This site, part of the larger LacusCurtius resource (q.v.), contains an online version of Platner and Ashby's seminal Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. This large reference work contains valuable information on almost every monument of ancient Rome, and was for many years the standard work of first call for students of the ancient city. Although subsequently eclipsed by the works of Richardson and latterly Steinby, it is still an invaluable work (enjoying the considerable merits of brevity and of being in English) and the version presented here is very useful. The Dictionary is accessible through a hyperlinked page of buildings usefully sorted by type, and one click will take you directly to the required entry. Cross-references to other entries in the Dictionary are also hyperlinked. Furthermore, in cases where Platner and Ashby refer to ancient literary sources mentioning a specific building, Mr Thayer, the website's owner, has included a link to the relevant passages in his own collection of online texts (for Cassius Dio, Suetonius, Pliny, Martial and others). This is an intelligent use of the Internet's advantages over the printed page, and makes this online version even more useful than the original book. Mr Thayer has also appended his own pictures and notes to some of the Dictionary entries. This site is rather more useful for public or large commercial buildings than private dwellings, and much has been discovered since the Dictionary was originally published in 1929. There are more complete versions elsewhere on the Internet, but this one is particularly well presented and a supremely useful resource.
Abila is located about 15 miles east of the southern end of the Sea of Galilee. Its archaeological history stretches from the Copper Age (3500 BC) to about 1500 AD. This website provides information on the excavations and at Abila and historical information on the site and nearby ancient sites. Pages describe the archaeological findings for each part of the site. There are pages devoted to tombs and basilicas found on the site. There are also glossaries of archaeological terminology and of archaeological periods for Syria-Palestine. The website also advertises fieldwork opportunities for students (only for forthcoming excavations at Abila).
The Accordia Research Institute at the University of London has established itself as a key promoter of research into the archaeology of Italy. It publishes a series of research volumes and organises an important series of conferences and seminars in London; details of these activities can be found in the website. Accordia publishes the "Accordia Research Papers", offering a selection of topics, and monographs in the established series "Specialist Studies on Italy" and "Specialist Studies on the Mediterranean". It is possible to join Accordia for a small fee using the subscription form available on the website; subscribers receive the Accordia Research Papers free of charge. This website is a useful introduction to Accordia and interested researchers should check it regularly to be updated on the many lectures and seminars organised throughout the year.
Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis is a full-text journal focusing on the archaeology of Romania. Individual papers or entire volumes in PDF format are available; papers are published in either English, French, German and Romanian. There are papers focusing on the Eneolithic Cucuteni culture; Bronze Age Transylvania; Iron Age Thracians and Scythians; Roman Dacia; and Romanian Middle Ages. Special volume V, 1 concentrates on funerary archaeology and includes also papers on iconography; symbolism and Byzantine Antikythira, Greece.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and focuses on the Greek colony of Apollonia, Albania. The ancient town was located on a river, eight kilometres from the Adriatic coast; no traces of pre-Greek occupation of the area have been found. The town became famous during Roman times for its support to Caesar in 48 BC, which allowed Caesar to deploy his army in front of Pompey's army for the first time. From there, the two armies chased each other until Caesar's final victory at Pharsalus that same year. Later, the town hosted Octavian for six month, when he is said to have learned Greek from Apollodorus of Pergamum. Octavian, once become emperor, gave to the town the privilege of being "civitas libera et immunis" (free and immune city), which resulted in the town maintaining some independence and freedom for long. The peace that the town benefited from resulted in many monuments accumulating. These as well as the remarkable town's history are summarised in a series of illustrated articles. There are a few maps, plans of the town and a bibliography.
This pleasingly presented site provides comprehensive information about the American Academy in Rome, including full details of its residency opportunities, summer programmes, its Rome Prize, and fellowships. There are also details of current and forthcoming exhibitions, conferences, concerts, and other events. The site includes the online catalogue of the American Academy's library (via the URBS network of research libraries in Rome, which pools the catalogues for several scholarly institutions) and a complete list of the Academy publications (together with ordering information). A style sheet for the Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome is available online. A page with helpful maps and synopses of the Academy's current and recent archaeological projects (excavations at Rome, Ostia, Jerba, Stabiae, Bomarzo, Cosa and Licenza) provides links to the relevant excavation journals and home pages. Details of its photographic archive are also present. The archive comprises specialized collections of photographs on archaeology, architecture, art and gardens. A few selected images are available online.
The website of the American Journal of Archaeology (AJA) publishes free full-text electronic versions in PDF format of all published papers from 2002 to 2007 as well as additional online-only contents such as books and museums reviews; image galleries; supplementary data (e.g. bibliography of osteological research in classical archaeology); and forums. Only abstracts are available for articles published since 2008; the full-text PDF files can only be accessed via a subscription. The journal focuses on Greek, Roman and Etruscan archaeology, and publishes also a few papers on Aegean (Minoan and Mycenaean) archaeology and the archaeology of the ancient Near East and Mesopotamia. The website can be searched and prospective authors may find guidelines and a form to submit their papers for publication. Issues of the journal dating before 2001 can be searched and accessed via JSTOR. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list (AJA e-Update) for updates on the journal and the current activities of the American Institute of Archaeology.
The American Journal of Archaeology was founded in 1885 and is now one of the most prestigious journals in the field of Classical Archaeology. Anyone interested in the archaeology of the Mediterranean region will find this website useful.
The Amphoras Project website hosts a substantial corpus of information on the typology, manufacture, use, and distribution of amphoras in both the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas. This is in addition to an extensive bibliography on the subject. Amphoras were large storage vessels used throughout the ancient world for long distance trade in oil, wine and other commodities in the Mediterranean region. The main part of the resource consists of a searchable database of amphora fragments from the Athenian Agora and Corinth based on the archive of the late Virginia Grace, who assembled an extensive index of amphora material from all over the Mediterranean. The database includes a wide-sample of vessel and fabrics types and an important corpus of amphora stamps which are valuable tools in dating fragmentary storage vessels. The searchable bibliographic database is equally extensive and encompasses information from Greece, Italy, North Africa and Egypt, the Black Sea and the Balkans. A complete bibliography of Virginia Grace's publications is also provided along with website links to other relevant resources on amphora studies. The website also includes the illustrated texts of numerous important articles on amphora studies, including translated texts of seminal works by Russian scholars otherwise inaccessible to non-Russian speakers. In addition, there is a selection of ancient Greek passages in translation referring to amphoras in the ancient world. While this website will largely be of interest to specialists working on ancient pottery and on trade and the ancient economy in general, it will also benefit the more ambitious undergraduate student or those writing dissertations on otherwise dispersed and inaccessible material.
This is the website of the Amsterdams Archeologisch Centrum (AAC), which focuses on Middle and Modern Ages archaeology in the Netherlands and aborad. The website provides some basic information about the centre, including a "mission statement". Among the projects outlined are a few Roman digs in the Netherlands and the excavation of Satricum in the Italian peninsula. Each project has a sub-section with further information, maps and a short bibliographic note. A database publishes sheets from the notebooks written during excavations by members of the centre. Stratigraphic sequences are common. This website may be useful especially to researchers or advanced students researching archaeological sites excavated by the centre.
The Ancient Greek and Roman coins website is written from the perspective of a collector, but is nevertheless a very informative and detailed site which is particularly useful for those who are new to numismatics. An introductory section on the 'vocabulary of ancient coins' gives detailed information about what to look out for when examining coins from different ancient periods. There are also detailed secions on Roman coins (arranged chronologically from the Republic to the fifth century AD and Greek coins (covering the Athenian empire, Alexander the Great, the Ptolemies, and the Greek cities under the Roman empire). There are also (smaller) sections on Eastern empires (Parthia and Persia) as well as the Byzantine period. The site also features information on a miscellany of other topics aimed primarily at those wishing to collect and photograph coins. It is richly illustrated throughout, and the accounts of the coins are very detailed - the historical background is explained as well as information about the particular coins in question.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
A description of the Roman city of Vienne. The website is presented in four sections. A virtual tour gives general information, architectural details and anecdotal information on the major Roman remains. There are reconstruction drawings of many of the major buildings. A virtual museum presents slide shows of wall paintings, mosaics, ceramic and metal objects and sculptures. Archaeology in the city explains the history of archaeological interventions that have taken place and the current status of the archaeology and how it is being conserved and preserved. A guide section gives information on the monuments and museums in Vienne, contact information and directions for visitors, and a short bibliography. The website is easy to navigate, and a help page sets out the layout of the site.
Published in Greek and English, Anistoriton is a freely available, peer-reviewed electronic Journal of Archaeology, Art History and History. Although it seems particularly strong in the art, history and archaeology of the ancient world, the journal is global in outlook, with each issue featuring a wide range of topics, mostly related to Classics and classical archaeology (e.g. "Justice and the Self: A Reading of Plato's Gorgias"; "The Hellenic Alphabet: Origins, Use, and Early Function"; "The Roles of Patrician and Plebeian Women in their Religion in Rome"); and history (e.g. "President Johnson's Vietnam Policy = President Kennedy's Vietnam Policy?"; "The Polish Question at the Yalta Conference"; "Slavery, Society, and the Law in America. The Slave Law in Virginia (1607-1776)"). The website includes a discussion forum extending the published essays, together with a searchable archive of back issues.
This well-presented resource is the website for the archaeological excavations at Aphrodisias (in the ancient Roman province of Caria, in modern Turkey) undertaken by the Institute of Fine Arts in cooperation with the Faculty of Arts and Science at New York University. Introductory information is provided on the history of the site and the excavations, and then the user may access more detailed pages on key areas of the archaeological site. The following locations are covered: the temple of Aphrodite; the cult image of Aphrodite; architecture and sculpture of the bouleuterion (council chamber); the sculptor's workshop; the north agora; the Sebasteion; the basilica; and the stadium. Within each section images and plans are accompanied by detailed explanatory text. An overall plan of Aphrodisias is provided and the user can move the mouse over this to be given names of buildings; on clicking on the building a closer view is given. One can then click on this building for a closer view. There is also a map based on the geophysical survey carried out between 1995 and 1998. Finally, there is an extensive bibliography of relevant material (divided into sections for ease of use), with a particular emphasis on excavation reports.
This interactive website publishes a GIS research survey of the Roman Appian Way with bibliography; map; and virtual 3D reconstruction. The first section, "About" provides access to the bibliography about this IT project (mostly useful to those interested on computing and archaeology); and section "Data" is not accessible to the public. Section "WebGIS" contains an interactive map with satellite data on which have been plotted all monuments and archaeological features known from surveys. The detail and zoom of the map can be easily selected. Section "3D" publishes an interactive 3D map; it is possible to navigate the scene freely or using pre-defined viewpoints. Readers should know that this application is accessible installing the osg4Web plug-in, and that only the version for Internet Explorer worked at the time of review. The plugin requires a fast Internet connection and readers are warned that it crashed the browser a few times and there are no precise instructions on how to use the mouse for navigation. The actual 3D reconstruction is very sophisticated: it uses photographs as textures for the monuments and provides the position of main modern buildings and trees around the monument. Researchers specialising in the landscape of the Appian Way or 3D reconstructions may find this website useful.
Aquae Urbis Romae [Waters of Rome] is a website documenting, with the aid of interactive maps, all the historic water features (hydraulic infrastructures; aqueducts; fountains; sewers) recorded in the City of Rome. This website contains several prepared maps accessible as JPEG files or VRML 3D files (there are also a few QuickTime movies alternative to the VRML files). It is also possible to produce maps selecting specific layers. The data used to produce the maps combine literary and field surveys. In the section "Journal" there is a large bibliographic collection and a selection of pictures reproducing several primary and secondary texts (including "De aquis et aquaeductibus veteris Romae" by Raffaele Fabretti, 1680, and "Utilissimo trattato dell' acque correnti: diviso in tre libri" by Carlo Fontana, 1696) as well as maps and prints (including the Forma Urbis Roma by Rodolfo Lanciani). The site was recently updated and, at time of review, the addition of further sections was planned. This is a helpful resource for researchers, lecturers and students of the subject.
Arachne is a collection of digital photographs of Roman and Greek antiquities with associated metadata; a simple and free registration is required to access it. Most photographs carry a watermark and are B&W, but they should be fine for use in teaching and research. Three major collections have been prepared: the Ara Pacis; Trajan's Column; and reliefs from sarcophagi. In addition to these collections, thousands of photographs can be searched and browsed with simplicity, these include photographs of artefacts in museums; pictures and drawings of architectural structures; painted ceramics; maps; aerial pictures; and reproductions of the Classical style (e.g. Neoclassical architecture). This website contains photographs of archaeological sites from all over the Mediterranean Region. This is a large and expanding collection of photographs and is recommended for use in teaching for its quality and sheer number.
The project benefits of support from Berliner Museen; Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (DAI); and Winckelmann-Edition Stendal.
Archaeogate is a portal for Italian archaeologists which also publishes numbers of preliminary reports of Italian excavations. Most of the contents on this website are in Italian and prepared for Italian students, but many preliminary reports are in English and useful to an international audience. In the section "Egittologia" (Egyptology), among the "rapporti di scavo" are preliminary reports of excavations in Egypt (Dra Abu el-Naga; Bakchias; Kí´m el-Ghoraf; Dime - El-Fayyum; Khelua; Medinet Madi; Antinoe; Kom El-Ghoraf; Nelson's Island; Uadi Sikait; Khelua; Farafra; Tebtynis - Umm el-Breigat; Gebelein; Abuqir; and Mersa - Wadi Gawasis); Sudan (Gebel Umm Nabari; Abu Dom; Gebel Barkal - Napata); and Bahrain (Siwa). Worth noting are the sites of Wadi Gawasis, where archaeologists have found the first Egyptian seagoing ships, and Gebel Barkal - Napata, which is the main site of an important Nubian culture. "Missioni italiane"; "itinerari" and "gallerie fotografiche" contain photographs of Italian excavations in Egypt and Nubia; some photographs originate from archives of old excavations; there are also interactive and archaeological maps of the region. In section "antichità classiche", there are "rapporti di scavo" (preliminary reports) on Roman sites such as Colleferro; Correggio; Scoppieto and Carthage. In the section "vicino oriente" (Near East), the "rapporti di scavo" (preliminary reports) include sites in Oman (Khor Rori; Salut); Armenia (Artaxata; Azat River Valley; Armavir); and Turkmenistan (Nisa - Mithradatkert). Mithradatkert was the capital of the Parthian Empire. All reports are accompanied by several colour photographs of the archaeological sites discussed as well as of some of the artefacts found.
This is the official website of the archaeology collections at the University College London. The website contains some useful information to visit the collections; a database of collection materials available and a teacher's pack in the "Learning" section. There are no photographs of materials or detailed information on any artefact part of the collections and this is a pity the collections include the Sir Flinders Petrie collection of Palestinian artefacts and materials from the excavations of Dame Kathleen Kenyon at Jericho. The database can be very useful to researchers and school teachers in order to prepare a visit to specific collections.
This website publishes a collection of illustrated articles, each focusing on individual archaeological sites in Israel. Among the topics are Akko during the Crusader Kingdom; the Canaanite sites of Arad, Gezer, Hatzor and Nahal Refa'im; the Chalcolithic sites of Be'er Sheva , Golan, and Cave of the Treasure (metal hoard); Bethsaida (of Biblical fame); the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Carmel Caves; the Philistine settlements of Ekron and Tel Qasile; the Herodium; Jericho; Jerusalem; Masada; Megiddo; the Islamic Nimrod fortress; Qumran (settlement and Dead Sea Scrolls); a Roman boat from the Sea of Galilee; Shaar HaGolan (Neolithic figurines); Tiberias; Timna (copper mines and Hathor Temple); Zippori (Sepphoris); and several articles on recent discoveries and underwater archaeology. Many articles focus on Biblical archaeology, but there are also some on prehistoric, Roman, Islamic and Medieval archaeology. This website maybe useful especially to students considering the introductory character of the articles.
Archivo español de arqueología is a peer-reviewed journal published since 1940 in Spain and focusing on the prehistoric and classical archaeology of Iberia. Since 2006 (vol. 79) the yearly journal is also published online with free abstracts and the full content of all but the current edition. The referenced and illustrated papers are available in PDF format, and can easily be found through the simple interface of the website in both Spanish and English. The journal also publishes reviews. The interface of the website allows to access a series of tools which allow to find papers on similar subject (the website hosts other journals focusing on Iberia, and as more editions will be added, the tools may prove increasingly helpful); it is possible to contact the author and search through dissertations, databases and fee-supported journals. Both researchers and students may find this journal useful.
This website is part of the Digital Library for International Research, a project of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC), and it publishes the first six volumes (1991-1999) of the "Arkeoloji Dergisi" journal. Papers are written in Turkish, German, French, and English and are accessible as individual full-text PDF files, with searchable text. The journal focuses on Greek archaeology and culture (e.g. red-figure ceramics; administrative system of the Attalids; the cult of Apollon; Roman roads), with several papers on artefacts and sites discovered in Turkey.
This resource provides online photos of Ancient Art and Architecture, covering material from the Ancient Near East, Ancient Egypt, Minoan and Mycenaean civilisations, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Greece, and Rome. The pages are part of Art Images for College Teaching, a database of visual resources for use in education, a project that also covers arts of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods, the eighteenth to twentieth century, and also non-Western art. The author encourages users to contribute their own images, and the value of the site will increase with user involvement. The admirable intention and large scope of the database is at present restricted by a limited depth. In its current state, the site is of most value to the general public who would desire a general overview, although there is inevitably some imbalance in that the resource can only use the photos that it has. Thus there are photos of the sculpture of East pediment of the Parthenon, but none of the West, nor a view of the temple as a whole. The temples at Paestum receive a significant proportion of images. The Erechtheion is represented by two 'Caryatids', and not the temple as a whole. There is a reasonable selection of Archaic and Early Classical Greek sculpture, but later and famous works attributed to Praxiteles, Lysippus or Polyclitus are absent. Egyptian art is represented by eleven images. Roman architecture and sculpture receives more, with 5 pages, but is similarly selective. There are a number of factual errors, such as the mislabelling of Parthenon South metope 28, and East pediment figure G. No measurements are provided with the photos. The descriptions provide identification, location and date, although bibliography is provided for each image. If the author's hopes and intentions are satisfied, this resource could be of immense use for novices to ancient art.
This website describes four Arts and Humanities Research Council funded workshops which aimed to address the current challenges faced by Samian (a type of pottery produced in the Roman Empire in the 3rd century BCE) research in the UK as well as provide a snapshot of the state of current research into Samian pottery. The hope is that the workshops will lay the foundations for a new generation of Samian specialists as well as establishing new standards of documentation and curation. Each of the workshops is described (although at the time of review, the most recent had yet to be updated beyond the simple programme), with certain presentations available to download, and the ensuing discussions précised.
The official website of the International Association for Classical Archaeology (AIAC) publishes a short history of the association and news about events, publications and other activities related to the association and its members, including recent annual reports as PDF files. There is information on how to register (for a fee) and the benefits (e.g. discounts on books and free access to some museums) offered to members. The AIACNews newsletter can also be downloaded in PDF files. One useful service is a series of calendars of events, mostly focusing on Greek and Roman cultures and antiquities in both Athens and Rome, as well as a list of meetings and conferences at international level. These are the "Roman archaeological agenda"; "Roman cultural agenda"; "Athens archaeological agenda"; "Conferences" and "Lectures in the world" sections. The lists of events are comprehensive and worth checking. The association itself often organises meetings and conferences; details of forthcoming meetings and conferences are available on the website. This website may be helpful to researchers in Classical archaeology, especially those planning to visit Italy or Greece. Postgraduate students and researchers may also be interested in becoming members of the association.
The American School of Classical Studies has been excavating in the area of the Athenian Agora since 1931. The main focus of attention has been the Agora of the 5th and 4th centuries BC but finds from the archaeological site span the periods from the Late Neolithic to the 20th century. The website presents an extensive "Site Tour" including Quicktime panoramas. There are (section "Plans and Drawings") plans of the site at various historical phases and reconstruction models (again as Quicktime) of some of the major buildings as well as pictures of the outdoor sections of the agora ("Architecture and Topography"). Section "Excavations" contains short excavation reports which focus particularly on the artefacts. Some of the artefacts presented are still unpublished and therefore to access these artefacts in the catalogue it is necessary to have permission and registration details from the American School of Classical Studies. The rest of the illustrated catalogue is freely accessible and divided in sections "Black and Plain Pottery"; "Red Figured and White Ground"; "Hellenistic Pottery and Wheelmade Table Ware"; and "Greek Coins". The latest preliminary report can be found in section "Recent Excavations". Section "Resources" outlines the contents of the webiste. Anyone interested in ancient Greece may find this website useful.
Several publications have been made available in HTML format or through Google Books and can be freely accessed in section "Agora Publications". Among the publications are guides; a few volumes of the Athenian Agora Monographs (Vol.12 Black and Plain Pottery; Vol. 26 The Greek Coins; Vol. 29 Hellenistic Pottery; and Vol. 30 Attic Red-Figured and White-Ground Pottery); "The Birth of Democracy" (catalogue of exhibition); "The Athenian Citizen: Democracy in the Athenian Agora"; "The Games at Athens"; "Horses and Horsemanship in the Athenian Agora"; "Ancient Athenian Building Methods"; "Graffiti in the Athenian Agora"; books on coins; "Waterworks in the Athenian Agora"; "Miniature Sculpture from the Athenian Agora" and others. At the time of review access to some titles was difficult and some titles appears mixed (e.g. "Amphoras and the Ancient Wine Trade"); the alternative "list of all publications" may be used.
The Mertens-Pack 3 database project by the University of Liège stores the information from the "Catalogue des papyrus littéraires grecs et latins", or Mertens-Pack 3, into a database powered website. The website is still under development and only partly translated in English from French; readers are advised to check the French version first. The bibliographic catalogue appears complete and can be searched by using a convenient web form; it is also possible to perform a search by selecting the name of an ancient author. For each literary work, any search in the catalogue returns the papyri containing any part of the text; the essential bibliography and when available hyperlinks to pictures. Thematic general bibliographies are available for "Alexandria docta"; "Pharmacopoea Aegyptia et Graeco-Aegyptia"; "Liber Antiquus". A few pages contain information about CEDOPAL, its activities and publications. By clicking on "Restoration of P. Leodienses" it is possible to access some information on the restoration of papyri; there is also an informative 15 minutes movie available at different quality and size. This is a very useful bibliographic and papyrological source of information for researchers, as it is the printed version of Mertens-Pack 3.
The BBC History website "Romans" examines the enduring traces of Roman rule (43-410 CE) to be found in Britain - the language, culture and the landscape. Aimed at students of all ages, this website complements recent BBC broadcasts and includes considerable contributions from presenters and producers for example: Roman military historian and associate producer of "Simon Schama's History of Britain", Dr Mike Ibeji asks what the careers of Roman soldiers reveal about life in Roman Britain; Lindsay Allason-Jones (University of Newcastle Upon Tyne) explores the lives of Romano-British women; Adam Hart Davis, presenter of "Local Heroes" asks "What did the Romans do for us?" Other topics include: Roman Empire (Andrew Wallace-Hadrill); Roman Amphitheatre (Kathleen Coleman); Pompeii: Its Discovery and Preservation (Salvatore Ciro Nappo). As well as numerous interpretative texts there are multimedia resources taking advantage of the Internet's versatility as a teaching/learning medium. These include: galleries of images of Hadrian's Wall and Roman mosaics; five FAQs about Roman Britain answered; audio dramas (with script) of the Boudiccan Rebellion in 60 CE; and an interactive 3D reconstruction of Housesteads fort on Hadrian's Wall circa 3rd Century CE. For earlier Internet browsers a text-only version is available for much of the content. The "Romans" site maintains the design of BBCi History - such as the links to History content from the left and top navigation bars (which also identifies which area of the site you are currently in). The search box allows you to search History and the rest of the BBCi website. The bottom navigation bar offers access to: the "reading room" (feature articles authored by prominent historians); the "multimedia zone" (interactive content - games, 3D reconstructions, animations, audio and video); "For kids" (content designed for both primary and secondary school ages); the "how to" section (that offers advice on local and family history, house history, and amateur archaeology).
The Beazley Archive is a research unit of the University of Oxford's Faculty of Literae Humaniores; this is its website. The original archive of Sir John Beazley (1885-1970) included about 250,000 photographs, notes, drawings and books relating to ancient Greek and Roman art. In 1979 information technology (IT) projects began with the Pottery Database of Athenian figure-decorated vases of the 7th-4th centuries BC. Since 1992 IT projects on other aspects of classical art have been created. This website displays information about the Archive, including publications and bibliographies, and gives access to the IT projects and databases. These include: gems; pottery; sculpture; and the dictionary. For example: Pottery - The Beazley Archive text database records information about Athenian figure-decorated vases illustrated in publications available to the Ashmolean Library. Begun in 1979, it now has over 67,000 entries, with fourteen fields, including bibliographical references, find-place, shape and iconographical terms. In 1992 the Archive began to participate in a European Union project (RAMA) linking the collections of seven museums across Europe via the Internet. This project enabled the Beazley Archive to begin digitising its photographs and drawings. These include a vast collection of images of classical sites. An enhanced version of the original database is now available via the website (users may search for images according to location). The Dictionary feature of the resource is an excellent alphabetical guide to classical sites and terminology (including references to places, technical terms, buildings, people, gods and other figures from myth); each explanatory entry is accompanied by relevant images from the archive's collection. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement Scheme.
One of the finest and most diverse collections in Athens, and also the oldest in Greece, it is no surprise to find that the Benaki Museum's website is exemplary in form and content. It offers all the necessary information for the prospective visitor, including QuickTime movies of many of the galleries, details of past, present and future collections, and overviews of the collections. A journey through the museum passes through Ancient Greece and the Roman period, the Byzantine period, the Frankish and Ottoman occupations, to the struggle for independence in the nineteenth century and the establishment of the Greek state thereafter. Each section is represented by a selection of choice artefacts, the illustrations of which can be enlarged. The Museum also holds important collections of historic heirlooms, over 6000 paintings and drawings by Greek artists and those who visited or were inspired by the country, as well as Coptic, Chinese (largely the gifts of George Eumorphopoulos) and Islamic art and a collection of Toys and Games from Greece and the wider world. There is admirable attention to the history of the museum, with special features on the founder, Antonis Benakis, and other significant donors, as well as the building itself (the Benakis' residence in Athens) and plans for the division of the collection (the Islamic collection, the Department of Historical Archives, and the collection of Toys and Games) and their prospective homes. The Museum's Archive collection is particularly important, and there are separate pages for the Historical (much relating to the Greek War of Independence and the later rise of Eleftherios Venizelos), Neo-Hellenic Architecture and Photography archives. The last has further links to pages devoted to James Robertson, Nelly's, Voula Papaioannou and Dimitris Harissiadis, all of which are well illustrated. All three archives are responsible for publications, details of which are listed.
This website presents the excavations of Berenike, a Graeco-Roman harbour located in Egypt on the Red Sea. Berenike was founded by Ptolemy II (Philadelphos), king of Egypt, using the name of his mother. Its initial purpose was to establish the provision of elephants from Africa after the Indian route had been blocked by the Seleucids in the Near East. Because of the protected and strategic position of the harbour, the Romans eventually transformed it into an emporium on the route of spices such as myrrh, frankincense, and pearls, as well as textiles. This website offers: an overview of the site in antiquity and in the present day; the illustrated preliminary reports of the excavations; an updated bibliography; some details of the excavations; and a series of illustrated papers read at conferences. The papers include topics such as 'Long distance trade at Berenike'; 'Religions in Berenike'; 'Ring cairn graves of Berenike' and 'The Palmyra connection'. Interested researchers may contact the project directors to obtain a password which provides access to the database of findings.
For anyone who has struggled with the considerable variation in Latin nomenclature, the website of the Bibliographic Standards Committee (BSC) : Latin Place Names will help with the process of identifying towns, cities and other locations. Developed and maintained by Robert Maxwell (Brigham Young University and Chair BSC), the site contains an online alphabetical database of locations in their Latin forms which are then cross-indexed with modern vernacular forms. The forms are those found in books printed before 1801. Variations in spelling are handled through a series of links which always return the user to the one of the more common linguistic forms. The site also provides a few links to other related resources on place names.
This website by Prof. em. Ulrich Harsch publishes a collection of pictures of the Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger Table), a medieval copy of a Roman map (itinerarium pictum) of the Empire. The original manuscript was probably drawn around 250 AD, but the oldest surviving copy dates around 1200 AD. There are a few pictures of parts of the 1200 AD document and the 1598 AD copy by Marco Velsero. A full set of high resolution colour pictures of the 1887 copy by Conrad Miller is made available; this is the clearest copy for modern reading and includes a reconstruction of the first sheet. The sample pictures of the other editions show how the process of copying might have slightly altered the original document.
The Tabula Peutingeriana is the most important map surviving from Roman times and it was originally a parchment scroll made of 12 sheets. Only 11 sheets have survived (the first representing the Iberian Peninsula and parts of the British Isles is missing); the surviving sheets measure together 6.82 by 0.34 metres. The elongated shape of the map forces the use of a characteristic perspective unsuitable to represent geographic features in an accurate way and therefore most of the features on the map are schematic. The purpose of the map was to depict an impressive network of 100,000 Km of major roads uniting approximately 3,000 settlements on three continents (Europe, northern Africa and Asia up to a strip of land possibly representing China); the distances between settlements are given. Rome, Constantinople and Antioch were represented by special icons suggesting that these were the most important centres at the time that the map was drawn.
This website publishes the free and full-text online edition of the "Bibliothèques de l'Ecole française d'Athènes et de Rome - Série Athènes", a series of monographs published by the French School of Athens. Almost all volumes have been made available; it is possible that missing volumes will be published in the future. This collection of volumes is often outdated in many parts, but can still be a precious reference for researchers. It focuses on Greek archaeology, history, art and literature. Among the studies are those on the Athenian trireme (La Trière athénienne. Étude d’archéologie navale); the frontier on the Euphrates (La frontière de l’Euphrate de Pompée à la conquête arabe); Etruscan and Villanovan Bologna (Bologne étrusque et villanovienne); Aelius Aristide; Cycladic pottery (La céramique des Cyclades); Callimacus (Callimaque et son oeuvre poétique); several volumes on Delos; the sphinx; the defeat of 404 BC for Athens (Athènes devant la défaite de 404. Histoire d’une crise idéologique); Minoan tholoi, especially from the Mesara Plain, and Mycenaean tholoi (Tholoi, tumuli et cercles funéraires. Recherches sur les monuments funéraires de plan circulaire dans l’Égée de l’Âge du Bronze); Mycenaean ivories; Lysander of Sparta; the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age of Greece (Le Néolithique et le Bronze Ancien égéens); the sanctuary of Poseidon and Amphitrite at Ténos (Ténos. Le sanctuaire de Poséidon et d’Amphitrite); and many others. This website may be useful to both researchers and students.
The Bomford Collection of Ancient Glass comprises a large collection of artefacts tracking the early history of glass. Most of the pieces are Roman, originating from Italy, Egypt, the Levant, Asia Minor, and other locations around the Mediterranean. A few of the artefacts originate from Northern Europe, Mesopotamia, or Persia, some of which are pre-Roman. The collection is held at the City Museum and Art Gallery in Bristol. The website consists of a general introduction to the collection, which was assembled by James Bomford between 1960 and 1978. Then there is a database of artefacts, which may be searched by object type, period, or geographical origin. Many of the results include images of the object in question, in addition to descriptions and reference information. Finally, there is a bibliography of publications relating to the collection or to ancient and Roman glassware more generally.
This is the official website of the Bova Marina archaeological project, which contains information and preliminary reports on the fieldwork carried out since 1997. Bova Marina is located in southern Calabria and has yielded Neolithic, Bronze Age and Classical period artefacts. The articles in English and Italian are clear and concise, and are valuable as introductions to the archaeological sites or as a source of images. The referenced preliminary reports are available in PDF format from the bibliography section and anybody needing more than a summary introduction should head there immediately. The reports are usually well edited: there is a summary in Italian, illustrated sections on all work carried out and a bibliography (most references point to previous reports, but these are nonetheless useful). However, the early reports do not have pictures and are understandably shorter (there is a warning on the website about this). The most recent reports are very large and approach the quality of full publications, focusing on detailed contexts and tranches. It would be already commendable to have regular preliminary reports, but the quality of these reports should be prized. The detail of the reports limit the potential readership to researchers specifically interested in the local archaeology or on the site, as obviously preliminary reports are not the correct place for broader generalisations. The website also provides contact details of all current members of the project. The project has been funded by the AHRC.
The British School at Athens' website provides information about the School; its activities and organised events; its museum and archive; its library; and the archaeological site of Knossos. A list of present and past members is available and there is information on how to become a member. The website provides access to the library of the School; lists the publications by the School including the Annual; and publishes events organised by the School; field and bursary opportunities in Greece; it details how to become a friend or member; and how to apply for permits or the facilities available to the School's members, including the Fitch Research Laboratory and the hostels. The School organises courses for both undergraduates and postgraduates. This websites is an essential resource for researchers wishing to carry out research in Greece.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
This is the official website of the Bulgarian Archaeological Association, which has been constituted to promote Bulgarian archaeology. The association organises excursions to archaeological sites in Bulgaria and runs a field school, which may interest students. The association also publishes a journal, "Archaeologia Iuventia"; its contents only are published on the website. Students looking for fieldwork experience in Bulgaria may be interested in this website.
This website focuses on the town of Butrint, Albania and is aimed primarily at the general public and an undergraduate audience. Section "Explore Butrint" contains most information relevant to archaeology. This is a multimedia-rich and lavishly illustrated website, and already in the first section it is possible to find some large QuickTime panoramas as well as a nice interactive feature on the development of the town through time using a series of reconstructions and pictures. However, the numbered pages do not follow a chronological order, which would see the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Venetian cultures enrich the area. Section "Beyond Butrint" attempts to look at the broader area, clearly promoting tourism in the area. The other sections of the website indeed provide information on visiting the site and region, including practicalities, and some short facts that will appeal the learned tourist. Of course, this is also a good example of how archaeology can be used to promote a positive image of a region until recently politically unstable as well as favour the economy of an impoverished region. Abibliography is available as PDF file.
Capitolium.org is an extensive and detailed website devoted primarily to the imperial fora in the city of Rome, and to the ongoing archaeological work there. A historical overview of ancient Rome, from its traditional foundation date (753 BC) to the imperial period, is given here, accompanied by a detailed chronological table of events, an index of Roman emperors and a map of the empire. Details are also given of the archaeological excavations taking place in the area of the fora, with specific information on each individual forum, its history, buildings and functions (included here are sections on the fora of Caesar, Augustus, Nerva and Trajan, and on the Temple of Peace in the forum of Vespasian, as well as Trajan's market). A section on daily life describes ancient Roman food and drink, family life and housing. Finally the website has a 'Ludi' (games) section with pages on Roman numerals, the calendar of Roman holidays, Latin phrases and sayings, a quiz based on information found on the site, and a limited list of films set in ancient Rome. The website is equally navigable in English and Italian.
Castrum Inui is a Roman site near Rome, where ongoing archaeological excavations have unearthed a small temple (5x10 m) dated to the fifth century BC and dedicated to Inuo, an early god later identified with Pan. This website publishes news of recent discoveries, still at an early stage at the time of the review, and many photographs of the excavations, some of which are collected in a separate gallery of photographs (clicking on pictures opens larger versions in new windows). The photographs are the most valuable asset of this website. There is information on how to visit the archaeological site and contact details of the archaeologists working at the site. Considering the proximity to Rome and the early date of the discoveries, this archaeological site provides a rare opportunity to study some early antiquities of Latium when Rome had yet to become an Empire and before Greek culture influenced the Romans (Inuo was still an Italic god unrelated to Greek mythology) without the problem of later architectural modifications cancelling or obscuring the evidence from ancient periods. Both students and researchers are likely to find this website useful.
The Center for Epigraphical and Palaeological Studies site includes information about forthcoming events and courses (some of which are open to the general public) and offers several short-term post-doctoral fellowships in Greek and Latin epigraphy. The site (which is part of the Department of Greek and Latin at the Ohio State University) contains links to other related web-sites as well as images of inscriptions and manuscripts (ranging from Attic inscriptions to mediaeval Latin manuscripts). Unfortunately, as the site is still under construction most of these images are as yet unavailable, and so when one clicks on the images for Greek or Roman 'squeezes' (a plaster cast representation of an inscription) one is simply presented with a list of reference numbers. The dated Attic inscriptions do have pictures, but the images come without even the most basic commentary of what this inscription is, a reproduction of the text or translation, or the context in which it was found (all of which are essential). Reference numbers are provided so that one can look these inscriptions up in the relevant books which have all this pertinent information (but this defies the point of putting it on the web-site in the first place).
This is the official website of the "Centro Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papiri Ercolanesi" directed by Marcello Gigante. The centre studies the library of the Villa dei Papiri in Herculaneum. The website is poor in contents with only basic information and several incomplete sections, including the English version. It includes the summaries of "Cronache Ercolanesi" and there is an extensive bibliography. This website requires Flash. The first owner of the villa appears to have been Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, but other names have been suggested. Several texts in the library were written by members of the Epicurean school of philosophy. It is known that Piso Caesoninus was a supporter of the school and he probably hosted Philodemus of whom he may have been patron. The first person to open the charred papyri and read from them was father Antonio Piaggio, an expert from the Vatican Library who invented a device for the purpose. Large parts of the villa are yet to be excavated, including the supposed Latin library. Only a few texts have been read so far given their poor state of preservation; some of the papyri were already centuries old on 79 AD, when the villa was destroyed by the eruption of the Vesuvius.
The "Centro ricerche archeologiche e scavi di Torino" focuses on research in the Middle East and publishes on its official website short illustrated reports of its field activities. The reports are available selecting "progetti" from the menu on the top and then "progetti di ricerca". It is possible to access the individual reports by browsing by name or using a convenient map. Reports are available for excavations carried out in Italy (GIS survey of the Verbano, Cusio and Ossola area; virtual reconstruction of a Greek capitel from the Greek temple at Marasí , Locri Epizefiri; temple E of Selinunte); Tunisia (Carthage; Colonia Iulia Pietas Tertiadecimanorum Uthina); Lebanon (Beirut); Jordan (Jerash); Iraq (Seleucia on the Tigris; Choche; Nimrud; Hatra; Hamrin dam; Kifrin; Eski Mosul dam; Ninive; museum of Baghdad); Iran; Turkmenistan (Nisa - Mithradatkert); Pakistan (Udegram). Most reports are just introductions to the research projects and contain limited useful information. Among the most interesting and referenced reports are those of Carthage, focusing on the ancient harbours of the Punic town, between the second and third Punic war (202-146 BC); Nisa, focusing on clay figurines, rhyta, marble and metal sculptures; Seleucia, focusing on clay figurines, ceramics, seals and architectural structures such as the archives, the stoa and the southern square; Nimrud, focusing on artistic finds dated to the period of king Sin-shar-riskum; and Nineveh, focusing on the conservation of the palace of Sennacherib.
Chiron is an organisation formed by Spanish teachers of Classics and their website acts as a portal providing general information on the group (including on the courses organised by Chiron). Among the services are a space for blogs; a Wiki; a collection of bookmarks; a gallery of photographs that can be used for teaching (over 20,000 pictures at the time of review); and a series of online videos relating to classical topics. The aim of the group is to provide a series of Web tools useful in teaching classics that are relevant and tested by other teachers. Many of the resources are in Spanish, but the community is already starting to translate some resources and aims at creating an international community. Teachers in Classics (and classical archaeology) at all levels should visit this website and possibly participate and contribute in developing this community.
Designed as both an educational tool for students and an online guide for those unable to make the journey to Rome, the brief but engaging "Christian Catacombs of Rome" written by the Istituto Salesiano S. Callisto describes the series of catacombs bordering the consular roads of the Appian Way and constructed between the second and fifth centuries AD. The site begins with a general introduction to the social importance and archaeological history of the catacombs while describing some of the more prominent symbols and structural features of the tombs in light of the Church's early spiritual role and status at the time. This history is accompanied by a series of studies that detail the often-difficult life of these early worshippers and a solid bibliography on the Catacombs of Saint Callixtus. Though overall somewhat basic in its presentation, the site will serve as a helpful introduction to students undertaking preliminary research in early Christian funerary rights and rituals, or those simply interested in Christian life during the decline of the Roman Empire. Th website also publishes a useful and updated bibliography.
This is the website for the Corinth Computer Project, which is based at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States. The project was founded in 1988 with the aim of developing a computerized architectural and topographical survey of the Roman colony of Corinth. The project is particularly concerned with uncovering information about the different stages of the city's development and the impact of non-Roman influences, including Hellenistic, Byzantine and Venetian. There is also an emphasis on research into Roman strategies of city planning. The site offers a detailed methodological essay about the project as well as information about Corinth in Greek, Roman and modern times. The text in each section is accompanied by city plans and photographs, including a number of photographs of the process of excavation, and of the regional landscape. The 'reference' section of the site also provides a glossary of archaeological terms used, a bibliography and links to selected resources for classicists on the Internet. The Corinth Computer Project is a well thought-out scholarly website which has won a number of awards.
The Corinth Excavations website gives brief details of the excavations at Corinth which serve as a field laboratory and training ground for the American School of Classical Studies. The web pages concentrate on the facilities available at the excavation site and the staff involved in the research. There are also brief reports on the results of the excavations carried out between 1998 to 2002 together with links to other web sites about excavation in and around Corinth.
The Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum (CVA) website makes available online an illustrated catalogue of ancient vases. The CVA was a project initiated in 1919 by Edmond Pottier of the Union Académique National. Its aim was to produce a series of monographs documenting all the ancient vases from Egypt, Mesopotamia and Europe preserved in museums. The website presents digitized versions of all the out of print fascicules, more than 250 in total. The website is quite simple, with just a few lines on the project and a few pictures outlining the contents of the catalogue. The database of vases is browsable by modern country or museum name. A search facility allows users to filter the entire database. This is a monumental project that is well known to all archaeologists interested in this field. Users will find the website useful and neatly designed, but the search facility requires some prior knowledge of ancient ceramics. Details of the vases are often scanty, without comments or interpretive notes, but there are good quality black and white pictures. This is a specialist website based on a resource that has long become a reference work.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Loron, Croatia. Loron, on the north-eastern Adriatic coast, was an important production centre of amphorae (two-handled narrow-necked jars, used for carrying oil) under the Roman Empire. The site offers a few short articles presenting recent research in this area, plus maps showing the circulation of amphorae in northern Italy and Croatia. There is also a brief bibliography, and a 'diaporama' - a gallery of pictures.
Published by the Center for the Study of Architecture at Bryn Mawr, Philadelpia, the CSA Newsletter contains information about applications of computers and other technology to scholarly work by archaeologists and architectural historians. The newsletter is published three times a year, and from Spring 2000 the newsletter is only available via the Web (together with a selection of back issues from 1990). A typical issue contains around eight short articles on topics such as CAD modelling, database creation, and digital imaging together with news from the CSA.
This specialist resource is an online edition of Dr Nicolle Hirschfeld's 1996 book The PASP database for the uses of scripts on Cyprus (Minos Supplement 13) which aims in the long-term to provide a comprehensive account of all the ancient inscriptions and glyphs from Cyprus, whether on stone, clay or metal and coin. The people of the island of Cyprus employed a variety of writing systems to record their spoken languages in the Bronze and Iron Ages, including the syllabic Cypro-Minoan and Cypro-Classical scripts as well as alphabetic Greek and Phoenician letters. The current database includes Cypro-Minoan writings from the Late Bronze Age circa 1700-1000 BCE which record an undeciphered language (or languages) and the closely related Cypro-Classical script of the succeeding Iron Age which lasted down to the 3rd century BC when it was displaced by the Greek alphabet. Cypro-Classical was used to record both the local Greek dialect and an undeciphered tongue called Eteo-Cypriot. Phoenician and Roman inscriptions will be added in future editions of the database, in addition to the inscriptions in cuneiform, Egyptian and Ugaritic which have also been found in the island. The database is searchable by inscription number, object type, geographical context, nature and material and is prefaced by various instructions on how to use the data. This resource will benefit researchers in the ancient writings and scripts of the Mediterranean world, particularly those interested in the transmission of the alphabet to the Greek world and the interaction of cultures in the region in the Bronze and Iron Age, as well as more general students of Cypriot and Near Eastern archaeology.
This is the website of the David M Robinson collection at the University of Mississippi's University Museum. The Museum holds over 2000 objects, a collection built up principally by Dr Robinson, the excavator of Olynthos, his wife and Mr and Mrs Frank Peddle. The website puts online photographs of a significant and diverse proportion of the museum's holdings. Of Greek artefacts, there are inscriptions, coins, sculptures, mosaics and other objects, mainly small bronzes and terracottas. The Roman objects are organised in the same categories. In addition there is an important collection of Greek and South Italian vases, of which there are around ninety photographs presented here. There is also a small section on Egyptian artefacts. In all cases, there is a brief accompanying description, but no dimensions. A bibliographical reference is provided for most of the inscriptions, vases and sculptures. Many of the Greek vases are also linked to the relevant entry on the Perseus website. A number of the photographs of vases are out of focus, so whilst the images provide a general impression they may in some cases be inadequate for detailed study.
This website on the Roman limes in Germany has been produced by the Deutsche Limeskommission. The limes is a line of Roman fortifications that has been inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List. It was built by the Romans to protect and delineate the borders of their empire. The highlight of this website is the section presenting the locations of the limes (Orte am Limes) on a clickable map. Short articles describe what is known for each site and colour pictures either show the excavations and remaining architectural structures or, if nothing is visible, show aerial photographs with the added path of the wall. Towers and other fortifications also appear drawn on aerial photographs. By clicking on the pictures, a larger version of the image appears in a new window. There is also a bibliography of recent titles and a page with news. This website is a great reference tool for students.
This website presents a project by the Dianae Lacus association aiming at reconstructing the Roman ships from Lake Nemi, Italy. Rare documents and photographs taken during the recovery of the ship are available; among these are some photographs by Guido Ucelli. There are also pictures of the work being carried out to reconstruct the first ship and information about the surviving artefacts from the excavations, an historical account of the recovery and various documents detailing the project. The two Roman ships were sunk in occasion of the death of emperor Caligula in year 41 BC and then recovered during the years 1929-1932; the ships were lost in a fire in 1944. Although the contents are not well organised and some pictures are unavailable, this website can be a useful resource to study a discovery that possibly started modern marine archaeology and is important in history of archaeology. The photographs of the original ships are also important in the study of Roman ships, but the website lacks a text explaining the importance of the ships. Only part of the first ships has been rebuilt after several years of work; the efforts in this sense are also well documented, though not up to date.
Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project is an online collection of digital photographs and measurements based on a large marble street plan of the ancient city, completed around the start of the third century AD. Parts of it survive in numerous fragments, the assembly of which into a coherent 'jigsaw' has long challenged archaeologists. Stanford University's Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project has collected high definition digital photographs and computer measurements of the 1186 surviving fragments (these may be viewed here) and is now aiming to develop computer algorithms that might help to establish a more useful searchable version of the map. The user interface for the selection from Stanford's database which been made so far is available online. This site, though, is the news page for the technical side of the project. It contains a detailed description of the process which the Stanford team is developing, which will be of interest to those who seek to bring the latest technology to bear on ancient problems. The site also offers background information on the original map itself, as well as a detailed annotated bibliography of relevant reference works. There are also useful press reports and news updates about the progress of the project.
The Digital Library for International Research is a project run by the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC) that publishes several documents (books; journal; photographs; maps) on archaeology as well as modern literature and languages in digital format. It is possible to use section "Online Catalog" to perform a search across all contents, including library holdings. Section "E-books Collections" contains the ALMA (African Language Materials Archive Project) project archive, with several e-books written in African languages (including Bamanankan; Criol; Fula/Peul/Pular; Fulfulde; Jula/Dyula; Mandinka; Moore; and Wolof). Section "Photo Archives" contains over 125,000 photographs from the American Institute of Indian Studies, Center for Art and Archaeology (AIIS-CAA) in Gurgaon, India. Section "Map Collections" contains the archives of the ongoing Mapping Mediterranean Lands (MedMaps) project. Only a few maps were accessible at the time of review, and there is a section aimed at school teachers. "Journal Collections" contains the digitised version of several journals.
More contents should be added as the projects progress and new projects and archives are added to the collections. This website will be useful to researchers, teaching staff and students.
This database contains references to written records of people (prosopography) living in the Soknopaiu Nesos area of Al Fayyūm from Demotic and Greek sources dating from the seventh century BC to the fifth century AD. The database can be searched, and each record has appropriate bibliographic references; there is also a general bibliography. The high number of personal written documents in the area makes this area particularly suitable for a prosopographic study. Each record can be printed selecting the printable version. This specialist database may interest primarily researchers in Classics and archaeology.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
'Dr. J's Illustrated Guide to the Classical World' is a mélange of texts, images and weblinks illustrating many aspects of the ancient Greek and Roman World assembled by Dr Janice Siegel of Illinois State University and is designed to open up the world of classical antiquity to students of all levels. This is an on-going project and will be added to over time. It provides much useful supplementary study material for school children and preliminary undergraduate students in Classics, ancient history and classical archaeology. Illustrated lectures and texts feature items on ancient history, myth, drama, art and archaeology sites and art. The many images and photographs are provided by the author herself or else derive from the major archaeological museums of the world. The website, the core of which is the author's personal webpage, is largely designed to facilitate undergraduate appreciation of the Classics in their studies and is particularly suitable for browsing but is also intended to provide learning aids for teachers. Siegel's colloquial text and selection of images draw numerous parallels between the ancient world and modern political and military events. These also serve a didactic purpose for students and faculty, as will the inclusion of course materials and accounts of her teaching experiences since 1994. Other features of the site include a wide-ranging survey of audio-visual teaching resources in classics, available either online or in video or CD versions.
This is the official website of the French archaeological School at Rome; it publishes information on the School and its activities. Information on the library and access to the catalogue via telnet protocol are also available. There is a list of some of the field projects that the School has undertaken, mostly of archaeological sites dating from Roman to Medieval times, and some preliminary reports (only in the French; use menu on the left). Among the archaeological sites are Rome (Pincio and Palatine); Aquileia; Musarna (Etruria); Paestum; Tricarico; and Malvito. The School is also responsible for the excavations of Jdidi (Tunisia) and Bosra (Syria). The reports are brief and usually illustrated with a few black and white pictures, plans or drawings. Postgraduate students and researchers interested in Roman and medieval Italy will certainly find some useful report given the importance of some excavations.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the region of Myos Hormos, Egypt. It is the preliminary report of a survey by French archaeologists of the Roman forts on the ancient Myos Hormos trade route and includes some information about the ancient settlement of Koptos (modern Qift). Several illustrated articles summarise the surveying campaigns carried out so far. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. The website includes a small bibliography and a map of the region.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Khashm al-Minayh, Egypt, a site on the trade route to Berenike and investigated by the same team surveying the Myos Hormos route. There are several informative articles emphasising the connection with Berenike. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a small bibliography.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Tell el-Herr, Egypt (Sinai peninsula). The site is located on a strategic position between Egypt and the Levant and has been occupied from the fifth century BC to the sixth century AD. The site was a Roman settlement, later a Persian settlement and finally an early medieval Egyptian site. Several illustrated articles concentrate on the archaeological evidence unearthed by a French team of archaeologists. Achaemenid, Roman and Ptolemaic monuments are discussed. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
Epidoc Aphrodisias Project (EPAPP) is the website which reports on a pilot collaborative scheme to develop and apply tools for publishing ancient Greek and Latin inscriptions on the Internet based on the principles of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). The Aphrodisias pilot scheme is concentrating on the digital publication of some 1000 inscriptions from the archaeologically rich site of Aphrodisias in Caria (south-western Turkey). The website includes a brief project description and four sample inscriptions and full critical apparatus based on the text of Charlotte Roueché's book Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity (1989). Background information and an extensive bibliography on the city and a history of past excavations are also provided within an efficient hypertext medium. In addition this website provides a searchable guide and links to the 93 projects currently using the TEI.
The project, funded by the Leverhulme Trust, is led by King's College London and includes the participation of: the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University; and the Institute of Classical Studies, University of London. While the substantive content of this website will chiefly be of value to specialist researchers in classical archaeology and epigraphy, this project has important implications for electronic publication in general and thus will interest a much wider audience in the humanities.
The website 'Eras' is an online journal produced by postgraduate students from the School of Historical Studies at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. The journal focuses on the areas of history, archaeology, religion and theology, and Jewish civilisation. Readers are encouraged to respond through the discussion page. Eras is intended to provide a platform to showcase recent Masters and doctoral research. There are links to back editions and each edition contains five or six full articles plus some book reviews. The articles are presented in both abstract and full form (in PDF format). The journal lacks a thematic approach, which would help or even engage the reader. Instead, each issue contains random material and it is necessary to trawl through the issues to discover if there is anything useful. Guidelines for contributors are available on the site together with calls for papers. There is scope to contact the editors and contribute to the discussion page.
Erétria on the island of Euboea was an important settlement during the Mycenaean, Greek and Roman period. This website summarises the results of the ongoing excavations by the Swiss Archaeological School in Greece. There is a gallery of pictures including both monumental remains and artefacts (such as mosaics); the large high definition pictures are in JPEG CMYK format suitable for press printing and should be downloaded and opened with a specialist program, most browsers will return an error when attempting to open them. Section "theater" by Elisa Ferroni is in German only and publishes the results of a test pit in the area of the theatre, it includes a map; a report on the stratigraphy of the theatre; a detailed report that summarises with drawings and pictures all typical shapes of pottery encountered in the stratigraphy; and a short article suggesting a date for the strata based upon all other studies. There is a timeline (chronology) and a short illustrated article on the landscape. Section "history" publishes a set of illustrated articles each focussing on a period of the settlement of Erétria. Of particular interest are the Early Helladic potter's kiln and the 8th century BC tomb called "Heroon", where a funerary bronze cauldron was found. The town flourished since the Archaic period, and was sacked by the Persians of King Darius in 490 BC, just before the battle of Marathon, and then in 411 BC the town switched side from the Athenians to the Spartans and in the eponymous battle of Eretria the Athenian fleet was destroyed. Philosopher Menedemos was born at Eretria. There articles on the literary sources mentioning the town and epigraphic studies. A large section focuses on numismatics with an article by Monica Brunner and a gallery of pictures in "coins of Eretria"; a separate Euboean coins database which contains information on over 600 Euboean coins recently sold at an auction; it is still possible to access the pages of the auction and access the prices of sale that may be useful in studies of the trade of antiquities. The database contains all inscriptions on coins. There is an extensive bibliography on Euboean coins. On the website of the Swiss Archaeological School in Greece there is also a bibliographic database specialising on Eretria. If a hyperlink appears broken, it might be worth retrying a few times to click on the original link; there were problems with the server at the time of review.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Roman town of Labitolosa, Spain. Through a series of illustrated articles, this resource summarises the discoveries made on the site, and the main monuments found there. In order to understand the articles, it is necessary to have some prior knowledge of the typical layout of a Roman town, so this may not be an ideal resource for absolute beginners. A bibliography and a small 'diaporama' (gallery of pictures) are also included.
This is the official website of Eugenia Salza Prina Ricotti, an Italian architect who has published several popular articles and books on Roman archaeology. The website is easy to navigate and available both in Italian and English, but the Italian version includes more material. There is a short biography and several articles that may be of particular interest to students. The articles focus on: toys; fish (including the garum sauce) and pools; the Goths; the women of Mark Anthony (Marcus Antonius), Julius Caesar, and Octavian Augustus; Leptis Magna and Roman north Africa; Roman food and banquets; Villa Adriana (Hadrian's Villa); Egyptian, Greek, Persian and Roman gardens; the villa at Laurentinum of Pliny the Younger; architects in the classical world and Egypt. Some articles also contain a few illustrations. The most interesting articles are those on Villa Adriana, Leptis Magna and the gardens, where the field research carried out by the author is most evident. This website would be valuable to students of ancient Rome.
This is the official website of a Spanish research project, promoted by the Fundación de Estudios Romanos, aiming to create a network of European museums of Roman antiquities. The website presents articles about the Roman Empire, focussing particularly on its origins and territories. There are also a series of illustrated articles about several European Roman towns, each written by staff of the respective museum. There are also illustrated articles on the museums themselves, and descriptions of their most important displayed artefacts. Among the towns included in the project and website are: Toulouse (Tolosa); Arles (Arelate); Bath (Aquae Sulis); Köln (Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium); Constanza (Tomis); Roma; Coimbra (Conimbriga); Córdoba (Colonia Patricia Corduba); Tarragona (Colonia Urbs Triumphalis Tarraconensis) and Mérida (Colonia Augusta Emerita). This site can be a useful introduction for students to what were the vast and diverse territories of the Roman Empire.
Europeana is a European Commission funded web portal which is building a virtual European library offering free access to Europe's cultural resources. Multiple languages are available. It is organised as a giant database of cultural artefacts, typically presenting a (low quality) picture and some metadata for each record and redirecting to other websites to access digital resources. It searches millions of texts (manuscripts, papers, ebooks), images (photographs, maps), films (moving images, videos, film clips, television broadcasts) and sounds from Europe's main research libraries, archives and galleries. Among the institutions involved in supplying data are the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the British Library in London and the Louvre in Paris. It is possible to search the website by subject keyword, or browse by date, language and theme. Europeana is growing and despite the impressive number of records at the time of review, it could multiply several times that number in the near future given the size of the European heritage. Some areas (e.g. British archaeology) are better represented in the database than others. After registering for free it is possible to tag records and save searches and records on a personal page. Given the scope of the project, anyone may find useful resources searching Europeana, even if only a tiny minority of European heritage is represented.
Mount Testaccio, to the south of Rome, is an artificial hill located on the left bank of the river Tiber. Originally the site was used as a rubbish dump where amphorae coming from the provinces of the Roman Empire were deposited. Many of the amphorae still bear their stamps and painted inscriptions which reveal place of manufacture and the amphora tare and content. The personal names of traders and transporters can often also be deduced. This data makes Mount Testaccio the largest economic archive in the Roman Empire. A joint team from the Universities of Madrid and Barcelona collaborating with the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra of the University of Rome have carried out excavations on Mount Testaccio and this website presents the results arising from their finds. The website was established in conjunction with an exhibition mounted in Rome in January 1997. Photographs of the exhibits on show are present. A section of the site is dedicated to the history and changes Mount Testaccio has seen over the centuries. Some of the English translations available appear to be a little patchy but are comprehensible.
"The False-Door : dissolution and becoming in Roman wall-painting" website is the online publication of an ongoing research on Roman wall-painting, focusing on the motif of the false-door in Campanian sites such as Pompeii and Herculaneum. The illustrated website reconsiders Gilbert Picard's thesis that the false-door imagery represents the entrance to the tomb or the underworld. The false-door motif is therefore analysed to test this view, suggesting that the house was seen by ancient Romans as sanctuary where the spirits of the ancestors (Manes) met the gods and spirits protecting the household (Penati and Lares). The study concentrates on the symbolism of the representations taking also a phenomenological point of view in consideration.
The false-doors have been considered in recent literature as sophisticated, perspective-aware decorations following the conventions of Pompeian styles (the first style includes sober representations of false-walls; the second style extended the real architecture by depicting architectural features that affected the visual perception of space; the third style involved some scenes). From a strict evolutionary perspective of art, false-doors just represent the second degree of complexity. Such a view is unsatisfactory because over-simplistic; the town of Pompeii had all three styles in use at the time of its destruction (79 AD) and it is unlikely that all three styles emerged within a short period of time in that area as the skills of a few artists improved. Interpretations such as the one proposed on this website are therefore welcome, but readers must be aware that it is a working hypothesis aimed at researchers and advanced students; undergraduates should not use this website for their general assignments on Roman art.
FASTI online is a database of European excavations since 2000 and is published by the International Association for Classical Archaeology (AIAC), with funding from the Packard Humanities Institute (PHI). In addition, the free and full-text FOLD&R (Fasti On Line Documents & Research) journal is available; at the time of review all published papers (in PDF format) focus on Roman Italy (mostly focus on Rome itself) and were mainly in Italian. The referenced and illustrated (with maps and colour pictures) papers are in fact preliminary or full reports of recent excavations carried out in Italy, or reports of scientific analyses and studies. Each paper, being a report of an excavation, is linked to a record in the main database, FASTI, accessible by clicking on "scheda".
It is possible to explore excavation sites by using interactive maps in the main section of the database or by searching for keywords. It is also possible to browse the data by region, periods and excavation status. Each record provides some basic information, a very short summary of one or more seasons of excavation, and a minimalist bibliography. This website has potential to become useful for all archaeologists, though it is currently useful primarily to researchers in Classical archaeology for checking the existence of current or recent excavations.
This website describes the AHRC-funded work being undertaken to make the University of Nottingham’s Felix Oswald Samian Collection more accessible to scholars. The collection was established by pioneering Roman pottery researcher Felix Oswald and is based on excavations at Margidunum (Nottinghamshire) and acquisitions from French antiquarian Albert-Edward Plicque. The project aims to increase visibility of the project through digitisation (based on rubbings to ensure accuracy) and a full re-analysis of the collection. This re-analysis will identify “each specimen-form, fabric, decoration and stamp and full quantification” and link potters’ stamps and signatures to the Leeds Index of Potters stamps. The project will also use suitable sherds to create an online fabric series. One of the most important outcomes of the project will be a fully searchable online database, and a demonstrator is available here.
This is the website of the Italian National Photographic Archive, part of the Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la Documentazione (Central Institute for Cataloguing and Documentation, ICCD). The archive contains documents related to the historical, artistic, archaeological, architectural, landscape and folkloristic heritage of Italy. Founded in 1892, the archive also offers a wide range of material on historical photography and the documentation of the most important aspects of contemporary Italian society and culture. The archive holds over 50,000 black and white images coming from various collections, and about 20,000 colour photographs. The interface is both in English and Italian, but the most useful way to access the collection, by searching for keyword among pictured objects and monuments, is available only by selecting "archivio" and then "schede oggetti" in the Italian version. Among the historical collections it is possible to find photographs by: Ludovico Tuminello; Giacomo Caneva; John Henry Parker; Francesco Chigi; Francesco Paolo Michetti; Luciano Morpurgo; and others.
The archive also contains images from the Casa Savoia collections, representing public and private events of the life of Umberto I's and Vittorio Emanuele III's families. There are numerous photographs of archaeological artefacts conserved in Italian museums and ancient architectural monuments. The archive publishes interactive CD-ROMs such as "archeologia a Roma tra il 1870 e 1930", which contains all photographic material on early archaeological excavations at Rome. CDs and high resolution photographs can be purchased through the online shop; all photographs are available for free at lower resolution and are accompanied by extensive captions in a tabular format.
The Frankfurter elektronische Rundschau zur Altertumskunde (FeRA) is an electronic journal that publishes papers and reviews in German primarily by younger authors. The journal focuses on Greek and Roman Classical archaeology with topics such as Roman ceramics with painted birds; the Odeion of Pericles in Athens; the lighthouse of Pharos; the cult of Vulcanus at Ostia; frescoes at Municipium Claudium Virunum; and Callimachus' Hymn to Apollo. Most papers are written in German, with a few written in English and Italian. Contributions are welcome especially from young scholars. This website may be useful primarily to researchers.
The Friends of Herculaneum Society website details the activities of the Society as well as news and updates on current research about the Roman town of Herculaneum. The Society publishes an illustrated newsletter, available on the site in PDF. The newsletter contains short research articles on the current excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum as well as reports on progress relating to the digitisation and reading of the papyri from the Villa dei Papiri. Articles in recent issues include: an introduction to the Society and its aims; "Out of the Ashes" (on digitally imaging the Herculaneum Papyri); reviews; "Deconstructing Herculaneum" (on the excavation and reconstruction of the site), "Brought to Light" (new images from Herculaneum and Monte Soma), "Il Porcino - Our Mascot?"; an updated account of the Herculaneum Archive; "Mapping the Villa of the Papyri"; "Herculaneum in the History of Art Criticism"; and others. Another notable section focuses on the papyri found at the Villa dei Papiri, Herculaneum. It contains a bibliography of ancient texts recovered from the papyri, including Epicurean philosophers and epigrams by Philodemus, and derived research texts. The most important section is an indexed collection of the copies of some papyri made between 1802 and 1806. Many of these papyri have been destroyed in the attempt to copy them, and therefore copies are all that remain. Other sections present related events in Oxford and across the world and provide information on joining the Society.
This website presents research on the geography of Roman Gaul, in particular on the south-west of the region, by Ralph Mathisen of the University of South Carolina. Locations are listed alphabetically, by ancient Roman province and modern Department, and by site type (such as settlements, sanctuaries, cemeteries, mines and quarries, bridges, aqueducts and roads etc), stages on ancient route maps such as the Antonine Itinerary, the Bordeaux Pilgrim and the Peutinger Table. Full bibliographic citations of each site are also provided. The site was last updated in 2002 and lacks a map of the region which reduces its utility to less experienced learners such as undergraduates, though this resource will benefit more knowledgeable researchers in the field of ancient history and classical archaeology.
From the University of Pennsylvania's Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, this website looks at various aspects of glass manufacture over the six centuries in which Rome dominated the Mediterranean world. The site is easy to navigate and illustrated throughout with images of ancient glassware. Themes which are highlighted are: the origins of glassmaking and glassworking; colouration; mosaic ware; colourless glass; the role of slaves in glassmaking; and the weathering of glass. Each page gives only a very short summary of the topic but is fully referenced with bibliographies of modern works on the topics explored; this will enable those who are interested in the subject to pursue further research.
This Web page provides users with free access to an add-on 'layer' for use in the free Google Earth software. Loading this layer inside Google Earth gives users a... "free accurate model of Ancient Rome in the year 320 A.D. The model contains 3D terrain contours and 6,700 3D buildings". A relatively powerful modern PC is required to run the Ancient Rome layer inside Google Earth. The 3D models are... "based on a physical model of the city called the... 'Plastico di Roma Antica' created by archaeologists and model-makers from 1933 to 1974 and housed in a special gallery in the Museum of Roman Civilization in Rome. 3D digital models were created based on scans of the physical model." Buildings are labelled, and two hundred of the most important buildings are modelled with a high level of historically-accurate detail. Users can enter the interior of selected buildings. Users can zoom in, tilt, and create "fly-through" videos of the model using either Google Earth's 'Pro' version or the basic version of Google Earth and free third-party video-capture tools such as FRAPS. This 3D city model will be an important resource for understanding the scope and nature of Ancient Rome's topography and urban structure. It also acts as an exemplar for the authentic online recreation of historic cities in 3D via personal computers. The Web page is available in a wide variety of languages other than English.
"Grand" is a website about the Gallo-Roman Sanctuary site at Grand, located in the North-West of France in the Vosges Department, which was first excavated in the early 19th century, when the substantial amphitheatre attracted scholarly interests. Later excavations, during the late 19th and 20th centuries, helped uncover and record the amphitheatre, the sanctuary's ramparts and several large, very well-preserved mosaics. The sanctuary's lack of water supply, in a region where drought was common, was puzzling until the discovery of over 300 wells, connected by a 15km long complex of underground galleries for running water, sometimes at a depth of over 12 metres. The website provides a description of the archaeological site itself, rather than the separate excavations undertaken. Photographic images coupled with hand-drawn reconstructions provide support to the text.
This online resource is designed to introduce undergraduate students to science and technology in ancient Greece and Rome. The resource features: an alphabetical 'Who's who' giving brief biographical details for key individuals; information about important inventions and technical innovations; and a chronological table putting scientific developments into their wider historical context. There is also a section which deals with specifice scientific subjects. This covers the following: astronomy; biology and medicine; engineering; geography; mathematics; physics; mechanics; and engineering. An article on each topic gives an overview, with hyperlinks to other pages on the relevant personalities and inventions. The site is being developed by Dr Tracey Rihll as part of her undergraduate teaching and research programme at the University of Swansea and includes some student papers containing text and photos of some of the practical projects submitted by level 2 students on her technology and engineering module. There are also links to external sites which provide online versions of relevant ancient texts.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Greek and Roman antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on the Greek, Etruscan, Roman and Byzantine civilisations as well as several pages on individual objects from the collections of the museum (about 250 at the time of review). There is a map and a timeline. The presentations of individual objects are highly recommended as many are masterpieces of art. Most objects have artistic value and are described and interpreted in detail. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long).
This website is a draft publication of the Project Troia (current excavations at Troy) and it publishes a catalogue of Greek, Roman and Byzantine pottery. For each class of materials there is a short description of the vessels found with drawings or colour pictures. Among the classes of pottery included are the Attic Red-Figure and Attic Black-Glaze wares; lamps; “Pale Porous” ware; Terra Sigillata wares; Knidian Relief Ware; Roman Lead Glaze and Red Slip wares; Pompeian-Red Ware; Byzantine Glazed wares; cooking and coarse vessels. It is possible to download the entire catalogue as a single PDF file or a TAR archive. An extensive bibliography is available. This website is a pre-print version; a special draft edition can be downloaded for free or a printed copy of the edition may be purchased by clicking on "purchase printed version". This website may be useful to researchers interested in Greek, Roman and Byzantine ceramics or Troy.
This website publishes the free and full-text Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft journal that focuses on Classical archaeology, literature, and philosophy with several papers on religion, cult and rituals. The individual papers are available in PDF format and are mostly in German, but there are also a few in Italian. The journal also publishes numerous reviews of books, which can be found alongside the papers. There is a full-text search form that returns as results the list of PDF files in which the searched keyword appears. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list to be notified of new issues. Researchers in particular will find this journal useful.
This site provides an attractively illustrated introduction to the coins and measures of Judaea from early times until the crusader period with historical background and a useful basic bibliography. Before the adoption of Greek and, later, Persian coins (or 'darics') in the 7th-4th centuries BC, a sophisticated system of inscribed weights, based on the unit of the Shekel, was used in Jewish areas. The first Judaean issues proper were not struck until the 4th century BC under Persian and Seleucid licence and were based on the widely used Athenian owls or Persian modes. The Seleucid Antiochus VII also struck hybrid Syrian-Jewish issues in the later 2nd century. The first properly 'Jewish' coins, with Hebrew inscriptions and lacking the portrait heads of earlier issues for religious reasons, did not appear until the time of John Hyrcanus (135-104 BC) and his successors when Judaea became fully independent. The series of coins from the reign of the Herodian dynasty and the Roman conquest down to the Late Empire and Byzantine period provide a fascinating potted history of Judaea as well as important insights on economic and iconographic matters. There is also a short section on the revival of coins of Israel in the 20th century, both in the Mandate period and after independence in 1948. The resource is part of the Jewish History Ring published by Amuseum.org (The Jewish Museum in Cyberspace) and associated with the American Jewish Historical Society. It is a useful complementary source for students of ancient history and archaeology working in the East Mediterranean or those studying general numismatics as well as an attractive introduction for the interested amateur.
This website published by the library of the University of Heidelberg contains a significant number of free and full-text e-books on archaeology; Egyptology; and modern languages literature. It is possible to access digitised manuscripts (Bibliotheca Palatina; Codices Salemitani; and Heidelberger Handschriften) as well as documents and books on the region of Heidelberg; incunabula; documents about the university of Heidelberg; geological writings; art history books (especially nineteenth century European art); archaeology (Minoan, Mycenaeans, Greeks, Romans, Etruscans, iconography, pottery) and Egyptology books; literature of South Asia; World War I archival documents; and other special documents preserved at the university. It is possible to search or browse through the documents and books, mostly written in German. Among the texts are the full-text edition of Arthur J. Evans' "The Palace of Minos" and other works by Evans; works by Adolf Furtwängler, Bernard de Montfaucon, Heinrich Schliemann, William M. Flinders Petrie, and John Ward; and Matthew A. Sherring's "The sacred city of the Hindus: an account of Benares in ancient and modern times". The list of available books is increasing. Since fundamental works of archaeology in the public domain can be accessed through this website, archaeologists at all stages may find this website useful.
"Hispania Epigraphica" is an online database publishing Roman inscriptions from Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal). For each inscription there is a picture; the transcription of the Latin text and the translation in Spanish. The database is searchable. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The 'Horace's Villa' website is the home page of a project that undertook the excavations of a Roman villa near Licenza, in the Lazio region of Italy. The villa is believed to be that of Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus, 65BC - 8BC), the prominent writer of lyric and satiric poetry in the 'Golden Age' of Roman literature under the Emperor Augustus. Through institutional sponsorship from the American Academy in Rome, University of California - Los Angeles, and the Archaeological Superintendence for Lazio of the Italian Ministry of Culture, the project ran from 1997 to 2001. Thought to be the only known, accessible dwelling of a writer of the Augustan Age, the villa features repeatedly in the writings of Horace. The project, under the directorship of Professor Bernard Frischer of the University of California, Los Angeles, accomplished most of its initial objectives, which included establishing the property lines of the villa and the ancient access road from the Via Licinese, and planning the existing structures and re-examining the different construction phases of the structure (including medieval land-use). Available on the website is an overview of the project aims and objectives, accompanied by a substantial review of its findings, including several illustrations. However, a major portion of the website is dedicated to an online 'Study Centre', providing samples of Horace's poetry, detailed examinations of the villa, maps, images, QTVR panoramas, video clips, and a virtual museum presenting many of the finds recovered. A links page and a bibliography are also available.
The House of Ptolemy is a resource guide, intended as a study aid and to provide bibliographical material for students of Greco-Roman Egypt. The main focus of the site, as its name suggests, is the period of the Ptolemaic kings (331 BCE - 30 BCE), descendants of Macedonian Greeks. There are also compendious sections on Roman, Byzantine and modern Egypt. Within these periods, links are arranged by theme into sets and subsets, in a fashion that is generally clear and efficient. Topics covered include: historical overviews; Ptolemaic numismatics; Ptolemaic genealogy and king lists; the transition to Roman provincial Egypt; the city of Alexandria; the culture of Ptolemaic Egypt; the Ptolemaic empire outside Egypt; the Jews of Egypt. Most of the links are presented with a comment from the site's author: this is a personal list, not a faculty or institutional webpage. The selection of items is therefore prone to subjectivity and its completeness cannot be guaranteed; furthermore, material of widely varying intellectual depth, rigour, and specialisation is included among the links. At the time of writing this review, the site was last updated in 2002 - this meant that some of the links were no longer functional. Nonetheless, there is a wealth of material here, well organised; the numerous awards garnered by the page indicate its worth. This site is a useful starting point for students.
This website provides extensive histories of Rome's founding, Kings, the Early and Late Republic, the Imperial era, the Decline, the Collapse, Constantinople, Religion, Society and the Army. Biographies of Emperors and famous Romans are provided. Also available is a list of Roman place names and their modern equivalents, a register of all major battles involving Roman (or Byzantine) forces and a timeline plotting the reigns of the Emperors. The texts are supported by many photograph galleries of Roman remains from throughout the Empire, while interactive maps are on hand to provide locational information about towns, provinces, tribal incursions and the extents of the Empire at different points in time. The website also includes a search engine, bulletin board, children's section, timelines and a site guide.
The National Institute of Research on Preventive Archaeology (INRAP) is a public research organization affiliated to the French Ministries of Culture and Research. The Institute carries out evaluations and excavations of threatened archaeological sites and then publishes the results, partly on this website. The site makes available the publication "La France archéologique" with some illustrations and interviews in PDF and MPEG video format. There is a section presenting recent news and another focusing on recent discoveries. The section about preventive archaeology in particular features definitions of the terms and some illustrated case studies. The section about the excavation sites contains a searchable form and directly accessible sections of a database of all the excavations carried out by the institute. For each record and site a short description, the geographic location, any published picture and information on the excavation and publication are provided. The website also includes a section on French legislation on archaeological matters and a glossary. The English version of this website features only a limited amount of the original contents. This website is a key resource for recent discoveries in France, as most of the archaeological research in France is carried out under the control of this public institute. Researchers may benefit from all sections of this website, while students are likely to find the section about discoveries to be the most interesting.
This website, forming part of the French Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives, presents some of the recent archaeological discoveries in France. These include: a 4,500 year old burial site at Crès site, Béziers; eight shipwrecks at Lyon; a Gallo-Roman cemetery at Autun; and the "doline" of Cantalouette, where artefacts from the Acheulian to the Bronze Age have been found. The section focusing on the burial site at Crès site illustrates the funerary rituals in the area and also features a related research paper in PDF format. The section on Autun concentrates on Gallo-Roman stelae and burials. The section on the eight shipwrecks found at Lyon presents six Gallo-Roman ships, a medieval pirogue and a modern boat. The section about the doline includes a timeline. This website uses Flash animations, Quicktime VR movies and contains galleries of pictures and PDF files. An English version of this website is available by accessing the root of the website, but contains fewer sections.
This is the official website of the Institute for Research on and Valorisation [i.e. dissemination of research results] of Transylvanian Cultural Heritage in a European Context. It publishes online a free full-text journal, 'Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis', which contains articles in Romanian and English on the archaeology of Transylvania (known in antiquity as Dacia), without any chronological restrictions. Guidelines for submitting work to the journal are available. The most interesting section of the site is the 'Bibliotheca Septemcastrensis', where free full-text books printed by the institute are available online. Most of the books are in Romanian; a few are in German. Among the subjects covered are: inter-ethnical relationships in Transylvania between the 6th and 13th century AD; rural landscape in Roman Dacia; and the Böhmerberg. Also offered are an encyclopaedic series on archaeological sites in the region, and monographs on Roşcani. Some volumes contain illustrations (drawings and colour pictures). It is possible to perform full-text searches of texts published anywhere on this website. Information on the institute and its academic courses, staff, and research activities is provided in separate sections. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The website "The Iuvanum Survey Project" describes an archaeological excavation conducted jointly by the University of Oxford, Oberlin College, Ohio, and the Abruzzo Archaeological Superintendent, Italy. Excavations at the Roman 'municipium' of Iuvanum have revealed a pair of temples, a theatre and a substantial forum complex. In the early medieval period, however, the site was abandoned. This excavation concentrates on the area around the city, to ascertain its use agriculturally. The project aims to discover settlement patterns and their relationship to the identities of those living in the area over time. The distribution of ritual space is also investigated. The website provides a brief description of the project and its aims, as well as the project team. It is part of a larger survey of the Sangro Valley. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board within the Research Grants scheme.
The "Janiculum Mills Excavations" website publishes the results of a field project targeting Roman water-mills on the Janiculum Hill, Rome. The project run between 1998 and 2000. In addition to illustrated preliminary reports, there are pages on the "Aqua Traiana" and the mill structure. Students in particular may find this website useful.
This website publishes an academic peer-reviewed journal, "Journal of Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Archaeology" (JIIA), and "Archaeological Disciplinary Repository" (ADR), an online repository of papers and theses written in English, French or Italian. Access to the papers of the journal is via the MyOPIA repository or the old website of the journal; surprisingly the indexes do not have direct hyperlinks to the papers. The journal has published papers on Classical archaeology and epigraphy (e.g. "Per un nuovo corpus dei decreta decurionum delle cittí romane d'Italia e delle province occidentali" by Parma); archaeological sciences (e.g. papers on obsidian provenance by Oddone); archaeological theory and semiotics (e.g. "Archeologia come 'Semiotica della realtí materiale'" by Sirigu); science in antiquity (e.g. "Problemi di secondo grado nella matematica antica" by Bagni); landscape archaeology (e.g. landscapes of warfare analysed by De Guio) and others. The eprint repository contains pre-print papers, chapters of books and theses (e.g. Palaeolithic lithics in France and Bell Beaker culture in France). The vast majority of papers focus on archaeozoology. The latest additions do not appear in the main list, so it might be a good idea to check any available list. Papers and theses are spread all over the website in different servers with different interfaces and this may cause difficulties in finding the papers; the search engine is confused too and returns results from the main server only. In spite of this, the website publishes many interesting papers and theses and it is worth "digging".
The University of Michigan sponsored excavations at Karanis (in Egypt) from 1926 to 1935. On this web-site there are images of some of the artefacts which were discovered from these excavations, including coins, sculptures, wall-paintings, houses, glassware and other containers. There are no papyri on this site.The stated aim of this site is to, "increase students' understanding of these pieces and of the site [of Karanis] generally by giving them online access to material as well as more contextual information." This will be of particular interest to students of archaeology, but it may also be useful for historians. Crucially, however, there are no commentaries accompanying the images, which limits the usefulness of this site.
This website details excavations taking place in Crete close to modern-day Heraklion. Past research at Knossos has tended to focus upon the Bronze Age Minoan Palace of Minos, first excavated almost 100 years ago, and its immediate area. The Knossos 2000 project, initiated in 1993, is the first research to focus primarily upon the surrounding settlement that flourished until the end of the Roman period, Colonia Julia Nobilis. Evidence indicates settlement from the Middle Bronze Age (contemporary with the first palace at Knossos, c. 2000 BC) through to the Christian and Byzantine periods of the 4th to the 8th centuries AD. The website provides an excavation report detailing the principal finds and discoveries, and is supported by many images and photographs.
This wide-ranging and attractively produced website, 'Underwater archeology', available in French, English and Arabic, provides an illustrated introduction to the history, methods and major discoveries of underwater explorers, particularly those carried out by the research teams of DRASSM, the Départment des recherches archéologiques subaquatics et sous-marines of the French Ministry of Culture. Underwater archaeology has had a long, though sporadic, history, from the time Roman divers salvaged the cargo of amphoras from a shipwreck in the first century BC to the development of the modern aqualung by Cousteau and Gagnan in 1943. The resource features: a historical chronicle of major developments in maritime archaeology particularly since the designs of Leonardo da Vinci followed by the practical attempts to construct artificial breathing apparatus in the 17th century; an outline of the principal methods of underwater prospection and excavation of wrecks together with notes about the conservation of submerged organic materials; a major survey of shipwrecks around the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of France (a sample of some 700 known) in addition to others sites in Malta, Gabon, Martinique and the Indian Ocean; an account of underwater archaeology in Egypt, in particular the spectacular rediscovery of the submerged parts of Alexandria and of the numerous Greek and Roman wrecks off the Egyptian coast. This notable didactic resource will benefit and improve both amateurs and professionals alike, especially undergraduate students of Mediterranean archaeology and history but also anyone interested in wider issues of world archaeology, trade routes, conservation of underwater finds and heritage issues related to shipwreck sites.
This website describes the "Laconia Rural Sites Project", a series of archaeological projects in Laconia, Greece. The focus of the investigations was to ascertain whether the sites were continuously inhabited or used merely as storage or semi-permanent residences during local agricultural cycles. Surface characteristics and soil were analysed to discover the nature of human activity on the sites from the early Helladic to the Byzantine period. The project organisers have employed an interdisciplinary approach to the project to learn how the rural sites functioned. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Leave scheme.
LacusCurtius : Into the Roman World is a significant online collection of a range of useful resources for students of Classics. The site features a Roman Gazetteer, which consists of a photographic guide to various Roman towns and monuments, along with descriptions of archaeological excavations and visitor information. Featured locations include, among others: Rome; Assisi; Ostia; Perugia; and Rimin. The site also hosts around 40 Latin texts by authors such as: Pliny the Elder; Isidore of Seville; Suetonius; Polybius; Quintilian; Celsus; Cato; Procopius; and Macrobius. Some texts are available in Latin, some English, and some in both Latin and English translation. Each text is introduced by the site editor, Bill Thayer, with information about the copy text used (often old Loeb editions now in the public domain) and editorial notes. Other significant online resources include a variety of public-domain reference works. These include a selection of entries from William Smith's 1875 'Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities' and Samuel Ball Platner's 'Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome'. Other resources include: a Roman atlas; a catalogue of Roman Umbria; a section on Latin inscriptions; and an online version of W. R. Lethaby's 'Tomb of Mausolus'. This is an impressive site both in terms of the quantity and quality of the materials it offers.
The "Laurentine Shore Project" website consists of two related parts: "Vicus Augustanus", which focuses on a Roman site just outside Rome; and "Rome's maritime façade", which focuses on the litus Laurentinum. Both projects focus on the area of Castelporziano, the countryside of ancient Rome. The projects are summarised on the entry pages and a few articles and preliminary reports can be found in the other sections, along with bibliographies. There are also maps; clicking on some pictures will enlarge them in a pop-up window. The projects are still ongoing and therefore the website will be most useful to researchers wishing to follow the discoveries. Some baths have been found in the area of the Vicus Augustanus, while the work elsewhere in the area had not unearthed or studied significant architectural structures at the time of review. Several surveys, including geophysical ones have been carried out in the area.
Lepcis Magna in the Tripolitania region of Libya is one of the best preserved and most significant Roman cities in Africa. A team of archaeologists have been conducting excavations at the site since 1994. Reports for the 1994 to 1997 excavation seasons can be downloaded from this website as PDF files or as MS Word documents. The city can be explored via a site plan that leads into a set of photographs with explanatory text. A directed tour of these photographs is also available. A 'virtual lecture', presented as a slide show with short captions, shows the results of the 1996 excavations. A 'kids zone' explains archaeological methods and provides a basic introduction to the site. This is a well-presented website, although unfortunately it does not appear to have been maintained or updated since 2001, and some of the promised exhibits seem to have become inaccessible since that time. This website may be useful primarily to undergraduate students.
The archaeological site of Entremont in the Aix-en-Provence region of southern France was one of the chief Celto-Ligurian oppida (or defended settlements) of ancient France whose population was in close contact first with the Greeks of Marseilles and the surrounding coast and later with the Romans who eventually conquered and colonised the area in the 120s BC. This attractively produced website provides, within a hypertext medium, a fascinating guide to the architecture, layout and material culture of the settlement, occupied in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, an account of its broader geographical and historical context and a discussion of contacts between the indigenous inhabitants of ancient France and the wider Mediterranean world. While the ancient authors regarded the native population (called variously Salyes, Salues or Salluvii) as fierce savages who repeatedly threatened the coastal settlers, the archaeology reveals a much more complicated picture of economic and cultural contact which resulted in the adoption of Mediterranean building techniques and lifestyle habits within native communities but which also resulted in the development of vigorous local traditions of cultural expression, most notably in the production of stone carvings for cultic use. The resource also features a valuable history of Celto-Ligurian studies which date back to the early 19th century. Other features include detailed timelines and interactive maps, a bibliography of relevant publications and an didactic archaeological game aimed at a younger school-aged audience (requires a flash plug-in). This resource, which is available in English and French versions, will interest a wide constituency and will benefit both the interested amateur as well as students and researchers of French and Mediterranean archaeology.
The Limesmuseum in Aalen is located on the site of the principal fort of the Upper German frontier in Baden-Würrtenburg, Germany and was home of the Ala II Flavia militaria cavalry unit. This online resource (in German) offers practical information on the museum and its programme of public activities together with an introduction to the history and culture of a major Roman frontier zone between the first and the fourth centuries A.D. Highlights of the website include a series of short articles on aspects of the Roman frontier by Phillip Filzinger and a short illustrated dissertation on Roman tools and instruments by Wolfgang Gaitzsch. The article on Roman cavalry officers and their equipment is accompanied by an animated reconstruction of a cavalry procession. In addition there are numerous close-up photographs of the scale models on display in the museum itself together and of objects to be seen in the museum. The resource also offers a guide to the publications of the museum since 1967 (the series Schriften des Limesmuseums Aaalen) including abstracts and further details of more recent books. This website will largely interest the more dedicated (and German-reading) student of the Roman army and of frontier studies in general but the attractive visuals may have a wider audience, for example, as resource material for school teachers.
This is an excellent resource offering articles on ancient history and archaeology together with an impressive library of photographic images of ancient sites which can be down-loaded for free for non-commercial use. The website is laid out geographically with sections on Greece, Persia, Anatolia, Carthage and Punic Sicily, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Judaea, Germania and Rome (as well a Dutch language resource on Dutch history) while the authoritative but very readable text has many cross links between them. There is no overall structure to individual sections: the Greek entries have a strong emphasis on Alexander the Great and his successors, on various authors such as Plutarch and Herodotos (including selections of extracted texts) and a series of short encyclopaedia-style entries on politicians, philosophers and literary figures. The Judaean passages discuss, for instance, Messianic claimants, the Diaspora and anti-Semitism in the ancient and mediaeval worlds, alongside more linear accounts of the Roman wars and potted biographies of leading Jewish figures. This website will benefit both students and teachers of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern world but the author makes the pointed observation that students must combine the use of electronic resources with proper library research for which the Web is not a substitute.
Over 1,500 colour as well as black and white photographs relating to ancient Greece and Rome taken by the author primarily teaching purposes have been scanned and published online. There are also some non-ancient photographic subjects that have been useful for teaching, such as a photograph of a medieval cathedral for comparison with Roman architecture or a few images of a modern street market in Naples. The site offers a link to a software (Macintosh only) written by the author for teachers of Latin. An internal search engine is also available. The collection can be browsed by subject: England; France; Greece; Italy - (Rome, the Pantheon, Sicily, Italy except Rome and Sicily); and special selections of images (including the Roman house, and some Virgilian sites [Vergil]). The images can be accessed directly or previewed in thumbnails. Information relating to copyright, author and date the photograph has been taken is provided for each image.
This is the website of the Manchester Museum, part of the University of Manchester, and a major public Museum in Manchester, UK. The Museum, with its origins in the 18th Century, encompasses a huge range of artefacts, specimens and objects (some 4.25 million) and includes important collections of anthropology; archaeology; archery; Egyptology; geology; human remains; natural history; numismatics; palaeontology. The website describes the collections in more detail (as well as showcasing highlights from them) and the museum's online catalogue can be searched. Further areas of interest include links to the Museum’s research (related to both its collections, practice and the institution’s own history), staff and extensive community outreach work. As a university museum, the Manchester Museum receives some core funding from the AHRC.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Dchar Jdid, Morocco. The site was founded as a Roman colony, then named Colonia Iulia Constantia Zilil. The colony is mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary and was located near the borders of the Roman Empire, in the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana. The website contains a map tracing the Antonine Itinerary in the province. There are also short illustrated articles about the site, including one on the identification of the colony. A couple of artistic objects are examined in some detail; the 'diaporama' (picture gallery) contains a number of images, including photos of artefacts and drawings of pottery. Another article summarises six centuries of history at the site, from the Roman period to the palaeo-Christian period. The article about the the mountain sanctuary describes a platform located inland, outside the Roman town, in a deserted area, and the excavators suggest that this is the temple of Mercury mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the nearest station. (This would be an exciting discovery, since it would help in tracing the route of the Itinerary towards the extreme southern borders of the Roman Empire, and identifying some of the remaining sites: the Antonine Itinerary reports that the main route split at Zilil between a costal route, which is fairly well known, and an inland route, of which little is known.) Interested researchers will find the contact details of the excavators and a bibliography in the section entitled 'Pour en savoir plus'.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Roman colonies of Volubilis, Thamusida, Banasa, and Lixus, in the province of Mauretania Tingitana. It includes illustrated articles on: the temple quarter of Lixus; Volubilis and its Carthaginian influences such as the tophet (place for depositing human remains) and the stelae (engraved stones); Banasa and its Roman forum; and Thamusida and its religious buildings. There is also a bibliography, and a gallery of pictures and plans. This website provides a useful overview of the province and its Mediterranean influences, aimed primarily at students.
This short webpage outlines the project "Material Connections: Mobility, Materiality and Mediterranean Identities" undertaken at the University of Glasgow under the joint direction by Peter van Dommelen, Bernard Knapp and Michael Rowlands. The project will investigate how materiality, migration, colonial encounters, and connectivity or insularity influence social identities and will focus on Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, Crete, Cyprus, the Balearics.
This website presents the work of the Canadian epigraphic mission at Xanthos and the nearby sanctuary of Letoon. The main goal of the mission is to find, photograph and report all epigraphic inscriptions of Hellenistic and Roman time in the region. A few short articles present the project; the final reports of each survey carried out since 2000 are available in sections "survey seasons" and "reports and publications" in PDF format; the reports are scans of the original papers published in "Anatolia Antiqua" and are available only in French. An extensive and updated bibliography is available in section "reports and publications". The "documentary data base" section contains the photographs of most of the inscriptions found; it is a work in progress with new data added as new inscriptions are found and studied. For each inscription there are a low resolution and a medium resolution picture; a short description of the stone and its context; dimensions; and publications. The inscriptions themselves are not available on this website, but most photographs are clear enough to be read by experienced epigraphists. The website publishes photographs of the original inscriptions as well as of "squeezes", impressions on paper of the inscriptions. There are also some simple colour maps of ancient Lycia and Xanthos, with all the excavated sectors emphasised. This website is an updated and useful complement to the publications on paper by the team and interested researchers should not overlook it.
This website publishes the preliminary reports of the recent excavations at Phoinike, near the modern town of Sarandë, Albania, by a team of Italian archaeologists at the University of Bologna. Phoinike was probably the capital of the koiní²n tí²n Epeirotí²n also known as Epirus. The excavations carried out since 2001 have concentrated on the basilica; theatre; thesaurí²s and some houses all dated to the Hellenistic and Roman periods. The website publishes illustrated texts and two galleries of pictures, one of the 1926-1927 excavations directed by L. M. Ugolini and one on modern Albania with photographs taken by P. Giorgi in Albania (some ethnographic and artistic photographs). There is a list of undergraduate and MA theses with indexes; news about the project; a list of publications by the current field team with indexes and contact details of the archaeologists involved in the fieldwork. This website may be useful especially to students; researchers may find some information on the latest findings.
This is the official website of the museum of Arles, France. It is an educational website which introduces the museum, its collections, and present and past exhibitions. The section about the collections includes short texts and several images for each period represented. Prehistory (Stone Age) and protohistory (Metals Age) are included, but most of the pages focus on the Roman period up until the late antiquity with thematic sub-sections on economy, mosaics and funerary rituals. Each sub-section is also divided into: a short presentation of the historical context; artefacts preserved at the museum; and other archaeological features from the area conserved elsewhere. Hovering the mouse arrow on highlighted keywords in any text will present a definition of terms or further information. In the section presenting temporary exhibitions, essential information and images accompany the descriptions. Past exhibitions have focused on: Algeria; Gaza; funerary rituals in Egypt; and Christianity in the Middle Ages. This website should prove useful to students.
This is the official website of the museum and excavations of Conimbriga, in northern Portugal. The website provides general information on the museum, archaeological site and history of the Franco-Portuguese excavations. It is possible to virtually visit both the museum and the excavations ("ruins") through a series of QuickTime VR panoramas. Each unearthed building is also presented in a collection of short articles containing maps of its position regarding the site, a plan, a photograph and a brief description. There is also a very useful and extensive glossary as well as a site map and a keyword search facility. This website is principally designed for the general public, but its neat presentation of the excavation area can be a useful reference also for students and researchers.
This is the official website of the museum of the Roman town of Tarraco (Tarragona, Spain). It contains information about the museum, its collections and past and present temporary exhibitions. The section focusing on Tarraco presents short texts and several colour pictures and maps of the local Roman monuments. There is also an illustrated section on Roman anthropomorphic lamps. The section about the many exhibitions includes extensive texts and several colour pictures on various topics, including: Tarraco and its relationship with water in antiquity; the Maya and the art of Mesoamerican civilisations; and various themes of Roman Tarragona such as the metals, virtual reconstructions and the exploration of Tarraco. The English version of this website includes only a limited selection of the available contents.
This is the official website of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, available in Turkish only. The website includes articles and photographs of the museum collections, including information on several archaeological sites. Several sections of this website are incomplete. At the time of the review the greatest value of the website was in the series of pictures available.
This website describes the University of Cambridge’s Museum of Classical Archaeology. Located within the Faculty of Classics (although open to the public) the Museum is formed from a collection of some 450 plaster casts of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, including many well known pieces, and is one of the few remaining of this (once common) type of study collection. Additionally, the Museum’s reserve research collection (consultation by appointment) includes a further 200 plaster casts, Greek vases, pottery sherds and epigraphic squeezes. Full lists of the casts and sherds are available in PDF documents, although a database is promised. The website explains the Collection’s history and highlights, such as The Peplos Kore a cast of an ancient Greek statue of a young girl which is as brightly painted as the original would have been when it was created. Other noted highlights include casts of the Lysikrates Monument, Sounion Kouros, Olympia Pediment and Farnese Heracles. The website also includes details of the museums services for schools and family activities. The museum is closed until spring 2010.
This website contains one final excavation report that summarises the work carried out at the Late Roman site of Nicopolis ad Istrum, Bulgaria, by Andrew Poulter. This is a short illustrated summary based on the final publication and will be useful especially to undergraduate students. One of the primary aims of the research was to explore the transition between the Late Roman and Early Byzantine periods (ca. 200-600 AD). The key finding was that the transition was all but smooth: a substantial change "in form, probably in economy, and certainly in function" that took place in the fifth century AD remains unexplained but at least evident in the archaeological record. The report outlines architecture, society and economy of the town before and after such transition.The project was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
Nordlist is an free full-text journal published by the University of Tromsø. There are papers on classical and modern literature; archaeology; and a variety of other topics that reflect the research carried out in that university. Papers are in Norwegian, German or English. Topics include community and place (e.g. the Americans and the Grand Canyon); dramatist John Webster; Anna Akhmatova, Leo Tolstoy and Russian literature; T. S. Eliot; rhetoric; Romanticism; Northern minorities (e.g. Sámi, Nenets, etc.); semiotics; Aksum stelae; Harold Pinter; narrative in Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre; Fridtjof Nansen; the Hellenistic Toledo krater; game boards in Iron Age Northern Europe; and others. A few papers are not accessible online and many are available in PDF format. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
'Numismatics' is a website created by an enthusiast with an interest in ancient coins: it features essays, images and weblinks relating to this topic. There are also digital reprints of classic numismatic works such as a complete illustrated edition of Barclay Head's 'Historia Numorum', first published in 1886 and one of the seminal works on Greek and Roman coinage. Also included are some 70 plates from Head's guide to the coin collection of the British Museum (with the preface to the 1895 edition) and some high resolution maps of ancient Greece. There is also a selection of plates from the British Museum's coin catalogue. The site author's own contributions include articles on the Greek alphabet, the coins of Apollonia Pontika and the Gorgon issues of Parion. These are not footnoted or referenced and lack detailed bibliographies but will interest amateurs and undergraduates who can use them alongside standard academic works on ancient numismatics. More experienced numismatists will find it a useful source of small but clear images for teaching purposes and quick reference.
This website is the official guide of the Greek Ministry of Culture to the museums, historical buildings and monuments, and archaeological sites of Greece. It offers a comprehensive and illustrated overview of around 1000 heritage sites in the care of the Greek government and combines concise information on the historical and artistic attractions of each site or museum together with practical information on opening times, contact details and management responsibility. The information can be accessed in two principal ways, either via a clickable cultural map of Greece or else in the form of searchable A-Z lists of the relevant sites and institutions. The latter constitute an attractive and easily accessible mini reference guide to historic sites in Greece. Most of the featured sites and museums offer thumb-nail images which can be also viewed at a larger scale. The resource also provides a guide to the many bodies, both Greek and foreign, which are responsible for archaeology and heritage management in Greece together with information on relevant education programmes and recent exhibitions in Greece and abroad. Some of the relevant links are still under construction. Links to the parent website of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture provide a wider view of cultural institutions in Greece.
The website is also available in a Greek language version.This resource will have a wide audience in academic world and will be particularly useful for those planning a study tour, research trip or field project in Greece in addition to appealing to the interested amateur.
Odyssey Online is an interesting and attractively packaged set of learning resources for archaeology, aimed at American Elementary and Middle School students and their teachers. It is a collaborative project between the Michael C. Carlos Museum of Emory University, the Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester, and the Dallas Museum of Art. The learning resources are chiefly focused on the use of objects and archaeological contexts to learn about the past, with particular emphasis on Egypt and the Near East, Greece and Rome, and 19th-20th century Africa. The user-friendly student section is arranged thematically and covers a wide range of topics: People, mythology, daily life, death and burial, writing, rituals and ceremonies, and archaeology. Much of the resource is devoted to encouraging students to develop their own interests and skills in the form of class displays and presentations. The teacher resources include a lesson library, ideas for class activities and details of books and websites for further research in ancient cultures. Acrobat Reader 4, QuickTime 4 and Shockwave 8 are required for some of the site features but these can be downloaded for free from this site.Although Odyssey Online is designed for an American school syllabus, the website will also benefit British school teachers and their students as it offers useful didactic advice to anyone teaching archaeology to younger children as well as providing insights into how the subject is taught in the United States.
This detailed website is devoted to the study of Ostia, the principal harbour of Imperial Rome. Detailed plans and descriptions are given for 52 of the buildings of Ostia Antica, and there are many photographs of the sites as they look now. Another section describes the history of the excavations, with links to other excavation reports available on the Internet. An extensive section on current research provides up-to-date scholarly reports, and there are also summaries of recent colloquia. Reference materials include an extensive but non-annotated bibliography, maps, plans, topographical indexes, and 3D models available only as pictures. A further section provides ancient textual sources of information on Ostia. Texts include passages from classical historians, inscriptions, and graffiti found on the buildings. Another section provides information on the relationship between Rome and Ostia and the significance of the town on the Tiber. This includes more general material on Mediterranean harbours and maritime history. The website also provides links to various other sites connected with the Soprintendenza of Ostia, Rome and Roman archaeology.
The Oxford Roman Economy Project is a research project funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and based in the Faculty of Classics, University of Oxford that focuses on the major economic activities underpinning the economy of the Roman Empire. Among the researched activities are wine and olive oil production and trade; fish salting and mining. The website publishes news and events; conference announcements; a few working papers; some very useful bibliographies; and an interactive map plotting the location of recent expeditions by team members in Egypt. At the time of review the most useful parts were the bibliographies and conference announcements, but further contents will published as the project progresses. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This website focuses on the Roman gold mine park of Bessa, northern Italy. It includes geomorphological, historical and archaeological information of the mine and the rock art found in the area (including an anthropomorphic stelae). Among the pictures are also aerial photos. There is also a bibliography and practical information to visit the park. Most of the website can be downloaded as a series of PDF documents from the "stampa" section. Although written in English and French as well as Italian, the most complete version appears to be in Italian. Broken links or Italian pages appear navigating using non-Italian versions, and the PDFs are only available in Italian. Some PDF documents also refused to open properly with Acrobat, but they were fine with Ghostscript. Despite some drawbacks in the English version, most contents are indeed accessible in English and while researchers may want to use the Italian version, students will be just fine with the English one.
This website focuses on ancient Parthia and is aimed primarily at students. Parthian history is almost unknown until 53 BC, when the Parthians defeated the Roman legions that attempted the conquest of Persia. the struggle for power in Persia between Rome and Parthia continues until 224 AD, when the Sasanid Empire replaces Parthia, and continues thereafter. The Parthians were the only people who stopped the Roman expansion by repeatedly defeating Roman legions, though they also suffered several defeats themselves. There is copious historical and geographical information on the website with maps, chronological tables and some illustrations. In particular, all main historical events and locations are clearly outlined. A very interesting section focuses on Parthian coins, with tables of inscriptions and photographs. There are also some statistical analyses produced on the whole database. The author is also developing a special font, which can be downloaded along with other fonts designed for the study of ancient coins. References for all coins are provided. Photographs and details of coins sold at recent auctions are also available. This section has been authored by several people, some amateur and some academic archaeologists, and may interest researchers. There are also some pages with basic information about the art and culture of Parthia with hyperlinks to other resources. The website also includes a special section publishing the results of the ongoing archaeological excavations at Nisa. There is a search facility; an incomplete site map; a mailing list; a list of recent additions to the website; and an extensive bibliography.
The art and archaeology browser is a tool provided by the Perseus website which allows the user to find archaeological objects from ancient Greece and the Roman empire featuring in Perseus' extensive online collection of text and images. The initial search page allows the user to select object type, and is divided into the following categories: architecture; coins; gems; sculpture; sites; and vases. Each section is then divided into further sub-categories in order to help the user to narrow their search for a particular object (for example, if looking for a building in the architecture category one may search by site, building, period, architect or type). Entries for each object give a brief summary with links to other pages of Perseus which can provide further detail. These include images and secondary source material which refer to the selected object. This will be a useful reference tool and starting point for those seeking information on specific ancient archaeological sites and artefacts.
The Perseus Project is a large digital library of online texts and images for the study of ancient Greece and Rome. The resources available via Perseus are extensive, including the following: primary texts (in the original ancient Greek and Latin languages as well as English translation); secondary texts relating to various aspects of the ancient world; a set of linguistic tools; and a number of large databases relating to the study of ancient archaeological sites and artefacts. The art and archaeology section of the website offers a searchable collection of art objects, sites and buildings, with descriptions and images drawn from museums worldwide. It includes architecture, sculpture, coins and vases, and provides access to supporting tools such as atlases and encyclopaedias. The study of the classical world via Perseus is further enhanced by: an interactive atlas; an extensive encyclopaedia with embedded cross-references; and a series of overview articles. The site also offers several further collections of primary and secondary texts: papyri (from the Ptolematic and Roman periods); English Renaissance texts (including all of Marlowe's works, a facsimile of the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays and other resources); London (atlas from 1780 to the present, texts about London, photographs and other materials); books on California and the Upper Midwest from the Library of Congress American Memory Collection; and documents on the history of Tufts University. Mirror sites are available in Berlin and Chicago.
This online encyclopaedia from the Perseus digital library is a comprehensive reference source for a vast range of aspects of the classical world. Via the encyclopaedia's table of contents the user is able to click on the first letter of the term for which they are searching and then browse through entries beginning with that letter. Alternatively they may type in a search term. The breadth of information here to some extent defies summary, but among other things the following are included: key individuals (authors and statesmen, for example); important sites throughout the Greek and Roman world; mythology and religion; art and architecture; historical events; literary works. Each encyclopaedia entry provides hyperlinks to relevant resources in the Perseus library, including cross references to other articles in the encyclopaedia and direct links to primary and secondary sources as well as to any related images. The encyclopaedia is an excellent starting-point for those seeking information on classical topics.
This Web resource accompanies Penelope Allison's 2003 book 'Pompeian households: An analysis of the material culture' (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Monograph 42) and provides a valuable description and analysis of the form, function and decoration of 30 atrium houses found in Pompeii, together with an extensive database of their artefactual contents. Published by the Stoa Consortium, this website will benefit students and researchers of Roman history and archaeology as well as those interested in the history of domestic interiors and the anthropology of space. The houses analysed here were excavated between 1826 and 1978 so the level of documentation varies tremendously. Many of the objects from older exploration lack contextual or stratigraphical information but Allison's careful analysis of the scientifically excavated houses provides a framework for understanding the masses of material which cannot be assigned a definite findspot. Each house is described room by room in terms of function, decoration and architectural layout (with plans and photographs). The houses are also placed within the wider urban context of Pompeii and readers with SVG graphics can browse an interactive map of the town which links with the main catalogue of houses. Earlier scholarly interpretations are also discussed in the light or more recent understanding of the archaeology of the town. The site also provides an extensive glossary and bibliography as well as help in using the resource and its database.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Roman villa of Torre de Palma, Portugal. The villa has yielded magnificent mosaics, featuring subjects such as horses and the muses. The website includes concise illustrated articles, a bibliography, a map, and a gallery of gorgeous pictures in the 'diaporama' section. The articles are hyperlinked to a glossary, and there is a separate page for notes. Anybody interested in Roman mosaics will find this website useful.
This website publishes information and preliminary reports on the archaeological excavations of the ancient site of Portus (Fiumicino), one of the harbours of ancient Rome. The Portus Project is a research initiative between the University of Southampton; the British School at Rome; the University of Cambridge; and the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici di Ostia and it has been funded in part by the AHRC. The website details the objectives of the research and the planned surveys. The research will focus on the pre-Trajanic port, the important port constructed under Emperor Trajan and the Late Antique harbour. Some maps, illustrations and 3D reconstructions (just as pictures) are also available, and there is a separate gallery of pictures. An updated bibliography is also available. Students interested on the harbours of ancient Rome as well as researchers may find this website useful.
"Potsherd" publishes an Atlas of Roman pottery and some additional data in support of Paul Tyers' book "Roman Pottery in Britain". The Atlas is an ambitious project and is far from completion, but it provides a fair introduction to some classes of Roman pottery, such as amphoras; coarse wares; fine wares (including glazed wares or faience); mortaria and terra sigillata. Short introductions with some drawings and pictures of each class of pottery are provided. The database focuses principally on Roman Britain, but there are also data from other areas of the Roman Empire. The database can be browsed selecting the classes of wares; region; or listing all entries. There are also searchable databases of Romano-British pottery kiln sites (based on V. G. Swan's "The pottery kilns of Roman Britain" London, 1984, Royal Commission on Historical Monuments: Supplementary Series 5); a database of terra sigillata (Samian forms) focusing on "the principal forms that circulate in Britain during the Roman period"; a table of concordance with "The National Roman fabric reference collection" (NRFRC). There are also two bibliographies, one based on the Journal of Roman Pottery Studies, vols 1-5, 1986-92 (focusing on Roman Britain); and one based on the Congress reports of the Société Française d'Étude de la Céramique Antique en Gaule (focusing on Greece). Most resources, including the bibliographies, can be mapped. Section "other topics" should not be overlooked, as it contains an article on studying and scanning pottery which can be useful to all those due to handle ancient ceramics for the first time. Radius measuring charts are available for download in PDF format. This website can be useful in teaching or to undergraduate students. This version of the site only includes the static pages so some features are not available.
The website "Primae Venetiae" is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project, focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The site is in Italian and funded by the European Union. The area discussed here corresponds to the modern mainland area of Venice, Italy. Three major sites are presented: Torcello; Altino (Altinum); and Concordia Sagittaria. For each location the website provides a short historical introduction (storia), a selection of pictures of artefacts from the respective local museums (visita al museo), some pictures of Roman structures and discoveries made in their areas (base dati archeologiche), a bibliography as well as a few sections on printed bibliographical materials and other publications available in PDF. The PDF files can be accessed most conveniently from the pages of Concordia. Of the three locations, Altinum was probably the provincial capital, but is largely unexplored. Concordia was an industrial site where arrows (sagittae) were produced and Torcello, an island in the lagoon of Venice, was the place to where the political and ecclesiastical authorities of Altinum moved during late antiquity. Inhabitants of Torcello are thought to have founded Rivo Alto, the ancient settlement of Venice. This website is very straightforward and can be useful to both students and the general public. The site could also assist students of Italian to obtain themed vocabulary in this domain.
The Project on Ancient Cultural Engagement (PACE) focuses on ancient authors who found themselves in between cultures in order to address problems of cultural identity and cultural interaction in the Roman world, 200 BCE to 300 CE, with particular emphasis to the Greek and eastern world. Among the texts included are those of Polybius of Megalopolis; Flavius Josephus; Diodorus Siculus and others. The website publishes Classical texts with original text; English translations; full commentary; and textual parallels. The website also publishes full-text papers and books in PDF format ("scholarly studies") and abstracts of relevant theses ("dissertations"). There is a section on "History of Reception" concerned with the reception of "The Judean War"; "The Judean Antiquities"; "Life of Josephus"; and "Against Apion". It is possible to perform keyword searches on the bibliographic database only or on the bibliographic database plus the geographical (places) and archaeological notes; the notes can also be browsed. It is possible to contribute to this project by registering using a form. This website may interest researchers interested in the topics of cultural identity and acceptance in the Roman world.
Propylaeum-DOK is a full text open access depository of dissertations and other documents related to antiquity and published by the Heidelberg University Library following the Open Archives Initiative protocol for metadata. Most dissertations are written in German and focus on the Hellenistic and Roman Mediterranean region, but there are a few resources on German archaeology; German perception of archaeology throughout time; Aegean prehistory; and Mediterranean prehistory. It is likely that as more dissertations and books are added, further themes will be covered. It is possible to perform full text searches across all documents stored in this depository, which can then be accessed in PDF format. Researchers may find find this depository very useful, and especially the convenient search function.
The website of the EU funded project RADIO-PAST (radiography of the past) publishes information about the project and its teaching and research activities. The project has its base at Ammaia (a Roman site), Portugal, where most field activities are being carried out. A gallery of images shows many artefacts and architectural structures from Ammaia; there are also short videos and panoramic images. The website also briefly presents many remote sensing technologies, including aerial photography; LiDAR; georadar; magnetometer; digital elevation models; field surveys; virtual modelling; and material culture studies.These encompass airborne remote sensing; geophysical survey; topographical and geomorphological survey; and field survey. In addition to present the technologies, short reports have been made available of all trials made using these and other techniques at Ammaia; there is an updated bibliography. The navigation of this website is very neat. Students interested in field methodologies and techniques as well as anyone interested in Roman Ammaia may find this website useful.
This Web page describes AHRC-funded research to re-display the Ancient Greek and Roman collections at the University of Cambridge's Fitzwilliam Museum. The project aims to bring the University's archaeological scholarship into "conversation" with contemporary museum display practices, in the light of recent advances in art history research, moving away from 'thematic' or 'stylistic' displays, towards an understanding of the role of "changing technology, the complexities of workshop practices, and the role of ancient markets" as well the influence of collectors on museum objects. Outputs will include a new public catalogue and Web pages for visitors.
This Italian website focusing on the Latin and Greek inscription known as "Res gestae Divi Augusti" (part of the "Monumentum Ancyranum") publishes a full catalogue of high definition pictures with some tools to improve readability. As part of the project, two sets of pictures separated by a decade will be published in an attempt to determine the degrade of the monumental inscription. Although entirely in Italian, the website is mainly a collection of pictures that can be easily browsed. The "Res gestae Divi Augusti" (Achievements of the Divine Augustus") is a funerary text written by the first Roman Emperor, Augustus and describing his life and achievements in triumphalistic tone. The surviving inscription is a later copy from Ancyra and it also has a Greek version. It is an essential text providing information on a key moment of Roman history. Most people will have heard of Augustus at school, at the cinema, or just visiting a Roman site: the source of what they heard is likely to be this inscription. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
The free and full-text peer-reviewed journal Revue archeologique du Centre de la France is an open access journal focusing on central France (Auvergne; Centre et Île-de-France; Rhône-Alpes regions) during all periods, but most papers focus on the protohistoric, Gallo-Roman and Middle Age periods. Prehistoric lithics is also a frequent topic. The journal is published yearly on paper; all volumes published since 2004 (volume 43) are available online in this website. All papers are written in French with English abstracts and are illustrated. A substantial section of each volume also contains reviews and letters. This is a specialist peer-reviewed journal that will be useful primarily to advanced students and researchers interested on the archaeology of central France.
Roman Amphorae: A Digital Resource is a website that provides information on and catalogues of Roman empire amphorae and fabrics. Amphorae were pottery vases used to transport agricultural goods over long distances. The website features a detailed introductory discussion of the significance of amphorae as a source of information on trade during the Roman empire, along with information on amphora studies and classification. Catalogues of amphorae and the clay fabics from which they were made can be searched alphabetically, or by characteristics, date, location of production or distribution, or contents. The amphora catalogue includes, as available, the details, characteristics, drawings, petrology, specimens, pictures, and a bibliography relating to the item. The fabric catalogue can be searched separately. This resource is a product of the Amphora Project, based at the University of Southampton, and funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. The website is freely accessible, but the user must first agree to terms and conditions before entering the site.
This page from publishes by The Foundation for Biblical Archaeology summarises the results of the Roman Aqaba Project (RAP) of carried out by North Carolina State University staff. The project has studied the economy and society of the Nabataean, Roman and Byzantine Red Sea port site of Aila (modern Aqaba in Jordan) between the 1st century BC and the 7th century AD. Aila appears to have developed around a network of Nabataean settlements at the Red Sea end of a series of trade routes which stretched across the Negev and Arabian peninsula. Ancient authors, including Strabo, suggest a link with the incense trade. The project itself, however, has revealed a broader settlement pattern in the area from the Old Stone Age onwards, particularly in the Middle Palaeolithic, Pre-Pottery Neolithic and Copper Age periods and a widespread tendency of shifting occupation as late as Islamic times. The imported pottery found at Aila suggests that the port thrived before the annexation of Nabataea by the Romans in 106 AD and continued to do so down into the late Roman and Byzantine period when the site was an important trade centre between the Empire and the East. The resource provides reports on the findings of individual seasons as well as an account of previous scholars and travellers in this part of Jordan as well as a detailed bibliography of both ancient references and modern scholarship on Aqaba. This website may be useful primarily to undergraduate students.
'Roman ceramics' offers an impressive database of recent bibliographic references and related research material for scholars interested in all aspects of Roman pottery including stylistic analysis and iconography, distribution studies and G.I.S and scientific analysis. A major part of the resource consists of the large, searchable bibliographies produced by the annual Rei Cretatiae Romanes Fautores conferences listing international ceramic publications between 1990-1999. Subject bibliographies on Sagalassos Ware, Hellenistic and Roman terracottas from Asia Minor, Roman ceramics from northern France and Roman amphoras from Britain provide a broader temporal survey of the specialist literature. There is also a large archive of photographs of Banassac pottery, a regional variant of terra sigillata (or Samian ware) produced in southern France in the 2nd second A.D. Links to other websites of ceramic interest are also provided including distribution lists and pottery study groups. The website does not appear to have been substantially added to since 1999 though more recent updates are flagged. It is unclear if more the more recent bibliographies stemming from the Rei Cretariae Romanes Factores conferences will be published in electronic form through this website. A Java-enabled browser is required for this resource though the pages can also be viewed in plain HTML. The overall site index appears to be obsolete.This resource will interest specialist researchers in roman pottery, particularly those interested in recent research in the non-English speaking world, but will also be useful to those working on the broader aspects of ancient trade, manufacturing and consumption and the application of scientific knowledge to these academic debates.
"Roman Forum Excavation" is the website of a collaborative archaeological excavation between the American Institute for Roman Culture and the Universities of Oxford (UK) and Stanford (USA). This is an almost unique opportunity to excavate part of the great forum of the capital of the Roman empire as permission to dig is rarely conceded by the Italian Ministry of Culture (Italian Ministero per i Beni ed Attività Culturali) to non-Italian projects. The aim of the dig is to investigate the part of the edge of the Forum, between the Oratory of the Forty Martyrs, the so-called 'Domitianic aula' and the Temple of Castor, an important commercial zone on the edge of the Roman Forum in the Republican, Imperial, and late Roman periods, known as the area post aedem Castoris (the area behind the Temple of Castor and Pollux), as well as the related area on the adjacent Vicus Tuscus. Among the results of the first season (1 July - 7 August 2003) was the discovery (sensationally reported in the press as evidence of insane power-hunger) that Caligula appears to have suppressed the street to the south of the Temple of Castor in order to extend his palace right up to the temple podium, probably to make the temple a monumental entrance to the palace as described by Suetonius and Dio Cassius. Subsequently the street was restored and the palace facade apparently remodelled, probably by Claudius later in the the first century CE. The report of the 2004 season is also available. The project was led in the field by Dr Andrew Wilson, Oxford University Institute of Archaeology, and co-directed with Wilson by Dr Jennifer Trimble, Stanford University Department of Classics, and Dr Darius Arya, the American Institute for Roman Culture, Inc. (IRC). The IRC hosts the website.
This small but neatly presented website relates to an important Roman military diploma found on a river bed in Croatia in 1997. Military diplomata, bronze documents testifying to the honourable discharge of a Roman soldier, survive in large numbers; few, however, are as well preserved as this, which dates from 71 AD. The text is beautifully preserved on both the inner and outer faces of the diploma, and the witnesses' seals survive beneath a removable wooden cover. The text provides interesting evidence for Roman activity in the then province of Pannonia, and constitutes the first written evidence of a town in the modern Slavonski Brod region. The English section of the website offers a series of good-quality photographs of the artefact with transcriptions of the text and some notes on its provenance and significance. The quality of both the diploma itself and of the Museum's presentation of it make this site worth a visit for anyone with an interest in Roman military history or this type of epigraphy.
"Roman Provincial Coinage Online" is a database containing photographs of Roman coins from the provinces. The database of about 45,000 coins (over 13,000 types) from the Antonine period (138-192 CE) is searchable by iconography, place, and time from "coin database". After selecting the parameters of search (intuitive, but tutorials are available), the results include a small picture of the coins and some essential information, including the town of provenance. By clicking on the picture, it is possible to access a high resolution version of the photograph, and additional data such as any inscriptions, type of metal, diameter, weight and bibliographic references. By clicking on the town name, a Flash map will show its location. It is also possible to use the mapping feature independently from the database accessing section "maps". The website also contains a referenced introduction to coinage in the Roman provinces and short biographies of the Roman emperors (including portraits in sculpture) that ordered the coinage of the coins in the database. This project has been funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and the University of Oxford.
This website, illustrated with 232 photos, is an excellent introduction to the Villa Romana del Casale, a late Roman villa near Piazza Armerina in Sicily, famed for its polychrome mosaics. Divided into seven sections, the resource offers a comprehensive overview of the villa and the mosaics which decorate it. The introduction outlines its history from the time of construction until its excavation, and a brief account of the villa's function as the centre of a large agricultural estate. In the introductory section there is a plan of the villa; the user clicks on particular areas of this to be taken to photographs and detailed explanatory text. Sections of the resource are devoted to the following topics: how the villa was used in antiquity; the name of the villa and its owner; the mosaics; statues, wall painting and other decorative elements; visiting the villa; literature and links; and photographs. Hyperlinks on each page take the user to further information about key topics. Whilst the photos on this website were taken for personal interest, without perfect lighting conditions and sometimes from awkward angles, they remain an excellent resource, if only for their accessibility and generally high quality. They can all be enlarged.
This is the website of the BBC Radio 4 programme The Roman Way, first broadcast in 2003 and presented by journalist David Aaronovitch, which explores the daily lives of the vast and diverse population which made up the Roman empire. The resource allows users to listen to the series online and provides a commentary on each of the four episodes together with insights on the programme from the presenter and the producer. Other features include a fact file of basic information on the Roman empire, a selection of recipes from the cook book of 1st century AD gourmet Marc Apicius, a list of colloquial Latin phrases and a page of useful external links to relevant webpages. Technical advice is provided for those who need audio help to listen to the programme online. Although aimed largely at the general public, 'The Roman way' will also interest A level candidates and undergraduates studying classics, ancient history and archaeology.
This website by prof Barbara McManus contains her lecture notes for the course "Ancient Rome in Film, Fiction, and Fact". It contains several illustrated articles aimed as an introduction to Roman civilisation for students. There are articles on historical characters such as Spartacus; Julius Caesar; Mark Anthony; Cleopatra; Octavian Augustus; Emperor Tiberius; Emperor Caligula. Further articles focus on topics such as politics; the army; clothing; theatre; baths; chariot racing and gladiatorial games. This website can be very useful for students and should be considered as a supplementary source of lecture notes.
The "Rome in Egypt" website publishes "an updated repertory of the temples built in Egypt by Roman emperors for autochthonous cults" and is the result of a research project directed by Prof. Edda Bresciani at the University of Pisa, Italy. The website consists of a database of Egyptian archaeological sites that can be browsed by site name, temple, Roman emperor or virtual map. There is also an extensive bibliography, divided by site. The virtual map requires Internet Explorer to work and the XVR plug-in and is an interactive map with a nice animation, and no additional contents; it is not necessary to use it. For each record some data are available and these often include an interactive map; photographs; short texts describing the temple and its state of conservation; and an essential bibliography. This website is a very useful reference tool for both students and researchers.
Recreating Rome as it was in 320 AD with all the houses and monuments within the Aurelian Walls might seem a daunting task, but this is exactly what a group of scholars from Virginia and Rome have attempted with "RomeReborn1.0". There are still pictures; videos; short articles; audio interviews; and a few papers, mostly useful to researchers in computing and archaeology. The virtual model itself, which is not accessible online, seems quite impressive. However, in such a large model the precision of the reconstruction will have been patchy. Furthermore, there is no trace of people or any activity, and all buildings appear brand new and shining. It made me remember an old lecture on Pompeii, when it was emphasised how some buildings were being restored after a light earthquake preceding the fatal one, how some old buildings had been converted; other abandoned; more being built and remaining unfinished; and the several artistic styles present in the town at the time of destruction: Pompeii is not a town dating to 79 AD, it is instead a town frozen in time at that date. The difference between this Rome and Pompeii is that one is an obvious fake and the other the original. This website may be useful to researchers interested in archaeological computing, but if you would like to see an ancient Roman town, take a tour of Pompeii instead.
This website publishes preliminary reports in German on the excavations of the Roman town at Lahnau-Waldgirmes, Germany. The website contains a map, pictures and description of some artefacts and information on the canalisation system across the archaeological site. The website is frequently updated and may be useful to both students and researchers.
This website publishes the preliminary results of the excavations at Sagalassos, Turkey. The town is located in the region of Pisidia, which was formerly under Persian and Hittite control. The recent excavations have unearthed a number of Hellenistic architectural structures such as the Bouleuterion; the Market Building and the Agora. Several important Roman buildings such as the Odeion; Hadrianic Nymphaeum; Makellon (a food market); and Roman Baths have also been uncovered. There is also a list of printed publications and a bibliography in PDF format; the "The Sagalassos Series" and "Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology" can be purchased from this website. This website may be useful especially to students.
Samnites and Samnium publishes a collection of illustrated articles by Davide Monaco, an amateur archaeologist. There are preliminary reports on the 2004 excavations of Vastogirardi; a paper on the sanctuary of Pietrabbondante by Filippo Coarelli and Adriano La Regina; and John Patterson's paper "Una cittí chiamata Sannio" (A city named Samnium). There are articles on Samnite coins; the army; religion; and the Oscan language (including the bronze tablet of Agnone), which are adequate for use in undergraduate essays. There are also an extensive bibliography, a list of ancient sources mentioning the Samnites and a public forum. Readers should be aware that some articles are available only in Italian and that some English articles are abbreviated versions of the original versions in Italian. The Samnites were a fierce Italic people that fought three wars against Rome for the control of the Italian peninsula; they also sided with Hannibal during his incursion in the Italian peninsula and caused trouble to Rome in the following centuries until Sulla defeated them one last time in 82 BC. This website is a good introduction to the Samnites for the general public and undergraduate students.
This website is part of SardegnaCultura, an official publication of the regional governmental body. It summarises the history of Sardinia from Palaeolithic to contemporary times, though most of the website is concerned with pre-Nuragic, Nuragic, Phoenician, Roman, Byzantine and Medieval history and focuses on artefacts and architectural structures (material culture). There are short illustrated article for each period, usually a set focusing on archaeology (archeologia), architecture (architettura) and art (arte). Three other sections set this website apart: "guide" (full text ebooks of archaeological guides), "monografie" (full text versions of printed academic books and papers) and "monumenti" (an encyclopaedic work of the major architectural buildings in each period). Different sections are available for each period, with fewer options for post-Medieval periods.
Among the ebooks and papers in PDF format are: "Necropoli ipogeiche di S'Adde 'e Asile e Noeddale (Ossi)"; "Laconi. Il museo delle statue Menhir"; "L'altare preistorico di Monte D'Accoddi"; "Il Nuraghe Albucciu e i monumenti di Arzachena"; "Il museo archeologico di Sassari G. A. Sanna"; "Anghelu Ruju"; "Ricerche archeologiche nel Marghine-Planargia"; "Il Nuraghe Arrubiu di Orroli"; "Barumini"; "Il museo archeologico di Dorgali"; "Civiltà nuragica"; "S. Antioco"; "Monte Sirai"; "Tharros"; "Nora"; "Sardegna punica" (Punic Sardinia); "L'ipogeo di San Salvatore"; "Storia della Sardegna e della Corsica durante il periodo romano" (1923) by Ettore Pais; "Turris Libisonis"; "Fordongianus"; "Sant'Andrea Priu"; and "Studi storici sulle istituzioni della Sardegna nel Medioevo" (Historical studies on Sardinian institutions in the Middle Age). Although some books are now old, most are recent publications.
The website of the School of History, Classics, and Archaeology at Birkbeck College, University of London, essentially provides information for those considering courses at Birkbeck, or who are already on one of the courses. However, the website also has a excellent set of resources aimed at its students which can be used by any interested party. The sections Undergraduate, Classics, and Medieval resources point the student towards useful websites and other resources in the field. There is also information on forthcoming conferences and projects within the School, as well as links to pertinent lecture and seminar lists at IHR and ICS. Each individual department has listings of its staff, their research interests, and contact details.
Evolving out of his own doctoral dissertation, Donald Binder's Second Temple Synagogues website offers a high-quality introduction to synagogues and their function within Jewish society before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 A.D. The author has brought together a wide variety of textual material for the general reader, beginning with a literary archive offering quotations and references about the synagogues from ancient sources. There is a brief but helpful FAQ, clarifying some of the more basic issues pertaining to social function, and a dozen detailed overviews of ancient synagogues are available, each discussing its history and prominent features, and usually including detailed archaeological cross-sections and beautiful colour photographs. The site also offers a substantial collection of links to other Judeo-Christian resources online, although this section does not appear to have been updated for some time.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The site is in Portuguese and focuses on Bracara Augusta, a Roman provincial capital on the Iberian peninsula, in modern Portugal. The website introduces the reader to the history of Bracara from before its foundation as a Roman town up until the Middle Ages, when Bracara became Braga. The historical account is supported by an extensive chronology summarising important events in the town and its state during the reign of the Roman emperors. Short illustrated articles in the "base de dados" present accounts on all the most recent excavations in the area, which can be accessed by a simple click. The website includes a small but basic bibliography. All these sections are illustrated with small colour pictures and ancient prints. However, the section "visita" examines in greater detail some of the surviving architectural structures and associated artefacts. Apart from conventional buildings such as the spa and a domus, the website also presents structures such as the frigidarium, a sanctuary to a local divinity and the local cloaca. A few reconstructions in the form of both computer-generations and drawings accompany the illustrations, as well as maps. The navigation of the site is very simple and it is also possible to access directly other sections of the Simulacra Romae project. This website may interest both students and researchers thanks to its comprehensiveness and clarity.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. Burdigala, in modern Bordeaux, was a Roman provincial capital located in France. The website, which is in French, contains an account of Burdigala's history, which includes a reconstruction of the ancient town and its perimeter traced onto a modern aerial photograph. The virtual visit "promenade" provides access to illustrated articles on several buildings and artefacts relevant to the Roman period. It is possible to access them either via a clickable map or a list and the articles appear in a new window. The articles focus on the main Roman monuments such as the amphitheatre, the necropolis and the mithraeum. There are also short introductions to the museum and recent excavations. An extensive bibliography is provided. The navigation is very simple and it is possible to access from any page the other sites which are part of the project Simulacra Romae. This website is an introduction to Roman Bordeaux that may be of interest to students and the general public, but of particular note for historians, archaeologists and classicists. At the time of cataloguing both the 'chronologie' and the 'articles en ligne' sections were under construction.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. This site is in Spanish and focuses on Carthago Nova, a Roman provincial capital located on the Mediterranean coast of Spain, on the site of modern Cartagena. The introduction concentrates on the history of Carthago Nova and is richly illustrated. There is also a short accompanying chronology. The section "visita monumentos" focuses on the monuments of the area. The illustrated articles can be accessed by clicking on a map or selecting them from a list and they helpfully open in a new window. The section on monuments includes articles on the Phoenician wall, the amphitheatre, the domus Fortuna and domus Soledad, the harbour, villas, necropolis, mines and fishing bays in the area. Another article focuses on the development of the ancient town. Some articles are illustrated by colour pictures, drawings and maps. A separate illustrated section presents the artefacts in the museum and there is an extensive bibliography. The section entitled "articulos on line" contains several papers in PDF format about the Roman past of Cartagena, its region and archaeological research carried out in the region. Subjects include: the necropolis; building activities; hydraulic engineering; frescoes at the casa (domus) de la fortuna; coins; the introduction of the Tuscan order in architecture; the use of construction materials in late antiquity; and the role of computer science in archaeology. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The site is in Spanish and focuses on Corduba, a Roman provincial capital located in Spain, on the site of modern Cordoba. The history of Corduba is richly illustrated and contains several maps of the development of the Roman town. A short chronology outlines the main events. The virtual tour of the town "visita monumentos" presents illustrated articles concentrating on themes such as cellars, ceramic ovens, funerary and domestic architecture, and the walls. This is a good insight into social practices of the time. In addition there are monuments featured such as the old (Aqua vetus) and new (Aqua Nova) aqueducts, the sanctuary of imperial cult, the palace of Maximianus Herculeo, the bridge and Bridge Gate, Villa Cercadilla, the Forum, Via Augusta and the theatre. The archaeological map, in a separate section, completes the visit to Roman Corduba by plotting on a map all the discoveries dating from the Roman era, with short information provided for each record. There is an extensive bibliography, and many scholarly papers freely available in PDF format in the section entitled "articulos". The papers explore many topics of Colonia Patricia Corduba, as Roman Cordoba is known in Spanish. Subjects include Roman pottery, domestic architecture, funerary traditions and contexts and several of the monuments presented in the articles are analysed in greater detail. This website can be useful for both students and researchers.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The capital presented here is Emerita, a Roman provincial capital located in Spain, on the site of modern Merida. This website includes a short history of Emerita and a chronology. The virtual tour (visita) of the Roman town includes mostly themes such as hydraulic, defensive and transport infrastructures, villas, religious buildings and funerary contexts. There are also articles focusing on a few specific monuments such as the thermae, the forum, theatre, circus, the amphitheatre and the domus. The illustrated articles are accessible via a clickable map or a list and the articles open in a new window. A detailed list with addresses of all the excavations dating from the Roman period in the town is accessible in a separate section. For each excavation a full report in PDF format can be downloaded. A few papers are also available in the section "articulos". The subjects discussed include the history of the territory from prehistory to late antiquity, research on funerary contexts, as well as papers on Visigoth and Islamic artefacts.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The site is in French and discusses the Roman provincial capital of Lugdunum, located in France, and known as modern Lyon. The website introduces the readers to Lugdunum with a short history and chronology. The virtual tour (promenade) of the Roman town concentrates on the main monuments, including the forum, theatre, odeon, sanctuaries, industrial quarters, the necropolis and the aqueducts. The illustrated articles are accessible via a clickable map or a list and open in a new window. The texts are generally short and simple. This website also contains an extensive bibliography and a few papers are freely available in PDF format. It is possible to access from any page the other sites which form part of the Simulacra Romae project. This website is very simple and serves as an introduction to Roman Lyon for students.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The site is in French and provides information on Narbo, a Roman provincial capital located in France, on the site of modern Narbonne. The website introduces the readers to Narbo with a short illustrated history and chronology. The section "Les fouilles" contains brief illustrated articles on excavations of Roman artefacts and buildings in the area of Narbonne. One page focuses on some interesting underwater findings in the harbour. The sites are plotted on a clickable map or can be accessed by address. Whilst this website does not provide the most comprehensive introduction to Roman Narbo, it does contain information on minor and recent excavations which may be more useful to researchers. There are useful links to other part of the Simulacra Romae site.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The site presented here, however, is Rome itself. This website is in Italian. The site is rather disappointing, featuring as it does, only a few of the myriad monuments of ancient Rome: the museum of the Imperial Fora; the fora of Caesar, Augustus, Nerva and Traianus; the temple of Peace; and the markets of Traianus. For all the monuments with the exception of the markets of Traianus, the website only introduces the monuments with short texts, plans, pictures of the actual monuments and reconstructions. There is only an very basic essential bibliography. The section about the markets of Traianus is more extensive, but many pictures are available only as a thumbnail size. This website introduces the reader to the imperial fora of Rome and may be most useful to students or tourists planning a trip.
The website "Simulacra Romae : Tarraco" is part of a European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The capital discussed here is Tarraco, a Roman provincial capital located in Spain, on the site of modern Tarragona. The site is in Spanish and introduces the Roman town with a short history and chronology. The virtual tour "visita" divides the monuments according to their location within or outside the town walls. Short illustrated articles are accessible either via a clickable map or a list and open in a new window. Monuments presented include the theatre, amphitheatre, forum and necropolis, while the tower of the Scipios, the mausoleum of Centcelles, the aqueduct and the Arc de Berí are also featured. The database (base de dades) is a repository of information about most archaeological excavations from the Roman period in the area. The records can be selected on a map or list and open in a new window. The records are generally short and provide only essential information, but often include plans and sections. The website also contains an extensive bibliography and some papers are freely available in PDF format from the section "articles on line". The papers and database may be of interest to researchers, while the other sections of this website introduce the Roman heritage of Tarragona and may be useful for students.
Sisyphos is an Internet search engine providing access only to archaeological and Egyptological websites. Similarly to Intute, the resources accessible through this website have been selected according to their scientific relevance. Sisyphos covers all aspects of Classical (Greek-Roman) Archaeology as well as the Minoan and Mycenaean civilisations; Etruscan studies; and Egyptology. In addition, the website also lists general archaeological resources (history of the subject, theories, methods, institutions, excavation techniques). The bilingual interface in German and English is effective; it is possible to search or browse the listed resources. The strength of this website is evident for its core fields of Classical Archaeology and Egyptology, and within them, the ancient art of those civilisations. The available metadata is sufficient to determine the relevancy of the resources, but there are no descriptions evidencing merits and faults of the websites or the targeted audience. It is therefore recommended to use its search facilities performing a full-text search of the included resources; it works like Google but it yields more relevant results.
The website Skenotheke: Images of the Ancient Stage has been developed by John Porter, a classical archaeologist based at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. The site is dedicated to images of ancient Greek and Roman theatre which are available on the Web; as such, whilst it does not feature original content, it is a very useful one-stop resource for those interested in ancient drama and the locations where this was performed. Links are provided to virtual reconstructions of ancient theatres, as well as to images of modern productions of classical plays. Images of ancient theatres are arranged by geographical location. Sections are dedicated to the following: the theatre of Dionysus at Athens; deme theatres; other theatres across mainland Greece (including those at Corinth, Delphi and Epidauros); the theatres of Asia Minor; and those on the Greek islands. There are also resources on Roman theatre including that at Pompeii. In addition, the site offers a collection of images of Greek and Roman drama shown in ancient art (including: vase paintings; figurines; mosaics; frescoes; and architectural decoration). These images would be useful for those studying acting in the Greek theatre and related topics such as Greek masks. The site offers resources for the study of satyr plays and comedy as well as Greek tragedy.
This is the website of the Society for Libyan Studies, founded in 1969 with support from the British Academy. The Society aims to encourage and coordinate the activities of researchers working on Libya in Britain and elsewhere. The Society is interested in a broad range of research including: archaeology; history; linguistics; natural sciences; and religion. The site is a valuable resource for information on current academic activities and potential sources of support for researchers. The Society provides some grants and scholarships and organises fieldwork trips. It also publishes the Journal of Libyan Studies, and the site provides tables of contacts for the volumes for 1983-1999, plus abstracts for some of these volumes. Details of forthcoming lectures and meetings concerning Libya are given, plus details of relevant collections in British libraries and archives. The site links to: archaeological sites in Libya; Libyan and British institutes; and other relevant sites.
This is the website of the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, the main organisation in the United Kingdom encouraging the study of Roman history, archaeology and culture down to the early Byzantine period circa 700 AD. The website provides useful information on the structure and activities of the society, such as: forthcoming conferences and meetings; information on grants and bursaries; details of the library; and recent society news. Also included are details of Roman Society publications such as the journals Britannia and the Journal of Roman Studies, and their associated monographs. The contents page and abstracts of volumes of these journals published from 2002 onwards is available online, in addition to the content pages of volumes dating back to 1996. There is also a useful series of weblinks to similar associations and societies involved in classical studies. This website will benefit students and researchers in the field of Roman and ancient Mediterranean studies.
The hydraulics of Roman aqueducts website is written by a professor in civil engineering, hydraulic and applied fluid mechanics at the University of Queensland. Offered on the website is, therefore, a civil engineer's perspective, rather than that of an archaeologist, which provides a basic introduction to the subject of Roman aqueducts. As well as focusing on aqueducts, the author also includes information on other water management systems (such as various types of modern dams) including a history of arch dams. Detailed photographs of a limited selection (about half a dozen) of Roman aqueducts are shown. These are are largely confined to aqueducts in France (such as the Gier and Brévenne aqueducts in Lyon), as this is where the finest examples are to be found. A select, but useful introductory, bibliography on Roman aqueducts is included, as are a handful of links to other websites relating to specific aqueducts (such as the Mons and Gorze aqueducts).
This is the official website of the Superintendence of Pompeii, the public organisation responsible of the excavations and conservation of Herculaneum; Oplontis; Stabiae; Boscoreale; and Pompeii, the wealthy Roman city near Naples destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. An English translation is provided for some pages, but is often rather unidiomatic. Navigating the website is unnecessarily difficult. Several useful resources are buried deep within it - suggested itineraries, a history of the excavations, pictures and descriptions of the individual buildings. The English version sometimes difficult and incomplete. The Italian version is substantially different and with more contents: it is a pity that the main website of UNESCO site could not be translated in English. A Flash animation (the world of Caius) is aimed specifically at children and is available in the English version. There are many virtual panoramas (QuickTime, Flash, and IPIX plugins required), also in the English version.
The Italian version contains important sections, briefly reviewed here. Section "La Soprintendenza" focuses on the organisation and activities of the Superintendence. Clicking on "modulistica" (forms) there are the forms and bureaucratic procedure to submit the request for an authorisation to publish photographs and videos, which is required also for published scholarly works. Clicking on "laboratorio di ricerche applicate" (the archaeobotanical lab) and then on "banca dati" it is possible access to an updated list of plant remains found during the excavations at Pompeii; going back one level and clicking on "bibliografia" instead it is possible to access the bibliography. Clicking on "ufficio stampa" (press office; also a separate section) will provide access to all recent official communications (comunicati stampa), and there are also the links to the "mediacenter" (a simple selector of virtual panoramas) and the "fotopiano interattivo" an interactive aerial view of Pompeii from where virtual panoramas of 24 buildings can be accessed. The panoramas are larger than usual, but also of low quality. "Mediacenter" and "fotopiano" are also accessible from other sections. Section "siti archeologici" has very limited contents, useful are just the PDF maps of the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum; practical information to visit the archaeological sites (more information in section "info visita"); some information on the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD (including poignant pictures of casts of victims); and the "mediagallery" (gallery of pictures). Sections "mostre ed eventi" (exhibitions and events) as well as "progetti e ricerca" (projects and research) are very similar and provide some information on recent projects and other activities. This website has some contents for everyone, but there are very few contents for researchers since most sections contain images and virtual panoramas (useful for students and in teaching), news, or practical information. The short texts (mostly in Italian) appear inadequate for use at academic level and target the general public.
This is the official site of the Superintendence for archaeological heritage of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, which supervises all excavations within that region. The website provides administrative information and contact details, but it also contains articles on museums, existing archaeological areas and preliminary reports on some ongoing excavations. Among the excavations recently carried out are: the harbour of Classe, where remains of a bridge and a Byzantine silver table set, formed by a cup and six spoons, have been uncovered; the Etruscan town of Marzabotto; a Roman villa with mosaics at Russi; Roman necropoleis at Modena and Bologna; a Roman villa at Cannetolo; the Roman town of Claterna; a pre-Roman hut at colle Garampo; a Neolithic (middle of fifth millennium BC) sepulture with female figurine at Vicofertile. A section is dedicated to the Villanovan necropolis of Verucchio (seventh century BC), where forty-five incineration tombs have been found, one still with a wooden-plank cover. Inside this latter tomb, a wooden throne, a small table, and footrest have been found together with bronze vessels. The other tombs have yielded amber, textiles, jewellery and ceramic artefacts. In addition, the Verucchio section makes available several videos filmed during the excavations and interviews with archaeologists. This website represents an essential resource for researchers with an interest in the history and territory of Emilia-Romagna.
"Speculum Dianae: Nemi at Nottingham" is a website on the sanctuary of Diana excavation at Nemi, Italy, carried out by Lord Savile in 1885. Section "explore" focuses on the history of the excavation and the recent attempts to produce a virtual reconstruction of it and contains short texts explaining some key topics; some pictures of archaeological finds; plans; and virtual reconstructions. The upper tabs allow selecting the topic and the lower tabs allow accessing all available slides for that topic. The texts are also read by research staff at the University of Nottingham in a series of videos. The multimedia interface of this website is simple and functional, but the videos may slow down access to the website without adding any benefit. At the time of review an interactive virtual reconstruction of the temple allowing to experiment with uncertain variables was planned. Section "virtual votives" contains more pictures of artefacts found during the excavation. It is possible to send electronic messages from this section, a capability that may attract younger students. This website does not summarise the results of the excavation and students should be aware of this.
This website publishes high quality pictures of the largest Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, or "Mirror of Roman Magnificence". Such collections of artistic views of Rome and its ancient monuments were started in 1540 by Antonio Lafreri. Section "itineraries" includes eight tours of Rome using a choice of pictures made by some scholars, who also provide comments: it is perhaps the best way to access the repository for the first time. Tours include "The Belvedere Cortile: An Early Museum of Ancient Sculpture"; "Beatrizet and the Speculum"; "Viewing Ruins"; "Prints and Ritual in Renaissance Rome"; "The Campidoglio Engraved"; "Castel Sant'Angelo: A Military Itinerary Through Rome and the Speculum"; "Love and the Gods"; and "The Eternal City: Maps of Rome in the Speculum". An adequate search facility is also available. Both students and researchers of Classical archaeology and history of art may find this website useful.
This is the official website of the Swedish Institute at Rome. It publishes information on the field and research activities of the institute; lists of recent events and staff; publications sponsored by the institute (indexes in PDF format); a history of the institute; contact details and information on the services that it provides to scholars, including the hostel. The library of the institute can be searched online via the URBS catalogue. Among the archaeological sites investigated by the institute are the 5th century AD church of San Lorenzo in Lucina and the villa of Livia at Prima Porta. Other excavations have been carried out, but only summary data are given in the website.
In section "publications", there are the full text papers in PDF format of the seminars. Among the seminars available are "Pecus. Man and animal in antiquity" (with papers on the Mycenaeans, Crete, Roman Iberia, Iron Age and Roman Italy, Etruscans and classical literature); "Roman villas around the urbs. Interaction with landscape and environment"; "Art, Conservation, Science. The Lancellotti Collection Project"; "Via Tiburtina. Space, movement and artefacts in the urban landscape"; "Pompeian Plasters. Insula I 9 and Forum".
This website published by the French National Institute for Research in Preventive Archaeology (INRAP) focuses on the recent (2005-2006) excavations of a Roman villa near the northern French harbour of Saint-Malo. There is an introduction in PDF format accessible from the home page (only a few texts are also available in the website); a few drawings of the villa; a video interview with archaeologists Romuald Ferrette (director of excavations) and Michel Baillieu; an interactive virtual visit to the excavations (QuickTime panoramas); and a glossary. Although the website lacks more substantial interpretive texts, its reliance on multimedia visualisation makes it very suitable for teaching at all levels. The clear drawings reconstructing the villa at different phases of its architectural development and the virtual visit can be used to illustrate Roman villas in general. Researchers may find in the PDF handout, the video and the virtual tour a useful introduction to what has been unearthed.
Commercial firm InnovaTecno publishes a series of VRML virtual reconstruction models of the ancient Roman town of Tarraco, modern Tarragona, in Spain. The models require powerful computers and a fast Internet connection to be accessible. They should be treated as proof -of-concept and are based on archaeological reports. There is no life represented on the models nor any information or pictures about the present state of the town and these shortcomings limit the usefulness of the models for research and study purposes. The virtual models of Tarraco are freely accessible and may be useful to anybody interested in virtual reconstructions, and should be noted for the many details included (e.g. boats in the river).
The British School at Rome’s Tiber Valley project studies the changing landscapes of the middle Tiber valley from 1000 BC to AD 1000. The website is composed of a series of introductions to parts of the project, including a study of local Roman towns, a survey of South Etruria and excavations at Forum Novum - Vescovio. The Roman towns project analyses urban settlements in the middle and lower Tiber valley of central Italy, ranging from the larger privileged centres down to the smaller agglomerations and roadside sites. Conducted by a team from the University of Southampton. The town of Falerii Novi in particular has received a good deal of attention, and the website includes a geophysical survey of the town. The other towns discussed in the preliminary results section are: Baccanas; Castellum Amerinum; Forum Cassii; Otricoli; Portus; and Vignale. This part of the project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme. A bibliography and notices of past conferences complete this website. Students in particular may find it useful.
Tivoli's Treasures is a website created by the Tivoli tourism board about important architectural sites in the area. Although the English translations can be confusing at times, they are very thorough and written from a particularly well informed architectural viewpoint, which makes this a very worthwhile site to visit if studying the significant sites and architecture of Tivoli. Although it is hard to source exactly where the information has come from, there is an extensive bibliography, and the facts seem accurate. Sections of the site include very detailed descriptions of Hadrian's Villa, Villa d'Este, Villa Gregoriana, "the Churches", "the Temples", "the Tombs" and "Other Monuments". Many of these buildings have great architectural significance in the history of Italian architecture, in particular from the Ancient Roman and Renaissance periods, and have been extensively studied by architects from all over the world.
Traianus is a website which focuses on the identification and study of Roman public infrastructures such as roads, streets, bridges, aqueducts, mines, harbours, mines, topography and walls. The site makes available a collection of research papers on this topic written mostly by civil engineers rather than archaeologists; consequently the site concentrates on technical perspectives of Roman engineering. Users will find papers on each type of Roman structure. Most of these were papers presented at the periodic "Congreso sobre las Obras Publicas Romanas" (Conference on Roman public infrastructures) and have been published in printed form in the proceedings. The papers are mostly in Spanish, but some are in English, French and Italian. It is possible to access English and French versions of the website, but translations are poor and exclude the papers, which are republished online in their original version. Online publication has allowed the authors to include colour pictures, maps and graphics to their work. Users may conduct full-text searches across the papers and subscribe to a European mailing list. This website presents the most recent research on Roman civil engineering and constitutes an invaluable reference tool on this subject. The technical character of the website makes it suitable only for researchers. The technical perspective may be useful also to researchers of any ancient public infrastructure, though all case studies presented in the papers belong to Roman archaeology.
Trajan's Column is an online collection of images and background material on the Roman monument, a 100 foot stone column recording the military victories of the Roman Emperor Trajan (reigned 98-117 CE) over the Dacians and the Germans in the second century CE,which is one of the most remarkable and best preserved survivals of monumental art from classical antiquity. This website provides a searchable database of over 500 images focusing on various aspects of the design and execution of the column's sculptural decoration as well as several introductory essays on the historical background, subject matter and wider physical context of the monument within the Forum of Trajan in Rome, presented throughout within a hypertext medium. This highly user-friendly resource is designed to be accessible to individuals at varying levels of knowledge and experience of the subject. An elaborate search engine allows you to explore highly specific aspects of the monument while Claudio Martini's interactive cartoon of the entire column provides an excellent introduction to the overall design and layout of the monument and contextualises the individual details provided by the database of images. The site can also be explored through the use of indices organised according to: subject; sculptural technique; and scene number or location. The high quality images (slides and drawings) were generated by sculptor Peter Rockwell, over the course of his study of Roman stone-carving practices, and can be viewed at three different resolutions. Technical information on all the imaging and programming details (including the programming code) is also provided. This detailed, stimulating and attractively presented website will interest archaeologists and classicists as well as art and military historians at many levels from the general public and novice undergraduate to the more experienced researcher.
The University of Melbourne's Classics and Archaeology Virtual Museum Project puts online the majority of the contents of the Classics and Archaeology wing of the University's Ian Potter Museum, together with a number of collections not owned by the University. This vast online resource offers access to Greek, Roman, Egyptian and Middle Eastern manuscripts, pottery, coinage, bronzes, vases and sculpture.The centrepiece of the site is the database that allows the user to search the collection. Over 7000 images are available, and there are a number of photos for each object, taken from differing angles and with varying degrees of detail. This makes the site particularly useful for research, as do the full descriptions, bibliographies and comparisons for individual pieces. This information, with all other relevant data such as date, provenance and material, is attractively presented and easily accessible. The self-directed tour allows the user easy access to full lists of the artefacts and the history of the individual collections. There is extensive documentation about the development of the museum and the virtual museum project.
This is the website of the US Epigraphy Project, which is based at Brown University and is devoted to information about Greek and Latin inscriptions which are preserved in the USA. The digital catalogue is based on the contents of the book Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the USA : A Checklist, written by J Bodel and S Tracy. The key feature of the online resource is a searchable database of these inscriptions. The user may browse by collection or publication, or by using a search form which has a range of fields including: language; place of origin; date; type of inscription; type of object; and type of material. Searches then produce an image of the inscription along with essential information (provenance, date, material and object type) and bibliographic details, along with the inscription's US epigraphy number. There is also a list of links to other epigraphy websites and relevant search engines.
The "Vbi Erat Lvpa" (Latin for where was the Roman she-wolf) website publishes a few databases focusing on Roman artefacts found within and outside the territory once forming the Roman Empire. The texts are mostly in German only. The databases are: "Roman Stone Monuments", a searchable catalogue of Roman stone artefacts and monuments; "Lupa", a database including both texts and images of Roman stone monuments; "Corpus of Roman Finds in the European Barbaricum (CRFB)", a database of Roman artefacts found outside the Roman Empire, covering the territories between the North Sea and the Black Sea and between the Baltic Sea and the river Danube; and "Stamped Roman Tiles", a collection of archaeological, epigraphical and petrological data on stamped Roman tiles from the metropolitan area of Vienna and from Moravia (modern Czech Republic). The databases are works in progress and therefore still incomplete. Common to all databases is a section with a useful glossary that defines technical terms related to Roman culture in German and several papers on the projects. This website is a precious research tool for anyone studying Roman culture, especially at regional level.
This website summarises the research about Villa Adriana, the Roman villa built by Hadrian on the outskirts of Rome. Villa Adriana concentrates on the architecture of the villa and includes a few pictures and an introduction to the many architectural structures composing the villa; plans and virtual reconstructions of almost all parts of the villa. A study on the pavements of the villa is a good introduction to the topic of Roman pavements, and a section of the website analyses opus sectile pavements in detail. An extensive bibliography including both general and specialised studies completes the website. Students in particular may find this website useful.
This website presents a virtual reconstruction of the Roman consular road via Flaminia, produced by the Virtual Heritage Lab, the "Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali and the Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche". The website gives information about the methodology; a summary of the results and a basic description of the via Flaminia, especially the archaeological sites of Ponte Milvio (Milvio Bridge); Villa Livia; Grottarossa and Malborghetto. This website presents only the project and the actual virtual reconstruction is accessible solely at the Museo Nazionale Romano delle Terme di Diocleziano in Rome. The creators of the virtual reconstruction intend to publish a printed monograph, an interactive DVD (for sale) and an island in 3D online virtual world "Second Life" based on the reconstruction. The publication of different versions of the project, using various media may offer a real opportunity to compare and assess the pros and cons of different media, how they can be applied for one multimedia project and the usefulness of different media to target multiple sections of contemporary society. The website may be useful to students and researchers in museum studies, computing in archaeology and communication studies in assessing the potential of the technology and its maturity in out-reaching different audiences.
This online resource applies modern computer technology to create digital impressions of what 15 ancient Greek and Roman sculptures might have looked like in their original painted state, showing images of the pieces in their present format alongside the imagined polychromatic originals. Featured sculptures include: kouros and kore statues; statues of Apollo; a Parthenon metope; and Trajan's column. Contextual and historical information is minimal but there is a useful basic bibliography and a series of hyperlinks to sources of images of ancient art. The website also provides technical and methodological information on how the reconstructions were made. The 'Virtual Gallery' provides useful complementary learning materials for undergraduates studying classical art and archaeology and their teachers. It will also benefit art historians and artists interested in comparative historical materials.
A Visual Tour through Late Antiquity provides a selection of images of artistic evidence and material remains from the 4th to 7th centuries. The prime focus of the website is late antique Gaul at the time of Gregory of Tours (538-594) but context is provided by a variety of other images. The collection is divided into five sections: Late Roman court and aristocracy; Imperial art of 6th century Ravenna; Gallic art of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries; Frankish art and artefacts; and Royal grave goods. The Visual Tour through Late Antiquity was originally compiled for the use of students at the Nipissing University (Canada) but it also provides a good general introduction to some famous late Roman and early Frankish images and artefacts.
This is the official website of the archaeological excavations at Khirbet Wadi Hamam, a Roman-period village. The website contains a small gallery of pictures and information on the field school run at the site. Several synagogues have been found, though some may be of Byzantine period. "A unique mosaic synagogue floor with depictions of biblical episodes was a major find in previous seasons. Other interesting finds were a massive destruction layer in a residential structure which buried the entire household (including weapons and a hoard of coins from the days of Hadrian); houses with passages to underground chambers; oil lamps; pottery vessels and hundreds of coins". The site was an important part of Roman Galilee. Students in particular may find this website useful.
This is the website of the Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, an international journal of Greek and Roman antiquity focusing on research into epigraphic and papyrological material. This resource provides a guide to the contents of the journal from 1967 to the present together with the digitised texts of articles from 2001-2004 which are available free of charge for private study (free volumes made available might vary from year to year). The indexes of most volumes can be browsed in PDF format. The reproduced articles are in German, English, French and Italian.Information on the print version of the journal is also provided, such as editorial advice for authors and subscription details.This website provides useful a bibliographic guide to publications in an important classics and ancient history journal for university students and researchers, particularly for those competent in European languages.
This is the website of the Zippori (Sepphoris) excavation project, an archaeological site in the Lower Galilee between the Mediterranean and the Sea of Galilee. It is run by the Israel National Park Authority. This resource includes information on: Zippori during the Roman Period; the Art and Architecture of Byzantine Zippori; the Mosaic Pavements of Roman and Byzantine Zippori; a Bibliography; and a History of the excavation and the Hebrew University team. A history of the site's excavations is provided, as are recent reports on the park, running from 1998 onward.
Zippori, a former ancient capital of the Galilee, possessed a vibrant religious, commercial, and social community. Today, Zippori covers 16 square km and the excavations were opened to the public in 1992.
The Austrian Archeological Institute's website is extremely well presented. Archaeological digs which the Institute have undertaken include about a dozen sites in Austria, as well as four sites without (Ephesos, in modern Turkey, Aigeora and Lousoi in Greece, and Tell el-Dab'a in Egypt). Information concerning the Egyptian dig is not actually on this website, but it refers the reader to two connected websites (the Institute of Egyptology and 'SCIEM 2000'). When one clicks on the city of one's choice, one is met with a succinct history of the city and the excavations, which are accompanied by relevant colour pictures. There is also a bibliography and contact details of those who have worked on the excavations should one require more information. In addition to the above, there is a list of the Institutes publications (including forthcoming ones). It should be noted, however, that the books, unlike, the website, are only available in German.