This is an online narrative overview of Athens' history, from neolithic to contemporary times. The text is divided into chapters which give an easily-accessible chronological survey of the city from around 5000 BC to the late twentieth century. Key periods covered include: Mycenaean Athens (1500-1200 BC); archaic Athens (750-478 BC); classical Athens (478-339 BC); Hellenistic Athens (339-168 BC); Roman Athens from republic to empire (168 BC-AD 303); Byzantine Athens (AD 303-1205); Crusader Athens (AD 1205-1456); Ottoman Athens (AD 1456-1821); the Greek War of Independence (AD 1821-1833); Bavarian rule (1833-1862); and twentieth-century Athens. Timelines are also given for ancient, medieval and modern Athens, and the site also features a bibliography of secondary material (without annotation).
The website of the "AHRB Centre for Byzantine Cultural History" is intended primarily as a platform to disseminate information about the Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies' (SPBS), events, research grants and publications. SPBS was established in 1983, with the object of furthering study and knowledge of the history and culture, language and literature of the Byzantine Empire and its neighbours. The website is a great resource for students, postgraduates and those engaged in higher levels of research. The site features abstracts and longer reports on current projects. A page of links directs the user to a variety of online sources concerning the Byzantine Empire. This centre is the result of a collaboration between the universities of Newcastle and Sussex, and The Queen's University, Belfast. The aim of the centre is to bring together art historians, textual scholars and archaeologists, and the resources to enhance the following projects: Evergetis; Networks; Constantinople; Colour; and Skylitzes. The Centre receives funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) (now the Arts and Humanities Research Council - AHRC) within the Research Centre Awards scheme.
Edited by John Thomas and Angela Constantinides Hero, and housed within the Dumbarton Oaks online research library and collection, 'Byzantine Monastic Foundation Documents' is the electronic version of an academic publication of the same name offering details and translations of Byzantine 'Typika' (the technical term for these foundation documents) from the 7th to the 15th centuries. Byzantine Typika essentially outline the customs and regulations of a monastic community of a given Orthodox Church while delineating their legal and economic status. However unlike the Rules of the Latin west, they could also be highly personal and not strictly focused on the foundations or structure of a monastic institution. This electronic text contains over 50 distinct documents from the Orthodox Church making this resource, according to the editors, the only collection of Typika ever assembled for academic study. Chapters are organised by century and then listed either by author or by the community to which they are attached. For those unfamiliar with this topic, each section, and the entire book itself, is prefaced by a brief historical introduction that will assist the uninitiated in orientating themselves. Thus, as all of these texts are available in English translation, this resource will be of interest to both students and researchers focussed on monastic communities, regulations or simply generally curious about the Byzantine Middle Ages. At the end of the almost 2,000 pages of this publication, there is a substantial bibliography covering not only monastic traditions, but also a wide variety of Byzantine cultural topics.
The website for the Royal Academy of Arts provides access to two audio downloads relating to the exhibition ‘Byzantium 330-1453’, which was held at the Royal Academy from 25 October, 2008 to 22 March, 2009. The exhibition featured icons, enamels, micromosaics, ivories, gold and silver metalwork highlighting the splendours of the Byzantium Empire, and these two audio lectures ‘Icons and the Practice of Prayer’ by His Grace Dr Rowan Williams, Archbishop of Canterbury, and ‘Byzantium: looking at a mirage’ by the exhibition curator, Robin Cormack, both referred to icons, and the objects that were shown in the exhibition. Both audio files require QuickTime. The main Web page for the exhibition includes an education guide, together with a junior version, in PDF.
The website "Byzantium: Byzantine studies on the Internet" is a resource gateway listing Byzantine-related material available on the World Wide Web. The site is provided by Fordham University, and is edited by Paul Halsall. Included in the introductory page is a useful brief history of Byzantium. The links are annotated, and the list is divided into sections, including: news; academic and teaching resources; and texts, images, and sounds. For quick reference, there is also a small selection of non-annotated key links at the top of the front page. The resources cover: palaeography; hagiography; music; book reviews and research articles. This site is both well presented and easy to use. Links are not updated very regularly and some of them were broken at the time of review.
The Catalogue of Digitized Medieval Manuscripts is an online resource published by the University of California at Los Angeles which keeps track of the growing number of fully digitized manuscripts available on the Web. The site has a search engine which allows users to search online manuscripts according to date, location, author, title, shelfmark, languages, or provenance. A browse function offers users a quick grasp of what is available in this database under these and other headings. The sources are immediately and easily accessible. The site links to hundreds of manuscripts and promises thousands more, with the growing digitisation of these fragile, rare and valuable sources so essential for medievalists. Although some links were broken at the time of review, the site is regularly maintained and is an invaluable support for Medieval Studies.
This is the website of the "Center for Hellenic Traditions" established in 2004 at the Central European University in Budapest, Hungary. The site reflects the activities and publication profile of this centre. Its proclaimed aim is to "promote innovative research into the history of Hellenic culture in a number of less frequented research areas". Thus, the research fields include religion, theology, philosophy, literature, and history of art, while the geographical area covered comprises the Balkans, the Eastern Mediterranean, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Middle East and India from Antiquity to the Early Modern period. The site informs about the workshops and colloquia organised by the center and introduces the most recent publications. The center is also part of a larger project of digitisation of Syriac manuscripts in Southern India. A call for application for fellowships is posted on the site. The titles in the lecture series hosted by the centre gives a god overview of the research interests of the centre and of the good academic reputation it has acquired among specialists.
De Imperatoribus Romanis (On the Roman Emperors, or DIR) is a high-quality, online scholarly encyclopaedia about the rulers of the Roman Empire from 27 BC to 1453 AD, (Augustus to Constantine XI Palaeologus). The contents of DIR have been prepared by scholars but are intended to be accessible to non-specialists as well. This is an award winning online resource based at Salve Regina University, useful for teaching and learning about the history of Roman Emperors and many other aspects of Roman life, and easy to navigate. (There are frames and non-frames versions of the site, and a search engine). It includes biographical essays on the individual emperors, and descriptions and maps of significant battles in the empire's history. Each article is rigorously peer reviewed for quality and accuracy by the editorial board (drawn from universities from the USA, Germany, Canada, and Australia) before it can be included in the DIR, and authors undertake to keep their information current. Much of this material is cross-referenced by hyperlinks to: the Imperial Index (an index of all the emperors who ruled during the empire's 1500 years); Imperial Stemmata (family trees of important imperial dynasties); the DIR and ORB Ancient and Medieval Atlas providing maps of the empire at different times; the Imperial Battle Index; and the Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins for emperors before the fall of Rome in 476 AD (sourced from Cohen's "Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire romain", 1880-1892, and from Justin Paola's online "Collection of Roman Emperors"); as well as other recommended links to related sites.
The 'Dumbarton Oaks' website is the home page of the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, a respected institution based in Washington, which possesses significant research collections in Byzantine Studies, Pre-Columbian art and the history of landscape architecture. Containing guidance to the building, collections, research, and publications of the institution, this useful website also aims to improve access to the publications of the Dumbarton Oaks institution by providing free online versions of many works in its specialist fields. Not only a useful guide to the institution itself, this website is also an extremely useful source of many full-text articles previously published concerning the history of Byzantium and the history and archaeology of pre-hispanic, particularly Maya, Central America. Information about fellowships, grants and stipends is offered on the site.
The Dumbarton Oaks Hagiography Database assembles a considerable amount of reference material on hagiographic texts concerned with the lives of Byzantine saints and their activities between the eighth and tenth centuries. Inside the database, a record has been created for each saint's 'vita' detailing the name, location, date of death, and author of the 'vita', as well as the approximate date of composition. The structure of the database is quite sophisticated. One can either consult the general name lists of saints and/or hagiographers, or use the search features to isolate specific thematic categories or even exact phrases that appear in the text of the vita. The result offers brief bibliographic information on each saint and, most importantly, details of full-text publications. All users of this database should consult the introduction, accessible through a PDF-file: in addition to helpful background information, this section includes ninety pages of biographical material, listing virtually every saint from this period. Each of these entries briefly summarises their lives and recent academic studies and resources about them.
The European Middle Ages website is part of the World CIvilization online textbooks published in 1996 by Richard Hooker at the Washington University. This particular site introduces, at its title indicate, the history of the European Middle Ages. There are two large sections: The Peoples. The Intercultural Periods; and the Resources. Chronologically, the author begins by locating the prehistoric origins of the European peoples: the Beaker People, and the Indo-European Battleaxe people that eventually came to dominate the continent. It traces the early movements and migrations across Europe, looking particularly at the Celts and Celtic culture. Further chapters are dedicated to the various peoples of Northern Europe that had a major impact on the history of the Middle Ages. There are pages on the Germans, Norse, Anglo-Saxons, and Normans, with other pages on the medieval cultures of England and France. A section on the rather different history of Byzantium and the Byzantine Empire is also included. In addition to the historical narratives, there is also a selection of resources. Unfortunately, this part of the site remains largely unfinished, although it does include a few readings from Boccaccio, Boethius, and Petrarch (all in English). There is also a list of links to other relevant sites. The content of the texts is rather cursory and brief. It does provide however a basic introduction to medieval Europe. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
Explore Byzantium is a general Web resource concerning the Byzantine Empire from the 4th to 15th centuries. There are straightforward introductions and timelines provided for those who are new to Byzantine studies. There are also some unreferenced, introductory articles on various aspects of Byzantine society (including: Emperor and court; women; peasants and farmers; the military; bureaucracy; and the Church) and some book recommendations and reviews. For students and teachers who require more than the introductory material, there is a section on images which provides online photographs of some famous Byzantine sites, art and buildings (including the Hagia Sophia and the Kariye Camii). In addition to this there is a map section which consists of ten maps showing the extent of the Empire at different stages throughout the 4th to 15th centuries.
This is the home page of the Department of History at the University of Zurich, the section of East European history. The site provides basic information in the form of contact details and profiles for all affiliated faculty, and schedules and topics for its course offerings. It also has pages to advise students on course requirements. The research projects of the staff, past and ongoing are presented to great length. The subsite of the library of the history department inform about the new acquisitions and the Russian archival holdings. The department has newly uploaded a link to its e-learning offers. The links from the department's site lead to the Swiss portal of East European studies, the research possibilities for secondary literature on Eastern Europe and to the webpages of libraries in various countries from Central and Eastern Europe.
This is the website of the historiographical journal HISTOS, from the Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Durham. The scope of the journal is relatively broad and includes historiographical texts of Greece and Rome, the historiography of Byzantium and other ancient cultures, ancient biography and the influence of historiography and biography on other literary genres. Modern theory relevant to the study of historiography is also covered by the publication. The journal also addresses the use of non-literary sources for the study of the past. The emphasis of the journal is on the historical texts themselves rather than on the historical problems that they are being used to solve. The first issue of the journal was published in 1997 with volumes published annually up to and including 2000. Because the journal is no longer in publication links on the site to historiographical conferences and research projects are out of date.
The website 'Internet History Sourcebooks Project', created by Paul Halsall at Fordham University, provides access to online primary source material for a number of branches of history. The project offers a combination of locally hosted material and links (often annotated) to documents on other sites. The three main sourcebooks cover ancient, medieval, and modern history; in addition to these, there are subsidiary sourcebooks, which take a thematic approach. There are, for example, sourcebooks on: Jewish history; Islamic history; East Asian history; history of science; and women's history. The material within the sourcebooks is well organised into categories, and is searchable. The home page provides general information about the sourcebooks project, including details of updates (maintaining a resource of this scope is a considerable task, and consequently some broken links are almost inevitable). Overall, this is a very valuable site, as the sources offered have the potential to be of immense use to historians; however, the user does need patience to browse what can be rather eclectic collections of sources. Also, the editor warns that the site had last been updated in 2006.
The website of the Venice Hellenic Institute makes available online valuable resources relating to the history of the Orthodox community resident in the lagoon city. From the Byzantine era onward, Greek merchants were active in Venice. In 1498 a Greek Orthodox Confraternity was founded with the approval of the Venetian authorities. The site offers information on the Hellenic Institute, established in 1953, its library, archive and museum of icons. A selection of devotional images can be viewed online. A description is given of the premises in which the Institute is housed, the "Collegio Flanghinis", and the Church of Saint George of the Greeks. The multimedia section "Scrittura e miniatura" ("Script and miniature in the manuscripts of the Hellenic Institute in Venice 12th-14th cent.") enables users to access facsimile electronic reproductions of manuscripts from the Institute collection. Three thematic sections are presented: the Byzantine book (dedicated to illuminated manuscripts, religious and secular, and to scribes and illuminators); types of script in the manuscripts (dedicated to Byzantine script and writing); examples taken from Codex no. 5, a codex preserved at the Hellenic Institute. Images can be enlarged and are accompanied by explanatory texts. Additionally, users can listen to an audio version of the text. In the case of the Codex no. 5 the entire manuscript has been reproduced and users can turn through the 193 leaves. A magnifier option enables closer inspection of sections of the leaves. The "Script and miniature in the manuscripts of the Hellenic Institute in Venice 12th-14th cent." is available in Greek, English and Italian, and provides additionally a relevant bibliography. The main pages of the website - in Italian only - also contain information on events and publications organised or produced by the Institute.
The Labyrinth website consists of a collection of annotated links to resources in many different areas of medieval studies. The content concentrates particularly on: art; architecture; religion; history; languages; and literature. The links have been divided into forty-five main subject categories, which may be browsed or searched according to keyword or restricted by type of material. By this latter method, it is possible, for example, to limit the results to primary documents only. The site is continually updated and users are asked to submit new links. This resource would be useful to students or researchers studying the Middle-Ages.
The website Lectures in Medieval History is precisely what its title suggests - a comprehensive online collection of lectures offered for open access courses by Dr. Lynn Harry Nelson, manager of the Kansas Heritage gateway and Emeritus Professor of Medieval History at the University of Kansas. The lectures were prepared as basic resource material for US college students studying western civilisation, but also form a useful tool for swiftly familiarising oneself with key events and movements from the transformation of the Roman Empire to 1492. There are fifty-two lectures available, ranging from topics such as 'The Hundred Years War', Medieval Philosophy' and 'The First Crusade'. The style of the lectures is readable and thoughtful, offering an accessible springboard for ideas and further study. They read like lectures, rather than conference papers, so are casual in tone, with the strong sense of a confident speaker that makes them good introductory resources. Within some of the broad headings are lectures entitled 'Thoughts on reading...' which address ways of considering key texts for that area. These include 'Beowulf', 'El Cid' and 'The Little Flowers of St Francis'. These lectures are concerned with ways of reading and focus on the idea that depth of study continually opens up new areas of interest, rather than ever becoming definitive.
This website describes a research project which is using Grid computing to explore the military-logistical context of the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, a key event in the history of the collapse of Byzantine power in Anatolia. Doing so, it aims to demonstrate a multi-agent model based approach to early military logistics, as well as exploring new infrastructures and algorithms for building very large multi-agent models. The project is funded by the AHRC/EPSRC/JISC e-Science Initiative.
The website by the Spanish Medieval historian F. Javier Villalba Ruiz de Toledo offers complementary materials for his lectures, which may be of interest to other lecturers and students of European and Spanish medieval history. The site provides historical texts; maps; and a bibliography (although at the time of cataloguing the latter was not available). The texts section includes fragments from a wide variety of historical sources, covering topics such as: Al-Andalus; feudalism; Christian Spain; the fight for the 'Dominium mundi'; and feudal monarchies. The author has also made available very useful historical maps such as: Europe by the end of the 5th century; Islam in times of Mohammed; England by the beginning of the 10th century; and the First Crusade. Users should note that all materials are in Spanish only.
The Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies is an institution devoted to advanced study 'of the material and intellectual cultures of the Middle Ages'. The Institute is affiliated with the University of Toronto, and has its own library which houses an important collection of medieval resources, including microfilmed copies of more than 450 manuscripts, and papal letters stored at the Vatican. The PIMS website provides information on the Institute and its research, as well as the library and its resources. Of interest to researchers and students of medieval studies is the 'Engines of Electronic Enterprise' section, which comprises an extensive collection of Web links relating to the field, and information on PIMS publications.
The website "Porphyra" is a free, online, full-text journal focusing on Byzantine studies. The journal is published in PDF format and contains illustrated papers from members of an Italian online "community" and Italian scholars. Most of the papers are referenced and in Italian, with a few translated in English. Each issue of the journal concentrate on particular topics such as Byzantine Italy; Emperor Justinian; Emperor Constantine; the Comneni (1081-1181). There are a few supplements, which are smaller and more specialist issues, focusing on particular themes. Previously published numbers include themes such as Byzantine law and the inheritance of Roman military strategy. Many papers can be of interest to researchers, at least because they are informative and some are reductions of past scholarly work or notes of current research. However, the papers are not peer reviewed and some contributions are amateur or summarise textbooks. Because of this, undergraduate students should not use this resource and rather use printed or peer reviewed resources. Postgraduate students and researchers may read it with caution and find new ideas, which may be discussed with the authors in the online community. The journal is quite innovative and commendable for being produced by an online community, especially as it unites scholars and public. Whilst the papers in this journal are on open invitation to discussion and eventually inspire research, they are not the publication of completed research as in scientific journals and readers need to be aware of this. Also, there is no indication of the date of publication of each issue.
Studies in Iconography is the website of the journal, published by Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, in collaboration with the Index of Christian Art, Princeton University. The journal publishes essays and reviews of books relating to visual culture pre-1600, and aims to be of interest to those researching: Byzantine; medieval; and early modern periods, especially in the areas of: semiotics; cultural anthropology; gender studies; ideological critique; and social history. The site offers tables of contents for volume 15 onwards, as well as details of the editorial board and submission and subscription information.
A Visual Tour through Late Antiquity provides a selection of images of artistic evidence and material remains from the 4th to 7th centuries. The prime focus of the website is late antique Gaul at the time of Gregory of Tours (538-594) but context is provided by a variety of other images. The collection is divided into five sections: Late Roman court and aristocracy; Imperial art of 6th century Ravenna; Gallic art of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries; Frankish art and artefacts; and Royal grave goods. The Visual Tour through Late Antiquity was originally compiled for the use of students at the Nipissing University (Canada) but it also provides a good general introduction to some famous late Roman and early Frankish images and artefacts.