This is an online narrative overview of Athens' history, from neolithic to contemporary times. The text is divided into chapters which give an easily-accessible chronological survey of the city from around 5000 BC to the late twentieth century. Key periods covered include: Mycenaean Athens (1500-1200 BC); archaic Athens (750-478 BC); classical Athens (478-339 BC); Hellenistic Athens (339-168 BC); Roman Athens from republic to empire (168 BC-AD 303); Byzantine Athens (AD 303-1205); Crusader Athens (AD 1205-1456); Ottoman Athens (AD 1456-1821); the Greek War of Independence (AD 1821-1833); Bavarian rule (1833-1862); and twentieth-century Athens. Timelines are also given for ancient, medieval and modern Athens, and the site also features a bibliography of secondary material (without annotation).
The "Actas y Comunicaciones" (ISSN 1669-7286) from the University of Buenos Aires' Instituto de Historia Antigua y Medieval present research papers from the Institute in electronic format, in PDF files. The first issue of this electronic peer reviewed publication appeared in 2005, bringing together papers presented at a conference held at the Institute entitled 'Cuestiones historiográficas y representaciones históricas. Europa, ayer y hoy' (Historiographic Questions and Historical Representations. Europe, Yesterday and Today'). The articles are written in either Spanish or Italian and focus on such themes as: political power and intellectual development in the Middle Ages; the university as 'hammer and chisel' of medieval society, using 15th century Salamanca University as a case study; and, in a move away from medieval history, a study of Italian intellectuals and the fascist movement in Italy. The editors hope that the electronic format will permit greater dissemination of research output from the Institute, but they also welcome contributions from international scholars for future issues. At the time of review (2009) the PDF files three (2005-2007) of all four volumes posted online were not downloading properly.
The website of the "AHRB Centre for Byzantine Cultural History" is intended primarily as a platform to disseminate information about the Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies' (SPBS), events, research grants and publications. SPBS was established in 1983, with the object of furthering study and knowledge of the history and culture, language and literature of the Byzantine Empire and its neighbours. The website is a great resource for students, postgraduates and those engaged in higher levels of research. The site features abstracts and longer reports on current projects. A page of links directs the user to a variety of online sources concerning the Byzantine Empire. This centre is the result of a collaboration between the universities of Newcastle and Sussex, and The Queen's University, Belfast. The aim of the centre is to bring together art historians, textual scholars and archaeologists, and the resources to enhance the following projects: Evergetis; Networks; Constantinople; Colour; and Skylitzes. The Centre receives funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) (now the Arts and Humanities Research Council - AHRC) within the Research Centre Awards scheme.
This website is a blog (The Ancient World Online - AWOL) published by Charles Ellwood Jones and listing several open access e-journals relevant to ancient studies. It is constantly updated and new additions are posted regularly. In addition to accessing the e-journals directly, it is also possible to search several of them through JURN (based on Google). Both researchers and students may find useful to follow the blog and have a handy list of links ready to use.
This exhibition, from the Field Museum, Chicago, "takes you on a journey through 13,000 years of human ingenuity and achievement in the western hemisphere, where hundreds of diverse societies thrived long before the arrival of Europeans." This attractive and easy-to-navigate website features an exhibition overview, a FAQ about culture and the Americas, essays (about topics such as the Ice Age), interactive features, links to related collections, educational resources (including a glossary and reading materials), and more.
The website 'Ancient economies I' is a series of illustrated essays on various aspects of the economy of the ancient world by Dr Morris Silver of the Economics Department, City College of New York. The essays, written from an explicitly formalist perspective, cover a wide range of topics of economic interest such as landholding, labour, exchange and coinage in ancient Egypt and the Near East, the biblical world and the pre-historic and classical Mediterranean. Archaeological, textual and iconographic evidence are employed throughout including extensive use of mythological material. The texts are based on Silver's 'Economic Structures of Antiquity' (Greenwood Press 1995) and 'Taking ancient mythology economically' (Brill 1992). The author's CV which accompanies the website provides a bibliography of his other works on the ancient economy. All of the textual evidence is translated from the original Sumerian, Akkadian, Ugaritic, Greek, Hebrew and Hittite sources. Extensive bibliographies are provided for a number of the essays and many of the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at full-size. While Silver's approach is fairly explicit throughout, the website is not intended to provide a disinterested account of the source material or of the wider intellectual debate. This resource will interest a wide audience of archaeologists and ancient historians at undergraduate and research level but will also benefit economic historians in search of historical and cross-cultural parallels for their work.
Published in Greek and English, Anistoriton is a freely available, peer-reviewed electronic Journal of Archaeology, Art History and History. Although it seems particularly strong in the art, history and archaeology of the ancient world, the journal is global in outlook, with each issue featuring a wide range of topics, mostly related to Classics and classical archaeology (e.g. "Justice and the Self: A Reading of Plato's Gorgias"; "The Hellenic Alphabet: Origins, Use, and Early Function"; "The Roles of Patrician and Plebeian Women in their Religion in Rome"); and history (e.g. "President Johnson's Vietnam Policy = President Kennedy's Vietnam Policy?"; "The Polish Question at the Yalta Conference"; "Slavery, Society, and the Law in America. The Slave Law in Virginia (1607-1776)"). The website includes a discussion forum extending the published essays, together with a searchable archive of back issues.
This is the main page of the BBC History website's ancient history section. The site features sub-sections focusing on various time periods and cultures, including: the Egyptians; the Greeks; the Romans; British prehistory; the Anglo-Saxons; and the Vikings. Each of these contains a range of articles, supplemented by image galleries and interactive learning activities. Links to other relevant Web resources are also provided, both within the BBC website and elsewhere. Although the site is best suited to those wanting a general overview of the subjects covered (perhaps new undergraduates, or those teaching introductory courses), some sections contain articles by eminent scholars which may be of interest to more advanced students. The site is attractively presented and easy to use.
This is the main page of the section of the BBC History website that covers ancient non-European cultures. There are two major sub-sections: the Americas and Asia; and Africa and the Middle East. The articles featured deal with topics such as the mythical earthly paradise of Shangri-La; the fall of the Mayan civilisation; theories about what historical events might lie behind the biblical account of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah; and the Queen of Sheba. There is also an annotated picture gallery of items from the ancient civilisation of Mesopotamia. This resource provides a useful introduction to a number of fascinating subjects, and for those who want to know more, there are links to other relevant Web resources: a short list is given at the bottom of the main page, with longer selections alongside the individual articles. The site is attractively presented and easy to use.
This is the main page of the BBC History website's section on British prehistory. The site features overviews of the period 8000 BC to AD 43, plus a range of articles on topics such as: tribes; death and burial; sites and artefacts; and living in the Iron Age. These are supplemented by image galleries and interactive learning activities. Links to other relevant Web resources are also provided: a short list is given at the bottom of the main page, with longer selections alongside individual articles within the section. This resource is perhaps best suited to those wanting a general overview of the subject (new undergraduates, for example, or those teaching introductory courses), although some sections do contain articles by eminent scholars. The site is attractively presented and easy to use.
This is the main page of the BBC History website's section on the ancient Egyptians. The site features a range of articles, supplemented by image galleries and interactive learning activities, on topics such as: pyramids and monuments; mummification; gods and beliefs; pharoahs and dynasties; daily life; and deciphering hieroglyphics. Links to other relevant Web resources are also provided: a short list is given at the bottom of the main page, with longer selections alongside individual articles within the section. This resource is perhaps best suited to those wanting a general overview of the subject (new undergraduates, for example, or those teaching introductory courses), although some sections do contain articles by eminent scholars. The site is attractively presented and easy to use.
This excellent online resource, from the BBC, is an accessible and vibrant introduction to various aspects of the ancient Greek world. The site consists of a series of articles contributed by respected UK academics but pitched at the general user or student with an interest in ancient history. Topics which are covered include: the Olympics, ancient and modern (with illustrated sub-sections on religion and the Olympics; prizes; women at the games; and victory statues); Athenian democracy; Lord Elgin and the Acropolis marbles; Alexander the Great; Minoan civilisation; the lost city of Atlantis; and Jason and the Golden Fleece. Articles are clearly set out and accompanied by images from ancient art and architecture. Links are given to relevant BBC radio and television programmes, along with links to other related articles on the BBC website and selected external sites.
The website Early Medieval Britain and Ireland provides information on the British Isles in the sub-Roman period. It features electronic texts of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Gildas and Nennius in English translation. There are a number of articles on a varied number of topics, including - but not limited to - issues such as: end of Roman rule; the Saxon invasion; Pagan religions in Britain; and Scots and the Scotti. There is also a section on books which provides blurbs and links to commercial booksellers. This website will work well as an introduction to the Dark Ages in the British Isles.
The website 'Celtic Europe: An online resource for students' was created by Leigh T. Denault and assembles some concise introductory essays on a variety of Celtic subjects. There is an introduction to early history of the Celtic peoples; an illustrated key to the Ogham script; a table of Celtic gods and goddesses; and a brief discussion of the use of archaeological evidence. The site also provides essays on 'Celtic number mythology' and 'Welsh days of the week'. There is a short bibliography focusing on mythology and folklore. This site is a useful and reliable compendium of some basic facts about Celts, and can be recommended for purposes of teaching at secondary school and higher education level. One of the two external links to celtic resources is broken, which is due to the fact that the site is now archived.
The Centre for Computer-aided Egyptological Research (CCER) at Utrecht University in The Netherlands specializes in matters related to the application of computers in Egyptology. The Centre's activities concern developing general methods and programs, and providing worldwide advice and support. In this respect it coordinates the activities of the Computer Working Group of the International Association of Egyptologists. The centre publishes a series of CD-ROMs with pictures and data of Egyptian artefacts. A small selection is freely available online in the virtual exhibition. This website provides further resources useful to egyptologists: a multilingual Egyptological thesaurus; a database of 58,000 ancient Egyptian private names (Prosopographia Aegypti); a list of Egyptologists; an illustrated article on the great temple of Abu Simbel; an educational software presenting a trumpet found in the tomb of Tutankhamun (with sound recording); and a few fonts.
De Imperatoribus Romanis (On the Roman Emperors, or DIR) is a high-quality, online scholarly encyclopaedia about the rulers of the Roman Empire from 27 BC to 1453 AD, (Augustus to Constantine XI Palaeologus). The contents of DIR have been prepared by scholars but are intended to be accessible to non-specialists as well. This is an award winning online resource based at Salve Regina University, useful for teaching and learning about the history of Roman Emperors and many other aspects of Roman life, and easy to navigate. (There are frames and non-frames versions of the site, and a search engine). It includes biographical essays on the individual emperors, and descriptions and maps of significant battles in the empire's history. Each article is rigorously peer reviewed for quality and accuracy by the editorial board (drawn from universities from the USA, Germany, Canada, and Australia) before it can be included in the DIR, and authors undertake to keep their information current. Much of this material is cross-referenced by hyperlinks to: the Imperial Index (an index of all the emperors who ruled during the empire's 1500 years); Imperial Stemmata (family trees of important imperial dynasties); the DIR and ORB Ancient and Medieval Atlas providing maps of the empire at different times; the Imperial Battle Index; and the Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins for emperors before the fall of Rome in 476 AD (sourced from Cohen's "Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire romain", 1880-1892, and from Justin Paola's online "Collection of Roman Emperors"); as well as other recommended links to related sites.
'DIO: The International Journal of Scientific History' is a full-text ejournal, edited from Florida State University. The editors are inclined to accept articles by... "astrononomers, physicists, mathematicians, & classicists - not historians". Published three times a year, at June 2009 the journal has 27 issues online. Issues usually offer between two and six articles, freely available as PDF files. Example article titles include: 'The Babylonian Theory of the Planets'; 'The Southern Limit of the Ancient Star Catalog'; 'The Instuments Used by Hipparchos'; and 'Columbus's Landfall at Plana Keys', among others. The journal occasionaly collaborates with the The Journal for Hysterical Astronomy on special issues and articles on historical scientific hoaxes. The journal appears to have a special interest in papers on Hipparchos, ancient planetary observations, the maps of Ptolemy, and the early exploration of the polar regions. Three $1000 prizes are offered by the journal.
This clear, well-organised website is based around a series of nineteen maps illustrating the extent of the Roman Empire over a broad chronological span from the beginning of the empire in 338BC to AD1453, when Constantine XI died defending New Rome from the Turks. The author (who describes this work as his hobby) sets out his definition of empire and gives a summary of Roman history over the period covered, and each individual map is accompanied by a summary of events relating to the geographical spread of the empire. The site is an excellent aid for the visualisation of the rise and fall of Rome, and also offers further detailed analytical and comparative cartographic material, including: 'summary' maps emphasising the territorial continuity of Rome through the ages by considering how long various areas were under Roman control; maps of later empires (Ottoman, Greek, Fascist and Napoleonic); maps of the wider Eurasian world in AD116, AD755 and AD1288. There is also: a discussion of the different ways in which we might categorise the 'ages' of the Roman Empire (in relation to religion, adversaries or political organisation, for example); an article (with maps) discussing the decline and fall of Rome from the mid-fourth to mid-eighth centuries AD; and a section entitled 'Empires Strike Back' on eras when imperial powers returned to dominate the lands of ancient Rome. Finally, a short bibliography gives suggestions for further reading.
The website 'Eras' is an online journal produced by postgraduate students from the School of Historical Studies at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. The journal focuses on the areas of history, archaeology, religion and theology, and Jewish civilisation. Readers are encouraged to respond through the discussion page. Eras is intended to provide a platform to showcase recent Masters and doctoral research. There are links to back editions and each edition contains five or six full articles plus some book reviews. The articles are presented in both abstract and full form (in PDF format). The journal lacks a thematic approach, which would help or even engage the reader. Instead, each issue contains random material and it is necessary to trawl through the issues to discover if there is anything useful. Guidelines for contributors are available on the site together with calls for papers. There is scope to contact the editors and contribute to the discussion page.
The European Middle Ages website is part of the World CIvilization online textbooks published in 1996 by Richard Hooker at the Washington University. This particular site introduces, at its title indicate, the history of the European Middle Ages. There are two large sections: The Peoples. The Intercultural Periods; and the Resources. Chronologically, the author begins by locating the prehistoric origins of the European peoples: the Beaker People, and the Indo-European Battleaxe people that eventually came to dominate the continent. It traces the early movements and migrations across Europe, looking particularly at the Celts and Celtic culture. Further chapters are dedicated to the various peoples of Northern Europe that had a major impact on the history of the Middle Ages. There are pages on the Germans, Norse, Anglo-Saxons, and Normans, with other pages on the medieval cultures of England and France. A section on the rather different history of Byzantium and the Byzantine Empire is also included. In addition to the historical narratives, there is also a selection of resources. Unfortunately, this part of the site remains largely unfinished, although it does include a few readings from Boccaccio, Boethius, and Petrarch (all in English). There is also a list of links to other relevant sites. The content of the texts is rather cursory and brief. It does provide however a basic introduction to medieval Europe. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
The "Fortuna visiva of Pompeii" project makes available online a digital archive of visual and written documents on Pompeii, dating from the discovery of the ancient Roman town, in 1748, to the end of the 19th century. Developed on the basis of several studies carried out under the guidance of the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, this resource provides access to a digital library containing full-text of rare, or more generally unobtainable, works on the subject of the archaeological site of Pompeii. Over fifty books have been entirely digitised. For each work an abstract and bibliographical details are included. The digital archive section offers access to bibliographic and iconographic material - such as engravings, drawings and watercolours - through three different indexes. Unedited documents, such as manuscripts, are present too and can be explored through predefined theme-based itineraries or freely browsed. Images come with explanatory captions and can be enlarged to facilitate viewing. Detailed cross-references are provided for documents featuring in both virtual archives. At the time of this review a related topographic platform, a GIS named "Un piano per Pompei" (A plan for Pompeii) appears to be under construction. This is an outstanding resource which would greatly assist scholars or anyone with an interest for the topic covered.
Forum historiae iuris is a full-text journal published by the Law Faculty, Humboldt University in Berlin. The journal aims to provide free access to articles on legal history from Roman times to the present day. Articles are accepted for publication in German, English and French. The material on the site can be browsed chronological or by time period (antiquity, the middle ages, early modern times and the 19th-20th centuries). It is also possible to search the journal. The journal has an email alerting system which lets subscribers know when new articles appear. Other features of the site include a 'what's new' section, online help, contact details, news and reports, and a links section.
This website acts as an introduction to several areas of ancient Greek civilisation, with sections on drama, history, philosophy and mythology. Each section is divided into bite-sized chunks on key aspects of the themes. There is a general bias towards classical Athens (fifth and fourth centuries BC), with the tragedians Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides featuring in the drama section, and Socrates, Plato and Aristotle in the article on philosophy. Where mythology is concerned, an alphabetical list of Greek gods and heroes is accompanied by descriptions of each. This is a clear and accessible site, illustrated throughout by images from ancient art and with a brief bibliography suggesting basic resources for further reading.
This Web page provides users with free access to an add-on 'layer' for use in the free Google Earth software. Loading this layer inside Google Earth gives users a... "free accurate model of Ancient Rome in the year 320 A.D. The model contains 3D terrain contours and 6,700 3D buildings". A relatively powerful modern PC is required to run the Ancient Rome layer inside Google Earth. The 3D models are... "based on a physical model of the city called the... 'Plastico di Roma Antica' created by archaeologists and model-makers from 1933 to 1974 and housed in a special gallery in the Museum of Roman Civilization in Rome. 3D digital models were created based on scans of the physical model." Buildings are labelled, and two hundred of the most important buildings are modelled with a high level of historically-accurate detail. Users can enter the interior of selected buildings. Users can zoom in, tilt, and create "fly-through" videos of the model using either Google Earth's 'Pro' version or the basic version of Google Earth and free third-party video-capture tools such as FRAPS. This 3D city model will be an important resource for understanding the scope and nature of Ancient Rome's topography and urban structure. It also acts as an exemplar for the authentic online recreation of historic cities in 3D via personal computers. The Web page is available in a wide variety of languages other than English.
Chris Zweifel's study of Hadrian's Wall, published in 2002, examines several aspects of the impact of this important archaeological site. The contemporary significance of the Wall to Roman occupied Britain is set within the wider context of how the Wall affected subsequent developments in the region - not only in historical terms but also environmental. Thus, the actual building of the Wall, and the development of the settlements that sprung up around the Roman fortifications, led to deforestation, the development of distinct ecological systems on either side of the boundary, and the development of a mining industry which all helped transform the landscape. The political and economic ramifications for the development of the separate identities of England and Scotland through the following two thousand years are briefly summarised, as is the lasting ecological impact. More recently, the impact of tourism to the Wall is assessed in both economic and environmental contexts. The paper is available online from the collection of case studies in the Inventory of Conflict and Environment (number 109, November 2002), compiled by Professor James Lee of the American University in Washington D.C.
The website 'Hanover Historical Texts Projects' is an ongoing entreprisce of the Hanover College (USA) Department of History.Since 1995 they have been making electronic texts freely available for student and staff use in the study and teaching of history courses. The chronology ranges from ancient Greece and Rome through to the Russian Revolution. Geographic regions include Europe, United States, the Americas (outside the United States), Africa, and East Asia. The collection also includes works of philosophical and theological significance, including sections relating to the Crusades and the Reformation. Each text contains information about its source and who was responsible for scanning it. Texts are supplied as ASCII (presented in HTML) rather than page images. Many of the texts are quite lengthy and divided into sections (e.g. the full-text of the canons and decrees of the Council of Trent). Although the site is fairly regularly updated, some links are broken.
The Hellenic History on the Internet website is a large educational resource summaring the long and substantial history of Greece through a series of illustrated articles, some general and some covering specific themes. A panel of scholars have advised in the production of each section. Prehistoric and Classical Greece is well represented, much less Roman Greece. The Byzantine and modern periods are also well covered, less the Ottoman period and the Venetian period is not mentioned. In short, it is a history focusing on the achievements of the indigenous people rather than a history of the region. Despite this, the prehistoric, Classical and modern Greece sections are very valuable; chronologies and bibliographies are also present. At the time of review the sitemaps had broken links, though navigation through the pages was fine. Undergraduates in particular may find this website useful.
This is the home page of the Department of History at the University of Zurich, the section of East European history. The site provides basic information in the form of contact details and profiles for all affiliated faculty, and schedules and topics for its course offerings. It also has pages to advise students on course requirements. The research projects of the staff, past and ongoing are presented to great length. The subsite of the library of the history department inform about the new acquisitions and the Russian archival holdings. The department has newly uploaded a link to its e-learning offers. The links from the department's site lead to the Swiss portal of East European studies, the research possibilities for secondary literature on Eastern Europe and to the webpages of libraries in various countries from Central and Eastern Europe.
The Department Maps website at the History Department of the United States Military Academy is a collection of digitised maps covering battles fought in a wide range of historical periods and geographical areas. There are over 450 maps available, arranged by themes, which include: Ancient Warfare; Colonial Wars; The American Revolution; The Napoleonic Wars; The American Civil War; The Chinese Civil War; The Great War; World War Two (various geographic areas); The Arab-Israeli Wars; The Vietnam War; and various later wars, divided into in the western and eastern hemispheres. The maps are large and fairly detailed but as there is no accompanying background information on the conflicts, would be best used after or in conjunction with other reading material on the battles in question. The maps are available in various formats, including: GIF files; HTML; and EPS files, and would be useful to military historians and history students.
This website has been created by Steven Kreis for post-16 and undergraduate students. It contains complete contents listings for three undergraduate courses in European history and is divided into 90 lectures, from ancient Sumer to the fall of Soviet-style communism in 1989. All the lectures are divided into four topics: ancient and medieval European history; early modern European history; modern European intellectual history; and 20th century Europe. It contains an extremely useful guide for historians and another introductory historiographical section which defines history. Lectures on modern European intellectual history concentrate mainly on the French revolution and the development of ideologies, while lectures on 20th century Europe cover topics such as: the Russian October revolution and its influence; totalitarian regimes of Stalin and Hitler; and the origins of the Cold War. The lecture on George Orwell and the Last Man in Europe, which is about the writer's drafting of '1984,' is of special note. All the texts contain highlighted names and historical events, which users can click on to gain access to other websites covering the people and events concerned. For example, the lecture on the aftermath of the Bolshevik revolution provides links to biographies of Lenin and Trotsky and full-texts of the English versions of important documents, such as: The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the Decree on Peace; materials on the Russian civil war; and war communism.
This is the website of the historiographical journal HISTOS, from the Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Durham. The scope of the journal is relatively broad and includes historiographical texts of Greece and Rome, the historiography of Byzantium and other ancient cultures, ancient biography and the influence of historiography and biography on other literary genres. Modern theory relevant to the study of historiography is also covered by the publication. The journal also addresses the use of non-literary sources for the study of the past. The emphasis of the journal is on the historical texts themselves rather than on the historical problems that they are being used to solve. The first issue of the journal was published in 1997 with volumes published annually up to and including 2000. Because the journal is no longer in publication links on the site to historiographical conferences and research projects are out of date.
Ice, Fire and Northern Myths: Icelandic Literature at the University of Nottingham is an online exhibition on Icelandic and Viking myth and literature, presented by Nottingham University. The University has extensive original holdings in Viking and Icelandic literature, together with a facsimile of the Flateyjarbok compliation of sagas. The Ice, Fire and Northern Myths website contains a history of the collections, together with short illustrated texts on: Dramatic Landscapes, An Artist in Iceland (about Sabine Baring-Gould, 1834-1924); Icelandic dress; Illustrating Literature (on 19th and 20th Century illustrators); Observing and Recording; and Northern Tongues. The exhibition's images are presented at a small size only.
The Internet Ancient History Resource Guide is produced by the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History of Europe at Ghent University (Belgium). Acting as starting point for searches on Ancient Greek or Roman topics, the Internet Ancient History Resource Guide is especially useful for novice web-surfers thanks to an introductory 'Getting Started' section. Pages listing annotated links to Internet resources for a range of topics including: epigraphy; papyrology; numismatics; cartography; and art and architecture; and archaeological/material sources are provided. Online reference works and tools, research fora and discussion groups, and teaching resources are also listed, together with listings of literature sources, including publishers' catalogues and library catalogues.
The website 'Internet History Sourcebooks Project', created by Paul Halsall at Fordham University, provides access to online primary source material for a number of branches of history. The project offers a combination of locally hosted material and links (often annotated) to documents on other sites. The three main sourcebooks cover ancient, medieval, and modern history; in addition to these, there are subsidiary sourcebooks, which take a thematic approach. There are, for example, sourcebooks on: Jewish history; Islamic history; East Asian history; history of science; and women's history. The material within the sourcebooks is well organised into categories, and is searchable. The home page provides general information about the sourcebooks project, including details of updates (maintaining a resource of this scope is a considerable task, and consequently some broken links are almost inevitable). Overall, this is a very valuable site, as the sources offered have the potential to be of immense use to historians; however, the user does need patience to browse what can be rather eclectic collections of sources. Also, the editor warns that the site had last been updated in 2006.
The website of the Kythera Island Project (KIP), an international multi-disciplinary project designed to explore the 7000 year human history of the island of Kythera in the Aegean within the context of changing natural and cultural dynamics and of both insular and regional factors. Based principally at University College London and the British School at Athens, the project has conducted intensive survey fieldwork since 1998 on a variety of island landscapes and to date has documented some 200 archaeological sites from the Late and Final Neolithic period (5th and 4th millennia BC) to Ottoman and recent times, the results of which are summarised and analysed in this resource. Kythera's nodal position between Crete and the Peloponnese ensured a major role in facilitating contact between different parts of the Aegean and the central Mediterranean throughout its history, a role which has also influenced changes in the lifestyle and identity of the islanders over millennia. Kythera therefore is an ideal focus for studying the nature of island societies in their wider context and of expanding the older geographical concept of the island laboratory. Specialist reports, reflecting the multi-disciplinary aims of the project, are also provided: archaeometallurgy; botany; geoarchaeology; GIS; geophysics; historical geography; mortuary landscapes; pottery; stone tools; restudy of the older excavations at Kastri in the 1960s and a new project at Tholos on the edge of Kastri town. Apart from a detailed explanation of the methods employed by the survey team, further insights on the methods of KIP are provided by various PDF versions of the recording forms. Other features include a bibliography of research stemming from the project, a guide to the personnel, and details of sponsors. Historical geographers and historians of the longue durée will also benefit from this website. The site is now archived.
"L'aventure des écritures" is a French-language site that provides a detailed, multi-layered and richly illustrated introduction to the history of writing. There are three section: one dealing with the origin and diffusion of some 25 world writing systems from ca. 3300 B.C. to ca. 1200 A.D (Naissances); one introducing the various supports for writing (Matters and forms - Matière et formes); and the third introducing "the page" (La page) namely presenting the history of the printed paper and the book. The website reflects an exhibition at the BNF in 1999. Using a hypertext medium, the reader is guided through the history, mythology and cultural context of the world major writing systems: Cuneiform, Egyptian, Chinese, African and Pre-Columbian and related scripts. These are complemented by sections outlining theoretical and cultural aspects of writing systems such as signs and cryptography, the relationship between writing and speech, and the symbolic and religious associations of letters and scripts. In addition to the wide-ranging bibliography and glossary of terms, there is extensive citation of academic and literary reflections on writing. The related, and equally splendidly presented 'dossiers pédagogiques' deal with the physical aspects of writing, book making and printing from inscribed clay tablets to illuminated manuscripts to the CD-rom. The excellent education section provides a very useful resource for teachers at all levels of education though it will be particularly useful for schools. This website has a wide potential audience from the general public to students, teachers and researchers of archaeology, classics and ancient languages or else to those interested in e-publication and education.
This website provides access to the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), a searchable catalogue of Latin and Greek works in circulation from the fourth century BC to AD 800. It allows one to explore the transmission of ancient and classical texts and ideas from the ancient world through to late antiquity, and it builds on previous research by Roger Pack, Joseph van Haelst, and Marcello Gigante, whose catalogues of ancient books are incorporated here. The database has been created in FileMaker Pro, and this program must be available on one's machine in order to use the database. The LDAB contained information on just under 14,000 ancient literary texts at the time of writing this review, and it includes material written on papyrus, ostraka, parchment, and tablets. Each entry includes details of published material about the text, the ancient author, title of the work, material inscribed, the bookform, the genre, the culture (Greek, Latin, Hebrew), religion, the text's provenance, date of writing, description of the lettering, and the subjects covered by the text. The LDAB can be searched on most of the fields listed above. More than one field can be selected for searching. Results can be displayed in a variety of attractive formats. For example, a search for all editions of a Euripides play gives a list of catalogue entries in plain text. Other functionality is available with the CD-ROM version of the database. Using this webpage, you can search through the entire LDAB database, but you cannot download it it as a whole. Results can be printed out.
Over 1,500 colour as well as black and white photographs relating to ancient Greece and Rome taken by the author primarily teaching purposes have been scanned and published online. There are also some non-ancient photographic subjects that have been useful for teaching, such as a photograph of a medieval cathedral for comparison with Roman architecture or a few images of a modern street market in Naples. The site offers a link to a software (Macintosh only) written by the author for teachers of Latin. An internal search engine is also available. The collection can be browsed by subject: England; France; Greece; Italy - (Rome, the Pantheon, Sicily, Italy except Rome and Sicily); and special selections of images (including the Roman house, and some Virgilian sites [Vergil]). The images can be accessed directly or previewed in thumbnails. Information relating to copyright, author and date the photograph has been taken is provided for each image.
This is the main website for 'MapHist: e-mail discussion group on the history of cartography'. The list concentrates on... "historical maps, atlases, globes and other cartographic documents", and membership is open to all interested parties. The website hosts an 'Illustration page' and a 'Discussion papers' page, where members deposit scholarly items for the list to discuss. These pages are open to non-members. There is also a 'History of Maphist' page, and external links to old (pre-2002) archives of the mailing-list. There is a short page about dragons and other monsters that appear on early maps, containing some details of the history of such maps, and a partial list of known early examples. MapHist is not to be confused with Maphist Article Manager, an annotation software tool for historical maps.
"The Mongols in World History" is an educational website part of "Asia for educators" that looks at the Mongols and their Empire, which was one of the largest in history. The website concentrates on several less known aspects such as trade; religion; arts; military tactics; public works; laws; the perils of nomadic life; the cultural significance of several animals (including horses and camels); and others. Of course, the history of Mongolian conquests is also featured. There are also historical biographies of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan (1162?-1227); Khubilai Khan (1215-1294); Ögödei (1185-1241) and Marco Polo (1254-1323?). There are some excerpts in PDF format taken from the book "The Book of Ser Marco Polo: The Venetian Concerning Kingdoms and Marvels of the East" and edited by Colonel Sir Henry Yule; "All the Khan's Horses" by Morris Rossabi; and "Dietary Decadence and Dynastic Decline in the Mongol Empire" by John Masson Smith. Some educational materials have been prepared and will help teachers in using this website for teaching classes. Students and teachers may find this website useful.
The Museum of London website provides a host of information about the museum and its collections. The site has details of permanent collections and of past and current exhibitions. The Museum's galleries deal with all aspects of London life. This site provides a taster for the galleries and exhibitions, which include life on and around the Thames from prehistoric times to the present day. The museum has a strong interest in the archaeology of London and this is reflected on the website. There is a section devoted to the London Archaeological Archive and Research Centre (LAARC), which includes a searchable catalogue of London archaeological sites and general information on archaeology in London. The learning section contains information and resources for teachers. Other features of the website include details on: opening hours, location, events and news. The site includes a database of oral sources, and contemporary opinions on London and by Londoners. Parts of the site (especially useful for visitors) can also be viewed in German, Spanish, French, and Italian.
'The Origins and Emergence of West-Semitic Alphabet Scripts' is dedicated to the ground-breaking work of two scholars, James Harris and Dann Hone, in deciphering a number of inscriptions found in the desert between the borders of Egypt, Israel and the Jordan. This resource traces earlier theories on and interpretations of this particular alphabet and provides images of a number of inscriptions with their transliteration in Hebrew. A third section of this site deals with the religious and cultural background of the texts, focusing on the rendering of the divine name in this script. Unfortunately, a bibliography on the subject is lacking in this resource.
The website "Paris, ville antique - Paris, a Roman city" is beautifully produced interactive guide to the early history of Paris (Roman Lutetia) providing a guide to the archaeology and history of the French capital from ancient times to the early Mediaeval period and presented in a hypertext medium. The site has a very good English version. Although Neolithic and Bronze Age occupation from the 4th-3rd millennia BC is documented at Bercy and beneath the Louvre, the history of Paris really dates from the oppidum, or defended settlement, of the Parisii mentioned (and possibly destroyed?) by Julius Caesar during the Gallic wars in 53-52 BC. The settlement was transformed by the conquering Romans into Lutetia which became one of the largest and most sophisticated cities north of the Alps but which by the 3rd and 4th centuries AD had become a fortified settlement protecting the region from barbarian invasions. Sections on the site are: the City; aspects of daily life; archeology in Paris; and a virtual tour of Roman Paris. Key features of this website include: a history of the town describing its natural setting and indigenous Celtic inhabitants; a guided tour of the city relating the ancient and modern topography within an interactive map; an account of the history of excavation in Paris from the time of Gregory of Tours in the 6th century AD to the more explicitly archaeological work of the Commission du Vieux Paris and the Service Régional de l'Archéologie; sections on daily life, trade, manufacturing and artistic production revealed through artefactual remains. Also included is a useful concise list of key ancient sources and modern publications on the history of Paris and a chronological chart. Apart from its appeal to the general reader, this website is an attractive didactic resource for archaeology students at school and university.
This site provides access to maps of Europe from AD1 – 2000. There are twenty-one main maps showing the political layout of Europe at 100 year intervals. The site documents the political circumstances and changes throughout much of European history in an easily accessed visual format and is a valuable resource. The key to the maps are in a separate legend section. There are options to focus on particular areas of the continent (e.g. North-West Europe) in order to get more focused details of the area. Some of the maps are not of the highest quality but they do provide a helpful guide to the historic political boundaries of Europe.
This essay is a list of places around the Indian Ocean that were involved in trading in the 1st Century AD. Advice on entering some of the ports with a vessel is given. Also mentioned are some of the goods that were traded. It is part of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.
The website 'Pictish Nation' is dedicated to the ancient people of Scotland known as "The Picts" to modern historians, "Cruithne" to the Celts, "Pictii" (or "Painted") to the Romans and "Pritani" to the Greeks, "the famous bluemen of Scotland, the tattooed hosts of the North". On the web since 1994, the author intends to link all Pictish pages on the Web here. (However, some of the links are not live.) There are brief essays on the history and language of the Picts (the Pictish kings; the ancient names of Scotland; Mac Alpin's treason; and the ancient connection to Spain), as well as links to photographs and artwork inspired by the Picts or recording their standing stones and inscriptions. There is also a bibliography.
The website for the project "Prosopography of the Byzantine World" (PBW) formerly known as the "Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire" (PBE) provides details about a database compiled on individuals mentioned in Byzantine sources. It is the aim of the project to produce a computerised database with information on the ethnicity, offices, activities, and other attributes of individuals mentioned, gathered from a wide range of sources in Greek, Latin, Arabic, Syriac and other languages. This site is excellent for students, teachers, and researchers, and covers the period from 641 to 1261. The first volume of the project is already available on CD and covers the period between 641-867. The site also provides information on sigillography, with links to online catalogues and descriptions of seals from collections in Greece, Turkey, the UK, the US, Germany, Italy, Romania, and Bulgaria among others. Links to academic departments and centres, prosopographical projects and Byzantine research projects are listed on a separate page. The project is funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement and the Research Grants schemes.
Published since 1988, 'Espacio, Tiempo y Forma' is the annual peer-reviewed journal of the Faculty of Geography and History at the Spanish open university (UNED). It is divided in seven different series, corresponding with the departments at the faculty: Prehistory and Archaeology; Ancient History; Medieval History; Modern History; Contemporary History; Geography; and History of Art. Although the language of the publication is Spanish, most recent articles have abstracts in Spanish and English. Each series publishes research articles and book reviews within the specific field. In most cases, they focus on Spain, but other European and Latin American areas are also covered. The website lacks any form of search tool, and users can only browse each issue. However, all articles can be accessed for free and given the wide scope of the journal, browsing may yield interesting results.
The Scrolls from the Dead Sea website, prepared by the Library of Congress, takes the form of an online exhibition. The exhibition provides an overview of the historical context of the scrolls and the Qumran community. An account of the discovery of the scrolls in 1947 is also provided, as is an outline of the controversy that surrounds the them. The website was also created with the aim of encouraging a better understanding of the challenges and complexities connected with the researching the scrolls. Images of fragments of the scrolls and photographs of artifacts from the Qumran site, including a scroll jar and its fastenings, are also available.
The Society for Arabian Studies is a scholarly organisation based in London that aims to... "support and encourage research in the Arabian peninsula in the fields of archaeology, history, culture and the environment". The website is presented in English. The Society publishes an annual 'Bulletin' magazine in English, which is freely available online in PDF format. The 'Bulletin' aims to be a comprehensive survey of scholarly activity in the field during the past year, and at October 2008 three issues of this journal are available for download. Also available on the website are full details of the organising committee, membership fees, the Society's conferences, lectures, its Monograph Series, and other activities. The Society also offers small grants, of £500. This website will be especially useful for those seeking an accessible summary of recent scholarship in this area.
This is the highly detailed and well thought-out website of the Sphakia Survey, an interdisciplinary archaeological project whose main objective is to reconstruct the sequence of human activity in a remote and rugged part of Crete (Greece), from the time that people arrived in the area, by c. 3000 BCE, until the end of Ottoman rule in AD 1900. The project's research covers three major epochs, Prehistoric, Graeco-Roman, and Byzantine-Venetian-Turkish, and has involved the work of many people using environmental, archaeological, documentary, and local information. The website includes: photographs of Cretan landscapes, objects and archaeological finds; illustrated versions of the project's preliminary articles; a searchable database of the site catalogue; a case study based on one period (Graeco-Roman) in one of the eight regions surveyed; and a description of the project's research methodology. This resource is a joint project between the Sphakia Survey project and the Humanities Computing Development Team at the University of Oxford. The website is part of an online course for adult learners; an educational video based on research at Sphakia is available. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
Studia Humaniora Tartuensia (SHT) is a peer-reviewed scholarly electronic journal which publishes research articles and notes in any area of the humanities, but some emphasis on classical studies, ancient history, neo-Latin studies, classical tradition, and the history of scholarship and philosophy. Published by the University of Tartu in Estonia, and online since 2000, SHT is a well-established and diverse journal which is sure to contain material of interest to scholars of classical studies and ancient history. Articles may be written in English, French, German and Latin. The journal provides a free mailing list to users wishing to keep informed of developments in the journal, and a news section for further information. Full article submission details are also provided.
Created by the University of Michigan Library, Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity offers a good visual and descriptive introduction to magical practices, devices and ornamentation from the pre-Christian period. Developed around the University's own extensive collection of papyri texts, each section begins with the description of a specific type of magical object, ranging from a early magic recipe books to a protective amulet. This description is followed by a series of related images that detail the features, significance and functionality of these apparatuses. The objects described come predominantly from the Mesopotamian and Egyptian regions, between the first and fifth centuries C.E. The site will be of appeal to anyone who has an interest in early magical rituals and practices during the height and decline of the Roman Empire. Those new to the subject may also wish to explore the brief, but helpful, bibliography at the end of the exhibit.
Trismegistos is an online 'platform' or service which enables the cross-searching of a variety of projects dealing with metadata of published documents relating to the study of late period Egypt (roughly 800 BCE - 800 CE). The aim of this developing service is to overcome any barriers of language and discipline in the study of documents written not only in Greek, Latin, and Egyptian in its various scripts, but also in Aramaic, Carian, and other languages. In total it contains nearly 100,000 records. The basis of the online resource is a searchable database, of collections of papyrological and epigraphic texts by the Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections and the project Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in Graeco-Roman Egypt. The 'Leuven home page of papyrus collections' is a comprehensive and invaluable database of information on collections of papyrus and ostraca from the ancient Mediterranean world (circa 2000 B.C.- circa 500 A.D.) scattered in almost 30 countries and 350 institutions. It includes contact details and URLs of many of the scholars and institutions active in papyrological research. The database appears to be an on-going project and the level of detail and number of links listed for individual collections vary considerably. There is a straightforward keyword search but the collection can also be browsed by country of origin, by institution and, where known, by archive provenance. References to literary papyri are cross-linked with the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), though this is not immediately apparent. Several useful sections describe and contextualise public and private archives in antiquity and describe how they have survived and come down to us in the modern world. Many of the entries on individual institutions also provide brief accounts of their collection history in addition to summaries of past and present research projects. This is a valuable resource, particularly as a gateway site, for researchers in archaeology and Egyptology, ancient history, classics and biblical studies who are interested in papyri and related materials.
Diane Thompson of Northern Virginia Community College has created a fascinating web resource reflecting on the central role of the story of Troy and the Epic Cycle in Greek, Roman and European culture based on the content of her 2004 book 'The Trojan War: literature and legends from the Bronze Age to the present' (McFarland). She takes the reader on a 3,000 year journey from the archaeology of Troy and Mycenae and the Bronze Age origins of the epics, to the establishment and dissemination of the Homeric texts as seminal books in Greek and Roman times, to their transformation into Christian and later European literature during the Middle Ages, to the Renaissance and the Enlightenment periods and finally down to the reinvention of the tales in the 20th century by James Joyce, Wilfred Owen, Derek Walcott, Jean-Paul Sartre and the generation of writers who reflected their experiences of the Vietnam War through the poetry of Homer. One major section, focusing on the role of women in the Epics and how they have been central to recent feminist discourse, is also used to introduce important bibliographical material on ancient and modern interpretations of goddesses, powerful ancient women and gender roles generally, from both academic and literary authors. Each chapter, arranged in roughly chronological order, contains a summary of the historical context and links to etexts, images, film references and background material, including very useful bibliographic material. A linked series of pages provides a course guide to the module Myths and stories of the Trojan War taught by Thompson to college level students. The website is ideal for students of classics and ancient history (or European history generally), but also for those interested in the evolution of Western literary and artistic models.
This is the home page of World Heritage - a UNESCO programme to protect natural and cultural properties of outstanding universal value against the threat of damage. This user-friendly site gives plenty of up to date news and information on the activities of World Heritage and contains the full-text of The World Heritage Convention. The user can access short descriptions of each site, either from arranged by country, or by zooming in from a map of the world. A list of sites in danger provides added information. Reports of the World Heritage statutory meetings may be viewed or downloaded in PDF format.
This is the website of the Cambridge department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic (ASNC). ASNC covers 'the history, material culture, languages, and literatures of the various peoples who inhabited the British Isles and Scandinavia in the early Middle Ages'. The Resources section will be particularly valuable to teachers and students, with extensive sections with links to images and facsimiles of texts, for example. This website is a useful resource for anyone interested in the subject area,
The website "Vindolanda Tablets Online" is an excellent site which provides an online database of the Vindolanda Tablets found at the Vindolanda fortress near Hadrian's Wall dating from the first century of the common era. The site is extremely easy to navigate and features a help section. The database is intended to be used as a learning tool for teaching Latin and Classics at all levels; primary school (there is a link to the Latin course for primary schools, Minimus), A and AS levels, undergraduate, postgraduate and for research purposes. The website is based on the publication of three volumes of materials on the tablets, but obviously offers many more facilities than the printed form. There is a section on the background history to the fort of Vindolanda, where the tablets were found. The tablets provide information on the social, cultural, and military history of the fortress. There is an online exhibition of the tablets, which features sections on people, places, documents, reading the tablets, and forts and military life. An excellent reference section provides information about Roman systems of dates, measures, currencies, military units and ranks, and Roman nomenclature. The tablets themselves can be viewed individually, and through an image zooming viewer. The tablets are arranged as a fully searchable set of digital materials with information included that is related to the tablets. The texts of the tablets can be searched by document type, people, places, military terms, archaeology, and other terms. A comprehensive links page provides information on over 70 websites and a bibliography of printed material. The project is based within the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University and is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The initial capture of the digital images was supported by an Arts and Humanities Research Board grant.
The website "Ancient Near Eastern Art" introduces this collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, which possesses one of the largest and most significant collections of Near Eastern artefacts in the world. This beautifully produced and easily navigated website provides an excellent guide to these holdings for both the general public and the professional academic. The collection can be searched in a number of ways, from a series of 50 highlighted objects selected by the museum or via a search engine which allows you to store a personal collection of search results for future research. Each record provides brief but informative descriptions of each object together with a high quality illustration which can be viewed at a variety of scales from thumbnail to full screen size. The Heilbrunn timeline of world art history which accompanies the entire museum collection, presented as an attractive interactive world map, situates the objects in their wider chronological and cultural context. This resource is a fine example of online museum publishing and will interest a wide public from the interested amateur and school children (and their teachers) to university level students and researchers of ancient Near Eastern art, archaeology and history.
Directed and primarily authored by Richard Hooker at Washington State University, the 'World Civilizations' website is a superior example of the integration of electronic materials and resources into a teaching or classroom setting. Designed as a series of survey courses, the pages broadly track the development and influence of major world cultures from around the world, while highlighting key philosophical, religious and textual themes. There are a number of ways to navigate these pages, but familiarisation with the layout does take a little while.
To begin, it is recommended that users first enter the 'contents' section and select the learning modules. From here one can browse a variety of cultural traditions in detail, and gain a better insight into what this resource has to offer. The learning modules themselves are directed specifically towards undergraduates at the beginning of their university studies. Information is provided on: early traditions (including Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Israel); Africa; China; European traditions; Islam; India; Japan; and Native North Americans. Each is laid out as a series of introductory electronic lectures complemented by selections of primary texts and a glossary of key terms. Many also come complete with a helpful introductory bibliography and a selection of additional external Internet resources. As a teaching resource, the scope of the site is so comprehensive that it can stand independently or easily complement any introductory class on world religions and culture. For students, the rapid access to pre-selected primary resources coupled with lectures and reference materials makes it an invaluable learning tool that will both illuminate and enhance any study environment. This is an archived site.