This is an online guide to using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). This has been written by Ian Gregory under the auspices of AHDS History. AHDS History is part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) which receives funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) and the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB). The guide explains how to construct databases using GIS and how to apply them to historical research. Avoiding jargon as much as possible, this is a reader-friendly manual that always places the more technical aspects of the system in practical contexts. The guide is relatively short and presented as a straightforward electronic book. It contains examples of GIS use in historical work, as well as a bibliography of further reading.
A Vision of Britain Through Time is a significant resource for those studying nineteenth and twentieth-century British social history. The site aggregates information from census returns from 1801 to the present, alongside various gazetteers, historical maps, and 'traveller's tales'. Data is organised by geographical location, and the standard means of access is via a simple postcode or place name search. Sophisticated advanced searching methods are available for those with specific data requirements. Typical information returned includes: a list of references to the place in question in the gazetteers and travel writings hosted on the site; details of administrative districts and boundary changes during the last two hundred years; general information about the place; and detailed demographic statistics. The demographic statistics are divided into several sections, covering: population; births and deaths; industry; work and poverty; social class; housing; learning and language; and roots and religion. Each section provides useful charts and graphs, and clear explanations of any inconsistencies in the data sets due to the changing census forms or boundaries. This site was created by the Great Britain Historical GIS Project at the University of Portsmouth, headed by Humphrey Southall, and funded by various sources, in particular the JISC Digitisation Programme, the Big Lottery Fund and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). Its presentation is excellent, and its content should prove of particular value to local, social, economic, and general historians.
Biff Vernon's website, 'A1-The Great North Road', is an e-book dedicated to the Great North Rd, the main artery of travel in England from Roman Britain onwards. As the author states, there are two chapters of the e-book: 'In general' and 'In particular'. In the first chapter there are sections with information about travel writers and their journeys and is accompanyed by an extensive bibliography of related travel literature and works about. There are also pages that examine the Great North Road within the contexts of the Romans, the Norman Conquest and pilgrimages. 'In Particular' examines the itinerary of the road and lists all the places it goes through, listed according to county. Cross-references and images (paintings, old and recent photographs) as well as historical details abund in the text. This would be of most interest to anyone studying or researching travel literature or the history of travel in England. Vernon produces this resource independently and is a guesthouse owner in Lincolnshire.
The website 'Accessing Scotland's Past' is a pilot project managed by the Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. The organisation records and interprets a variety of sites, monuments and buildings which are significant in Scotland's heritage. It works to promote the use of these resources through the National Monuments Record of Scotland. Photographs; aerial views; books; periodicals; site reports; maps; architectural drawings; and models make up the records which have long been catalogued for use of the general public. This project however aims to provide a clearer guide to each historical site and historical building by giving a historical overview and information on further resources and external links. The historical overviews are concise and may not offer enough depth for academics. The site provides some examples of its work but further references must be accessed through another site to which links are given. As the project is only in a pilot stage, the target areas are restricted to the Cairngorms; Aberdeenshire and Moray; and the Merse in the Scottish Borders.
Anglo-Saxon Charter Boundaries Material is a collection of files which can be downloaded from the Oxford Text Archive (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS). The files were made at different times and on different machines during the time of compilation. It is useful from an historical perspective only since the material is now being set up as the AHRB-funded 'Language of Landscape: Reading the Anglo-Saxon Countryside' project (started in October 2004), which will render all these archived materials obsolete. The materials do, however, show the development of the resource from the Oxford mainframe 2988, with Famulus and Search Text as database and concordancing programs, and Ecce, Edt and Spitbol as editors. This development is traced through the move to the Vax system and the use of Ingres, OCP, Gimms and SasGraph.
This site is a digital archive of materials from J.B. Tyrrell's 1893-1900 expeditions for the geological survey of Canada. The site includes maps, photographs, notebook entries, autobiographical accounts and official reports.A fully searchable database allows easy access to the digitised materials. But those with less knowledge of Tyrrell's expeditions can explore the archive either through interactive chronologies or maps of the 1893 and 1894 expeditions. The detailed chronologies provide representative documents from notable dates during the trips; the maps enable users to look at representative documents pertaining to a region the expedition covered.Biographical information about Tyrrell and an overview of his work is also available.
This site, simply titled Bavaria, is a subsite of the digital collections page at the Bavarian State Library in Germany. The site is a simple and straightforward but valuable resource which posts five different collections of primary sources online. The collections are: Zeitschrift für Bayerische Landesgeschichte (ZBLG) (Journal for Bavarian History) from the years 1928 to 1999; Bayerisches Gesetz- und Verordnungsblatt (Bavarian Paper on Laws and Statues, covering 1945 to 1949; Bayerischer Landtag (Bavarian Parliament); Historischer Atlas von Bayern, Vergriffene Bände (Historical Atlas of Bavaria, out of print volumes), with a focus on Old Bavaria and Swabia; and Geschichte des Lechrains (History of Lechrain). The Landtag pages post scanned images of nineteenth century editions of Bavarian parliamentary and constitutional papers from different periods (1429-1669; 1919-1933; 1946; and academic conference proceedings on this topic from 1995). The page on History of Lechrain is a scanned version of an entire book on the subject by Georg von Lori, published around 1765. Information on this site should be of greatest interest to academics working in German History and German Studies. Navigation is aided by a number of menus and search functions.
This BBC History web page describes the Plantation of Ulster, its impact and consequences. The Plantation began in the 17th century when English and Scottish Protestants settled on land confiscated from the Gaelic Irish. Resentments sown then between the communities are still evident from the troubles in Northern Ireland to this day. The site is divided into several different sections exploring the history and culture of the native Irish, and the Scottish and English settlers. These include pages on the cartographers that surveyed the lands, the London companies that financed the venture, the architecture of the plantations, and the bardic poetry and traditions of the Irish. The website is not structured in a chronological fashion, although there are narrative descriptions of some of the key historical events such as the 1641 uprising. Eyewitness accounts of events are included. A number of specialist historians have contributed to the content of the site. The website contains many multimedia features, and RealPlayer is required to get the best out of it. Transcripts of the audio clips are included, however, for those unable to run such features. The site is well presented on the whole, but frustratingly only seems to use the left half of the browser window.
Beyond the Map: The Northwest Passage is a website developed by the Maritime Museum of British Columbia, Canada. With virtual exhibitions based on the Museum's collections, the site describes the history of the Pacific North Western region of North America from the period of settlement by indigenous peoples through initial European exploration in the 18th century. The site is divided into nine extensive subsections, each of which provides a substantial amount of information in the form of videos and scanned images within essays entitled: Why Explore?; Northwest Passage; Sea-going Capitalism; the Explorers; Ships and Technology; Historical Climate; Who Writes History; Daily Expedition Life; and First Nations and New Arrivals. From the origins of exploration in the Pacific Northwest to the European desire to find an alternate trading route to Asia besides the Silk Road, all information is well presented and aimed at an upper primary-secondary level. There are also excellent teaching tools here, including: a pictorial interactive timeline; a teacher's section with teaching materials and charts for a range of primary and secondary levels; and an online game with a sign-in function. A bibliography is provided. The site is also available in French.
This is the website of the Bournemouth University English Channel project. This project aims to examine the formation and subsequent evolution of the English Channel (12000 BC to AD 1500) and its impact upon settlement and society. One main question is whether any areas survive underwater as a result of the Channel's expansion that, being unaffected by more recent land-uses, may preserve evidence of post-glacial settlement. A GIS model of the Channel's basin will be used to visualize the topography of submerged areas, to which a database of archaeological sites will be linked. Extensive bibliographies on coastal and sea-level change, the English Channel and its Islands, GIS topics, wrecks and boats and various archaeological sites are provided.
The Web Site "Cartes d'Europe Euratlas Maps of Europe" is an excellent collection of maps of the continent of Europe from 1AD every century, i.e. 100, 200, 300 up until 2000. The site is in French and English and the site obviously requires the facility to view large images. What is possibly of more use is the excellent bibliography of maps, which may lead the reader to further valuable sources. There is also a brief section featuring antique maps from 1781- 1892, and another with images of time. The maps are available on CD-ROM, which can be purchased from the site. There is, moreover, a collection of over 1000 free-to-use photos of European towns and landscapes, arranged by country as well as a number of 'Oriental' and world maps and atlases. A highly usable and interesting website.
The website "Cartes des origines ethniques des Canadiens 1901" (Atlas of Canada: Origins of the People, 1901) contains eleven digitised maps of areas of Canada shaded according to the ethnic origins of their inhabitants. The maps are taken from the Canadian Department of the Interior's 1901 Atlas of Canada. The areas covered by the maps are: Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. The maps are colour-coded to indicate whether the bulk of the population in any given sector was French, English, Irish, Scottish, German, Russian, or black. The site is in French part of a larger site on historica maps of Canada, but the maps themselves are in English. Each image of the map has a permanent URL provided by the creator of the site, Prof. François-Pierre Gingras from the University of Ottawa.
An index of nearly 1,000 maps dating from 6000 BC to 1800 CE in the personal collection of the site's compiler, J. Siebold. The index includes not only world maps but those more geographically specific such as the town plan from Catal Hyuk (6200 BC), a 13th century map of Jerusalem and sketch maps by Columbus. Links to low resolution JPEG images of facsimiles or reconstructions are provided for approximately half the maps listed, together with essays containing significant information pertaining to each illustration.The index is divided into 4 sections: Ancient Maps (6,000 BC-400 CE), Early Medieval (400-1300)), Late Medieval (1300-1500), and Renaissance (1500-1800). As well as the index to maps, each section has a time chart showing development in cartography during the period (taken from E. Raisz, 'General Cartography') and a bibliography. Although the accompanying essays (or 'monographs') contain no new research, they are referenced and provide a useful synthesis of current knowledge relating to a particular map or group of maps. The site also provides links to other cartographic websites.The site is easy to navigate, although there are a number of broken links. Images are of low resolution and are not enlargeable. The compiler states that he is willing to send by email images not available on the website, extended versions of the essays, and copies of the databases which form the site on zip disk.
The Castles of Wales website provides photographs and comprehensive accounts of the medieval castles of Wales. Information is presented on a wide range of topics related to Welsh castles and Welsh medieval history, resulting in an extremely informative and easily navigable website with lots of interesting content. The website is written in English with most pages translated into Welsh. Over four hundred Welsh castles are described, as well as the important Marcher castles found on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. The amount of information displayed for each castle can vary from a few sentences to several pages, with accompanying high quality photographs or videos. The main content of the site can be accessed in a number of ways: an alphabetical index; a database which includes information for over five hundred known castles and castle sites, and provides links to individual pages for over a hundred of them; and interactive clickable maps. The information in all parts of the website is cross-referenced and hyperlinked. The website also includes: a bibliography and glossary; essays, including a detailed biography of William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke; a section on Welsh abbeys and other religious sites; a section on Welsh castles in art; and links to further networked resources. As of 2007, the website is no longer being updated.
This website, created by the Bibliotèque nationale de France, provides online access to the Catalan Atlas of the fourteenth century. The site has reproduced thirty-seven images from the Atlas. These images include maps of Europe, North Africa, the Near East, Asia (including China and India), and of the Mediterranean and Caspian Seas. As well as providing access to maps the Atlas also has astronomical and cosmographical diagrams, and illustrations picturing events such as a caravan crossing of the silk road and of the people of Gog and Magog. The images are reproduced on a relatively small scale and it is not possible to see much detail. Each image is accompanied by its title and bibliographic reference.
The Centre for World Environmental History at the University of Sussex is the only centre in Europe dedicated to study of the environmental history of the tropics. Its website offers an introduction to its work, admission procedures, teaching information and conference notices, as well as the findings of research projects. Environmental history covers aspects of history, geography and cultural studies and 'draws widely from sciences, social sciences and the humanities'. The site has had a redesign since it was first reviewed on Intute. In the process it has stopped presenting reports on research as pdf documents. There are three research projects mentioned on the website - focusing on Tobago, Lesotho and the East India Company, but only one research paper can be accessed. Despite this downgrading of facilities available this is still a useful site.
The website "Charles Booth Online Archive" is a fascinating resource providing details of the life and works of the Victorian businessman and social campaigner, Charles Booth (1840-1916). The site focuses on Booth's survey into life and labour in London, conducted between 1886 and 1903, one of the most comprehensive and important contemporary accounts of London society and poverty. The website contains a detailed online catalogue of materials relating to Booth's survey, all taken from the Booth Collection at the London School of Economics. Many of the materials, including 31 of the original notebooks, have been digitised, the images being available from the site. The site also includes 12 interactive digitised poverty maps of London, with colour coding to indicate income levels on a street-by-street basis. These maps are searchable by place name and postcode, and the images are displayed parallel to modern maps and to relevant passages in the catalogue descriptions and the digitised notebooks. The site also offers a catalogue of the Booth family papers and digitised images of seven editions of the Booth family magazine. The site includes a biography, list of links, and a search engine for the catalogue. The Charles Booth Online Archive received funding from the Research Support Libraries Programme (RSLP). The site is now archived.
The aim of the Charting the Nation Project is to provide online access to historical maps of Scotland, along with details of associated archives. The website describes the technical aspects of the project and includes an essay on maps and mapping in Scotland. The collection of maps consists of over 3,500 digital images scanned at a high resolution. Digitised maps include the manuscripts of Robert and James Gordon, John Adair, and General George Wade; printed Jacobite maps from the Marischal Collection formed at the exiled Stuart court; the Board of Ordnance collection of manuscript military plans; and estate plans dating back to the sixteenth century. The site comes with a map-viewer that does not require additional plug-ins, but it does not seem to react well to certain web browsers. A Java map-reading programme is in development.Charting the Nation receives funding from the Research Support Libraries Programme (RSLP).
This website describes the AHRC funded project ‘Conversing with Other Nations’ which aims to explore the development of the arboretum as a cultural phenomenon and site of cultural and sociological change. The website briefly outlines the development of tree collecting and explores its cultural significance, as well as discussing the impact it had on landscape architecture and the development of public and private gardens in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Also included are details of a related international conference, held in 2006.
Coordinates is a full-text online e-journal on the history of maps and mapping, published by the Map and Geography Round Table of the American Library Association. Two series are available, each with its own ISSN, in addition to a Letters to the Editor section on the website. At May 2009, Series A contains seven issues, each containing one original peer-reviewed essay. Series B contains 10 issues, each containing one essay or project report. Among the titles available are: Recent Trends in the History of Cartography: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography to the English-Language Literature; Mapping under the Third Reich: Nazi Restrictions on Map Content and Distribution; and Ptolemy's Revenge: A Critique of Historical Cartography, among others. The website has details of the editors and editorial board. This may be a useful e-journal for those researching the history of maps and mapping.
The British Library website has provided this online exhibition featuring the Crace collection of maps of London. Collected by the 19th-century designer, Frederick Crace (1779-1859), these 1,200 printed and hand-drawn maps chart the development of the cities of London, Westminster, and their environs from around 1570 to 1860. Users can trace the destruction and recovery of the City in and after the Great Fire of 1666, and the expansion of the East and West Ends. The documents include: plans; board games; maps; street directories; and views and elevations. They cover all types of topographical unit, from the whole area of London and its surrounds to individual buildings. The collection is a most important resource for the history of London, and this website will be great interest and value for any researcher working on the city and the surrounding areas.
All the items in this exhibition are available to view via a listing, and a search engine is also provided. Clicking on any title provides a short description, medium, date and cartographer, with the image. By clicking on the more metadata button, further information relating to the size, scale and ratio of each map is also available. As well as an option to print a full size copy, there is also a facility for an interactive zoomable image (requires Flash).
This is ‘virtual museum’ of the Cornubian Orefield – the mineral rich geological formation which underlies much of Cornwall. Exploited for thousands of years, the orefield was mined industrially from the early nineteenth century, and the Cornish mining landscape is now a UNESCO world heritage site. This website, the result of AHRB (now AHRC) funded research introduces the geology and industrial history of the Cornubian Orefield, illustrated with items prepared from the extensive collections of Camborne School of Mines, the Royal Cornwall Museum, Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Penzance, Cornwall, Bodmin Town Museum, and various individuals. The website includes a substantial bibliography relating to the history of mining and geology in Cornwall.
The David Rumsey Collection concentrates primarily on the cartography of 18th and 19th century North and South America. The collection was started almost 20 years ago and digitisation of the material began in 1997. The Ramsey Collection holds atlases, globes, school geographies, books, maritime charts, and a variety of separate maps including children’s and pocket maps, and manuscripts. The digitisation of the collection aims to make this material more widely accessible and to create an online catalogue which allows the viewer to search the collection in a variety of ways. This site provides access to over 5,800 high resolution maps. It is possible to zoom in and out of the images. The collection can be viewed either through a standard browser (version 4 or above) or with the Insight Java client which can be downloaded from the site. On-line help is available.
An enormous amount of detailed information is provided about Domesday Book on this website from The National Archives, which should be the starting point for anyone wanting to find out more about this unique eleventh century document. The website is attractively illustrated, with an extensive glossary of terms and is suitable for users at all levels. It is largely free to use, although via a link to Documents Online users can search for people, places and specific folios in Domesday Book and pay to download colour images of the text or a translation. The Discover Domesday section provides detailed information about the creation of this document, how the entries can be interpreted and the insight it gives into eleventh century England. It examines the legacy of Domesday Book and considers the various editions that have been published. The World of Domesday pages set the document in the context of eleventh century society, providing information about economic, political and religious life. For schools, the Focus on Domesday section explains the story behind the document and how it was made; it includes a 'snapshot lesson' with tasks for pupils, video clips and teachers' notes. There is a quiz, game and a link to an online bookstore. Councils and tourist information centres can download a Domesday logo. The size of this website can be overwhelming and an improved layout and editing of duplicated information would be welcome.
The Domesday Explorer web site provides information about Domesday Explorer, an electronic version of Domesday Book completed in 2007, which was partly funded by the AHRC and run by the University of Hull. Neither Domesday Explorer nor its research data are available on this site. The home page provides links to the AHRC and to the Arts and Humanities Data Service. Of the first four menus across the top of the home page, Domesday Book provides very brief information about the document itself, Product explains how the user can purchase the data on CD and Research Team gives information about those involved. Of the next four menus, Downloads enables those with the Doomsday Explorer CD to access updated files and provides five 'web shows' (Powerpoint presentations) about Domesday, Resources offers FAQ, and Links provides links to websites related to Domesday Book. The layout and appearance of the site are disappointing, as is the fact that users cannot access the text of Domesday Book or the project findings. Much of the content relates to information which is only available on the CD - however, it should be noted that users do have free access to a download of the Doomsday Book.
This website provides access to facsimile copies of maps from Blaeu's"Toonneel der Steden" published in 1652. Thirty five maps of Dutch towns are currently available from the site; these include maps of Arnheim, Amsterdam, Delft, Groningen, Haarlem, Leiden, Rotterdam, and Utrecht. The maps can be viewed either as gif or jpeg images. The gif images are smaller and quicker to download but consequently do not show as much detail. Some of the maps are accompanied by town histories (in Dutch) written by students at the University of Groningen.
Early Canadiana Online (ECO) is the website of a collaborative research project designed to provide web access to a digital library of primary sources in Canadian history from the first European contact to the early 20th century. The collection is particularly strong in the subject areas of: literature; women's history; travel and exploration; native studies; and the history of French Canada. The ECO collection is made up of seven individual online collections totalling 3 million pages. After browsing or searching by title, author, subject, or keyword, and finding a text, one may view a scanned image of the page of the volume. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has been performed on the images to enhance searching and accessing the texts. This site provides access to a vast and extensive collection of resources which should be of great interest to scholars in this field.
The 'Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative' (ECAI) has a free Web portal that serves as a showcase for... "exemplars of the variety of cultural atlases currently being developed", presented as part of the ECAI's mission to... "use time and space to enhance understanding and preservation of human culture". The website requires no registration, and users can browse by region, nation, or city. At April 2008, the Initiative has only two British examples. Google Earth can also be used as a browser, via an offered KLM feed. The ECAI invites the submission of suitable maps, and holds two 'ECAI Congress of Cultural Atlases' events each year. The website also has full details of the ECAI, and details of published research papers. There is a comprehensive listing of ECAI editors, executive members, and partners. Of note is that the ECAI is examining how the presentation of scholarly findings can best be enhanced via... "web-based technologies and spatial visualization through GIS" - the ECAI website has full details and reports on this. Among other notable projects featured on the ECAI website is the free 'TimeMap' set of software tools, via the University of Sydney.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the "English Landholding in Ireland, c. 1200-c. 1360" dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as a tab delimited texts and DBF databases. From this Web page you may download a PDF of images of the study documentation. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS, and further information is supplied giving instructions. This resource is comprised of a database, which records instances of landholding in Ireland by those men, women and institutions, who can be shown to have held land elsewhere in the late 12th to late 14th centuries. The aims and objectives of this research project were: to establish as complete a record as possible of property-holding in Ireland by those normally resident outside the country; to explore how and why patterns of property-holding changed across the period, 1200-1360; and to assess the significance of the landholding nexus in the relationship between Britain and Ireland.
Everest online is a website created by the American Public Broadcasting Service to support a series of programmes shown on their channels in the United States. The site has several sections, each of which relates to a programme in the TV series. These investigate the fate of Mallory and Irvine in their 1924 expedition, which includes footage of the finding of Mallory's body in 1999, the effects of high altitudes on the human body, the various routes up the mountain, the history of climbing on Everest and the geography and geographical history of the mountain range. These sections include several interactive features, audio and video streams and Quicktime virtual reality features. The site is informative, which will attract some scholars, but is of more general than academic interest.
This is the website for a series of three AHRC-funded workshops in 2009, bringing together Neapolitanists and critically examine and rethink scholarship about the city of Naples, challenging dominant historical paradigms - the Grand Tour, the failure of the south – and promoting scholarship “across chronological and disciplinary divides”. The website includes details of each workshop, including abstracts of papers, and submission guidelines (at the time of writing the final two workshops were still accepting papers). Workshops are entitled: Exoticizing Vesuvius? The historical and intellectual formation of Neapolitan historiography; Topography and Piety - Naples Afflicted; Objects of Collecting in Naples and Naples as Object of Collecting. The project envisages outcomes published as a special issue of an academic journal.
This site was created to present details from a 1995 exhibition, held at the University of Virginia, of maps and navigational instruments. The website provides access to over 30 maps and accounts of exploration form the early 16th to early 19th centuries. The site is divided into five main sections. The first two sections present maps of America from a European perspective. The third section concentrates on the contribution made to western exploration by the Virginia gentry. The next section has maps and explorers' accounts which were used in the planning of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Section five of the site gives details of the role that technology played in map-making and how this can help to explain the variety and discrepancies in the maps of North America. The site also has a bibliography of related readings and a selection of links to other relevant websites.
Located in the Web page of the Federation of East European Family History Societies (FEEFHS) in Utah, the FEEFHS Map Room exceeds the genealogical thrust of the larger site in providing a resource of academic value for professional historians. Most of the maps scanned for this site are taken from one primary source: Comprehensive Atlas and Geography of the World, published in 1882 in Edinburgh. As such, they provide convenient details of small towns and local boundaries in Central Europe and Russia from the nineteenth century which otherwise might be hard to determine. Moreover, since they are taken from a Scottish source, they were labelled in English, or have Anglicised or Germanised versions of names, which may be helpful, or not, depending upon the needs of the researcher. There are some sixty detailed maps for the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the German Empire; the Russian Empire; and Finland. It is unfortunate, however, that the site does not offer maps covering the same regions from different contemporary sources as a basis for comparison.Viewing quality is good but not excellent, and is due, according to the site's creators, to their preference for speed of access over crispness of the images. There are some broken links to maps, as the site is still under construction.
This site takes the form of an online exhibition showing the way in which Finland has been represented in maps over the last 500 years. The website has a total of thirty maps with explanatory text. The basis for this site was an exhibition commission by the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs and put together by the Museum of Central Finland in Jyyäskylä in 1993. The material in the exhibition belongs to the private Fredrikson collection, which is one of the largest collections of maps in Finland. The online exhibition is divided into three main sections: Finland as a part of the Swedish Realm (1470-1806); Finland as a Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire (1814-1904); and Independent Finland (1925 onwards). The images of the maps available on the site are relatively small and it is, therefore, not possible to see much detail.
The website "Forests and Chases of England and Wales, c. 1000 to c. 1850" is a project pursued by dr. John Langton and dr. Graham Jones from the University of Oxford, a multidisciplinary survey into mapping medieval forests and their survival into the modern era. The groundbreaking research reveals the landscape history of Britain and Wales throughout the centuries but also social, economic and cultural aspects of human relationship with the forests and the environment. Detailed information about the background and aims of this undertaking can be consulted in the "About the project" section. The Gazetteer section of the site offers datasets of nearly 1000 entries on known forests and chases in England and Wales, a huge Excel datasheet which can only be viewed with Internet Explorer. The site also offers other systematised information on forests, such as: a new atlas which can replace the outdated Bazeley map of English forests in the 13th century; maps; and a database of early maps. Some small JPEG images are also part of this database. The Atlas contains two interactive maps; one is a grid map in the Ordnance Survey one-inch sheet standard, the other is a regional index map. Another significant contribution of the researchers is the glossary of nearly 800 terms and phrases related to forestry. Further databases include more Excel spreadsheets with "Statutes relating to forests and deer" and a facsimile of King Henry III's "Charter of the Forest" (1217) with an English translation. The site gives details about the results of the research and their dissemination through a symposium and publications. This website is an excellent resource for understanding landscape and environment history.
The Gardiner's Atlas of English History website offers an online version of the work by Samuel Rawson Gardiner "A School Atlas of English History", published in 1892. The maps begin at ca. 400 with Roman Britain and continue chronologically until 1892. There is a section on battles, including: Senlac (1066); Bannockburn (1314); Agincourt (1415); Marston Moor (1644); Blenheim (1704); and the Siege of Sebastopol (1854-55). The site is easy to navigate, and has a table of contents. Pages have quite simply been scanned in and there is no facility to enlarge the maps. This is a good site for those seeking online maps, especially for those working on earlier periods.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range, and availability of the dataset 'GIS of the Ancient Parishes of England and Wales, 1500 - 1850', hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). The data is available to order from the HDS as a series of ArcView and ArcInfo files, plus an Adobe Illustrator Tsume file. From this Web page you may download PDFs and an HTML file giving information about the study. To make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS: further information is supplied giving instructions. This resource offers a single digital map of the boundaries parish and sub-parish units of the mid-19th century. It builds on the earlier work of Roger Kain and Richard Oliver (published in 2001 as a series of electronic maps on CD-ROM with an accompanying book). The information provided includes the parish name, ancient county, and a reference number that coincides with entries for that parish in the 1851 census report.
Great Britain Historical Geographical Information System (GBHGIS) is the website of the project of the same name which provides a complete description of Britain and its localities through time. Based at the University of Portsmouth's Department of Geography and partly funded by the National Lottery, other partners involved in the project include: the British Library; the National Archives; the Office of National Statistics; and English Heritage. The project is based on documentary evidence including: the census; historical gazetteers; 'travellers' tales'; and old maps. The project data is made freely available through another website, A Vision of Britain Through Time, in both map and graph form. The About the GBHGIS pages provide details on: the sources; methodology; and software. About The Project pages explain the mission and application of the project, for example the use the material can be put to, including farm surveys with DEFRA. About The Historical GIS pages explains how GIS and related technologies can be utilised. Through the Media Resources page, users can access newspaper reports about the project, although these are rather old. A Contacts page provides basic details. The website presents a large amount of complex information which is perhaps not user-friendly, particularly for newcomers to the subject.
This is a scan of a beautifully detailed, sectioned map of London as it was in 1827. Greenwood's map is scaled at eight inches to the mile, covers London and surroundings and stretches out from Earls Court in the West, to the River Lea and Greenwich in the East, Highgate to the North and Camberwell to the South. Navigate the image map online with directional arrows and zoom in, zoom out; or search by place name, stairs, wharves, sites of future railway termini, canals. There is a history of Christopher Greenwood's map of London 1827-1856. There is also a link to higher resolution images, and to a modern online mapping service - multimap - to compare with the London of 1827.
This simple site, published by Matco Enterprises Ltd, provides a complete transcript of Henry Harben's 1918 Dictionary of the City of London. The dictionary contains over 6,000 street-names in the City of London, with each entry giving details of the location and history of the street, the origin of its name, and when it first appeared cartographically. The site makes it possible to browse through the street names alphabetically, and also provides a glossary of the abbreviations used in the dictionary, and an introductory note about Henry Harben and his work. This website uses frames. A CD with this information is available for purchase.
This short Web page describes the AHRC-funded research project ‘Hidden Histories of Exploration: Exhibiting Geographical Collections’ which is re-examining the collections of the Royal Geographical Society and the Institute of British Geographers (RGS-IBG), to shifting the conventional, marginalised representation of indigenous people in encounters with British explorers. The project will result in an exhibition at the RGS-IBG in 2009, as well as associated web resources and events.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range and availability of the 'Historic Parishes of England and Wales : an Electronic Map of Boundaries before 1850 with a Gazetteer and Metadata' dataset hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). Access to the data is via contacting the HDS - details are provided in the 'Read' file. From this Web page you may, however, download a PDF of images of the study documentation. This research project aimed to fill a major lacuna militating against the effective exploitation of many post-medieval to mid-Victorian historical sources collected by local administrative areas: the lack of information on the boundaries of those administrative areas, the so-called 'historic' or 'ancient' parishes of England and Wales. It is known that these districts came into being during the Middle Ages, that the map of these ecclesiastical parishes was essentially complete by the fifteenth century, that these ecclesiastical boundaries were adopted during the early modern period for secular and judicial purposes, and that boundaries remained essentially unchanged until a number of reforms from the mid-nineteenth century onwards reorganised the local administrative geography of the country. The project aimed to reconstruct those boundaries as they were before the post-nineteenth century changes. The digitised maps cover the whole of England and Wales, and are organised by Ordnance Survey Sheet number. The maps contain a scanned bitmap image of the Ordnance Survey one inch to one mile (1:63,360) New Popular Edition maps (1945-8) with National Grid. They contain the boundaries of some 18,233 places, and are arranged as three electronic 'layers'. The first is a scan of the Ordnance Survey maps stored as grey tone sheet images. This enables Ordnance Survey physical, cultural and place-name content to be readily visible in the background for orientation and general location purposes, while not obscuring the added boundary and reference number material. The second layer consists of the boundaries, stored as solid red lines; and the third layer contains the reference numbers that link places on the map to the gazetteer/metadata dataset that accompanies the maps. The maps are available on CD-ROM in Adobe Illustrator or Adobe Acrobat PDF formats. We recommend using the Adobe Illustrator format if you already have the software (as it enables you to edit the maps and select the layers to view). However, the Adobe Acrobat PDF format is perfectly suitable for viewing the maps, and we will supply the necessary reader software. An accompanying book ‘Historic Parishes of England & Wales: An Electronic Map of Boundaries before 1850 with a Gazetteer and Metadata’ by Roger Kain and Richard Oliver provides an introduction to the provenance of the maps. It also includes an abbreviated version of the gazetteer/metadata dataset, and a discussion of historical boundaries. This unique combination publication is set to become a standard reference resource and is an invaluable tool for all those interested in plotting local area-based data from the past (population, agricultural, statistics, tax data etc.) from the fourteenth to the nineteenth centuries.
This is the website of the Historical and Cultural Geography group, based in the Department of Geography at the University of Exeter. The group is dedicated to stimulating research in historical and cultural geography, with work on areas such as landscape and identity, power and authority, and geographies of imperialism, colonialism and post-colonialism, as well as in established areas like the history of cartography and urban historical geography. On the site are details of members of the group and their research interests, as well as synopses of the recent research undertaken by them. Also on the site are details of forthcoming conferences and postgraduate opportunities. The group has recieved a number of AHRC grants for its projects, which include: 'The Uses and Meanings of Heritage'; 'Landscape Archaeology and the Community in Devon: An Oral History Approach'; 'Negotiating the Cultural Politics and Poetics of Identity Within the Creative Industries of South West'; 'Spectral Geographies: Unsettling Place and Self'.
Historical Atlas of Canada Online Learning Project is an online version of the award winning University of Toronto Press three-volume publication "The Historical Atlas of Canada" which uses thematic mapping to describe Canada's development. This online version intends to enhance the usability of the atlas - with subject indexes and a teachers' guide - making the information more accessible and navigable. This project will feature: maps; graphs and text redesigned for online; interactive viewing; "curriculum-based content to meet common classroom requirements"; learning activities and a teacher's guide; downloadable data in tabular form as well as printable map images; user-friendly interface and searchable index with continuous upgrades and additions. This project is clearly under development with fifty per cent of the proposed Table of Contents actively online but some links exist to show what content is still to be published.
This excellent website, the Historical Atlas of the Mediterranean, provides access to a number of historical maps of the Mediterranean and the surrounding areas. Making use of the abilities available in newer geographical mapping systems, the website is able to present a number of interesting and important pieces of information on the sea and the various civilisations that developed and grew around its shores. The website is attractively designed and simple to navigate.
Historical atlas of the twentieth century is a private Web page that is notable for the breadth of its content and accessibility of style. A range of maps, time-lines and statistical charts are supported by lucid essays and commentary on the troubling events of the last century.The most detailed maps and essays provide highly informative analyses of systems of government ; socio-economic developments ; population growth ; and especially wars, atrocities and tyrants. Largely -- yet admirably -- focussing on political history, the author offers less information on art and culture ; quality of life and health ; religion ; and agricultural and technological change. Nonetheless, he strongly emphasises the importance of these latter elements in view of the overbearing evidence that the man-made disasters of the twentieth century represent what he calls a hemoclysm -- a bloodbath. The bibliography is good; links pages -- particularly for historical maps -- are thorough.The best maps change automatically in conjunction with the passage of time, some accompanied by a rising thermometer-style time-line. This animation allows the site to fulfil its most significant function -- that of revealing general trends over an extended time span. Most maps are accompanied by a contemporary context icon bar which allows the user to view a given map in terms of the simultaneous developments in cities, government, war, international relations, living conditions and economics.Navigability is somewhat organic, although there is a clear table of contents on the main home page of the site. There is no search engine.This site would be extremely useful for the general public, and for teachers and students of history at school and undergraduate levels.
This site, created by the US Office of Coast Survey (OCS) provides access to historic coastal charts and maps dating mainly from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The maps and charts available on the site predominantly cover the United States. (A smaller selection of material covering Antarctica, Guam, Puerto Rico and the Gulf of Mexico is also provided). The maps and charts can be browsed by state/region or by type. Separate sections on new additions to the site and on charts created by the U.S. Coast Survey cartographers for the Union Army during the Civil War can also be browsed. For each image listing the year of publication of the map and a description is given. It is possible to view the images in two different ways; they can either be viewed as a gif file on a browser or downloaded as a tif file.
The Historische Kaart Friesland (HisGis) is an online historical geographic information system for the province of Friesland, based on records from 1832 and from 1700, accessible by means of maps. The aim is to add all possible heritage information older than 1832, in order to create a tool for historic analysis of Frisian history. The site has plans to also include the farm steads in 1640 and the goods of monasteries before their closure in 1580. For this project carried out by the Frisian Academy in co-operation with Tresoar (merged libraries and archives), maps of 'Kadastrale en Prekadastrale Atlas Friesland' (land registry and pre-land registry maps) were digitised. This website is an excellent tool for those interested in Frisian history.
The Department Maps website at the History Department of the United States Military Academy is a collection of digitised maps covering battles fought in a wide range of historical periods and geographical areas. There are over 450 maps available, arranged by themes, which include: Ancient Warfare; Colonial Wars; The American Revolution; The Napoleonic Wars; The American Civil War; The Chinese Civil War; The Great War; World War Two (various geographic areas); The Arab-Israeli Wars; The Vietnam War; and various later wars, divided into in the western and eastern hemispheres. The maps are large and fairly detailed but as there is no accompanying background information on the conflicts, would be best used after or in conjunction with other reading material on the battles in question. The maps are available in various formats, including: GIF files; HTML; and EPS files, and would be useful to military historians and history students.
This is the website of a major international research and publishing project. The History of Cartography Project uses an interdisciplinary approach to examine maps in the context of the societies that made and used them. The project aims to publish a six-volume History of Cartography book series. As of March 2008, five books are available - Volume One, Volume Two (Books 1, 2, and 3), and Volume Three - all published by the University of Chicago Press. The website contains full details of the project, its members, and the David Woodward Memorial Fellowship. There are around 25 project newsletters for free download. The website also contains scans of 16 fine letterpress broadsheets in a series titled 'Literary Selections of Cartography', with scholarly commentaries. There is an online exhibition, 'Windows on the World: A Selection of Historical Maps'. There is also the full text in PDF format of a journal special-issue titled 'Exploratory Essays: History of Cartography in the Twentieth Century', which includes essays on: "The Politics of the Map in the Early Twentieth Century"; "Cognitive Map-Design Research in the Twentieth Century: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches"; and "Allied Military Model Making during World War II", among others.
'Images for All: making the collections work' is a two-year project of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund. The RSGS holds a collection of around 150,000 maps, the archives of many travellers as well as those of the RSGS itself, and many images in a variety of formats. The aim of the project is to provide greater access to the collections through an ongoing repair and conservation programme, cataloguing all items in the collections, making catalogues freely available via the web, and scanning one hundred gems selected from throughout the collections and creating an image gallery. The images available on the website include: early maps and charts of Scotland; views of Scotland; Scottish landforms; construction of the Forth Rail bridge; St Kilda; Barra; Polar images; HM Stanley events 1890; Fridtjof Nansen events 1897; Isobel Wylie Hutchison; Ella Christie; and Early Mediterranean port charts.
Images of England is an online database which aims to create a photographic record for every listed building in England. Run by the National Monuments Record, the project is funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund with additional support from English Heritage and Kodak Professional. Each photograph in the database is taken by a volunteer photographer and is accompanied by an architectural description; these descriptions are written by experts. The database can be searched by photographer, county, building type, period or associated person (such as architect, landscape gardener, builder, manufacturer, craftsman, patron, designer, historical figure, draftsman, painter, sculptor, stained glass worker or interior designer). Advanced search features enable users to carry out more complex queries. Images are presented as a set of thumbnails matching the classification selected. Clicking on a thumbnail image presents a larger image with the list entry for that building. The site also offers extensive information on the project and explanations of the content of the database. The website is freely available, although some elements of the site require users to register by filling out an online form.
This website, from the Department of Geography at Royal Holloway, University of London, aims to examine how the Inca Empire (the largest Native American state in history, from 1400-1532) modified and altered the landscape on which it was built to provide a more solid economic, social, and political basis for its power. The simply designed Web pages give information on the staff working on the project, a general background to the Inca Empire, and information on the various aspects of research being undertaken (including, but not limited to, ethnohistory, ethnography, and geoarchaeology). The fieldwork is still in progress and more details and information will be released as progress is made.
This is an interactive website for Giambattista Nolli's famous 1748 map of Rome, said to be... "widely regarded by scholars as one of the most important historical documents of the city ever created". The website was created by the University of Oregon, and features six full-text scholarly essays on aspects of the map, as well as a Flash-based interactive Nolli Map Engine, enabling a viewer to zoom into fine details on the map, and to filter the map by types of features. Essays include: 'The Forgotten Landscape of Rome: The Disabitato'; 'The Walls of Rome'; 'Rioni: The Districts of Rome'; 'The Nolli Map as Artifact'; and 'The Nolli Map and Urban Theory'. This may be a useful tool for those interested in the history or Rome, or in antiquarian cartographic approaches and techniques.
This is a Web page detailing the context, range, and availability of the dataset 'Irish Poor Law Union and Barony Boundaries, 1841-1871', hosted by the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS), based at the UK Data Archive University of Essex (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service - AHDS). From this Web page you may download PDF and HTML files giving introductory information about the study. The data itself is available to order from the HDS as a set of database files in a variety of formats, though to make use of this dataset you must first register with the HDS: further information is supplied giving instructions. The project from which this dataset is derived aimed to explore methods of analysing historical census data over time and space using the demographic impacts of the Irish famine of the late 1840s as a case study. It covered the period from 1841 to 1871 using a variety of demographic data from the Database of Irish Historic Statistics. The boundaries that comprise this dataset were the main boundaries used to publish census data between 1841 and 1871. The barony boundaries were used for the population censuses, the Poor Law Union boundaries were used for the agricultural censuses, the Poor Law and a variety of other purposes.
The website of the Kythera Island Project (KIP), an international multi-disciplinary project designed to explore the 7000 year human history of the island of Kythera in the Aegean within the context of changing natural and cultural dynamics and of both insular and regional factors. Based principally at University College London and the British School at Athens, the project has conducted intensive survey fieldwork since 1998 on a variety of island landscapes and to date has documented some 200 archaeological sites from the Late and Final Neolithic period (5th and 4th millennia BC) to Ottoman and recent times, the results of which are summarised and analysed in this resource. Kythera's nodal position between Crete and the Peloponnese ensured a major role in facilitating contact between different parts of the Aegean and the central Mediterranean throughout its history, a role which has also influenced changes in the lifestyle and identity of the islanders over millennia. Kythera therefore is an ideal focus for studying the nature of island societies in their wider context and of expanding the older geographical concept of the island laboratory. Specialist reports, reflecting the multi-disciplinary aims of the project, are also provided: archaeometallurgy; botany; geoarchaeology; GIS; geophysics; historical geography; mortuary landscapes; pottery; stone tools; restudy of the older excavations at Kastri in the 1960s and a new project at Tholos on the edge of Kastri town. Apart from a detailed explanation of the methods employed by the survey team, further insights on the methods of KIP are provided by various PDF versions of the recording forms. Other features include a bibliography of research stemming from the project, a guide to the personnel, and details of sponsors. Historical geographers and historians of the longue durée will also benefit from this website. The site is now archived.
This web page is published as part of the National Library of Wales online Treasures collection. It features digitised copies of eighteenth century sea charts of the Welsh coast, made by hydrographer Lewis Morris. Also on the site are the early nineteenth century revisions made to the charts by his son William Morris. The charts cover the entire Welsh coast and over twenty-five harbour plans, and their appearance marked a significant improvement in the marine survey of the Welsh Coast. There are over 50 images in total, which have been digitised to a high standard and are easy to navigate.
This website is published by Motco Enterprises Ltd, and makes available a digitised copy of John Rocque's 1746 map of London, Westminster and Southwark. On the site there is information about the original dimensions and arrangements of the map, and instructions on how to use the online version. The scale is very large on the digitised version so that it is legible, which can make navigation a little difficult. However, the map can be navigated either by choosing the area you wish to view from the small overview map, or by using the index of some 1500 place names to go straight to a particular place on the map. This should be a particularly valuable resource for historians of the city who are working on the eighteenth century.
'Making Sense of Maps' illustrates the ways in which maps can be used as historical documents. The site gives guidelines as to what questions should be asked of a map, and gives a couple of example studies based on comparative maps of Northern Illinois and of Pittsburgh. A brief history of map-making introduces the resource, which also includes a bibliography, and a list of annotated links to other map resources.This resource is aimed primarily toward teachers requiring resources for secondary-school education, although the links and bibliography may prove useful to undergraduates.
This extensive website deals with the history of the Isle of Man, situated in the Irish Sea between England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. The site contains a comprehensive bibliography of publications about the island, subdivided by subject category, as well as a separate cartobibliography which includes a few historic maps that may be viewed online. There is also a large collection of family history resources; a collection of the full texts of over 100 monographs; an online gazetteer; an extensive discussion of various historical topics; a look at religion on the island; a section with biographies of Manx worthies; a section with details and hyperlinks to other websites and organisations with interests in the island; a number of serial publications about the island; a guide to the principle towns on the island - Douglas, Peel, Ramsey, and Castletown; and finally, a collection of images of the Isle of Man scanned from engravings from several different sources. Each section of the website goes into considerable detail, giving full references to any sources of interest that are not wholly available on the site itself. The comprehensive nature of the site should make it an essential bookmark for anyone studying the Isle of Man or any aspect of life on the island. The clear presentation and text ensures the site may be of interest to the general public as well as the historian. An alternative version of the site, with frames, is also available, but there does not appear to be any real difference in content between the two.
This website has placed online a large collection of maps held in the Perry-Castañeda Library of the University of Texas at Austin -- although some maps are available through links to other sites. The site is extensive and clearly laid out, with maps listed alphabetically according to continent and country. There are maps with geographical, topographical, economic and demographic information. Most offerings are current, but there is a special section for historical maps, with most translated at least partly into English. These would constitute a helpful tool both for research and teaching, and afford the opportunity for comparison with more recent versions. There is a links site to other online maps sites and to maps dealers, and an instructions page for viewing and printing site content. Navigation throughout is straightforward. There is an online form for general enquiries to the University of Texas librarians.
Map Collections is part of the Library of Congress' American Memory project, a project which is digitizing and making available online substantial primary source material from the Library's collections as part of a US national digital library initiative. The Map Collections is divided across seven broad categories: 'cities and towns', 'conservation and environment', 'discovery and exploration', 'Cultural Landscape', 'military battles and campaigns', 'transportation and communication', and 'general maps'. Each broad collection might have sub-sets. In addition, the library has created special presentations which focus on the history of map-making and surveying in the US (e.g. 'George Washington: Surveyor and Mapmaker'). The chronological range of the available maps include the settlement of America (1492-1763), the American revolution (1763-1783), the expansion of the new nation (1780-1861), the Civil War and beyond (1850-1877), and the making of modern America (1876-1930). Each section and sub-section includes descriptive text and inline images. It is also possible to go direct to a list of maps for any section without the commentary. Maps may be enlarged by the user without the need for additional plug-ins. Images are displayed with both a zoom window and a small navigator window. Each map is also accompanied by metadata giving information about the printed original (and related subjects). The site also supplies further information about the process of digitising and cataloguing the map collection and the option of downloading the map data direct, assuming the user has also obtained the MrSID image viewer (for .sid files).
Part of the impressive John Snow site hosted by the UCLA, the website "Map of London Waterworks 1856" is a resource dedicated to publishing an electronic copy of the Robert W. Mylne's 1856 'Map of the Contours of London and its Environs, Showing the Districts and Areas Supplied by the Nine Metropolitan Water Companies'. The image quality is very good, and the map is available at several levels of magnification; navigation remains simple regardless of the level of zoom due to a separate navigation frame. In additon to providing full bibliographic data for the source and a short publishing history, the site also features the text of the original introduction and a copy of the legend. Maps of London from 1818 and 1859 are also added to the site.
This is the main website for 'MapHist: e-mail discussion group on the history of cartography'. The list concentrates on... "historical maps, atlases, globes and other cartographic documents", and membership is open to all interested parties. The website hosts an 'Illustration page' and a 'Discussion papers' page, where members deposit scholarly items for the list to discuss. These pages are open to non-members. There is also a 'History of Maphist' page, and external links to old (pre-2002) archives of the mailing-list. There is a short page about dragons and other monsters that appear on early maps, containing some details of the history of such maps, and a partial list of known early examples. MapHist is not to be confused with Maphist Article Manager, an annotation software tool for historical maps.
The Mapping History Project, published by the History Department at the University of Oregon, is a freely available online collection of interactive historical maps, designed to illustrate events, developments and statistics. The maps require the use of Shockwave and cover European and American history, but currently only in particular time periods. The European maps cover ancient history, with the categories of: the Ancient Near East; Natural Resources and Trade; Classical Greece; The Hellenic World and Roman Republic; Principate and Empire; and Late Antiquity and Early Medieval. The maps of the United States cover the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with topics as follows: Territorial Expansion of the US 1783-1899; Slavery Through 1860; and Legal Status of Slavery Through 1860. The maps are also grouped together in topical modules that could function as a teaching tool or as an aid to students. In these modules, the maps are accompanied with explanatory essays. Other editions of the maps are also available with a subscription through Pearson Education, and users can link to these from this site. The site is also available in German.
The Mapping Medieval Chester project brings together a team including literary specialists, historical geographers and digital humanities specialists to explore space, place and identity in medieval Chester. The project asks questions about Chester as a city on the often troubled border between England and Wales, and about how different medieval inhabitants imagined and represented the urban space around them. A key aspect of the project is to integrate geographical and literary mappings of the medieval city using cartographic and textual sources and using these to understand more how urban landscapes in the Middle Ages were interpreted and navigated by local inhabitants. One particularly innovative dimension of this is the projects use of information technologies both as a means of exploring these mappings of medieval Chester, for example through the use and development of a Geographical Information System GIS to create a map of Chester as it was c.1500, and as a means of widening access and public interest in Chesters medieval past and in medieval urban studies generally by linking literary and cartographic sources in digital media.GIS shape files and the TEI-XML encoded textual editions can all be downloaded in raw form from the website allowing individuals to carry out their own further analyses and research.
Mapping the Medieval urban landscape: Edward I's New Towns of England and Wales is the website for a project which aimed to look at towns founded by Edward I in the late 1200s in an attempt to understand the processes by which urban landscapes were created in the Middle Ages. The project looked at 12 towns in Wales and England: Aberystwyth; Harlech; Criccieth; Caernarfon; Newborough; Beaumaris; Conwy; Rhuddlan; Caerwys; Flint; Holt; Overton; and Winchelsea. The attractive and easy to use website consists of a number of pages describing: the project aims; background; methodology; the people involved; details of the pilot study at Winchelsea; and an impressive clickable map of England and Wales allowing the viewing of maps and a small amount of information on each of the study towns. Fuller reports on the findings of this project are not available here but will be disseminated via the website of the Archaeology Data Service in due course. Not all of the links work. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This is the website for the AHRC-funded project ‘Mapping Performance Culture: Nottingham 1857-1867’ which, in a collaboration between researchers in Theatre History and Geographical Information Science, offers an interactive map and research database of the city, overlaying cultural, social and economic data. This innovative research tool aims to enable new methodologies to be employed in the exploration of the relationship between audience, repertoire and urban space.
The website Maps of Liberia 1830-1870 is published by the Library of Congress as part of its American Memory website. The site provides online access to a range of nineteenth century maps of West Africa, mainly of Liberia, although also included are some of Sierra Leone. The majority of the maps have been taken from an American Colonization Society collection, which aided free American blacks emigrating to Africa, and they illustrate early black American settlements in Liberia, and the land ceded by Liberia's chief for the immigrants. The maps collection can be searched by keyword, or browsed by geographic location, subject or creator, and all of the images can be manipulated using the site's zoom facility. In addition to this primary content also on the site is an interactive time line of the history of Liberia 1815-1997 with images and documents, a selected bibliography, and a list of related resources at the Library of Congress to aid further study.
This is the website of the Medieval Settlement Research Group (MSRG). The MSRG aims to advance knowledge of settlements of all kinds, particularly those in the period between the 5th and 16th centuries. A detailed Policy Statement outlining research, survey, conservation and excavation of medieval rural settlements is published on the web-site. There is also information on MSRPG research grants, conferences and meetings, current projects, publications and a guide to MSRG archive held at the National Monuments Record.
The Meeting of Frontiers project is a collaboration between the Library of Congress, the National Library of Russia, the Russian State Library, the Elmer E Rasmuson Library at the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Institute of History of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk). The project, which is in fact a digital library, is concerned with the history of Russian expansion across Siberia to the Russian Far East and the Pacific, the American expansion westwards and the meeting of the Russian-American border in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest. The website provides information on the history of the area and offers access to primary source material. The historical narrative on the site is divided into six sections: exploration; colonization; development; Alaska; frontiers and national identity; and mutual perceptions. Each section is accompanied by images relating to major events, a bibliography with suggestions for further reading and a set of links to other relevant sites. There are a number of modules within the narrative section which present material in greater depth. These modules contain additional explanatory text and images and aim to draw attention to the similarities and differences of the Russian and American experience. The digital collections on the site comprise a significant proportion of materials from the partner libraries: books and serials; manuscripts; maps; and photographs. It is possible to search the site. This project was created in 2002, and the site is now archived.
Nation master is a data source which enables users to graphically compare countries by generating maps and graphs with a range of statistics. The statistics are originally sourced from CIA world factbooks; UN agencies; the World Bank; Human Development Reports; and other statistical resources. All entries are clearly and comprehensively referenced. The user is able to cross reference individual countries; countries that are part of a region or continent; and countries within political organisations e.g. OECD; EU; APEC; and OPEC. The categories that countries can be cross referenced against include: crime; economy; education; energy; geography; health; labour; media; military; religion; and transportation. Some statistics are useful for historical research, for example, per capita GDP can be compared for 1820, 1900, 1950, and 1973. Users can also view profiles of individual countries including flags and maps. This is a comprehensive statistical database that can be easily manipulated to provide valuable material for researchers.
The Maps of Scotland website of the National Library of Scotland offers access to around 2, 400 maps of the country, spanning 1560-1928. Categories within the collection include: maps of the whole of Scotland; county maps; town plans/views; coasts of Scotland; military surveys; fresh-water lochs; ordnance survey maps; estate maps. Maps of Scotland 1560-1928 can be searched by keyword, or browsed by geographic location, and the name of the surveyor, mapmaker, or engraver, whilst Pont's Maps of Scotland can be browsed by region or map number. The military maps are all from the Jacobite period and were commissioned by the Board of Ordnance. These can be browsed through the categories of fortifications, roads, battles, coastal charts, clans, location, and creator. The Ordnance Survey collection covers 62 Scottish towns, and can be browsed by place name. All of the maps can be viewed without a plug-in, and the images are of extremely good quality. To enhance viewing, it is also possible to download an ExpressView Browser Plug-in.
This website, for the Newberry Library's Hermon Dunlap Smith Center, founded in 1972, aims to 'advance knowledge of the history of cartography, defined as the history of creation, use, and interpretation of maps and the relationship between mapping and other facets of human history'. Moreover, the centre seeks to 'promotes the use of the Library’s cartographic collections by scholars, educators, and the general public through conferences, exhibitions, fellowships, institutes, lectures, publications, seminars, consultations, and workshops'. To that end, the website is simply designed: there are details of, and often links to further information on, lectures and conferences, seminars, virtual exhibitions (for example, on the mapping of the French Empire in North America), resources and teaching historical maps, relevant publication information, and the cartographic collections held by the library. The website has a wealth of resources and information on the usefulness of maps in understanding history.
The website "Norfolk E-map Explorer" offers access to digitised Tithe maps, other historic maps and aerial photography of Norfolk, from the 19th to the 20th century. It is thus a single resource allowing comparisons between survey photography and maps. The Norfolk E-Map Explorer uses rare and hard-to-use resources from right across Cultural Services Department (Norfolk Library and Information Service, Norfolk Museums and Archaeology Service, Norfolk Record Office). The resources includes: 700 Tithe Maps from the mid 19th century; first edition ordnance survey (OS) maps from the end of the 19th century; Enclosure Maps from Enclosure Awards from the early 1800s; a set of aerial photographs taken by the RAF in 1946 and another set of aerial photographs taken by Norfolk County Council in 1988; printed maps of Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn, Norwich and Norfolk, and Thetford. Search is possible by selecting the type of map and then either by place name, postcode and grid reference or by clicking on the map available on the screen. For each type of maps and photographs an account and introduction with further readings and links are offered for anyone who would like to know more about these sources. Non-historical maps can be explored with the comparative viewer; guidance is offered on the site. Not all of Norfolk is available on the E-map explorer, but the coverage of the region is made clear on the main map.
This amateur site provides free access to the major maps of London from the thirteenth to the nineteenth century. Although the site is dominated by adverts which can make it difficult to navigate, the maps are good quality and it is possible to zoom right in to small details. It is a useful resource for those new to London maps, interested in the history of the city or family and local history, rather than for those with a professional interest in the development of cartography. The site also includes brief articles on diverse aspects of London history. However, as no sources are given for this information, it may be less reliable.
'Old Maps' is an Internet service that provides images of nineteenth-century maps covering the whole of Great Britain. The maps themselves are scanned from the Ordnance Survey (OS) County Series 1:10,560 scale First Edition Maps, which were originally published between 1846 and 1899. The condition of the maps when scanned was variable, but most are clear and distinct. It is also possible to view a modern aerial photograph of the maps' area.The database may be searched by settlement name, address, or coordinates, or alternatively from the online gazetteer provided by the site which orders towns and villages by county. Once selected, the map appears in the main screen with zoom and scroll options provided. The map screen also provides printing functions, and the option to view a modern map of the selected area. The site also allows the purchasing of decorative maps, and provides links to other websites concerned with UK maps. The service is provided free of charge and with no registration requirements. It should prove very useful to those researching nineteenth-century local history, or simply for the general public interested in how their town has developed.
The website "Ordnance Survey drawings" is part of the British Library Online Gallery, offering an overview of this collection of original large-scale of the "one-inch-to-the-mile" maps" of England and Wales between the 1780s and 1840. The most prominent draftsman of the time was Robert Dawson, whose work features in the BL collection. The introduction to the collection is an informative text, revealing details about the history of the ordnance survey maps; historical context; techniques used, such as the theodolite; political meanings and uses of these maps. The British Library has 351 maps in this collection, all of whom have been digitised and can be consulted on the website. The "curator's choice" offers highlights from this online exhibition: Lands End, Mount's Bay Cornwall; Hampstead; Caernarvon; Warminster; and Birmingham 24. The images can be enlarged with zoomify, which requires Flash. Each images has information about its creator; shelf reference; size; and scale ratio. The site provides a search engine for the collection.
The website for the People, landscape and cultural environment of Yorkshire (PLACE) project provides information about the research project which aims to promote archaeological, historical and ecological investigation into the interaction between people and the landscape in the Yorkshire Dales. As well as notes on current research projects, the website offers a programme of events and courses, many of which are open to the general public, and a newsletter (published in PDF format). Publications available through the project centre cover a broad range of topics with a focus on Yorkshire, including archaeology, heritage, the natural and cultural environment, and landscape studies. The project centre is based at York St John University, York.
This website provides details of a series of four AHRC-funded workshops and plenary conference exploring the development of the medieval landscape and settlements with in it. Each workshop was based around a broad theme (‘Planning and Meaning’, ‘Working and Sharing’, ‘New People, New Farms’, ‘Belonging, Communication, and Interaction‘) and the website includes synopses of these, a summary report of each workshop as well as an overview of the plenary conference.
This site provides access to maps of Europe from AD1 – 2000. There are twenty-one main maps showing the political layout of Europe at 100 year intervals. The site documents the political circumstances and changes throughout much of European history in an easily accessed visual format and is a valuable resource. The key to the maps are in a separate legend section. There are options to focus on particular areas of the continent (e.g. North-West Europe) in order to get more focused details of the area. Some of the maps are not of the highest quality but they do provide a helpful guide to the historic political boundaries of Europe.
Historical maps from the University of Texas provides access to hundreds of historical maps from around the world. The maps range from maps of individual towns to maps of continents. The site is straightforward to use with the maps being divided into the following categories: historical maps of Africa; historical maps of the Americas; historical maps of Asia; historical maps of Australia and the Pacific; historical maps of Europe; historical maps of the Middle East; historical maps of polar regions and oceans; historical maps of Russia and the former Soviet Republics; historical maps of the United States; historical maps of the world.The site also provides links to maps held on other sites. The links are organised in the same categories. Links to historical astronomical maps are also included.
"Pictures in Print" is a collaborative project sponsored by the British Library Co-operation and Partnership Programme to create a union catalogue, with viewable images, of printed maps and topographical prints of County Durham created before 1860 held by Durham University Library, Durham County Library, Durham Cathedral Library, the Bowes Museum, and the British Library. Ushaw College, near Durham, provided assistance with some books and prints, but their holdings have not been surveyed or included in this catalogue. The area covered by the project is County Durham as it was before the 1974 boundary changes. The county of Durham, with Northumberland to the north, the North Sea or German Ocean to the east, Yorkshire to the south and just stretching over to Cumberland and Westmorland to the west, is recognisable through the sequence of county maps from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. On this website it is possible to view extensive project background and technical information pages, further information about the project partners, and to search the catalogue. The search results display a thumbnail image of the maps, also: title; date; detailed contents description; source; and a link to a fuller record. By clicking on the thumbnail you can view an impressively clear, large, zoomable image of the map - this does require specialist software. If this is not present on your computer the page automatically directs you to a download page from the University of Durham. There is a FAQ page to assist with viewing and printing these images.
This website provides details of a project which aims to “bring together local history and archaeology groups” currently studying the origins of their local places. It aims to provide advice and tools to enable these groups to do comparable studies of their areas, allowing results to be compiled into an extensive database. The hope is that this aggregation of data can transform the study of village origins. The website outlines the project, and is beginning to offer information which would be useful to groups participating: field study guides, thoughts on some common placenames and links to further useful resources. The project originated from a 2009 series of AHRC-funded workshops, which explored attitudes to landscape and changes in settlements and land-use in the Anglo-Saxon period in English history, as evidenced in place-names.
The Researching Historic Buildings in the British Isles website (formerly called Sources for Building History) provides an introduction to information sources, both print and online, for research into architectural history. The site explains the methods and potential pitfalls of building history research, and suggests useful starting points for researchers. It covers many building types, including small-scale and grand houses, castles, business buildings, public buildings and buildings of charitable purpose. One area considers how to research ecclesiastical buildings. Each section is subdivided until the user reaches the annotated bibliographies and research methods particularly relevant to the desired type of structure. Other information available covers manors, villages and towns, with details of sources for estate and manorial records. There is advice on visiting national and local archives, details of key reference tools, plus sections on images, maps and gazetteers, and a brief history of architectural styles, from vernacular to Edwardian. There is also a search engine for finding resources mentioned in the site. The website's author, Jean Manco, is a consultant on the history of buildings and sites in the UK, and the site includes an essay by her on Web-guided research in building history. This is a very well-presented introduction to the subject of building history research, which will prove useful to anyone new to the discipline.
Through this website, the Library of Congress makes available digitised versions of the Rochambeau collection of maps of North America. The collection includes: 40 manuscript maps; 26 printed maps; and a mansucript atlas. These date from 1717 to 1795, and are all presented in full. The maps come from the personal collection of Jean Baptiste de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725-1807), who acted as commander of the French army in America from 1780 to 1782. Many of the maps and views were used by Rochambeau during this period; others were collected later, which indicates Rochambeau's lasting interest in the American states. In particular, he collected maps and plans of military positions and fortifications. The atlas, "Amérique campagne", shows 54 French army encampments made during the 1782 march from Yorktown to Boston. The collection covers much of the North American continent, from Newfoundland to Hispaniola. This is a fascinating and valuable record of North America during the Revolutionary wars, and also provides interesting information on military formations of the period. It will be of interest to all scholars working on the history of the War of Independence. The collection can be searched by keyword, and the results can be displayed as either a list or a gallery of thumbnail images. It can be browsed by title, creator, subject, and place. The whole collection may be viewed, in collection order, in the Gallery section of the site. Each link or thumbnail image takes the user to a page with bibliographic and catalogue information. The image on this page can then be clicked to open a larger version of the document image, which is provided with zoom and pan functions. Information is included on the use of these functions. The zoomable image can be adjusted to fit various sizes of browser window, which is very useful. The system is invaluable as it allows close inspection of the documents, and it is easy to use and works well.
The Secrets of the Norman Invasion website was created by an amateur historian, Nick Austin, out of his enthusiasm to discover where the Normans landed prior to the Battle of Hastings. Austin proposes that the Normans did not land at Pevensey, the traditionally accepted site, but instead at Wilting Manor, East Sussex. On the site, Austin presents an extensive range of diverse primary and secondary sources to support his claim, from contemporary chroniclers and the Domesday Book, through to the Bayeux Tapestry. He has also studied aerial surveys and resistivity maps of the Sussex coast and examined the geography of the local towns and villages. All of these are accompanied online by a lengthy and detailed argument in favour of Austin's preferred landing site. Austin has received help and assistance from local archaeology groups. Amateur and professional historians alike will find this an interesting resource, whether or not they agree with Austin's argument. There is a link to the associated Norman Invasion chatboard. A Spanish version has been added to the site. As it is an amateur site, there are some adverts.
This short Web page describes an AHRC-funded research project into Cistercian monastic houses in two medieval border areas - Scotland and Pomerania. These communities were adept at dealing with relationships on both sides of fluid medieval borders and the study of these sheds much light on the emergence of more rigid borders in the fourteenth century. The project will result in a book and a prosopographical database.
This website was created as a result of Project Pont started in 1996 by the National Library of Scotland to stimulate research on Timothy Pont and his maps. Timothy Pont created maps of Scotland in the 1580s and 1590s. Of these 77 maps still survive. These maps have been scanned and are available from this website. Access to the maps is provided through a general or a specialist option. The general provides access to the maps via a selection of key locations on the map, while the specialist option gives the option to locate maps by geographical area, place name and manuscript map index. The specialist option provides a wider variety of ways in which the maps can be viewed. Each map is accompanied by details of symbols and handwriting that are to be found on the map. The website also has a history of the maps and a section on what the maps tell us. Other features of the website include biographies and suggestions for further reading. The site can be searched by keyword.
The website "Tomorrow's History: Made in the North East" is an online local history resource for the North Eastern counties of the United Kingdom. Funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund, the project has been published as a collaborative effort between a number of organisations, known collectively as North East Museums, Libraries and Archives. The project aims to improve public access to local history resources, and contains over 30,000 digitised images and pages of text. Included are photographs, documents, manuscripts and details of several community projects. The collections on the site are grouped under smaller sections arranged alphabetically on the site, and these cover: building history; newspapers and broadsheets; mining history; daily life; living conditions; broadsheets; economic activities; schools; and many more. Some of the archival documents are digitised on the website. Each record has a brief description and indication of its current location. The site provides a very good search engine. There are also a number of modern and historical nineteenth century Ordnance Survey maps, which can be viewed simultaneously for comparison. At the time of review, all the links in the "community projects" section were broken. The list external links is rich and very useful.
A collection of contemporary documents, including diaries and memoirs, photographs, paintings, drawings and maps (many of these documents being made by British travellers) are brought together on the web site "Travels in nineteenth century Iceland" by Dr Edgar Jackson of the University of Alberta. Covering the period 1750 to 1914, these early tourists provide a unique insight into the lifestyle, industry and social customs of Iceland in this period. Dr Jackson also provides an analysis of the socio-economic and demographic impact of the volcanic eruption of Laki in 1783.
This website, published by Michigan State University Libraries, makes available the full-text of 25 lectures by Steven Sowards concerning modern Balkan history. The lectures cover over 500 years of Eastern European history, in the following categories - geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans, the 'old regimes' in the Balkans pre-1790, the earliest national revolutions 1804-1830, the revolution of 1848, the impact of the wider world: economic, social and political, reform in Macedonia and Bosnia-Hercegovnia, Balkan nationalisms: Serbia and Greece, the causes and legacies of World War One, the limitations of Western models in the interwar period, Balkan politics during World War Two, the coming of the Cold War, the Balkans during the Cold War, and the revolutions of the 1980s. Also available is a selection of maps covering the Balkans in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
This fantastic website, from the United States Military Academy, provides access to hundreds of military maps from Ancient times through to Afghanistan and Iraq. The maps are split into various important engagements (e.g. War of 1812, First and Second World Wars, Spanish Civil War, and so on) and provide fascinating amounts of information on the nature of the conflicts. While they might be difficult to interpret without a prior grasp of the major facts and events involved, the maps themselves will be of significant benefit to those wishing to analyse in some greater depths the nature of the military conflicts. Most of the maps are available in PDF format, while others open as images within the browser window. An excellent resource.
The University of Aberdeen's Photographic Archives is based on the collection produced by George Washington Wilson and Co, which consists of some 40,000 images dating from the second half of the nineteenth century. George Washington Wilson (1823-1893) was a successful 'artist and photographer' who took landscape photographs, pictures for postcards, stereograms, and photo-montages. By the late 1870s his company was the largest photographic business in the world. This site contains a selection of Wilson's photographs spanning the whole island of Great Britain, and also featuring images of Gibraltar, North Africa, South Africa, and Australia. Most of the negatives are still in remarkably good condition, and the electronic images are consequently crisp and clear, if sometimes a little under-exposed. Each image is accompanied by information as to when and where it was taken, a description of its contents, and keywords relating to its subject, for use with the search engine provided by the site. The images are copyrighted and may not be downloaded from the site. Full ordering details are however provided for those wishing to purchase copies.This is an excellent site which includes many good-quality pre-twentieth-century photographic images that would provide excellent illustrations for historical works.
Unlocking the Archives is a site being developed by the Royal Geographical Society with support from the Heritage Lottery Fund. The site aims to provide full public access to the Society's heritage collections for the first time. The collection includes a vast amount of photographs; maps; books; objects; and documents concerning national heritage and history. The section of 'Themes' explores several places on the globe from a historical and cultural point of view. These themes are: Mount Everest; Encounters (on British explorers to Africa, namely David Livingstone and Mary Kingsley; Antarctica, the Carribean; Brazil Cityscape; Afghanistan; Kenya; China; and India. Each section has several chapters exploring the theme in depth: timeline, gallery, factsheets, introduction with historical and cultural background information, and online and downloadable activies. Text are available in either Microsoft Word or PDF formats. This site also informs about the access to the physical archive of the Society and encourages teachers and learners to give their feedback on the online resources. The teacher's area gives suggestion on how to use the material in the classroom and keystage, for each theme. A glossary of geographical and political terms can be consulted on the site.
Essex Past is the website for the section of the Victoria County History that relates to Essex, providing information about the ten major volumes already published and draft texts for a forthcoming volume. Work on the county of Essex, as on most English counties of this standard reference work, has been sporadic since its beginning in the reign of Queen Victoria and providing texts online is a useful means for researchers to access new information whilst waiting for the hard copy volumes to be published. The involvement of the University of Essex, Essex County Council and the Institute of Historical Research in this essential resource underlines its importance. Information about the volumes and parishes completed to date is provided, with details of how the research is carried out and of collaborative projects. The draft texts for volume XII, covering the north east Essex coast, concentrate on Frinton, Walton on the Naze, Kirby le Soken and Thorpe le Soken. The website has not been updated recently and there is an online appeal for funding.
WatWasWaar.nl is an online interactive collection of historical map of the Netherlands . The site is in Dutch, but a short English overview of the project and explanation of how to use it is provided. The collection of maps range from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. Chosing a place on the map can be done either by placing the provided "balloon" or by typing the place name in the search box. Further narrowing down of the search from the multidisciplinary information is possible, by selecting the desired information: historical maps; atlases; topographical surveys; military maps; aerial photographs; and so on. A crhonological tool is also available to select the desired historical period. The right-hand pane displays all the information on the particular place under "my selection", while "all information on the map" lists available data (maps, pictures) on the map showed in the window. A zoom tool is provided. Users can choose to have enable of disable the reference map. The site has a "treasury vault" highlighting the most prized items such as: the Joaen Blau collection of maps (17th century); 19th century surveys and military maps; the 1832 first modern cadastral map of the Netherlands; the Nieuwe Bouwen collection on the architectural innovation in Nagele; and manuscript and bound maps (Kaartboeken). This is a useful reference source for anyone interested in historical maps and the history of the Low Countries. The zoom-in and zoom-out function and the search by municipality or by province make this resource valuable for historians. Although the website is in Dutch, a short English explanation of how to use it is also provided. The site is the result of a project called 'WoonOmgeving' (living environment) carried out by the National Archives, the Land Registry and DIVA.
The World Map Collections holds more than 6000 antique and modern maps, and concentrates on maps of the Caribbean and Florida areas. The website is split into geographical regions (such as the European Map Collection, the Arctic Map Collection, the North American Map Collection and so on) and each subsection can either be searched by keyword or browsed in its entirety. The website focuses on historic or antique maps as its primary concern, but also contains some modern-day maps. All of the maps are in JPEG format.
The United States Military Academy World War One website consists of 45 maps of operations from the Great War. It also includes political maps of Europe and the World before and after the war, and maps of war plans, including the Schlieffen Plan of 1905. There is a page of basic map symbols. In addition to maps of the major campaigns on the Western Front and the Eastern Front, the site includes maps of operations in Italy, Gallipoli, and the Balkans, and details of conflicts in more peripheral areas such as Palestine, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. The maps are not accompanied by any text but they will serve as a good teaching and study resource to accompany external texts.