arisen from the author's history of the countercultural communes of the 1960s and 70s, but it now covers such communities from 1325 to 1945. The extensive gazetteer is organised by English county and there are also sections for Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Most entries are brief, giving the known name of the colony or commune, the names of leaders, the place, and the dates that the community was active. The author is still actively uncovering such communities, and the website publishes his research articles. One such is 'Ruskinland', which examines the 1890s-1930s Guild of St. George community at Bewdley in Worcestershire, inspired by the writings of John Ruskin. The Utopia Britannica website is accompanied by a 312-page printed book of the same name. The book is said to contain the content of the website, and also scholarly articles, bibliographies, and the memories of commune members.
The Victorian Web provides a comprehensive general overview of nineteenth century British history and literature. The site is divided into sections: on political, social, and economic history; gender matters; philosophy; religion; science; technology; genre and technique; authors; visual arts; and Victorian design. Within each section commentaries present a useful introduction to the topics, abstracts from primary sources, links to other web resources and a bibliography. The Victorian web was created under the direction of George Landow, Professor of English and Art History at Brown University. The site was originally designed as a resource to aid in the teaching of courses in Victorian literature. All the material is in English and is available free of charge.
"Go Britannia! Wales : The History of Wales" is part of this American website that provides information for travellers to Britain. This is a lengthy (34 articles) account of the history of Wales written by a native, covering the cultural revival, Tudor Wales, religious changes under the Stuarts, the coming of industry, the emergence of the Labour Party, and the language dilemma, even migration to Patagonia - "The History of Wales from the Welsh point of view". As well as progressing through the articles in a linear fashion it is also possible to jump to other articles in the series, and also to use the general Britannia search engine.
The homepage of the Warburg Institute Library provides information on the collections of this impressive library that specialises mainly in the History of Art; Religion; Science; Philosophy; and Social and Political History. The library is particularly renowned for its holdings on the Renaissance and Humanism. With holdings of over 350,000 volumes, the Library, based in Central London, also has around 2,500 runs of periodicals. There is a complete microfiche edition of 4,800 pre-1800 volumes of the Cicognara collection in the Vatican Library. Another significant collection is the Holkham Hall Manuscripts, from the library of the Earls of Leicester, which contains classical, patristic and humanistic texts. The libraries of the Royal Numismatic Society and the British Numismatic Society are also housed at the Warburg. The website lists the subjects covered in the collections, links directly to the School of Advanced Study catalogue listings in that subject and displays the items held at the Warburg. Practical advice and information on using the library and access to collections are also provided.
Celebrating Memory and Mission: John Wesley at 300 is an online exhibition of archival materials related to the life, work and influence of John Wesley (1703-1791) hosted by the E. J. Pratt Library, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The site begins by providing a biography of Wesley, including his conversion experience of 1738, which led him to refocus his high-church Anglican stance and found the Methodist movement. This biography is accompanied by a timeline and a biography of Wesley's brother, Charles Wesley (1707-1788). The site features a display of Wesleyana which typify the rise of Methodism: there are scanned images of handwritten letters by Wesley, books he edited, and his portrait. The exhibit also shows a collection of ceramic busts of notable Methodists crafted by Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795). All artefacts and printed materials depicted here are taken from the Special Collections of the E. J. Pratt Library. The site itself provides a fair amount of detail in this regard, including a section on the history of the collection. Researchers in social and cultural history, as well as Canadian, American and British History, will particularly appreciate this site's coverage of a notable religious leader.
The website "William Dowsing" makes available online the full-text of William Dowsing's 1643-1644 journal, which documents his activity inspecting churches and removing superstitious imagery from Suffolk and Cambridgeshire churches. The site is based on a print publication of Dowsing's diaries, although the online version only offers the text of Dowsing's diaries, and not the additional chapters on iconoclasm in seventeenth century East Anglia, Dowsing's life, and the notes on individual churches that feature in the print version. The online journal can be viewed in two ways, with frames and a place name index, or the diary can be viewed chronologically without frames or an index. This is a great resource for historians of iconoclasm and religious change in the 17th century, as well as for local historians and religious historians in general.
The section of the website "Stella Australis : Australian Pagan Information" under the title of "Witchcraft Craze History" is quite useful for newcomers to the historical subject of witchcraft studies. Although published by a neopagan group and its use of the term witchcraft 'craze' is a little dubious, the site is oriented towards academic study of the theme. Of particular note is the section on new books, which provides a liberal selection of some of the best works, by Robin Briggs, Lyndal Roper and Ian Bostridge, which is of immense use to those starting out, in what seems to be a neverending sea of publications on the subject. There is a rather dilettante short essay on the witch as internal other, as well as a statement on where the author stands on the subject, which provides an interesting historiographical view of the neopagan appropriation of the phenomenon of the early modern witchcraft persecution. There are useful but extremely brief timelines for England and Scotland, France and Germany, which list some prominent cases and legal statutes. This site is primarily of use for its bibliography, or as material for debating the historiography of witchcraft, in the hands of a skilled teacher, who can refute the many erroneous opinions expressed here.
Witchcraft in seventeenth-century Flintshire is published as part of the Digital Mirror by the National Library of Wales. On the site are the digitised gaol files from the Court of Great Sessions, recording three witch trials that took place in Flintshire, Wales during the second half of the seventeenth century. Featured are documents of both accusation and supporting petition for the cases of Dorothy Griffith in 1656, Anne Ellis in 1657 and Charles Hughes in 1690.
The Witchcraft Legends website has been compiled by Professor Ashliman, emeritus professor of the University of Pittsburgh. He has collected and translated ten short legends about witchcraft, which illustrate varying conceptualisations of the figure of the witch in German, English, Scottish, and Irish mythology. The origins of the tales are provided, and these short pieces are excellent for discerning the functionality of the application of the figure of the witch to a particular narrative. The topos of the witch is used in a variety of discourses illustrated here. There are a few images and these accounts are excellent for illustrating the varying typology of legend themes. This is a useful site for anthropologists, historians and students of folklore.
The website "Witchcraft Trials in Scotland" is a personal page compiled by Dr E. H. Thompson of the University of Dundee. The site contains essays on the following subjects: Macbeth, King James and the Witches; the woodblock illustrations of "Newes from Scotland"; and a chronology of dates and reports on the North Berwick witchcraft trials of 1590-1594. Permission to cite the works is given on the site. Dr Thompson provides an interesting insight into various aspects of Scottish witchcraft, including the literary and conceptual portrayals of witchcraft, the iconography of witchcraft and the involvement of the Earl of Bothwell. (A genealogy of the Earl is also promised, but as the site is not frequently updated, seems unlikely to appear in the near future.) The site is a useful resource for those researching or studying witchcraft or Scottish history.
The website "Witchcraft, demonology and the Inquisition" is an online exhibition of rare books and pamphlets on the subject of witchcraft, demonology and the occult. It also contains much information on the inquisition, prophecy, and grimoires. Published by the Rare Book Library, University of Sydney, it was compiled by Suzana Sukovic and Neil Boness. The collection contains an amazing array of printed primary source works on witchcraft, demonology, exorcism and the occult. Staples such as the Malleus Maleficarum, An examen of witches, and Disquisitionarum magicarum libri sex, are included and works by Grillandus, Mazzolini, Nider, Spina, and Wier (Weyer) are also exhibited. Thumbnails of a page of the relevant book are accompanied by bibliographical information. The site is excellent from the perspective of locating rare editions, or quite simply as an exhibition. It moves from the early modern period to the twentieth century and the works of Alistair Crowley and Arthur Edward Waite. The commentary is varied and some of the statements in the section on witchcraft are questionable.
The Web Site "Witches in Flanders/Hexsen in Vlaanderen" is an excellent site in both Dutch and English. It has been published online by Professor Jos Monballyu of the Faculty of Law, Catholic University Leuven, and is part of the larger site "Low Countries Law (Recht Uit de Lage Landen)". This is an extremely useful site for those carrying out research on Flanders, or comparative witchcraft. The site covers the period from 1450 to 1700. It provides a chronological list of those accused of witchcraft who were burnt, and a bibliography on the subject of witchcraft in Flanders. The site is based on original manuscript sources and provides material on 71 cases. The extensive bibliography lists over 150 positions. Unfortunately at the time of cataloguing the section which was supposed to contain a chronological list of trials for witchraft and sorcery linked to the bibliography.
The website The Witches' Sabbath at Yuletide has been written by an expert in Norwegian witchcraft, Rune Blix Hagen of the University of Tromsø Library. This essay focuses on Christmas witchcraft in 17th century Finnmark. It includes accounts of trials for witchcraft in the 17th century and analyses the circumstances surrounding them. While there is an analysis of perceptions of persistent paganism here, there is less assessment of its links to Yuletide. The site also offers a brief essay entitled Satan in the North, which provides accounts of demonology and witchcraft, confirming the reputation of Lapland as home to many witches, a common European literary motif in the 17th and 18th centuries. The accounts are followed by a list of links to some good external websites on the subject of witchcraft. This resource is one of a growing number of accounts of trials for witchcraft being published online, which will be of use to both the undergraduate student of social, cultural, gender and early modern history, as well as seasoned experts in the history of European witchcraft.
Directed and primarily authored by Richard Hooker at Washington State University, the 'World Civilizations' website is a superior example of the integration of electronic materials and resources into a teaching or classroom setting. Designed as a series of survey courses, the pages broadly track the development and influence of major world cultures from around the world, while highlighting key philosophical, religious and textual themes. There are a number of ways to navigate these pages, but familiarisation with the layout does take a little while.
To begin, it is recommended that users first enter the 'contents' section and select the learning modules. From here one can browse a variety of cultural traditions in detail, and gain a better insight into what this resource has to offer. The learning modules themselves are directed specifically towards undergraduates at the beginning of their university studies. Information is provided on: early traditions (including Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Israel); Africa; China; European traditions; Islam; India; Japan; and Native North Americans. Each is laid out as a series of introductory electronic lectures complemented by selections of primary texts and a glossary of key terms. Many also come complete with a helpful introductory bibliography and a selection of additional external Internet resources. As a teaching resource, the scope of the site is so comprehensive that it can stand independently or easily complement any introductory class on world religions and culture. For students, the rapid access to pre-selected primary resources coupled with lectures and reference materials makes it an invaluable learning tool that will both illuminate and enhance any study environment. This is an archived site.
The website "Zeitenblicke 1 (2002) Nr. 1: Hexenforschung aktuell" features the first issue of the historical German ejournal Zeitenblicke, which took the subject of research into witchcraft as its topic. The main language of the journal is German, although there are versions of the introduction, plus occasional articles, in English and French. This edition features an article by the eminent expert in the iconography of witchcraft - Charles Zika. He discusses the influence of the imagery surrounding the ancient sorceress Circe, especially in printed woodcuts, on the formation of the discourse on witchcraft in the 15th and 16th centuries. Other coverage includes: an interview with Carlo Ginzburg; a virtual conversation with Wolfgang Behringer (University of York); sections on sources, digitisation projects, and regional studies of trials for witchcraft such as those of Trier and Luxemburg; and reviews. Since this first issue, Zeitenblicke has been published three times a year: later editions can be accessed via the journal's archive.