The website of the 27th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities in Greece, which is competent for the conservation and study of the archaeological sites and monuments in the prefecture of Pieria (Macedonia), publishes several illustrated reports. The website, in Greek only (online translation services however exist), is a good starting point to learn about the archaeology in the area, new discoveries and contact the ephoria. The region includes Mount Olympus. Sections focus on Mount Olympos; houses; economy (especially agriculture); Pieria; recent research projects; educational projects (aimed at local schoolchildren); information on the ephorate including vacancies and permits requests; a series of studies on the ancient Muses and Mount Olympos (several PDF files) and information on past local conferences. Researchers focusing on the area will find that this website is an essential research tool.
The website of the 35th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities in Greece, which is in charge of the conservation and study of archaeological sites and monuments in the Ionian Islands of Kefalonia, Ithaca, and Zakynthos, publishes a list of contacts and several reports on the local archaeology. The website is in Greek and Italian only (online translation services can be used). The collections of the Argostoli museum are presented in an illustrated article. The illustrated reports focus instead on recent excavations in the area. A section also publishes notices of events. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This is the online presence of the Actium Project, an underwater archaeological survey concerned with examining the sea floor at the location where the naval battle of Actium was fought by Octavian against Antony and Cleopatra in 31 BC. The project was formed in 1993 and jointly undertaken by the University of South Florida and the Greek Ministry of Culture. This clear and concise website gives the historical background and details of the battle itself, accompanied by maps and images, as well as providing information on fieldwork undertaken by the Actium Project in the 1990s, including details of the finding of naval catapult missiles at the site.
Akamas, Society for the Promotion of Salaminian Monuments is a civil, non-profit society and non-governmental organisation, focusing on the promotion of monuments in the island of Salamís. This website publishes information on the society; archaeological research in Greece carried out by the University of Ioannina and some archaeological events in Greece. All information is available in Greek, most pages have been translated in English. Section "Special Actions" contains the newsletter of the society, in Greek only. The most interesting section, however, is the "University of Ioannina Researches", which includes preliminary reports on surveys and fieldwork. Among the surveyed areas are the Middle Helladic acropolis at Sklavos; the Plateau of Ginani; Cape Mertzani; Peranisi Islet; and Kochi Mountain. These preliminary reports are usually very brief and in Greek only; it is necessary to click on the 3D map to access them. Preliminary reports of archaeological excavations are also available, only a few are in English. The excavations include the sites of the Cave of Euripides ("it was used successively as a place for seasonal human habitation and multiple activity in the Late Neolithic period; as a place intended for burials in the Late Mycenaean period; as a retreat of Euripides in the 5th century BC; as a sacred cave intended for cult activities in the Roman period"); the Sanctuary of Dionysos; and the Mycenaean acropolis (Kanakia area; evidence of Late Bronze Age transmarine trade includes Cypriot and eastern artefacts) in the Salamís Island. Several webpages are still incomplete. Both students and researchers of Aegean and Greek archaeology may find this website useful.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and focuses on the Greek colony of Apollonia, Albania. The ancient town was located on a river, eight kilometres from the Adriatic coast; no traces of pre-Greek occupation of the area have been found. The town became famous during Roman times for its support to Caesar in 48 BC, which allowed Caesar to deploy his army in front of Pompey's army for the first time. From there, the two armies chased each other until Caesar's final victory at Pharsalus that same year. Later, the town hosted Octavian for six month, when he is said to have learned Greek from Apollodorus of Pergamum. Octavian, once become emperor, gave to the town the privilege of being "civitas libera et immunis" (free and immune city), which resulted in the town maintaining some independence and freedom for long. The peace that the town benefited from resulted in many monuments accumulating. These as well as the remarkable town's history are summarised in a series of illustrated articles. There are a few maps, plans of the town and a bibliography.
The website of the American Journal of Archaeology (AJA) publishes free full-text electronic versions in PDF format of all published papers from 2002 to 2007 as well as additional online-only contents such as books and museums reviews; image galleries; supplementary data (e.g. bibliography of osteological research in classical archaeology); and forums. Only abstracts are available for articles published since 2008; the full-text PDF files can only be accessed via a subscription. The journal focuses on Greek, Roman and Etruscan archaeology, and publishes also a few papers on Aegean (Minoan and Mycenaean) archaeology and the archaeology of the ancient Near East and Mesopotamia. The website can be searched and prospective authors may find guidelines and a form to submit their papers for publication. Issues of the journal dating before 2001 can be searched and accessed via JSTOR. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list (AJA e-Update) for updates on the journal and the current activities of the American Institute of Archaeology.
The American Journal of Archaeology was founded in 1885 and is now one of the most prestigious journals in the field of Classical Archaeology. Anyone interested in the archaeology of the Mediterranean region will find this website useful.
This website is the home page of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA). The site gives details of the School's history and activities, including information on: membership; study programs; job vacancies; fellowships; lectures; and conferences. The user can also find out about research facilities here, including the School's various libraries and archives. Also included on the site are sections relating to the ASCSA's excavations and field projects, with information on the staff, activities and resources of these projects. Details are given of excavations in ancient Corinth and the Athenian agora, and there is also a list of links to the websites of affiliated North American field projects. The website is fully searchable.
The Amphoras Project website hosts a substantial corpus of information on the typology, manufacture, use, and distribution of amphoras in both the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas. This is in addition to an extensive bibliography on the subject. Amphoras were large storage vessels used throughout the ancient world for long distance trade in oil, wine and other commodities in the Mediterranean region. The main part of the resource consists of a searchable database of amphora fragments from the Athenian Agora and Corinth based on the archive of the late Virginia Grace, who assembled an extensive index of amphora material from all over the Mediterranean. The database includes a wide-sample of vessel and fabrics types and an important corpus of amphora stamps which are valuable tools in dating fragmentary storage vessels. The searchable bibliographic database is equally extensive and encompasses information from Greece, Italy, North Africa and Egypt, the Black Sea and the Balkans. A complete bibliography of Virginia Grace's publications is also provided along with website links to other relevant resources on amphora studies. The website also includes the illustrated texts of numerous important articles on amphora studies, including translated texts of seminal works by Russian scholars otherwise inaccessible to non-Russian speakers. In addition, there is a selection of ancient Greek passages in translation referring to amphoras in the ancient world. While this website will largely be of interest to specialists working on ancient pottery and on trade and the ancient economy in general, it will also benefit the more ambitious undergraduate student or those writing dissertations on otherwise dispersed and inaccessible material.
This website publishes the preliminary reports of the excavations of the sanctuary of Apollo at Soros (ancient Amphanai or Pagasai) near Vólos, in Thessaly, Greece, by the University of Thessaly. This simple website contains short illustrated reports of the activities of each year. The temple was used from the Late Archaic to the Late Classical period and probably four silver coins of the Thessalian League (2nd or 1st century BC) were hidden after the abandonment of the temple. The excavators have found on the south-eastern corner a rock cut channel, which has been compared with one found on the island of Delos at the "Oikos of the Naxians" building, dated to the Archaic period. Some architectural structures found during the excavation may belong to a previous building. The excavation is yielding numerous artefacts from a fill layer; among the finds are: ceramics (including storage vessels, miniature vases and lamps), large female clay figurines; bronze jewels; and glass artefacts.
The Ancient City of Athens is an excellent website which has an extensive range of photographs of principal archaeological sites in Athens, taken from the slide collections of Prof. Kevin Glowacki and Nancy Klein of Texas A&M University. There are photographs of the following areas: the Acropolis; the agora; the Arch of Hadrian; the city Eleusinion; the Kerameikos; the Library of Hadrian; the Lysicrates monument; the Olympieion and south-east Athens; the Philopappos monument; the pnyx; and the Roman agora. There is also a section on the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron, in Attica. Within the different sections there is a good range of general and detailed views. The photographs from the Acropolis' slopes are particularly useful, not only because they are annotated but since access to these sites is difficult for most visitors to Athens. In addition, the Acropolis section provides far more than the usual snapshots, with detailed photos of architectural sculpture and pre-classical building works. The photos of the Agora and Kerameikos offer an excellent and comprehensive selection. In addition to the photographic archive the site offers a number of other resources, which are: an introductory essay on the topography and monuments of Athens; a very brief outline of Greek history to AD 1453; information about the tribes and eponymous heroes of the ancient Athenians. Bibliographic details are given, as well as links to other relevant websites.
The Ancient Greek and Roman coins website is written from the perspective of a collector, but is nevertheless a very informative and detailed site which is particularly useful for those who are new to numismatics. An introductory section on the 'vocabulary of ancient coins' gives detailed information about what to look out for when examining coins from different ancient periods. There are also detailed secions on Roman coins (arranged chronologically from the Republic to the fifth century AD and Greek coins (covering the Athenian empire, Alexander the Great, the Ptolemies, and the Greek cities under the Roman empire). There are also (smaller) sections on Eastern empires (Parthia and Persia) as well as the Byzantine period. The site also features information on a miscellany of other topics aimed primarily at those wishing to collect and photograph coins. It is richly illustrated throughout, and the accounts of the coins are very detailed - the historical background is explained as well as information about the particular coins in question.
The Ancient Greek World Web presentation is a virtual exhibition created by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. It deals with aspects of ancient Greek history and society from the sub-Mycenaean period to the Hellenistic period (c. 1100-31 BC). A section entitled 'Land and Time' gives a chronological overview of the history of the periods which are covered. Other sections cover the following broad topics: daily life; religion and death; and the economy. Each section is divided into several sub-sections and is illustrated using images of ancient Greek art (vase paintings, sculpture and coins); accompanying text provides important details about these artefacts. The site is well presented, and the images which are used to depict important aspects of ancient Greek life would be very useful particularly for those studying or presenting a variety of classical courses, who require easy access to the primary sources.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
This is a commercial website focusing on the ancient Greek town of Olympia, the site of ancient Olympian Games, which have inspired modern Olympic Games. There are useful contents aimed at the general public, school pupils and first year undergraduates. In section "History" brief biographies of mythological characters and real historic people as well as a page on ancient daily life introduce the reader to the world of ancient Greece. Further pages focus on ancient music (with a reconstructed piece of Classical music), athletics, and the Games then and now (short videos accompany the pages). Section "Archaeological site" focuses on the ancient town of Olympia, presenting the principal monuments, including stadium; temple of Hera; and temple of Zeus. More locations are planned, but were not available at the time of review. There is a short video on the lighting of the torch of the Olympic Games at the temple of Hera and a video presenting a virtual reconstruction of the temple of Zeus. Of interest to both archaeologists and classicists may be the galleries of images accessible clicking on "Gallery" in the menu. Most of the other contents will be useful only to tourists or people planning a visit to Olympia. Some of the contents in this website may be useful to students studying ancient Greece and the Olympian Games; the contents focusing on Olympia at the time of review were too incomplete for use even on a student essay.
Published in Greek and English, Anistoriton is a freely available, peer-reviewed electronic Journal of Archaeology, Art History and History. Although it seems particularly strong in the art, history and archaeology of the ancient world, the journal is global in outlook, with each issue featuring a wide range of topics, mostly related to Classics and classical archaeology (e.g. "Justice and the Self: A Reading of Plato's Gorgias"; "The Hellenic Alphabet: Origins, Use, and Early Function"; "The Roles of Patrician and Plebeian Women in their Religion in Rome"); and history (e.g. "President Johnson's Vietnam Policy = President Kennedy's Vietnam Policy?"; "The Polish Question at the Yalta Conference"; "Slavery, Society, and the Law in America. The Slave Law in Virginia (1607-1776)"). The website includes a discussion forum extending the published essays, together with a searchable archive of back issues.
This website publishes the results of a research on the 'Antikythera mechanism', an extraordinary metal artefact recovered underwater by sponge divers over a hundred years ago. The mechanism is now interpreted as a complex machine that tracks the cycles of astronomical bodies of the Solar System and the associated phenomena as seen from Earth. The website is organised as a blog, with short posts presenting the project on the home page; the research team and some news are presented in "the project" section; several photographs of Computed Tomography (CT) scans and a few animations are available in section "data". A linked page of the imaging research carried out by HP labs allows users to interact with photographs of the mechanism by controlling lighting. External animations (very large; some requiring a Java virtual machine) can also be accessed through section "links". The project team aims to publish all data of their research on this website in 2007. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list to remain updated on the developments of the research. This website may be useful especially to researchers.
University College London and Trent University in collaboration with the Greek Archaeological Service have organised the Antikythera Survey Project (ASP). As part of the project, two major seasons of surface survey have been carried out on the island in 2005 and 2006. Researchers have collected ca. 20,000 artefacts. The survey has so far revealed that, in the island there was a "prehistoric presence dating back to the later Neolithic, a series of Minoan farmsteads, a fortified settlement of Hellenistic pirates, a large Late Roman community, and a period of more recent re-colonization during the late 18th-19th century AD." The website acts as an introduction to the research and describes the projects methods and offers downloads of datasets created by the work.
This well-presented resource is the website for the archaeological excavations at Aphrodisias (in the ancient Roman province of Caria, in modern Turkey) undertaken by the Institute of Fine Arts in cooperation with the Faculty of Arts and Science at New York University. Introductory information is provided on the history of the site and the excavations, and then the user may access more detailed pages on key areas of the archaeological site. The following locations are covered: the temple of Aphrodite; the cult image of Aphrodite; architecture and sculpture of the bouleuterion (council chamber); the sculptor's workshop; the north agora; the Sebasteion; the basilica; and the stadium. Within each section images and plans are accompanied by detailed explanatory text. An overall plan of Aphrodisias is provided and the user can move the mouse over this to be given names of buildings; on clicking on the building a closer view is given. One can then click on this building for a closer view. There is also a map based on the geophysical survey carried out between 1995 and 1998. Finally, there is an extensive bibliography of relevant material (divided into sections for ease of use), with a particular emphasis on excavation reports.
Arachne is a collection of digital photographs of Roman and Greek antiquities with associated metadata; a simple and free registration is required to access it. Most photographs carry a watermark and are B&W, but they should be fine for use in teaching and research. Three major collections have been prepared: the Ara Pacis; Trajan's Column; and reliefs from sarcophagi. In addition to these collections, thousands of photographs can be searched and browsed with simplicity, these include photographs of artefacts in museums; pictures and drawings of architectural structures; painted ceramics; maps; aerial pictures; and reproductions of the Classical style (e.g. Neoclassical architecture). This website contains photographs of archaeological sites from all over the Mediterranean Region. This is a large and expanding collection of photographs and is recommended for use in teaching for its quality and sheer number.
The project benefits of support from Berliner Museen; Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (DAI); and Winckelmann-Edition Stendal.
This atlas of archaeological sites in the Aegean region is published by the Hellenic Ministry of the Aegean and University of Athens. The atlas includes most sites on or near the Aegean coast. The atlas provides information on many archaeological sites from the Neolithic to the late antiquity; for each site a short summary and a few pictures (click to view enlarged version in new window) are available. However, the atlas does not cover the entire regions of important civilisations such as the Mycenaean or Greek ones. For instance, large parts of the Peloponnesus are missing. Furthermore, at the time of this review the records of some maps (such as the one covering Thera) were unavailable. In spite of these problems, the atlas is a valuable tool for the general public and students up to undergraduate level, especially for culturally homogeneous regions such Crete and the Anatolian coast. The atlas can be accessed via the "overview of maps", which details the included regions. By clicking on any region, a map with clickable sites appears. It is possible to scroll the map and access any adjacent map in this way. The "maps" section just opens a random map. The "index of sites" provides a list of sites. The "archaeological sites" gives direct access to the first site in alphabetical order; it is possible to see all the sites in that order. There is also a glossary of terms and a "time chart".
The Institute of Classical Archaeology at the University of Texas has intensively surveyed 36 square kilometres in the chora of Metaponto since 1981. Over 780 sites dating from the Greek and Roman periods have been identified at a density of about 22 sites per square kilometre. Analysis of the results indicates that site density varies throughout the various periods and that particular elevations in the landscape were favoured. The website presents an updated summary of research carried out so far and contains an extensive bibliography.
The "Archaeology in Greece Online" website is the product of a cooperation between the French School at Athens and the British School at Athens that publishes short reports on excavations and fieldwork from the Chronique des fouilles (in French) and Archaeological Reports (in English) series of printed publications. The website also lists recent unpublished conferences; its interface is in French, English and Greek. For each excavation compiled in this online database it is possible to access a map (integrated from Google Maps) showing its location. It is possible to search the database according to a series of parameters; in the "Help" section there is a video tutorial that illustrates the search options and the interface of the website. At the time of review only a limited number of reports was available, but it is expected that the number will grow. Of course, the two archaeological schools producing this website have access to unpublished and verified information that would be very difficult to access otherwise, and this makes this resource extremely valuable to researchers involved in archaeological research in the Aegean region. The reports cover all time periods and are usually produced using information coming from the directors of the reported excavations and covering a single year of work. Sometimes multiple reports are available for the same excavation and year if reports were sent to both publications; it is important also to note that the names of the archaeological sites vary in French and English reports (e.g. Cnossos and Knossos) and therefore searches by pre-defined regions should be preferred to keyword searches of toponyms. This website is a treat for researchers.
Archbase is a website that contains details of various archaeological projects by different organisations. Featured projects include: excavations at the Graeco-Roman harbour of Berenite (Egypt), and the work of the Fayum Field school at the Graeco-Roman village of Medinet Watfa (also in Egypt). Full excavation reports (Fayum; Berenike; Eastern Desert Ware) and information with abstracts on related workshops (mobile people; residue analysis; ancient apprenticeship; history of the Eastern Desert) can be accessed from the home page. In addition, the website also contains the archaeological databases of some projects; to access these a password is required (researchers may be able to get one contacting the project's administrators). Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
This website of a computing lab at the University of Catania, Italy, publishes information about research on 3D and laser scanner modelling carried out at the lab. The focus of the lab is on Aegean prehistory (Minoan archaeology) and Classical Greece. Only a few pictures of the digital models are currently available, but there are also a list of publications and contacts of the principal investigators for those interested. Among the 3D models are Phaistos, Ayia Triada, Polizzello and some pictures of Kamares culture. The laser scanner models include the Greek torso of the God Asclepius from Syracuse, a wooden head from a Sicilian Christian church, and Hellenistic Thysia (Catania). There are some useful videos for some of the laser scanner models. Students and researchers interested in 3D modelling and laser scanner use in archaeology may find this website useful.
This website is devoted to archaeological projects undertaken at Argilos, an ancient site on a hill (Palaiokastro) close to the Strymon delta in northern Greece. One of the main aims of the Greek-Canadian team involved in excavations here is to develop understanding of Greek colonies in the northwest Aegean around the seventh century BC. The website gives details of research objectives and work carried out so far, as well as information on the history of Argilos. Results of the recent excavations (since 1998) are presented here with clarity through short illustrated articles. Each article contains useful plans and colour pictures of the site and of objects found there. Information is included on pottery; small finds; public and domestic architecture (including a building where olives were pressed); the necropolis; coinage; and epigraphic evidence. The website also gives information on the field school for students at Argilos (students may apply online), along with a bibliography of relevant publications and a contact list of scholars and staff involved in the excavation.
This website is part of the Digital Library for International Research, a project of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC), and it publishes the first six volumes (1991-1999) of the "Arkeoloji Dergisi" journal. Papers are written in Turkish, German, French, and English and are accessible as individual full-text PDF files, with searchable text. The journal focuses on Greek archaeology and culture (e.g. red-figure ceramics; administrative system of the Attalids; the cult of Apollon; Roman roads), with several papers on artefacts and sites discovered in Turkey.
These Web pages contain photographs of archaeological remains (architectural features and sculpture) from Athens and the surrounding region of Attica. The following sites are featured: the Akropolis (Acropolis); the agora; the Kerameikos; the Pnyx; the Olympieion; the region of Attica; Sounion; and Thorikos. Each has its own section of the website where the user may access images of buildings (in their present state), sculptures and some inscriptions. Brief descriptions are provided for each photograph, along with relevant bibliography. The photographs are clear, and the site is easy to navigate; this is therefore a useful visual resource for archaeologists and classicists.
This resource provides online photos of Ancient Art and Architecture, covering material from the Ancient Near East, Ancient Egypt, Minoan and Mycenaean civilisations, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Greece, and Rome. The pages are part of Art Images for College Teaching, a database of visual resources for use in education, a project that also covers arts of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods, the eighteenth to twentieth century, and also non-Western art. The author encourages users to contribute their own images, and the value of the site will increase with user involvement. The admirable intention and large scope of the database is at present restricted by a limited depth. In its current state, the site is of most value to the general public who would desire a general overview, although there is inevitably some imbalance in that the resource can only use the photos that it has. Thus there are photos of the sculpture of East pediment of the Parthenon, but none of the West, nor a view of the temple as a whole. The temples at Paestum receive a significant proportion of images. The Erechtheion is represented by two 'Caryatids', and not the temple as a whole. There is a reasonable selection of Archaic and Early Classical Greek sculpture, but later and famous works attributed to Praxiteles, Lysippus or Polyclitus are absent. Egyptian art is represented by eleven images. Roman architecture and sculpture receives more, with 5 pages, but is similarly selective. There are a number of factual errors, such as the mislabelling of Parthenon South metope 28, and East pediment figure G. No measurements are provided with the photos. The descriptions provide identification, location and date, although bibliography is provided for each image. If the author's hopes and intentions are satisfied, this resource could be of immense use for novices to ancient art.
The official website of the International Association for Classical Archaeology (AIAC) publishes a short history of the association and news about events, publications and other activities related to the association and its members, including recent annual reports as PDF files. There is information on how to register (for a fee) and the benefits (e.g. discounts on books and free access to some museums) offered to members. The AIACNews newsletter can also be downloaded in PDF files. One useful service is a series of calendars of events, mostly focusing on Greek and Roman cultures and antiquities in both Athens and Rome, as well as a list of meetings and conferences at international level. These are the "Roman archaeological agenda"; "Roman cultural agenda"; "Athens archaeological agenda"; "Conferences" and "Lectures in the world" sections. The lists of events are comprehensive and worth checking. The association itself often organises meetings and conferences; details of forthcoming meetings and conferences are available on the website. This website may be helpful to researchers in Classical archaeology, especially those planning to visit Italy or Greece. Postgraduate students and researchers may also be interested in becoming members of the association.
This website about the early excavations at Assos, Turkey, is part of the American magazine "Archaeology" and contains two illustrated articles: "The Assos Journals of Francis H. Bacon" and "Assos and Early AIA Excavations". The former article contains extracts from the journal of Francis H. Bacon dated from 1881 to 1883 and published in the issue of April 1974, while the latter article had already been published in the printed edition of Archaeology in April 1968. The articles also reference the excavations of Cyrene, Libya, by the Archaeological Institute of America (AIA); a few articles on modern and historical excavations at Cyrene can also be accessed from this website. Both articles are relevant to the history of archaeology and present a well documented case study for students.
The American School of Classical Studies has been excavating in the area of the Athenian Agora since 1931. The main focus of attention has been the Agora of the 5th and 4th centuries BC but finds from the archaeological site span the periods from the Late Neolithic to the 20th century. The website presents an extensive "Site Tour" including Quicktime panoramas. There are (section "Plans and Drawings") plans of the site at various historical phases and reconstruction models (again as Quicktime) of some of the major buildings as well as pictures of the outdoor sections of the agora ("Architecture and Topography"). Section "Excavations" contains short excavation reports which focus particularly on the artefacts. Some of the artefacts presented are still unpublished and therefore to access these artefacts in the catalogue it is necessary to have permission and registration details from the American School of Classical Studies. The rest of the illustrated catalogue is freely accessible and divided in sections "Black and Plain Pottery"; "Red Figured and White Ground"; "Hellenistic Pottery and Wheelmade Table Ware"; and "Greek Coins". The latest preliminary report can be found in section "Recent Excavations". Section "Resources" outlines the contents of the webiste. Anyone interested in ancient Greece may find this website useful.
Several publications have been made available in HTML format or through Google Books and can be freely accessed in section "Agora Publications". Among the publications are guides; a few volumes of the Athenian Agora Monographs (Vol.12 Black and Plain Pottery; Vol. 26 The Greek Coins; Vol. 29 Hellenistic Pottery; and Vol. 30 Attic Red-Figured and White-Ground Pottery); "The Birth of Democracy" (catalogue of exhibition); "The Athenian Citizen: Democracy in the Athenian Agora"; "The Games at Athens"; "Horses and Horsemanship in the Athenian Agora"; "Ancient Athenian Building Methods"; "Graffiti in the Athenian Agora"; books on coins; "Waterworks in the Athenian Agora"; "Miniature Sculpture from the Athenian Agora" and others. At the time of review access to some titles was difficult and some titles appears mixed (e.g. "Amphoras and the Ancient Wine Trade"); the alternative "list of all publications" may be used.
This is the official website of the Australian Archaeological Institute at Athens (AAIA). It includes information on the Institute and membership; its library and hostel; scholarships; fieldwork projects; and publications. Among the fieldwork projects of the Institute are the excavations at Torone; the Paliochora-Kythera survey; and the excavations at Zagora. There is a short summary of the work carried out at Torone with a useful timeline; the work has concentrated on the Greek and Roman periods and of particular interest are some terracotta figurines from domestic contexts and theatrical subject. Some basic information is also provided for the survey at Paliochora. The full text AAIA Bulletin is available in PDF format.
The Barbarians on the Periphery website offers an informative and well-illustrated hypertext presentation, based on a doctoral thesis by Constanze Maria Witt (University of Virginia, 1997) on the origins of Celtic art in Central and Western Europe in the Urnfield and Hallstatt periods (circa 1000-500 BC). Witt attempts to combine contemporary anthropological theory with up-to-date art historical analysis. The site includes six essays covering contemporary perception of Celtic art and culture, methodological issues, 'Mediterranean interactions', ethnic and cultural identity, mortuary analysis, drinking and banquets, and sex and gender. Furthermore, there are excellent picture essays (including maps) on ten of the main Celtic archaeological sites of Continental Europe (Dürnberg; Glauberg; Hallstatt; Heuneburg; Hirschlanden; Hochdorf; Kleinaspergle; Reinheim; Vix; and Waldalgesheim). The site also provides dedicated picture essays on flagons and wagons, and a substantial bibliography.
The Mertens-Pack 3 database project by the University of Liège stores the information from the "Catalogue des papyrus littéraires grecs et latins", or Mertens-Pack 3, into a database powered website. The website is still under development and only partly translated in English from French; readers are advised to check the French version first. The bibliographic catalogue appears complete and can be searched by using a convenient web form; it is also possible to perform a search by selecting the name of an ancient author. For each literary work, any search in the catalogue returns the papyri containing any part of the text; the essential bibliography and when available hyperlinks to pictures. Thematic general bibliographies are available for "Alexandria docta"; "Pharmacopoea Aegyptia et Graeco-Aegyptia"; "Liber Antiquus". A few pages contain information about CEDOPAL, its activities and publications. By clicking on "Restoration of P. Leodienses" it is possible to access some information on the restoration of papyri; there is also an informative 15 minutes movie available at different quality and size. This is a very useful bibliographic and papyrological source of information for researchers, as it is the printed version of Mertens-Pack 3.
The Beazley Archive is a research unit of the University of Oxford's Faculty of Literae Humaniores; this is its website. The original archive of Sir John Beazley (1885-1970) included about 250,000 photographs, notes, drawings and books relating to ancient Greek and Roman art. In 1979 information technology (IT) projects began with the Pottery Database of Athenian figure-decorated vases of the 7th-4th centuries BC. Since 1992 IT projects on other aspects of classical art have been created. This website displays information about the Archive, including publications and bibliographies, and gives access to the IT projects and databases. These include: gems; pottery; sculpture; and the dictionary. For example: Pottery - The Beazley Archive text database records information about Athenian figure-decorated vases illustrated in publications available to the Ashmolean Library. Begun in 1979, it now has over 67,000 entries, with fourteen fields, including bibliographical references, find-place, shape and iconographical terms. In 1992 the Archive began to participate in a European Union project (RAMA) linking the collections of seven museums across Europe via the Internet. This project enabled the Beazley Archive to begin digitising its photographs and drawings. These include a vast collection of images of classical sites. An enhanced version of the original database is now available via the website (users may search for images according to location). The Dictionary feature of the resource is an excellent alphabetical guide to classical sites and terminology (including references to places, technical terms, buildings, people, gods and other figures from myth); each explanatory entry is accompanied by relevant images from the archive's collection. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement Scheme.
One of the finest and most diverse collections in Athens, and also the oldest in Greece, it is no surprise to find that the Benaki Museum's website is exemplary in form and content. It offers all the necessary information for the prospective visitor, including QuickTime movies of many of the galleries, details of past, present and future collections, and overviews of the collections. A journey through the museum passes through Ancient Greece and the Roman period, the Byzantine period, the Frankish and Ottoman occupations, to the struggle for independence in the nineteenth century and the establishment of the Greek state thereafter. Each section is represented by a selection of choice artefacts, the illustrations of which can be enlarged. The Museum also holds important collections of historic heirlooms, over 6000 paintings and drawings by Greek artists and those who visited or were inspired by the country, as well as Coptic, Chinese (largely the gifts of George Eumorphopoulos) and Islamic art and a collection of Toys and Games from Greece and the wider world. There is admirable attention to the history of the museum, with special features on the founder, Antonis Benakis, and other significant donors, as well as the building itself (the Benakis' residence in Athens) and plans for the division of the collection (the Islamic collection, the Department of Historical Archives, and the collection of Toys and Games) and their prospective homes. The Museum's Archive collection is particularly important, and there are separate pages for the Historical (much relating to the Greek War of Independence and the later rise of Eleftherios Venizelos), Neo-Hellenic Architecture and Photography archives. The last has further links to pages devoted to James Robertson, Nelly's, Voula Papaioannou and Dimitris Harissiadis, all of which are well illustrated. All three archives are responsible for publications, details of which are listed.
This website presents the excavations of Berenike, a Graeco-Roman harbour located in Egypt on the Red Sea. Berenike was founded by Ptolemy II (Philadelphos), king of Egypt, using the name of his mother. Its initial purpose was to establish the provision of elephants from Africa after the Indian route had been blocked by the Seleucids in the Near East. Because of the protected and strategic position of the harbour, the Romans eventually transformed it into an emporium on the route of spices such as myrrh, frankincense, and pearls, as well as textiles. This website offers: an overview of the site in antiquity and in the present day; the illustrated preliminary reports of the excavations; an updated bibliography; some details of the excavations; and a series of illustrated papers read at conferences. The papers include topics such as 'Long distance trade at Berenike'; 'Religions in Berenike'; 'Ring cairn graves of Berenike' and 'The Palmyra connection'. Interested researchers may contact the project directors to obtain a password which provides access to the database of findings.
The Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem contains collections encompassing all great civilisations surrounding Israel, including Greece, Egypt, the Levant and Mesopotamia. There is a short history of the museum and its founder, Dr Elie Borowski, as well as pictures from some of the artefacts in the permanent collection and a QuickTime VR tour of the rooms. Past and forthcoming events (lectures, conferences, special exhibitions, etc.) are listed and described with some illustrations or even a full interactive catalogue (e.g. Three Faces of Monotheism). Section "study resources" also publishes a list of books and periodicals from the museum's library that are being sold: this may interest some researchers. There is also an online shop selling publications, gifts and reproductions and it is possible to subscribe to a mailing list diffusing announcements. The website does not provide much information on the collections, though at the time of review more information was forthcoming. Yet, students and researchers may find useful information, even if they do not plan a trip to the museum.
This website publishes the free and full-text online edition of the "Bibliothèques de l'Ecole française d'Athènes et de Rome - Série Athènes", a series of monographs published by the French School of Athens. Almost all volumes have been made available; it is possible that missing volumes will be published in the future. This collection of volumes is often outdated in many parts, but can still be a precious reference for researchers. It focuses on Greek archaeology, history, art and literature. Among the studies are those on the Athenian trireme (La Trière athénienne. Étude d’archéologie navale); the frontier on the Euphrates (La frontière de l’Euphrate de Pompée à la conquête arabe); Etruscan and Villanovan Bologna (Bologne étrusque et villanovienne); Aelius Aristide; Cycladic pottery (La céramique des Cyclades); Callimacus (Callimaque et son oeuvre poétique); several volumes on Delos; the sphinx; the defeat of 404 BC for Athens (Athènes devant la défaite de 404. Histoire d’une crise idéologique); Minoan tholoi, especially from the Mesara Plain, and Mycenaean tholoi (Tholoi, tumuli et cercles funéraires. Recherches sur les monuments funéraires de plan circulaire dans l’Égée de l’Âge du Bronze); Mycenaean ivories; Lysander of Sparta; the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age of Greece (Le Néolithique et le Bronze Ancien égéens); the sanctuary of Poseidon and Amphitrite at Ténos (Ténos. Le sanctuaire de Poséidon et d’Amphitrite); and many others. This website may be useful to both researchers and students.
This is the official website of the Bova Marina archaeological project, which contains information and preliminary reports on the fieldwork carried out since 1997. Bova Marina is located in southern Calabria and has yielded Neolithic, Bronze Age and Classical period artefacts. The articles in English and Italian are clear and concise, and are valuable as introductions to the archaeological sites or as a source of images. The referenced preliminary reports are available in PDF format from the bibliography section and anybody needing more than a summary introduction should head there immediately. The reports are usually well edited: there is a summary in Italian, illustrated sections on all work carried out and a bibliography (most references point to previous reports, but these are nonetheless useful). However, the early reports do not have pictures and are understandably shorter (there is a warning on the website about this). The most recent reports are very large and approach the quality of full publications, focusing on detailed contexts and tranches. It would be already commendable to have regular preliminary reports, but the quality of these reports should be prized. The detail of the reports limit the potential readership to researchers specifically interested in the local archaeology or on the site, as obviously preliminary reports are not the correct place for broader generalisations. The website also provides contact details of all current members of the project. The project has been funded by the AHRC.
This website contains a selection of the free online ‘Occasional Papers’ published by the British Museum. At the time of writing, these (the result of specific research into the museum’s collections) were varied in range and included: ‘A researcher's guide to the Lachish collection in the British Museum’ covering the 17,000 objects from the 1930s British excavations at Lachish in Israel; ‘Sir Aurel Stein, proceedings of the British Museum study day’ a useful reference for the study of the “scholar, explorer, author”; ‘Albrecht Dürer and his Legacy ‘, the result of a conference accompanying the landmark 2002 exhibition of the same name; ‘Cleaning and Controversy: The Parthenon Sculptures 1811-1939’ a study of the controversial 1930s cleaning of the Elgin marbles, and the historical context of this; ‘Development and evaluation of the HSBC Money Gallery at the British Museum’ a narration the creation of a new and important gallery at the museum, and a study of its impact; ‘Access to Museum Culture: the British Museum from 1753 to 1836’ a study of the early access arrangements to the museum’s collections. Each of these PDF documents is broken down by chapter for ease of reference and speed of download.
The British School at Athens' website provides information about the School; its activities and organised events; its museum and archive; its library; and the archaeological site of Knossos. A list of present and past members is available and there is information on how to become a member. The website provides access to the library of the School; lists the publications by the School including the Annual; and publishes events organised by the School; field and bursary opportunities in Greece; it details how to become a friend or member; and how to apply for permits or the facilities available to the School's members, including the Fitch Research Laboratory and the hostels. The School organises courses for both undergraduates and postgraduates. This websites is an essential resource for researchers wishing to carry out research in Greece.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR) is a regularly-updated online journal which publishes reviews, written by academics, of books on a whole range of classical subjects (since 1990). The reviews are generally longer than one expects to find within a scholarly journal, often giving a chapter-by-chapter summary of the work as well as critical comment. BMCR also publishes responses to reviews (and occasionally responses to the responses). The website gives access to all reviews published since 1990 and a simple search interface. The website also includes instructions for viewing Greek characters online, as well as guidelines for reviewers. The reviews are relevant to both Classics and Classical archaeology and may be useful to bot researchers and students.
The Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (BCH) is a major academic journal publishing papers and excavation reports related to the research activities carried out by members of the French School of Athens; all contents are in French. The Bulletin is well known by both scholars and students interested in the archaeology of Greece and it is an essential publication on Aegean, Minoan, Mycenaean, Greek and Byzantine archaeology. The journal publishes two issues every year, the first issue contains academic papers and the second one contains further papers and the excavation reports of excavations run by the French School or in which the School participates; news and summaries about all excavations carried out that year in Greece are also included. It is possible to perform searches of the journal, but full-text search of the contents is not available. At the time of review all issues from 1877 to 2000 were included; newer issues are also planned to be digitised, but will probably appear online a few years later after the printed version. However, the available issues remain of paramount importance for any scholar or student. This website should be an essential tool of work to study the archaeology of ancient Greece.
In separate sections can be found also the volumes of the tables of contents, which could prove very handy, and the "Suppléments au Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique", which publishes a series of monographs. Among the available volumes in the series are: "Iconographie classique et identités régionales" (Classical iconography and regional identity); "Les villes de Macédoine à l’époque romaine" (The Macedonian villas of Roman period); "Recherches sur la céramique byzantine" (researches on Byzantine ceramics, proceedings); "L’habitat égéen préhistorique" (the prehistoric Aegean environment, proceedings); "La Vallée de l’Énipeus en Thessalie" (the Enipeus Valley in Thessaly); "Polydipsion Argos. Argos de la fin des palais mycéniens à la constitution de l’État classique" (Argos from the end of Mycenaean palaces to the constitution of the Classical state, proceedings); "Les ateliers de potiers dans le monde grec aux époques géométrique, archaïque et classique" (the workshops of ceramists in the Greek world during the Geometric, Archaic and Classical periods, proceedings); "Dikili Tash. Village préhistorique de Macédoine orientale" (Dikili Tash, prehistoric village in eastern Macedonia); Mykénaïka (proceedings of the 9th international conference on Mycenaean and Aegean texts, 1992); "La Crète mycénienne" (Mycenaean Crete, proceedings, 1997); and "Delphes cent ans après la Grande fouille. Essai de bilan" (Delphi a century after the great excavation, proceedings, 2000).
This website publishes the free and full-text online version of the Bulletin des Études Grecques Modernes et Contemporaines. The Bulletin is a publication of the French School of Athens that contains news about recent and ongoing researches in the field of modern and contemporary Greece as well as bibliographic material. New issues will appear here a few years after the printed version is published. This website may be useful primarily to researchers in history or archaeology.
This website focuses on the town of Butrint, Albania and is aimed primarily at the general public and an undergraduate audience. Section "Explore Butrint" contains most information relevant to archaeology. This is a multimedia-rich and lavishly illustrated website, and already in the first section it is possible to find some large QuickTime panoramas as well as a nice interactive feature on the development of the town through time using a series of reconstructions and pictures. However, the numbered pages do not follow a chronological order, which would see the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Venetian cultures enrich the area. Section "Beyond Butrint" attempts to look at the broader area, clearly promoting tourism in the area. The other sections of the website indeed provide information on visiting the site and region, including practicalities, and some short facts that will appeal the learned tourist. Of course, this is also a good example of how archaeology can be used to promote a positive image of a region until recently politically unstable as well as favour the economy of an impoverished region. Abibliography is available as PDF file.
The Butrint Foundation was founded for the conservation and preservation of the ancient city of Butrint and its hinterland. The earliest settlement at Butrint dates from the Bronze Age. It became an independent city in the 3rd century BC. The city passed through Greek, Roman, Slav, Byzantine, Venetian, and Turkish control. It was abandoned in the Late Medieval period. There are substantial remains from the all periods of occupation; the archaeological site is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The website describes the history of the site and the archaeological activities being undertaken. The regular excavation reports are published under "Annual report". A full bibliography of the archaeological site is available. There are links to other websites, and news about current projects (notably there is a "virtual Butrint" project). Butrint is the first archaeological site of Albania to have been excavated and promoted to the public after the collapse of the communist regime. It has been a success story and hopefully other Albanian sites will be modelled as this one. The website provides a useful gateway to plenty of information on several aspects of this challenging enterprise and it may interest both students and researchers in archaeology and cultural management.
The website of the Canadian Institute in Greece (CIG), formerly the Canadian Archaeological Institute at Athens (CAIA) gives details of the Institute's research, archaeological projects, services and staff. Included here is information on membership and the facilities of CIG (including a library and a hostel for members), as well as events held by the Institute (such as lectures, colloquia and study tours). Most importantly, however, is the information given here concerning ongoing fieldwork projects. These are: excavations at Argilos (Macedonia); an underwater survey near Mount Athos; and surveys and analysis of finds on Crete, Lesbos, Euboea and in Arcadia. Details are also given of completed fieldwork at Khostia and Tanagra (Boeotia) and Kiapha Thiti (Attica), along with lists of the CIG's publications on these projects. The website also contains a section listing useful links for travellers to Greece, as well as relevant Canadian links.
The Center for Epigraphical and Palaeological Studies site includes information about forthcoming events and courses (some of which are open to the general public) and offers several short-term post-doctoral fellowships in Greek and Latin epigraphy. The site (which is part of the Department of Greek and Latin at the Ohio State University) contains links to other related web-sites as well as images of inscriptions and manuscripts (ranging from Attic inscriptions to mediaeval Latin manuscripts). Unfortunately, as the site is still under construction most of these images are as yet unavailable, and so when one clicks on the images for Greek or Roman 'squeezes' (a plaster cast representation of an inscription) one is simply presented with a list of reference numbers. The dated Attic inscriptions do have pictures, but the images come without even the most basic commentary of what this inscription is, a reproduction of the text or translation, or the context in which it was found (all of which are essential). Reference numbers are provided so that one can look these inscriptions up in the relevant books which have all this pertinent information (but this defies the point of putting it on the web-site in the first place).
Harvard's Center for Hellenic Studies (CHS) website publishes information on staff, activities and research at the centre. The most useful part of the website for researchers is the "Virtual Center", where it is possible to access several online publications including the journal Classics@. The online books section includes Cheryl Walker's doctoral dissertation "Hostages in Republican Rome"; Douglas Frame's "The Myth of Return in Early Greek Epic" (ISBN 0300019408); Gregory Nagy's "Homeric Questions" (ISBN 0292755627); and Casey Dué's "Homeric Variations on a Lament by Briseis" (ISBN 0742522199) as well as the transcript of some lectures. Classics@ is a full-text online journal (contributions welcome) with thematic issues (e.g. Posidippus, computing and classics, Homer, etc.). First Drafts@Classics@ publishes pre-print papers and books. "Homer and the Papyri" is a fully searchable database of Homeric papyri and it is the backbone of the "Homer Multitext Project", which will present the textual transmission of the Iliad and Odyssey and taking in account the different historical contexts in which these works were written and transmitted. This website may be useful to researchers of ancient Greece.
The "Centro ricerche archeologiche e scavi di Torino" focuses on research in the Middle East and publishes on its official website short illustrated reports of its field activities. The reports are available selecting "progetti" from the menu on the top and then "progetti di ricerca". It is possible to access the individual reports by browsing by name or using a convenient map. Reports are available for excavations carried out in Italy (GIS survey of the Verbano, Cusio and Ossola area; virtual reconstruction of a Greek capitel from the Greek temple at Marasí , Locri Epizefiri; temple E of Selinunte); Tunisia (Carthage; Colonia Iulia Pietas Tertiadecimanorum Uthina); Lebanon (Beirut); Jordan (Jerash); Iraq (Seleucia on the Tigris; Choche; Nimrud; Hatra; Hamrin dam; Kifrin; Eski Mosul dam; Ninive; museum of Baghdad); Iran; Turkmenistan (Nisa - Mithradatkert); Pakistan (Udegram). Most reports are just introductions to the research projects and contain limited useful information. Among the most interesting and referenced reports are those of Carthage, focusing on the ancient harbours of the Punic town, between the second and third Punic war (202-146 BC); Nisa, focusing on clay figurines, rhyta, marble and metal sculptures; Seleucia, focusing on clay figurines, ceramics, seals and architectural structures such as the archives, the stoa and the southern square; Nimrud, focusing on artistic finds dated to the period of king Sin-shar-riskum; and Nineveh, focusing on the conservation of the palace of Sennacherib.
This website publishes the free and full-text digital edition of Champs Helléniques Modernes et Contemporains, a series of monograph by the French School of Athens focusing on modern and contemporary Greek culture, as well as the modern perception of Greek antiquities. Among the published volumes are "La diaspora hellénique en France"; "Les politiques de l’archéologie du milieu du XIXe à l’orée du XXIe siècle"; and "Les mishellénismes". All volumes are proceedings of conferences and further volumes are expected to appear here a few years after the printed version is published. Since Classical Greek culture has had a strong influence on many cultures, including modern ones, this collection of papers may be useful to a broad range of students and researchers, especially in archaeology and history.
The ancient Greek colony of Chersonesos was founded in the sixth century BC by colonists from Heraklea Pontika. It is located in the extreme southwest corner of the Crimea region of Ukraine. The territory, or chora, of Chersonesos is a well-preserved example of ancient countryside. Many of the stone farmhouses and much of the dense grid of country lanes still exist. In 1992 the University of Texas and Archaeological and Historical Museum of Chersonesos began a joint project examining the chora. This website gives an introduction to the project and brief reports on excavations carried out in 1997, 1998, and 2000. The parent page, the Institute of Classical Archaeology home page, has links to photographic galleries and QuickTime panoramas associated with the project. A separate website on Chersonesos has been published.
Chiron is an organisation formed by Spanish teachers of Classics and their website acts as a portal providing general information on the group (including on the courses organised by Chiron). Among the services are a space for blogs; a Wiki; a collection of bookmarks; a gallery of photographs that can be used for teaching (over 20,000 pictures at the time of review); and a series of online videos relating to classical topics. The aim of the group is to provide a series of Web tools useful in teaching classics that are relevant and tested by other teachers. Many of the resources are in Spanish, but the community is already starting to translate some resources and aims at creating an international community. Teachers in Classics (and classical archaeology) at all levels should visit this website and possibly participate and contribute in developing this community.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and focuses on the site of Amathonte, southern Cyprus. Amathonte is a Classical site that was inhabited between the 8th century BC and 7th century AD. Among the monuments unearthed are: the necropoleis; the agora: several houses and two palaeo-Christian basilicas; the wall; the harbour; a temple dedicated to Aphrodite. This website contains several illustrated articles on individual buildings, and on aspects of research. The article focusing on the harbour contains a drawn reconstruction of a machine that was probably stationed there. The website also includes an extensive bibliography, organised by categories of research. Several plans of individual buildings and the whole town are available in the 'diaporama' (gallery) section, where higher resolution copies of all pictures in the articles are accessible. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
The Claros website is a computerised concordance of the editions of ancient Greek inscriptions aimed at making it easier for specialist epigraphers and more general linguists, archaeologists and classicists to locate new editions of epigraphic texts published in the last 100 years. The database, published by the Diccionario Griego-Espanõl at the Instituto de Filologia in Madrid, assembles all the concordances found at the end of epigraphical publications as well as providing some new concordances for volumes of the Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum and other corpora which were originally published without them. While not exhaustive, the selection of material in the database is impressive and, along with the large bibliography which is also included, will be a major resource for researchers in classics, archaeologists and related. The website is available in Spanish, English and French.
This is an umbrella website for the promotion of the study of the Classics in the United Kingdom, which is aimed both at schools and universities, in particular to encourage more students to take up courses at both levels. The site aims to answer questions such as 'why study Classics?' and provides information about studying classical subjects at a variety of institutions, as well as highlighting the role of the classical world in popular culture, film and the media. Links are given to the websites of the major associations promoting Classics in the UK, as well as to other online resources of interest to the classicist (this is organised by theme). A short reading list also provides a guide to some introductory works on the classical world for those interested in finding out more. This is an ideal site for prospective undergraduate students or those already engaged in the study of the ancient Greek and Roman world.
This is the website of CNRS Info, an online publication of the French National Council of Research. A special issue on archaeology dated 2000 is available full-text and summarises French archaeological research across the globe. It also includes some articles on environmental archaeology and archaeometry. The several illustrated articles are organised by region, with articles on French sites being also subgrouped according to chronological period, from the Palaeolithic to the historical period. Among the sites are: Closeau, near Rueil-Malmaison (France, Palaeolithic); Le Mourral, Trèbes (France, Neolithic); Rhí´ne Valley (France); medieval Marseille (France); Jerf el Ahmar (Syria); Alexandria (Egypt); Tahiti (French Polynesia). The site of Jerf el Ahmar is particularly important as it has been studied in relation to the emergence of agriculture and the social impact it had. There is a map, a small bibliography, a few pictures and a glossary in PDF format. Overall, this website can be very useful as it contains many summaries of important researches and provides a French perspective on state-funded research. The home page is quite confusing as the summaries of all issues of CNRS Info are provided and none of them contains any article on archaeology. Moreover, from within each article it is only possible to return to the home page. This unnumbered issue between issues 384 and 385 is in reality a separate volume that has been almost "buried". Researchers may find this website useful.
This is a website detailing the collection of coins from the ancient Greek city of Ephesus in the Museum of Ancient Cultures in Macquarie University; it is presented as a study aid for students of ancient history and related subjects but also for the interest of the general public. Ephesus was famous throughout classical antiquity for its great temple of Artemis, which no doubt contributed to the prosperity of the city, but the site is also important for producing the earliest finds of coinage in the ancient world and from the 6th century BC was producing distinctive issues recognisible by the use of the deer and the bee as symbols of the polis. The website consists of a series of 10 illustrated chapters outlining the history, iconography and cultural and religious symbolism of the coinage of Ephesus. There are also chapters on women from the ruling class in Ephesus, the relationship between the city and its neighbours (and ultimately with the expanding Roman republic), and on the temple and cult of Ephesian Artemis, together with a succinct bibliography. Finally, there is also an interactive gallery of the coins themselves. The result is a fascinating social, economic and political history as reflected in its monetary issues.
This is the website for the Corinth Computer Project, which is based at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States. The project was founded in 1988 with the aim of developing a computerized architectural and topographical survey of the Roman colony of Corinth. The project is particularly concerned with uncovering information about the different stages of the city's development and the impact of non-Roman influences, including Hellenistic, Byzantine and Venetian. There is also an emphasis on research into Roman strategies of city planning. The site offers a detailed methodological essay about the project as well as information about Corinth in Greek, Roman and modern times. The text in each section is accompanied by city plans and photographs, including a number of photographs of the process of excavation, and of the regional landscape. The 'reference' section of the site also provides a glossary of archaeological terms used, a bibliography and links to selected resources for classicists on the Internet. The Corinth Computer Project is a well thought-out scholarly website which has won a number of awards.
The city of Corinth, one of the richest and most important urban centres in ancient Greece, has been excavated by the American School of Classical Studies in Athens for more than a century. This attractively presented website is part of an on-going project to present some of the discoveries in digital form with special emphasis on aspects of planning and urban layout in the colony of Roman Corinth from 44 B.C. onwards as well as providing a critical guide to the various descriptions, written and artistic, of the ancient city from the 17th to the 20th centuries A.D.Highlights of the site include attractively illustrated discussions of both the urban layout and its buildings and on landscape organisation in the surrounding territory accompanied by quality maps, interactive site plans and digital terrain and digital elevation models. Travellers accounts of the topography of Corinth between the 17th-20th are deconstructed using insights drawn from ethnography while techniques of local history are employed to reconstruct parts of the ancient city now covered by the modern village of Corinth. Other features include a glossary of ancient architectural and planning terms and a bibliography for further study. An interactive site plan of the ancient city provides a building by building analysis of the architecture in addition to a 360' photographic panorama of the modern terrain. QuickTime and Autodesk Whip plug-ins are required for these features but online technical help is provided where necessary. In addition to providing an attractive resource for study for undergraduates and researchers, the Corinth Computer Project website is a valuable addition to the corpus of websites which create an interface between archaeology and digital imaging.
The Corinth Excavations website gives brief details of the excavations at Corinth which serve as a field laboratory and training ground for the American School of Classical Studies. The web pages concentrate on the facilities available at the excavation site and the staff involved in the research. There are also brief reports on the results of the excavations carried out between 1998 to 2002 together with links to other web sites about excavation in and around Corinth.
This website provides an introduction to the archaeological research at the city-state of Halai in central Greece together with a description of the on-going excavation and survey work carried out by the Cornell Halai and East Lokris Project (CHELP) directed by Dr John Coleman. Halai was first settled in the Neolithic period and then, after a break in occupation, was continuously occupied from the Archaic to the Byzantine periods (c700 B.C. to 1300 A.D.). The website provides a period by period guide to the main architectural and artefactual discoveries at the site together with a series of annual reports and research papers on various aspects of the site and its surrounding area. There also is a searchable database of artefacts from the site. The resource also includes an extensive bibliography, including publications by earlier excavators at Halai, and a image library of almost over 250 pictures. A clickable AutoCAD map of the acropolis shows the different phases of occupation and provides useful plans of the excavated areas. The website is easily navigable thanks to a series of indices and a search facility. The website contains also galleries of pictures (maps, drawings and photographs) of the sites of Kephala in Keos, Elean Pylos, and Alambra in Cyprus. This website will be of use to both undergraduate students and researchers, particularly to those interested in the development of the Greek city-state.
The Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum (CVA) website makes available online an illustrated catalogue of ancient vases. The CVA was a project initiated in 1919 by Edmond Pottier of the Union Académique National. Its aim was to produce a series of monographs documenting all the ancient vases from Egypt, Mesopotamia and Europe preserved in museums. The website presents digitized versions of all the out of print fascicules, more than 250 in total. The website is quite simple, with just a few lines on the project and a few pictures outlining the contents of the catalogue. The database of vases is browsable by modern country or museum name. A search facility allows users to filter the entire database. This is a monumental project that is well known to all archaeologists interested in this field. Users will find the website useful and neatly designed, but the search facility requires some prior knowledge of ancient ceramics. Details of the vases are often scanty, without comments or interpretive notes, but there are good quality black and white pictures. This is a specialist website based on a resource that has long become a reference work.
Published by the Center for the Study of Architecture at Bryn Mawr, Philadelpia, the CSA Newsletter contains information about applications of computers and other technology to scholarly work by archaeologists and architectural historians. The newsletter is published three times a year, and from Spring 2000 the newsletter is only available via the Web (together with a selection of back issues from 1990). A typical issue contains around eight short articles on topics such as CAD modelling, database creation, and digital imaging together with news from the CSA.
This is the website of the Propylaea project of the Center for the Study of Architecture (CSA); the project concentrates on a single building, the Propylaea, which is the gateway to the Athenian Acropolis. The website makes extensive use of computer aided design (CAD) techniques; detailed information about the survey methods used is provided here. In addition to a general introduction to the building, and an essential bibliography, the website provides access to several pictures accessible through plans of the building; the plans identify the angle at which the pictures were taken and the pictures are grouped accordingly. A CAD model of the Propylaea in DWG format is freely downloadable; it requires at least a browser plug-in to translate it to a virtual reality model, but would be most useful to those with previous knowledge of and access to CAD software.
"The Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute" website publishes information about the activities of the institute in Cyprus, including fellowships; lodgings in Cyprus; and access to archival materials. The most useful resource for those not wishing to use any services provided by the Institute is the bi-annual "CAARI News" newsletter, published in PDF format, which summarises and highlights the most recent activities of the Institute. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This specialist resource is an online edition of Dr Nicolle Hirschfeld's 1996 book The PASP database for the uses of scripts on Cyprus (Minos Supplement 13) which aims in the long-term to provide a comprehensive account of all the ancient inscriptions and glyphs from Cyprus, whether on stone, clay or metal and coin. The people of the island of Cyprus employed a variety of writing systems to record their spoken languages in the Bronze and Iron Ages, including the syllabic Cypro-Minoan and Cypro-Classical scripts as well as alphabetic Greek and Phoenician letters. The current database includes Cypro-Minoan writings from the Late Bronze Age circa 1700-1000 BCE which record an undeciphered language (or languages) and the closely related Cypro-Classical script of the succeeding Iron Age which lasted down to the 3rd century BC when it was displaced by the Greek alphabet. Cypro-Classical was used to record both the local Greek dialect and an undeciphered tongue called Eteo-Cypriot. Phoenician and Roman inscriptions will be added in future editions of the database, in addition to the inscriptions in cuneiform, Egyptian and Ugaritic which have also been found in the island. The database is searchable by inscription number, object type, geographical context, nature and material and is prefaced by various instructions on how to use the data. This resource will benefit researchers in the ancient writings and scripts of the Mediterranean world, particularly those interested in the transmission of the alphabet to the Greek world and the interaction of cultures in the region in the Bronze and Iron Age, as well as more general students of Cypriot and Near Eastern archaeology.
The Danish National Research Foundation's Centre for Black Sea Studies website contains plenty of information about the centre and its research activities on the Greek Pontos Euxeinos. The centre focuses on studying the period between 400 BC and 100 AD. The centre supports interdisciplinary projects concentrating on cultural, ethnic (especially among Scythians, Persians and Greeks) and economic interactions, including trade, exchange and communication. Researchers at the centre have field projects at many archaeological sites, including Sinop; Olbia; Panskoe I; and Djangul'. Other topics covered by researchers at the centre include coinage; kurgan burials; Romanisation; and (inspired by contemporary news) long term climate changes in the region. Section "publications" contains several full-text e-books including the "Black Sea Studies" series; published papers and papers read at conferences. The interesting "e-resources" section contains a gazetteer of sites and a coin database (separated websites) and a gallery of pictures (there are also some CGI pictures). This website is an exceptional resource for researchers and students alike.
This is the official website of the Danish Institute at Athens. It provides general information on the institute and its activities, including the field projects carried out by members of the institute. Lists of publications, events and contact details are provided. Researchers or postgraduate students interested in the archaeology of Greece may be interested in the activities of this institute.
This is the website of the David M Robinson collection at the University of Mississippi's University Museum. The Museum holds over 2000 objects, a collection built up principally by Dr Robinson, the excavator of Olynthos, his wife and Mr and Mrs Frank Peddle. The website puts online photographs of a significant and diverse proportion of the museum's holdings. Of Greek artefacts, there are inscriptions, coins, sculptures, mosaics and other objects, mainly small bronzes and terracottas. The Roman objects are organised in the same categories. In addition there is an important collection of Greek and South Italian vases, of which there are around ninety photographs presented here. There is also a small section on Egyptian artefacts. In all cases, there is a brief accompanying description, but no dimensions. A bibliographical reference is provided for most of the inscriptions, vases and sculptures. Many of the Greek vases are also linked to the relevant entry on the Perseus website. A number of the photographs of vases are out of focus, so whilst the images provide a general impression they may in some cases be inadequate for detailed study.
The "Digital Crete: Mediterranean Cultural Itineraries" website by the Institute for Mediterranean Studies (IMS) based in Rethymno, Crete, is an interactive GIS resource mapping several archaeological, historical and cultural resources found on Crete. In short, there are some databases that can be interactively consulted and it is possible to generate maps from the datasets; a series of pre-defined atlases (GIS maps) is also available. At the time of review some maps plotted the data on an empty page (i.e. there is no geographic marking, not even an outline of the island of Crete). Anyone familiar with Crete will be able to make good use of some of the maps and data, but others may find the website very unfriendly. Some sections are also available in Greek only (Western art during the Venetian period and modern notary acts). Section "Archaeological Atlas" contains data on museums and archaeological sites, plus a VRML map of Crete of limited value. The "Ottoman centuries" section contains data on surviving monuments and tombstones. There is a database on El Greco's works. Finally, there is a section on musical routes based on "The violin tradition in the Cretan traditional music" and "The musical tradition of ‘lyra’ in the Cretan traditional music of the Rethymnon prefecture" research projects.
This is a mammoth project that still requires some refining. It publishes a wealth of data, but for the most part it will be useful to people that has already some basic understanding of Cretan geography and archaeology/history/music. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The Digital Library for International Research is a project run by the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC) that publishes several documents (books; journal; photographs; maps) on archaeology as well as modern literature and languages in digital format. It is possible to use section "Online Catalog" to perform a search across all contents, including library holdings. Section "E-books Collections" contains the ALMA (African Language Materials Archive Project) project archive, with several e-books written in African languages (including Bamanankan; Criol; Fula/Peul/Pular; Fulfulde; Jula/Dyula; Mandinka; Moore; and Wolof). Section "Photo Archives" contains over 125,000 photographs from the American Institute of Indian Studies, Center for Art and Archaeology (AIIS-CAA) in Gurgaon, India. Section "Map Collections" contains the archives of the ongoing Mapping Mediterranean Lands (MedMaps) project. Only a few maps were accessible at the time of review, and there is a section aimed at school teachers. "Journal Collections" contains the digitised version of several journals.
More contents should be added as the projects progress and new projects and archives are added to the collections. This website will be useful to researchers, teaching staff and students.
This database contains references to written records of people (prosopography) living in the Soknopaiu Nesos area of Al Fayyūm from Demotic and Greek sources dating from the seventh century BC to the fifth century AD. The database can be searched, and each record has appropriate bibliographic references; there is also a general bibliography. The high number of personal written documents in the area makes this area particularly suitable for a prosopographic study. Each record can be printed selecting the printable version. This specialist database may interest primarily researchers in Classics and archaeology.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
This website published by Huelva County Council publishes a wealth of information (in Spanish) on one of the most important archaeological sites in Iberia. Section "Investigación" publishes a few short illustrated reports on the main archaeological sites in the area, including a longer one on Huelva. Huelva is one of the earliest Greek colonies, dating to the 9th century BC. Section "Publicaciones" publishes an updated list of monographs (a few can be downloaded for free), and the index of two academic journals: "Huelva Arqueológica" and "Clásicos de la Arqueología de Huelva". It is possible to download the free and full-text version of all volumes of the former and some of the latter; only an email address is requested. A page focuses on Elena Whishaw, who founded the Anglo-Spanish-American School at Huelva in 1923. The County Council also manages a local library and it is possible to search the useful catalogue in section "Biblioteca", or obtain information to access it. Both researchers and students interested in a variety of fields, including the origins of Greek colonisation, may find this website useful. The freely available monographs and journals provide a substantial amount of publications on Huelva, while the updated and comprehensive bibliographic references will help advanced researchers.
'Dr. J's Illustrated Guide to the Classical World' is a mélange of texts, images and weblinks illustrating many aspects of the ancient Greek and Roman World assembled by Dr Janice Siegel of Illinois State University and is designed to open up the world of classical antiquity to students of all levels. This is an on-going project and will be added to over time. It provides much useful supplementary study material for school children and preliminary undergraduate students in Classics, ancient history and classical archaeology. Illustrated lectures and texts feature items on ancient history, myth, drama, art and archaeology sites and art. The many images and photographs are provided by the author herself or else derive from the major archaeological museums of the world. The website, the core of which is the author's personal webpage, is largely designed to facilitate undergraduate appreciation of the Classics in their studies and is particularly suitable for browsing but is also intended to provide learning aids for teachers. Siegel's colloquial text and selection of images draw numerous parallels between the ancient world and modern political and military events. These also serve a didactic purpose for students and faculty, as will the inclusion of course materials and accounts of her teaching experiences since 1994. Other features of the site include a wide-ranging survey of audio-visual teaching resources in classics, available either online or in video or CD versions.
This is the official website of the French Archaeological School at Athens, founded in 1846 and one of the many foreign archaeological institutes at Athens. It publishes information on the School, its present and past members, and some of its field activities. Summaries of the activities of the School are available. The website contains information useful to contact the School or access the library. A list of publications by members of the School is available. The catalogue of the library is available online. A comprehensive free-and full-text online repository containing a digital version of all journals published by the School is available under the name of Cefael. Further journals of interest to archaeologists, classicists and historians can be found in the Persée repository. This website may be useful to postgraduate students and researchers.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Khashm al-Minayh, Egypt, a site on the trade route to Berenike and investigated by the same team surveying the Myos Hormos route. There are several informative articles emphasising the connection with Berenike. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a small bibliography.
This website is a blog by Matthew Taylor that promotes the campaign for the return of the Elgin Marbles in the British Museum to Greece. On this blog the authors publishes many articles from different sources on the return of the marbles to Greece and the Acropolis Museum that has been built in Athens in the hope of their return. The author also signals some recent cases of plundering (e.g. Iraq); cases of restitutions of looted antiquities; and requests to museums to return antiquities. The repatriation of cultural heritage is a very sensitive issue and international organisations such as ICOM are already issuing calls for the repatriation of some cultural artefacts. This website can be useful to understand the reasons behind such calls. Students should be aware that this website does not present the reasons that museums may have for keeping the antiquities. Internet Explorer may be required to access this website.
The Parthenon Marbles were brought to London by Lord Elgin between 1801 and 1805 and from his name has been coined the term "elginism", which means an act of cultural vandalism.
Access to the website from Intute may require a refresh of the loaded website.
This is the Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut website relating to excavations at the ancient city of Ephesos in Turkey. With occupation evidence dating from the Neolithic through to the late 15th Century AD, Ephesos reached its heyday during the Greco-Roman period when it was home to the Artemision temple complex, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The website provides a contextual background of the settlement's history and its previous excavation since 1895, but is mainly concerned with recent excavation and archaeological research - in particular the 1999 and 2000 excavations undertaken by the Austrian Archaeological Institute (Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut). Excavation reports are available for both years, but more detailed information is provided on certain parts of the city such as the theatre, Tetragonos Agora (marketplace) and the upper city. Also available is information on the inscriptions and sculpture recovered from Ephesos.
Epidoc Aphrodisias Project (EPAPP) is the website which reports on a pilot collaborative scheme to develop and apply tools for publishing ancient Greek and Latin inscriptions on the Internet based on the principles of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). The Aphrodisias pilot scheme is concentrating on the digital publication of some 1000 inscriptions from the archaeologically rich site of Aphrodisias in Caria (south-western Turkey). The website includes a brief project description and four sample inscriptions and full critical apparatus based on the text of Charlotte Roueché's book Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity (1989). Background information and an extensive bibliography on the city and a history of past excavations are also provided within an efficient hypertext medium. In addition this website provides a searchable guide and links to the 93 projects currently using the TEI.
The project, funded by the Leverhulme Trust, is led by King's College London and includes the participation of: the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University; and the Institute of Classical Studies, University of London. While the substantive content of this website will chiefly be of value to specialist researchers in classical archaeology and epigraphy, this project has important implications for electronic publication in general and thus will interest a much wider audience in the humanities.
The website 'Eras' is an online journal produced by postgraduate students from the School of Historical Studies at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. The journal focuses on the areas of history, archaeology, religion and theology, and Jewish civilisation. Readers are encouraged to respond through the discussion page. Eras is intended to provide a platform to showcase recent Masters and doctoral research. There are links to back editions and each edition contains five or six full articles plus some book reviews. The articles are presented in both abstract and full form (in PDF format). The journal lacks a thematic approach, which would help or even engage the reader. Instead, each issue contains random material and it is necessary to trawl through the issues to discover if there is anything useful. Guidelines for contributors are available on the site together with calls for papers. There is scope to contact the editors and contribute to the discussion page.
Erétria on the island of Euboea was an important settlement during the Mycenaean, Greek and Roman period. This website summarises the results of the ongoing excavations by the Swiss Archaeological School in Greece. There is a gallery of pictures including both monumental remains and artefacts (such as mosaics); the large high definition pictures are in JPEG CMYK format suitable for press printing and should be downloaded and opened with a specialist program, most browsers will return an error when attempting to open them. Section "theater" by Elisa Ferroni is in German only and publishes the results of a test pit in the area of the theatre, it includes a map; a report on the stratigraphy of the theatre; a detailed report that summarises with drawings and pictures all typical shapes of pottery encountered in the stratigraphy; and a short article suggesting a date for the strata based upon all other studies. There is a timeline (chronology) and a short illustrated article on the landscape. Section "history" publishes a set of illustrated articles each focussing on a period of the settlement of Erétria. Of particular interest are the Early Helladic potter's kiln and the 8th century BC tomb called "Heroon", where a funerary bronze cauldron was found. The town flourished since the Archaic period, and was sacked by the Persians of King Darius in 490 BC, just before the battle of Marathon, and then in 411 BC the town switched side from the Athenians to the Spartans and in the eponymous battle of Eretria the Athenian fleet was destroyed. Philosopher Menedemos was born at Eretria. There articles on the literary sources mentioning the town and epigraphic studies. A large section focuses on numismatics with an article by Monica Brunner and a gallery of pictures in "coins of Eretria"; a separate Euboean coins database which contains information on over 600 Euboean coins recently sold at an auction; it is still possible to access the pages of the auction and access the prices of sale that may be useful in studies of the trade of antiquities. The database contains all inscriptions on coins. There is an extensive bibliography on Euboean coins. On the website of the Swiss Archaeological School in Greece there is also a bibliographic database specialising on Eretria. If a hyperlink appears broken, it might be worth retrying a few times to click on the original link; there were problems with the server at the time of review.
This website publishes the free and full-text collection of final reports of the French excavations at Amathonte, Cyprus. Amathonte is a Classical site that was inhabited between the 8th century BC and 7th century AD; the reports focus on both the settlement and necropolis. A few volumes in the series focus on particular classes of objects such as scarabs and figurines. The volumes are a reference collection about the important site of Amathonte.
This website publishes a series of free and full-text final reports produced by the French School of Athens on excavations carried out in Crete, and primarily at the Minoan palace of Malia. The series was incomplete at the time of review, but even so the available volumes are a reference resource for anybody studying or researching Minoan archaeology. In addition to several volumes on the palace of Malia (including some of the "Le Palais de Malia" series and some on the quartier Mu), there are volumes on the Minoan palace of Knossos ("La Palais du second millénaire à Knossos" by Jacques Raison, 1993); the necropolis of Mirabello; Linear A tablets ("Recueil des inscriptions en Linéaire A" by Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier); ideograms on Linear B tablets ("Les idéogrammes archéologiques du Linéaire B" by Jean-Pierre Olivier and Frieda Vandenabeele, 1979); the hieroglyphic inscriptions from Crete ("Corpus Hieroglyphicarum Inscriptionum Cretae" by Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier, 1996); archaeological anthropology (by Robert Charles, 1965); and wine amphorae in the Classical to Roman Imperial period ("Le Vin et les Amphores de Crète de l’époque classique à l’époque impériale" by Antigone Marangou-Lerat, 1996). The reference volumes on hieroglyphic, Linear A and B volumes as well as the fundamental monographs on the palaces of Malia and Knossos are essential tools for many scholars and students specialising on Aegean archaeology.
The free and full-text online edition of the "Études épigraphiques" journal is published by the French School of Athens. At the time of review there were four issues available: "Inscriptions de Thessalie I. Les cités de la vallée de l’Enipeus"; "Corpus des inscriptions grecques d’Illyrie méridionale et d’Épire. I. Inscriptions d’Épidamne-Dyrrhachion et d’Apollonia"; and "Retour à la liberté. Libération et sauvetage des prisonniers en Grèce ancienne. Recueil d’inscriptions honorant des sauveteurs et analyse critique". These studies focus on Greek sites in Thessaly, Illyria and Epirus excavated by the French School of Athens and are final publications. More issues should appear online. The available issues may be useful to anyone interested in Greek epigraphy.
This website publishes the free and full-text version of the Études péloponnésiennes series of monographs. The volumes publish the French excavations at the sites of Argos and Gortys (Arcadia) in the Peloponnese. Among the subjects covered by the volumes are the temple of Apollo Pytheus at Argos; the thermal baths at Gortys; the necropolis of Argos; the theatre of Argos; sanctuaries in Arcadia; the hypostyle room at Argos; and the nimphaeum in the agora of Argos. This is a reference collection of volumes in French about important excavations, and may be useful primarily to researchers.
The French School of Athens is publishing the final reports of its excavations in the Greek island of Thásos in a series of volumes that is available free and full-text in this website. At the time of review, most volumes since 1944 were available, and further volumes should be published some time after their printed version. Thasos was an important settlement with two harbours; it is famous for the cult of Herakles (Hercules for the Romans) that predates the formation of the Greek culture in the island. The first volume of the series indeed focuses on the sanctuary of Herakles.
Thásos was settled by the Parians and successively held by Persia, Athens, Sparta, Macedonia, Rome (after 197 BC); it became part of the Byzantine Empire in the 4th century AD. This long and rich history is mirrored in the volumes, which focus on several topics including the agora; Greek and Byzantine ceramics; the history of administration and cults; the terracotta from the Thesmophorion; and the seals on amphorae useful to determine the exchange network in which Thásos was inserted. This is a reference series in French and may be useful to many researchers and students specialising in the archaeology of Greece.
Europeana is a European Commission funded web portal which is building a virtual European library offering free access to Europe's cultural resources. Multiple languages are available. It is organised as a giant database of cultural artefacts, typically presenting a (low quality) picture and some metadata for each record and redirecting to other websites to access digital resources. It searches millions of texts (manuscripts, papers, ebooks), images (photographs, maps), films (moving images, videos, film clips, television broadcasts) and sounds from Europe's main research libraries, archives and galleries. Among the institutions involved in supplying data are the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the British Library in London and the Louvre in Paris. It is possible to search the website by subject keyword, or browse by date, language and theme. Europeana is growing and despite the impressive number of records at the time of review, it could multiply several times that number in the near future given the size of the European heritage. Some areas (e.g. British archaeology) are better represented in the database than others. After registering for free it is possible to tag records and save searches and records on a personal page. Given the scope of the project, anyone may find useful resources searching Europeana, even if only a tiny minority of European heritage is represented.
This website publishes the preliminary results of the ongoing excavations at Lefkandi Xeropolis by a joint team of the University of Oxford and the British School at Athens. The first section, "New Excavations" provides short illustrated accounts of the work carried out year by year. Several structures and tombs have been unearthed, and a fragment of centaur as well as a set of figurines (including one of a boat, perhaps an early version of a galley) have been found. This section also illustrates the multidisciplinary approach of the current excavations. Section "History of Research" instead contains short illustrated reports of past excavations in the island (directed by Mervyn Popham and Hugh Sackett), focusing on both settlement and cemeteries. There is an updated bibliography. This website may be useful to both researchers and students.
Xeropolis is a plateau facing the sea that was occupied from the Early Bronze Age until the end of the Geometric period. It is one of the most important Greek sites to study the transition from Mycenaean to Greek culture. The recent excavations directed by Irene S. Lemos have been made possible thanks to a grant by the Packard Humanities Institute.
This website presents an overview of the excavations undertaken by the University of Sydney, Australia at the ancient theatre of Paphos on Cyprus since 1995. A clickable map of the site itself allows the user to view images and text relating to finds in each of the trenches which have been excavated. A section on finds, divided into pages on coins, sculpture and other finds (including pottery), provides images and explanatory descriptions of objects uncovered at the site. Part of the website is also devoted to describing the architecture, design and orientation of the ancient theatre, again accompanied by images of the site at Paphos. Details are also given of the team of archaeologists involved in the project.
This website publishes the free and full text reports of the excavations by members of the French School of Athens at Delos. Most of the issues focus on Greek art, including artefacts such as figurines, lamps ceramics and mosaics. Delos was believed to be the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. Each issue focuses on particular areas of the settlement (both private and public) or classes of materials. Delos is an important archaeological site for the study of ancient Greece and this website may be useful to many students and researchers since it contains many reference works.
FASTI online is a database of European excavations since 2000 and is published by the International Association for Classical Archaeology (AIAC), with funding from the Packard Humanities Institute (PHI). In addition, the free and full-text FOLD&R (Fasti On Line Documents & Research) journal is available; at the time of review all published papers (in PDF format) focus on Roman Italy (mostly focus on Rome itself) and were mainly in Italian. The referenced and illustrated (with maps and colour pictures) papers are in fact preliminary or full reports of recent excavations carried out in Italy, or reports of scientific analyses and studies. Each paper, being a report of an excavation, is linked to a record in the main database, FASTI, accessible by clicking on "scheda".
It is possible to explore excavation sites by using interactive maps in the main section of the database or by searching for keywords. It is also possible to browse the data by region, periods and excavation status. Each record provides some basic information, a very short summary of one or more seasons of excavation, and a minimalist bibliography. This website has potential to become useful for all archaeologists, though it is currently useful primarily to researchers in Classical archaeology for checking the existence of current or recent excavations.
This is the official website of the Finnish Institute at Athens. The website provides information on the library and hostel for visiting researchers; practical information to reach the Institute; information on recent fieldwork, research projects and courses run by the Institute. Among the fieldwork projects run by the Institute are the archaeological excavations at the early Christian basilica at Paliambela in Arethousa (500 AD); the temple of Zeus at Stratos, a monument in the transitional style between the Classical and Hellenistic periods; and the Thesprotia survey in north-western Greece. There is a list of recent publications by researchers working at the Institute.
This website publishes the free and full text version of the final reports of the archaeological excavations at Delphi carried out by members of the French School of Athens. Delphi was considered by the ancient Greeks to be the centre of the world. Delphi was once the site of an oracle of the earth goddess Gaea. Later, Apollo substituted Gaea, after the Greek god defeated the monstrous serpent Python, which guarded Gaea, and expelled her from the sanctuary. Apollo was the main divinity worshipped at Delphi, but the sanctuary also honoured Dionysus. The sanctuary became famous for the oracle: it was believed that the word of the local sacerdotess, referred as Pythia, were the words of the god. The Pythia was very influential in the Greek world and because of this several wars were fought to control the town and the oracle. Recently scientists discovered in the area of the sanctuary a source of natural ethylene gas, which could have been responsible for the trance-like state of the sacerdotess and the vapours noted by ancient authors. A sacred way connected the sanctuary to the proper temple of Apollo and it was lined with treasuries that several Greek cities had offered to Apollo (those offered by Athens and Thebes are the subject of specific volumes). The Athens treasury contained a wall covered with inscriptions, including musically annotated hymns to Apollo, which are the subject of one of the available volumes. Several volumes focus also on Greek art and especially sculptures. Of particular importance is the "Charioteer of Delphi" (about 470 BC), a bronze cast of "Severe" style, which represents the passage from Archaic to Classical art (an entire monograph focus on this statue, and several more describe art works of Archaic period). Delphi was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.
Since Delphi is a fundamental archaeological site for the study of ancient Greece, this website may be useful to a broad range of scholars and students, from those seeking the picture of a particular monument or art work to anybody carrying out research on any subject (archaeology, classics and art history primarily) related to ancient Greece.
This is the official website of the non-profit Foundation, for Calabrian Archaeology which is promoting the archaeological exploration of the Greek sites of Mamertion and Monte Palazzi in Calabria, Italy. The website provides some information on the activities of the foundation, primarily the two digs in Italy. There are several pictures of the sites and very short reports. The "news" section provides short bulletin and news and is the place where calls for volunteers are announced: interested students may wish to check it regularly.
Ancient Mamertion is mentioned by Strabo and probably was settled during the third century BC. Monte Palazzi was occupied from the fifth to the third century BC.
The Frankfurter elektronische Rundschau zur Altertumskunde (FeRA) is an electronic journal that publishes papers and reviews in German primarily by younger authors. The journal focuses on Greek and Roman Classical archaeology with topics such as Roman ceramics with painted birds; the Odeion of Pericles in Athens; the lighthouse of Pharos; the cult of Vulcanus at Ostia; frescoes at Municipium Claudium Virunum; and Callimachus' Hymn to Apollo. Most papers are written in German, with a few written in English and Italian. Contributions are welcome especially from young scholars. This website may be useful primarily to researchers.
This is the website for the Great North Museum: Hancock in Newcastle upon Tyne, opening in 2009. This museum, part of the Great North Museum project brings together world class collections from the Hancock Museum, the Museum of Antiquities, and the Shefton Museum. The Museum’s collections encompass natural history, palaeontology, archaeology, Egyptology, Ancient Greek and Etruscan art, a large-scale, interactive model of Hadrian's Wall, ‘World Cultures’ - ethnographic objects from the last 250 years and a planetarium. The website includes information about the project as well as basic information about the museums’ collections and location as well as a link to the Hatton Gallery, the other component of the Great North Museum Project. The Museum's funders include the AHRC and MLA.
This online resource is designed to introduce undergraduate students to science and technology in ancient Greece and Rome. The resource features: an alphabetical 'Who's who' giving brief biographical details for key individuals; information about important inventions and technical innovations; and a chronological table putting scientific developments into their wider historical context. There is also a section which deals with specifice scientific subjects. This covers the following: astronomy; biology and medicine; engineering; geography; mathematics; physics; mechanics; and engineering. An article on each topic gives an overview, with hyperlinks to other pages on the relevant personalities and inventions. The site is being developed by Dr Tracey Rihll as part of her undergraduate teaching and research programme at the University of Swansea and includes some student papers containing text and photos of some of the practical projects submitted by level 2 students on her technology and engineering module. There are also links to external sites which provide online versions of relevant ancient texts.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Greek and Roman antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on the Greek, Etruscan, Roman and Byzantine civilisations as well as several pages on individual objects from the collections of the museum (about 250 at the time of review). There is a map and a timeline. The presentations of individual objects are highly recommended as many are masterpieces of art. Most objects have artistic value and are described and interpreted in detail. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long).
This website is a draft publication of the Project Troia (current excavations at Troy) and it publishes a catalogue of Greek, Roman and Byzantine pottery. For each class of materials there is a short description of the vessels found with drawings or colour pictures. Among the classes of pottery included are the Attic Red-Figure and Attic Black-Glaze wares; lamps; “Pale Porous” ware; Terra Sigillata wares; Knidian Relief Ware; Roman Lead Glaze and Red Slip wares; Pompeian-Red Ware; Byzantine Glazed wares; cooking and coarse vessels. It is possible to download the entire catalogue as a single PDF file or a TAR archive. An extensive bibliography is available. This website is a pre-print version; a special draft edition can be downloaded for free or a printed copy of the edition may be purchased by clicking on "purchase printed version". This website may be useful to researchers interested in Greek, Roman and Byzantine ceramics or Troy.
This website publishes the free and full-text Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft journal that focuses on Classical archaeology, literature, and philosophy with several papers on religion, cult and rituals. The individual papers are available in PDF format and are mostly in German, but there are also a few in Italian. The journal also publishes numerous reviews of books, which can be found alongside the papers. There is a full-text search form that returns as results the list of PDF files in which the searched keyword appears. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list to be notified of new issues. Researchers in particular will find this journal useful.
This site provides an attractively illustrated introduction to the coins and measures of Judaea from early times until the crusader period with historical background and a useful basic bibliography. Before the adoption of Greek and, later, Persian coins (or 'darics') in the 7th-4th centuries BC, a sophisticated system of inscribed weights, based on the unit of the Shekel, was used in Jewish areas. The first Judaean issues proper were not struck until the 4th century BC under Persian and Seleucid licence and were based on the widely used Athenian owls or Persian modes. The Seleucid Antiochus VII also struck hybrid Syrian-Jewish issues in the later 2nd century. The first properly 'Jewish' coins, with Hebrew inscriptions and lacking the portrait heads of earlier issues for religious reasons, did not appear until the time of John Hyrcanus (135-104 BC) and his successors when Judaea became fully independent. The series of coins from the reign of the Herodian dynasty and the Roman conquest down to the Late Empire and Byzantine period provide a fascinating potted history of Judaea as well as important insights on economic and iconographic matters. There is also a short section on the revival of coins of Israel in the 20th century, both in the Mandate period and after independence in 1948. The resource is part of the Jewish History Ring published by Amuseum.org (The Jewish Museum in Cyberspace) and associated with the American Jewish Historical Society. It is a useful complementary source for students of ancient history and archaeology working in the East Mediterranean or those studying general numismatics as well as an attractive introduction for the interested amateur.
This website published by the library of the University of Heidelberg contains a significant number of free and full-text e-books on archaeology; Egyptology; and modern languages literature. It is possible to access digitised manuscripts (Bibliotheca Palatina; Codices Salemitani; and Heidelberger Handschriften) as well as documents and books on the region of Heidelberg; incunabula; documents about the university of Heidelberg; geological writings; art history books (especially nineteenth century European art); archaeology (Minoan, Mycenaeans, Greeks, Romans, Etruscans, iconography, pottery) and Egyptology books; literature of South Asia; World War I archival documents; and other special documents preserved at the university. It is possible to search or browse through the documents and books, mostly written in German. Among the texts are the full-text edition of Arthur J. Evans' "The Palace of Minos" and other works by Evans; works by Adolf Furtwängler, Bernard de Montfaucon, Heinrich Schliemann, William M. Flinders Petrie, and John Ward; and Matthew A. Sherring's "The sacred city of the Hindus: an account of Benares in ancient and modern times". The list of available books is increasing. Since fundamental works of archaeology in the public domain can be accessed through this website, archaeologists at all stages may find this website useful.
This is the official website of Helike Foundation, which has carried out recent excavations at the site of Helike, on the Peloponnese peninsula of Greece. Helike was destroyed by an earthquake followed by a tidal wave in 373 B.C. Its destruction is believed by some to have been the origin of the Atlantis myth. This website publishes an illustrated preliminary report on the recent discoveries. The excavations have yielded materials and structures from the Early Bronze Age to the Roman period. In the Early Bronze Age strata, archaeologists have possibly identified a corridor house. On the top of the Early Bronze Age layer, sediments containing marine microfauna suggest that the Bronze Age site was destroyed by a natural catastrophe similar to what happened to Classical Helike. Calls for volunteers appear on the website and it is possible to contact the Foundation to request more information or for a donation. Undergraduate students may find some useful information on this website.
The Hellenic History on the Internet website is a large educational resource summaring the long and substantial history of Greece through a series of illustrated articles, some general and some covering specific themes. A panel of scholars have advised in the production of each section. Prehistoric and Classical Greece is well represented, much less Roman Greece. The Byzantine and modern periods are also well covered, less the Ottoman period and the Venetian period is not mentioned. In short, it is a history focusing on the achievements of the indigenous people rather than a history of the region. Despite this, the prehistoric, Classical and modern Greece sections are very valuable; chronologies and bibliographies are also present. At the time of review the sitemaps had broken links, though navigation through the pages was fine. Undergraduates in particular may find this website useful.
The Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology (HIMA) is a private non-profit organisation that carries out research studies in marine archaeology in Greece. The website summarises the activities of the institute and provides contact details as well as news on conferences and publications sponsored by the institute. Section "projects" outlines some of the major projects carried out so far, including those concerned with the 4th century AD shipwreck in the south of the Pagasitic Gulf; the island of Dokos; the Point Iria shipwreck; the Kyrenia shipwreck; and the 4th century BC shipwreck at Antidragonera, Kythera. The short illustrated articles only provide an introduction to these topics. This website may be useful to researchers interested on Greek marine archaeology.
The Greek temples of Paestum (ancient Poseidonia) in southern Italy are among the best preserved religious structures from antiquity and had been an important source of knowledge about Greek architecture since antiquarians began to take an interest in them during the 18th century. This attractively produced resource provides an illustrated introduction to various aspects of the Temple of Athena (once known as the temple of Ceres) in its wider historical and cultural context, especially its technical and architectural properties and its position within the tradition of western Greek Doric design, as well as offering a VRML 3D reconstruction of the building. Founded around 600 BC in a fertile plain near the river Sele (probably by the older Greek settlement of Sybaris), the extremely wealthy city of Paestum initiated a major architectural programme in the 530s which resulted in the construction of no less than three monumental temples on the highest part of the site. Apart from the technical analysis of the temple architecture and how the building was constructed and used (including a useful outline of Doric design and the still poorly understood but highly significant influence of Ionic architecture on western Greek architecture), the resource also provides a background account of Greek settlement in southern Italy and the cultural and political connections of the town with its Greek and non-Greek neighbours. There is also a fairly extensive and up-to-date bibliography, a selection of maps and a useful glossary. This website will benefit francophone students and researchers of Greek archaeology and art as well as architectural historians interested in the development of one of the most famous building types and styles of human culture.
This free and full text collection of monographs by members of the French School of Athens may be useful to both researchers and students in Greek and Aegean archaeology. There are volumes on recognising the signatures of ancient Greek sculptors; Thasos; Delphi; Kirrha (Phocis); the necropolis of Myrina; Turkey; and the disk of Phaistos ("Le disque de Phaistos" by Jean-Pierre Olivier, 1992).
The volume on the disk of Phaistos includes a brief summary of the discovery and past researches as well as pictures of all the ideograms. The disk itself remains undeciphered.
The House of Ptolemy is a resource guide, intended as a study aid and to provide bibliographical material for students of Greco-Roman Egypt. The main focus of the site, as its name suggests, is the period of the Ptolemaic kings (331 BCE - 30 BCE), descendants of Macedonian Greeks. There are also compendious sections on Roman, Byzantine and modern Egypt. Within these periods, links are arranged by theme into sets and subsets, in a fashion that is generally clear and efficient. Topics covered include: historical overviews; Ptolemaic numismatics; Ptolemaic genealogy and king lists; the transition to Roman provincial Egypt; the city of Alexandria; the culture of Ptolemaic Egypt; the Ptolemaic empire outside Egypt; the Jews of Egypt. Most of the links are presented with a comment from the site's author: this is a personal list, not a faculty or institutional webpage. The selection of items is therefore prone to subjectivity and its completeness cannot be guaranteed; furthermore, material of widely varying intellectual depth, rigour, and specialisation is included among the links. At the time of writing this review, the site was last updated in 2002 - this meant that some of the links were no longer functional. Nonetheless, there is a wealth of material here, well organised; the numerous awards garnered by the page indicate its worth. This site is a useful starting point for students.
Household and City Organization at Olynthus website is the electronic version of Nicholas Cahill's book 'Household and City Organization at Olynthus' (Yale UP 2002), a major study of the domestic architecture and social and economic life of a classical Greek settlement of the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. A searchable database of the excavated artefacts and interactive GIS/ Virtual Reality plan of the site plan and architectural units from the final publication (1929-1952) is planned for the future. Olynthus, located in the Chalcidice peninsula of northern Greece, provides a rare example of a well excavated and published classical Greek domestic quarter. The city was laid out on a Hippodamian street grid from 432 BCE onwards but was destroyed and largely abandoned in 348 BCE. The level of architectural preservation was very high and many domestic artefacts were found in situ when excavated. It is a text-book example of Greek town planning and provides a unique insight into the relationships between the public and private spheres in Greek society. The text provided on this website is fully searchable. The website is hosted by Stoa.org, a consortium for electronic publications in the humanities, and is also connected to the Perseus Lookup Tool which provides a comprehensive guide to the Greek passages texts quoted throughout the text. This site will interest a wide range of students and researchers working on Greek archaeology, social and economic history.
The Hellenistic sanctuary and royal burial ground of Nemrud Dag in south-eastern Turkey, a UNESCO World heritage Site, is one of the most spectacular archaeological sites in the Near East, built to glorify the local Kommagenian dynasty with a unique fusion of Parthian, Persian and Greek iconography and architecture. This website provides an introduction to the history, topography and art of this impressive site and promotes the work of the International Nemrud Foundation, based in the Netherlands, which aims to preserve and restore the monument. The Kingdom of Kommagene appeared in the 9th century BC as a wealthy vassal of the Assyrian kings, paying tribute in precious metals and cedar wood from the local hillsides. The strategically located region became particularly significant when Mithradates I Kallinikos broke away from Seleucid rule around 130 BC., marking his accession by constructing a series sanctuaries around his realm to bolster his authority and which deliberately conflated Greek and Persian divinities. His son Antiochus I Theos constructed the extraordinary dynastic memorial at Nemrud Dag which required the excavation of 200,000 cubic metres of stone and the erection of ten statues, each weighing six tonnes and more than ten metres high, to form a gigantic horoscope. The 500m of inscriptions proclaim the religious glory of the king and the fabulous wealth of his (as yet) unexcavated tomb. The resource provides a concise guide to the site with a photo gallery, video clips, animations of the horoscope, drawings and texts of key epigraphic documents and a research bibliography in addition to an outline of the historical and religious significance of the site. This resource, available in English, Dutch, German and Turkish versions, will interest students and researchers of Hellenistic, Roman and Near Eastern art and archaeology.
The Internet Ancient History Resource Guide is produced by the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History of Europe at Ghent University (Belgium). Acting as starting point for searches on Ancient Greek or Roman topics, the Internet Ancient History Resource Guide is especially useful for novice web-surfers thanks to an introductory 'Getting Started' section. Pages listing annotated links to Internet resources for a range of topics including: epigraphy; papyrology; numismatics; cartography; and art and architecture; and archaeological/material sources are provided. Online reference works and tools, research fora and discussion groups, and teaching resources are also listed, together with listings of literature sources, including publishers' catalogues and library catalogues.
This website publishes an academic peer-reviewed journal, "Journal of Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Archaeology" (JIIA), and "Archaeological Disciplinary Repository" (ADR), an online repository of papers and theses written in English, French or Italian. Access to the papers of the journal is via the MyOPIA repository or the old website of the journal; surprisingly the indexes do not have direct hyperlinks to the papers. The journal has published papers on Classical archaeology and epigraphy (e.g. "Per un nuovo corpus dei decreta decurionum delle cittí romane d'Italia e delle province occidentali" by Parma); archaeological sciences (e.g. papers on obsidian provenance by Oddone); archaeological theory and semiotics (e.g. "Archeologia come 'Semiotica della realtí materiale'" by Sirigu); science in antiquity (e.g. "Problemi di secondo grado nella matematica antica" by Bagni); landscape archaeology (e.g. landscapes of warfare analysed by De Guio) and others. The eprint repository contains pre-print papers, chapters of books and theses (e.g. Palaeolithic lithics in France and Bell Beaker culture in France). The vast majority of papers focus on archaeozoology. The latest additions do not appear in the main list, so it might be a good idea to check any available list. Papers and theses are spread all over the website in different servers with different interfaces and this may cause difficulties in finding the papers; the search engine is confused too and returns results from the main server only. In spite of this, the website publishes many interesting papers and theses and it is worth "digging".
This website publishes the preliminary reports of the excavations at the sanctuary to Poseidon at Kalaureia, which is one of two Greek islands forming what is called the island of Poros. The website introduces the reader to the archaeological site with a geographical article. There are the reports of the initial excavations in 1894, those in 1930s and finally the most recent ones carried out between 1997 and 2004. The earliest archaeological evidence date to the end of the Late Bronze Age or even Early Iron Age (11th century BC) and there are traces of a building dated to the 6th century BC, but the main building is dated 4th century BC. Section "the research program", accessible only from the homepage, provides a few additional illustrated articles. One focuses on the fact that the sanctuary was an important asylum sanctuary (Demosthenes sought refuge here) and the associated rite of hiketeía (or hikesía). Further articles focus on the inscriptions and the amphictiony (a religious federation of cities) that met at the sanctuary. There is an extensive bibliography.
This website details excavations taking place in Crete close to modern-day Heraklion. Past research at Knossos has tended to focus upon the Bronze Age Minoan Palace of Minos, first excavated almost 100 years ago, and its immediate area. The Knossos 2000 project, initiated in 1993, is the first research to focus primarily upon the surrounding settlement that flourished until the end of the Roman period, Colonia Julia Nobilis. Evidence indicates settlement from the Middle Bronze Age (contemporary with the first palace at Knossos, c. 2000 BC) through to the Christian and Byzantine periods of the 4th to the 8th centuries AD. The website provides an excavation report detailing the principal finds and discoveries, and is supported by many images and photographs.
"Kretika Chronika" was a journal published in Heraklion from 1947 onwards by Andreas G. Kalokerinos and the first 14 volumes (I/1947 – XIV/1960) are republished in digital format in this website. The website is available in Greek and English, but most articles are available in Greek only and can be downloaded as PDF files. The journal focused on archaeology, history, folklore and literary scholarship of Crete from ancient times to the early 20th century. Contributors included leading scholars such as Nikolaos Platon, Menelaos Parlamas, Stylianos Alexiou, Doro Levi, George Miles, Manousos Manousakas, Emmanouil Kriaras, Nikolaos Panagiotakis, Gareth Morgan and Spiros Marinatos, and many more. Thanks to the Society of Cretan Historical Studies, 405 articles of scholarship, many still valuable beyond their historical value, are now available free and full-text. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The website of the Kythera Island Project (KIP), an international multi-disciplinary project designed to explore the 7000 year human history of the island of Kythera in the Aegean within the context of changing natural and cultural dynamics and of both insular and regional factors. Based principally at University College London and the British School at Athens, the project has conducted intensive survey fieldwork since 1998 on a variety of island landscapes and to date has documented some 200 archaeological sites from the Late and Final Neolithic period (5th and 4th millennia BC) to Ottoman and recent times, the results of which are summarised and analysed in this resource. Kythera's nodal position between Crete and the Peloponnese ensured a major role in facilitating contact between different parts of the Aegean and the central Mediterranean throughout its history, a role which has also influenced changes in the lifestyle and identity of the islanders over millennia. Kythera therefore is an ideal focus for studying the nature of island societies in their wider context and of expanding the older geographical concept of the island laboratory. Specialist reports, reflecting the multi-disciplinary aims of the project, are also provided: archaeometallurgy; botany; geoarchaeology; GIS; geophysics; historical geography; mortuary landscapes; pottery; stone tools; restudy of the older excavations at Kastri in the 1960s and a new project at Tholos on the edge of Kastri town. Apart from a detailed explanation of the methods employed by the survey team, further insights on the methods of KIP are provided by various PDF versions of the recording forms. Other features include a bibliography of research stemming from the project, a guide to the personnel, and details of sponsors. Historical geographers and historians of the longue durée will also benefit from this website. The site is now archived.
This wide-ranging and attractively produced website, 'Underwater archeology', available in French, English and Arabic, provides an illustrated introduction to the history, methods and major discoveries of underwater explorers, particularly those carried out by the research teams of DRASSM, the Départment des recherches archéologiques subaquatics et sous-marines of the French Ministry of Culture. Underwater archaeology has had a long, though sporadic, history, from the time Roman divers salvaged the cargo of amphoras from a shipwreck in the first century BC to the development of the modern aqualung by Cousteau and Gagnan in 1943. The resource features: a historical chronicle of major developments in maritime archaeology particularly since the designs of Leonardo da Vinci followed by the practical attempts to construct artificial breathing apparatus in the 17th century; an outline of the principal methods of underwater prospection and excavation of wrecks together with notes about the conservation of submerged organic materials; a major survey of shipwrecks around the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of France (a sample of some 700 known) in addition to others sites in Malta, Gabon, Martinique and the Indian Ocean; an account of underwater archaeology in Egypt, in particular the spectacular rediscovery of the submerged parts of Alexandria and of the numerous Greek and Roman wrecks off the Egyptian coast. This notable didactic resource will benefit and improve both amateurs and professionals alike, especially undergraduate students of Mediterranean archaeology and history but also anyone interested in wider issues of world archaeology, trade routes, conservation of underwater finds and heritage issues related to shipwreck sites.
This website describes the "Laconia Rural Sites Project", a series of archaeological projects in Laconia, Greece. The focus of the investigations was to ascertain whether the sites were continuously inhabited or used merely as storage or semi-permanent residences during local agricultural cycles. Surface characteristics and soil were analysed to discover the nature of human activity on the sites from the early Helladic to the Byzantine period. The project organisers have employed an interdisciplinary approach to the project to learn how the rural sites functioned. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Leave scheme.
This website is devoted to the archaeological site of Lefkandi, a Mycenaean settlement on the Greek island of Euboea. The resource contains sections on the following topics: the Dark Ages; Bronze and Iron Age movements; excavations at Lefkandi; Toumba (an important Archaic tomb); and heroic burial. The website has been written by students and thus the text is written at undergraduate level; there are some accompanying illustrations and maps. There is also a short bibliography and a list of links to other relevant online resources. The website is a useful introduction to this classical archaeological topic.
This is the website of the Lexicon of Greek Personal Names (LGPN) which is an ongoing project based at Oxford University, but using the expertise of scholars from several institutions across the world. It is an onomastic project, dealing with the study of ancient proper names and their origins. Its aim is to collect and publish all known ancient Greek personal names, drawn from all available sources; it encompasses all names recorded in Greek, and all Greek names recorded in Latin, from the beginnings of Greek writing to approximately the 6th century AD. Volumes are organised geographically, covering all regions in which Greek names were used, from Italy to Southern Russia to Asia Minor. The website offers: bibliographic data, reviews, statistics, and state-of-completion information for all current and forthcoming volumes of the LGPN; an introductory section on Greek names, including information on name formation and meaning, and also some details on modern Greek names; and an extensive archive of images of material objects with inscribed names (for example, tombstones, vases, inscriptions, ostraka and coins). The website does have a search tool which allows the user to ascertain how many times a particular name occurs in each of the LGPN's published volumes; however, only the statistics rather than the entries themselves can be viewed by those accessing the site from outside Oxford University.
This is an excellent resource offering articles on ancient history and archaeology together with an impressive library of photographic images of ancient sites which can be down-loaded for free for non-commercial use. The website is laid out geographically with sections on Greece, Persia, Anatolia, Carthage and Punic Sicily, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Judaea, Germania and Rome (as well a Dutch language resource on Dutch history) while the authoritative but very readable text has many cross links between them. There is no overall structure to individual sections: the Greek entries have a strong emphasis on Alexander the Great and his successors, on various authors such as Plutarch and Herodotos (including selections of extracted texts) and a series of short encyclopaedia-style entries on politicians, philosophers and literary figures. The Judaean passages discuss, for instance, Messianic claimants, the Diaspora and anti-Semitism in the ancient and mediaeval worlds, alongside more linear accounts of the Roman wars and potted biographies of leading Jewish figures. This website will benefit both students and teachers of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern world but the author makes the pointed observation that students must combine the use of electronic resources with proper library research for which the Web is not a substitute.
'Lost Trails' is a non-commercial educational resource whose main aim is to provide an English language version of the 'Histories' or 'Enquiries' of the 5th century BC Greek historian Herodotus. The site features many high quality photographs and maps illustrating the locations mentioned in the text, which will help to elucidate the complex and wide-ranging narrative. The photographs are hyperlinked to the translation, which is divided into 48 convenient instalments. The website also features folk handicrafts and music from Greece and other parts of south-eastern Europe as well as a notice board for feedback and comments on the various items featured. Donations are solicited from individuals who wish to support the work of the project. A caveat for less experienced A level or undergraduate students of ancient history (or the general reader) is that, at present, this edition of Herodotus falls short of academic standards in that it lacks line numbers, glosses of words or unfamiliar terms, or footnotes. The project is however work in progress, and these features should be added at some point. Users should also be aware that several of the photographs lack commentary and, inevitably given later rebuilding, depict structures or objects that post-date the events recorded in the Herodotean text. Nevertheless this is a useful online supplement to existing printed or electronic resources for students of classics, ancient history or archaeology.
Over 1,500 colour as well as black and white photographs relating to ancient Greece and Rome taken by the author primarily teaching purposes have been scanned and published online. There are also some non-ancient photographic subjects that have been useful for teaching, such as a photograph of a medieval cathedral for comparison with Roman architecture or a few images of a modern street market in Naples. The site offers a link to a software (Macintosh only) written by the author for teachers of Latin. An internal search engine is also available. The collection can be browsed by subject: England; France; Greece; Italy - (Rome, the Pantheon, Sicily, Italy except Rome and Sicily); and special selections of images (including the Roman house, and some Virgilian sites [Vergil]). The images can be accessed directly or previewed in thumbnails. Information relating to copyright, author and date the photograph has been taken is provided for each image.
This website, from the University of Cinncinnati, details a multi-disciplinary project organised in 1996 to investigate prehistoric and historic settlement and land use in central Albania. Focusing on the Greek colony of Apollonia, the project utilises techniques of intensive archaeological surface survey. Interim reports from 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001 are provided, accompanied by a 1999 geoarchaeological report and a 2001 lithics report. These reports are available to view online as HTML files and contain colour images. There are also links to other websites of potential interest. The website is also available in Albanian.
This is the website of the Mallakastra Regional Archaeological Project (MRAP), a multi-disciplinary archaeological and geomorphological project centred on the Mallakastra region of central Albania sponsored by the University of Cincinnati and the Institute of Archaeology, Tirana. This area of Albania is best known in the archaeological literature from the presence of the Greek apoikia (colony) of Apollonia, and a major aim of the project is to examine the cultural interactions between Greeks and native Illyrians in the first millennium B.C. The wider emphasis, however, is to study changes in human settlement and land-use in this region from the Palaeolithic period to the present day through a combination of field-walking, excavation, lithic analysis and geomorphological survey. The website consists of a series of fieldwork and artefact reports from 1998 onwards which are attractively illustrated with numerous high quality maps, data charts and photographs though the resource lacks a general introduction to the archaeology of the area or a bibliography so this is not an introductory survey for undergraduates. The MRAP website is a useful online tool for students and researchers studying the archaeology of Albania, the Balkans, Greece or the wider Mediterranean world but the resource will also benefit those interested in the wider issues of multi-disciplinary landscape studies.
This is the website of the Manchester Museum, part of the University of Manchester, and a major public Museum in Manchester, UK. The Museum, with its origins in the 18th Century, encompasses a huge range of artefacts, specimens and objects (some 4.25 million) and includes important collections of anthropology; archaeology; archery; Egyptology; geology; human remains; natural history; numismatics; palaeontology. The website describes the collections in more detail (as well as showcasing highlights from them) and the museum's online catalogue can be searched. Further areas of interest include links to the Museum’s research (related to both its collections, practice and the institution’s own history), staff and extensive community outreach work. As a university museum, the Manchester Museum receives some core funding from the AHRC.
Marbles Reunited is a British-based group co-ordinating the campaign activites of a number of individuals and groups who wish to see the repatriation of the Psrthenon sculptures, currently housed in the British Museum. It thus serves as an organising body for establised groups such as Parthenon 2004 and the British Committee for the Restitution of the Parthenon Marbles. This includes support for the proposal of the Greek government to reunite the sculptures with fragments still in Athens in a purpose-built musuem, on permanent loan. The website is distinctly forward looking; there is little exploration of how the sculptures got to the British museum, nor Greek and English responses through the nineteenth and twentieth century. What is clear is the organisation's disatisfaction with the current situation, where the sculptures are "displayed in a side hall and a couple of corridors of the British Museum." The website concentrates on future plans, detailing the Greek proposal and the new Akropolis museum, but also the advantages to the British Museum, "a 'win-win' situation" as the organisation terms it. In addition to contact details and resources for those interested in joining the campaign, there is a list of high-profile supporters and relevant links, an archive of press releases, and a page of responses to frequently asked questions. At the time of writing, a significant proportion of the site was still under construction. In addition to the text, there is an interactive guide that requires Macromedia Flash Player
This short webpage outlines the project "Material Connections: Mobility, Materiality and Mediterranean Identities" undertaken at the University of Glasgow under the joint direction by Peter van Dommelen, Bernard Knapp and Michael Rowlands. The project will investigate how materiality, migration, colonial encounters, and connectivity or insularity influence social identities and will focus on Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, Crete, Cyprus, the Balearics.
This is the official website of the scholarly journal "Mediterranean Archaeology", which is the official journal of the Australian Archaeological Institute. There are indexes of current and past volumes and it is possible to purchase many volumes. Guidelines for submission of papers are provided.
Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry is a subscription online journal established in 2001. Subscription information is provided. Articles published in the journal are intended for a specialist audience, but include general introductions so as to be comprehensible to the non-expert. As well as academic reports on recent archaeological finds and excavations, the journal includes reviews and research notes evaluating new archaeological techniques. All articles are in English, with Greek abstracts. Articles are selected from a contents page, and are in PDF format. The website provides submission guidelines. The scope of the journal is broad and moderately interdisciplinary.
Metis is a repository of Quicktime movies of archaeological sites in Greece. Metis was created for educational purposes only. The main page is a catalogue of sites for which movies are avalable. Each site may have more than one movie. A website plan is sometimes available which also links to the movies. There may also be links to articles on the Perseus or Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites websites. The Metis icon at the top of the pages provides a link back to the catalogue. A highlights page gives rapid access to sites with particularly rich coverage. A FAQ page provides help. This website may be useful primarily for teaching, since it contains only interactive pictures.
The Minnesota Archaeological Researches in the Western Peloponnesos (MARWP) project has focused on three areas of Greece: Messene; Pylos; and Morea. The website publishes the preliminary reports and some methodological papers on GIS. There is an interactive map of the Peloponnese that allows to zoom in at village level. The Pylos Digital Archive had to be a collection of images of the Mycenaean palace at Pylos, but it appears abandoned with just a few detailed maps. Students in particular may find this website useful.
This website presents the work of the Canadian epigraphic mission at Xanthos and the nearby sanctuary of Letoon. The main goal of the mission is to find, photograph and report all epigraphic inscriptions of Hellenistic and Roman time in the region. A few short articles present the project; the final reports of each survey carried out since 2000 are available in sections "survey seasons" and "reports and publications" in PDF format; the reports are scans of the original papers published in "Anatolia Antiqua" and are available only in French. An extensive and updated bibliography is available in section "reports and publications". The "documentary data base" section contains the photographs of most of the inscriptions found; it is a work in progress with new data added as new inscriptions are found and studied. For each inscription there are a low resolution and a medium resolution picture; a short description of the stone and its context; dimensions; and publications. The inscriptions themselves are not available on this website, but most photographs are clear enough to be read by experienced epigraphists. The website publishes photographs of the original inscriptions as well as of "squeezes", impressions on paper of the inscriptions. There are also some simple colour maps of ancient Lycia and Xanthos, with all the excavated sectors emphasised. This website is an updated and useful complement to the publications on paper by the team and interested researchers should not overlook it.
This website publishes the preliminary reports of the recent excavations at Phoinike, near the modern town of Sarandë, Albania, by a team of Italian archaeologists at the University of Bologna. Phoinike was probably the capital of the koiní²n tí²n Epeirotí²n also known as Epirus. The excavations carried out since 2001 have concentrated on the basilica; theatre; thesaurí²s and some houses all dated to the Hellenistic and Roman periods. The website publishes illustrated texts and two galleries of pictures, one of the 1926-1927 excavations directed by L. M. Ugolini and one on modern Albania with photographs taken by P. Giorgi in Albania (some ethnographic and artistic photographs). There is a list of undergraduate and MA theses with indexes; news about the project; a list of publications by the current field team with indexes and contact details of the archaeologists involved in the fieldwork. This website may be useful especially to students; researchers may find some information on the latest findings.
The Morea Project is a joint project between Oxford University, the University of Minnesota and the University of Pennsylvania, with the aim of studying Greek vernacular architecture in the Western Peloponnese from the medieval period through to 1950 AD. The 1993 preliminary report and a GIS methodology paper are available. Utilizing methodologies from GIS, landscape archaeology, architectural history and the study of folklore, the project’s goals are to document the remaining architectural evidence from the Byzantine, Frankish, Turkish and early modern periods and to develop a chronology and typology of buildings for the 13th to mid-20th centuries. The project utilizes GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and remotely sensed Landsat images coupled with GPS (Global Positioning Systems) to pinpoint potential sites.
This is the official website of the archaeological museum of Lipari (Aeolian Islands, Sicily), which also has branches on the islands of Panarea and Filicudi. The museum was established by Prof. Luigi Bernabò Brea to preserve the many artefacts that had been unearthed during the long period of excavations in the Aeolian Islands and carried out by himself and Dr Madeleine Cavalier. The website, which is available in Italian, English, French and German, outlines all sections of the museum with short texts and many illustrations. Section "The Museum/il Museo" only contains general introductions, but section "Visit to Museum/Visita il Museo" contains a detailed overview of the collections. Of great interest to any archaeologist will be the collections on the Bronze Age cultures of Capo Graziano and Milazzese (materials of these cultures are associated with Mycenaean ceramics, some of the first evidence of long distance contacts between the Aegean region and Sicily) as well as the Classical collection (ceramic masks and high quality productions such as those by the Lipari painter) and underwater archaeology (Pignataro di Fuori shipwreck, and many others). Human life in the Aeolian Islands is chronicled without interruptions in the archaeological record expect for the periods when the islands were deserted (it happened a few times) and the importance of the archaeological collections cannot be overstated: the Aeolian Islands are a World Heritage Site also because of their rich cultural heritage. Smaller sections focus on the unique environment such as the volcanoes (obsidian) and the fossils (127 to 104 kya). A bibliographic list and practical information is available. The website has been produced with funds provided by the European Union. This website may be a good introduction to the museum collections especially for archaeology students.
This is the official website of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, available in Turkish only. The website includes articles and photographs of the museum collections, including information on several archaeological sites. Several sections of this website are incomplete. At the time of the review the greatest value of the website was in the series of pictures available.
This is the official website of the Old Fulling Mill Museum of Archaeology of the University of Durham. The website provides some basic information to prepare a visit and guidelines for researchers on how to approach the museum to access the collections. Section "collections" publishes short illustrated articles focusing on a few artefacts; the section is divided by period. There is also a section ("education") for school teachers. The few contents limit the usefulness of this website, which is just an introduction to the actual museum.
This website describes the University of Cambridge’s Museum of Classical Archaeology. Located within the Faculty of Classics (although open to the public) the Museum is formed from a collection of some 450 plaster casts of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, including many well known pieces, and is one of the few remaining of this (once common) type of study collection. Additionally, the Museum’s reserve research collection (consultation by appointment) includes a further 200 plaster casts, Greek vases, pottery sherds and epigraphic squeezes. Full lists of the casts and sherds are available in PDF documents, although a database is promised. The website explains the Collection’s history and highlights, such as The Peplos Kore a cast of an ancient Greek statue of a young girl which is as brightly painted as the original would have been when it was created. Other noted highlights include casts of the Lysikrates Monument, Sounion Kouros, Olympia Pediment and Farnese Heracles. The website also includes details of the museums services for schools and family activities. The museum is closed until spring 2010.
The website of the Museum of Cycladic Art contains useful information on all collections and activities at the museum, and is aimed primarily at the general public. The website is very neat and easy to navigate, and contains sections on the "museum" with practical information and an online version of a DVD presenting the museum ("virtual tour"). Section "permanent collections" is the most interesting, especially for undergraduate students. It includes artefacts from the Cycladic Collection and Collections of Ancient Greek Art and Ancient Cypriot Art, pictured and described in some detail. The selection of Cycladic artefacts follows an educational criterion, for example several figurines out of the very few in existence with traces of paint have been included. Figurines are one of the key topics, and this evident also in section "special topics", where there are also diagrams ordering the know types. There are also sections on Greek art and Cypriot antiquities (the latter focusing on trade), also with selected artefacts presented in greater detail. For each of the three sections there is a ”Special topics” area. These are thematic essays on various issues (including a large number of texts on Ancient Greek Art). Bibliographies are given in some pages, concentrating on publications of the museum (a section on these is also available). "Donators" (sic) is an interesting section on the donors that from the start gathered the collections of the museum. It may interest anybody who is interested in the sometimes difficult relationship between collectors and public museums. Section "education" is also noteworthy, and is aimed at schoolchildren. It includes a "resources" area, which provides online virtual tours to all the collections and museum publications, available as PDF files. Section "activities" outlines the research carried out by staff or promoted by the museum, and some occasional lectures and seminars organised by the museum may interest researchers. The "exhibitions" section provides information about current and upcoming exhibitions, as well as all previous exhibitions - whether art or archaeological exhibitions - presented at the MCA. There are many colour illustrations, maps and diagrams throughout the website, making this website an excellent educational tool up to undergraduate level.
This resource is an online collection of over 800 images depicting inscriptions on stone from the sanctuary of the Eleusinian Mysteries at Eleusis, Greece. Most of the images are photographs taken by Kevin Clinton of the Department of Classics at Cornell University. For each inscription details of the publication in which it features are given, although transcriptions/translations are not provided here. The images are of high quality; the use of black and white photographs enhances the readablility of the texts. The collection is also fully searchable. The website also provides bibliographic details of relevant publications as well as information about the digitisation project itself.
This is the website for the Greek National Archaeological Museum in Athens. Its collections are representative of all the cultures of classical Greece. Section "the Museum" provides information on the history of the museum and its departments, with some useful information on the library and photographic archive for researchers. Section "collections" will be the most interesting for students: it is organised as a database and selecting a period it will be possible to access the thumbnails of significant artefacts of that period in the collections of the museum. Clicking on individual thumbnails will open a page with a larger picture and a descriptive text. Several sections and features of the website are still "under construction", and navigating on the English pages at the time of review often lead to Greek pages, however, it is sufficient to click on "En" at the very bottom of each page to access the English version of that page. The navigation is simple and intuitive, and most of the artefacts described so famous and essential to anyone interested in Aegean (mostly Cycladic, Mycenaean and Cypriot) and Greek archaeology that none can be singled out here. However, the texts describing the artefacts are perhaps too basic, and therefore useful only to first year undergraduates and younger students.
The colony of Chersonesos in the Crimea was founded according to tradition about 420 BC. Excavations at Chersonesos began early in the 19th century and have continued ever since. The ancient city was continuously inhabited from the 5th century BC until the 14th century AD, when it was overrun by the Golden Horde. The best-preserved parts date to the Middle and Late Byzantine periods. Excavations are conducted each year by Ukrainian and foreign archaeologists. This website highlights the more interesting parts of the ancient city and its surrounding countryside (Chora). The preliminary results of excavations are presented as a gallery of photographs, principally of finds, with brief explanatory notes. Most of the pages contain large numbers of illustrations and can be slow to download. The "collections" section contains substantial parts on epigraphy and sculpture, and there are also many articles on the excavations. The website has many broken links and incomplete parts, but the completed parts are significantly larger than the average website for archaeological excavations, enough to satisfy both researchers and students.
This is the official website of the Netherlands Institute at Athens (NIA). It publishes information on staff and activities, including notices of sponsored publications and conferences. The institute has carried out fieldwork at several archaeological sites, including New Halos; Theissoa-Lavda; Argolid; Geraki; and Nikopolis. Members of the institute have also carried out surveys at Tanagra, Zakynthos and in Aetolia. Short illustrated articles summarise the projects. The institute has also sponsored palaeontological fieldwork in Greece, focussing on Pleistocene fossils and the palaeofauna of the island of Crete. A short illustrated article summarises the discoveries, most recently a herd of Cretan dwarf Hippopotamus creutzburgi and a skeleton of Cretan deer Candiacervus. This website may be useful to postgraduate students and researchers interested in the archaeology of Greece.
Nordlist is an free full-text journal published by the University of Tromsø. There are papers on classical and modern literature; archaeology; and a variety of other topics that reflect the research carried out in that university. Papers are in Norwegian, German or English. Topics include community and place (e.g. the Americans and the Grand Canyon); dramatist John Webster; Anna Akhmatova, Leo Tolstoy and Russian literature; T. S. Eliot; rhetoric; Romanticism; Northern minorities (e.g. Sámi, Nenets, etc.); semiotics; Aksum stelae; Harold Pinter; narrative in Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre; Fridtjof Nansen; the Hellenistic Toledo krater; game boards in Iron Age Northern Europe; and others. A few papers are not accessible online and many are available in PDF format. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This is the official website of the Norwegian Institute at Athens. The website publishes information about the activities of the institute, including field projects and publications. Among the field projects recently carried out by members of the institute are the excavations of the temple of Alea Athena at Tegea in Arcadia; a Byzantine statio and Ottoman caravansary on the Via Egnatia at Petropigi, near Kavala; the "Norwegian Arcadia Survey"; and the "Greek-Norwegian Deep-Water Archaeological Survey" off Ithaki. The institute contributes to the Nordic Library at Athens and has a small library; both catalogues can be searched online. Contact details are available. This website may be useful to postgraduate students or researchers planning a study visit to Athens.
'Numismatics' is a website created by an enthusiast with an interest in ancient coins: it features essays, images and weblinks relating to this topic. There are also digital reprints of classic numismatic works such as a complete illustrated edition of Barclay Head's 'Historia Numorum', first published in 1886 and one of the seminal works on Greek and Roman coinage. Also included are some 70 plates from Head's guide to the coin collection of the British Museum (with the preface to the 1895 edition) and some high resolution maps of ancient Greece. There is also a selection of plates from the British Museum's coin catalogue. The site author's own contributions include articles on the Greek alphabet, the coins of Apollonia Pontika and the Gorgon issues of Parion. These are not footnoted or referenced and lack detailed bibliographies but will interest amateurs and undergraduates who can use them alongside standard academic works on ancient numismatics. More experienced numismatists will find it a useful source of small but clear images for teaching purposes and quick reference.
This website is the official guide of the Greek Ministry of Culture to the museums, historical buildings and monuments, and archaeological sites of Greece. It offers a comprehensive and illustrated overview of around 1000 heritage sites in the care of the Greek government and combines concise information on the historical and artistic attractions of each site or museum together with practical information on opening times, contact details and management responsibility. The information can be accessed in two principal ways, either via a clickable cultural map of Greece or else in the form of searchable A-Z lists of the relevant sites and institutions. The latter constitute an attractive and easily accessible mini reference guide to historic sites in Greece. Most of the featured sites and museums offer thumb-nail images which can be also viewed at a larger scale. The resource also provides a guide to the many bodies, both Greek and foreign, which are responsible for archaeology and heritage management in Greece together with information on relevant education programmes and recent exhibitions in Greece and abroad. Some of the relevant links are still under construction. Links to the parent website of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture provide a wider view of cultural institutions in Greece.
The website is also available in a Greek language version.This resource will have a wide audience in academic world and will be particularly useful for those planning a study tour, research trip or field project in Greece in addition to appealing to the interested amateur.
Odyssey Online is an interesting and attractively packaged set of learning resources for archaeology, aimed at American Elementary and Middle School students and their teachers. It is a collaborative project between the Michael C. Carlos Museum of Emory University, the Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester, and the Dallas Museum of Art. The learning resources are chiefly focused on the use of objects and archaeological contexts to learn about the past, with particular emphasis on Egypt and the Near East, Greece and Rome, and 19th-20th century Africa. The user-friendly student section is arranged thematically and covers a wide range of topics: People, mythology, daily life, death and burial, writing, rituals and ceremonies, and archaeology. Much of the resource is devoted to encouraging students to develop their own interests and skills in the form of class displays and presentations. The teacher resources include a lesson library, ideas for class activities and details of books and websites for further research in ancient cultures. Acrobat Reader 4, QuickTime 4 and Shockwave 8 are required for some of the site features but these can be downloaded for free from this site.Although Odyssey Online is designed for an American school syllabus, the website will also benefit British school teachers and their students as it offers useful didactic advice to anyone teaching archaeology to younger children as well as providing insights into how the subject is taught in the United States.
This is the official website of the excavations in the region of Paphlagonia, Turkey. Paphlagonia was a region on the north-central Black Sea coast of Anatolia, situated between Bithynia and Pontus, which included several Greek colonies such as Sinope and Hadrianopolis. The website was still incomplete at the time of review, but there is already an introduction with maps, a paper on Hellenistic and Roman ceramics ("an overview of the Turkish archaeological literature") and illustrated preliminary reports on the surveys carried out at Hadrianopolis (6th century AD Christian mosaics) and Kimistene (Roman temple). Some pages contain many pictures and may require some time before loading. This website, pending updates, may be useful to students and researchers studying Paphlagonia during the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
This website about the frieze decorating the Parthenon at Athens has been produced at the Department of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University. It is a useful tool for students to explore a unique masterpiece of Greek art, especially from an aesthetic and iconographic perspective. The four main sections of the frieze are reproduced integrating black and white pictures with drawings in order to reproduce the continuous series of scenes; interactive controls allow scrolling through the many scenes and it is possible to access larger photographs and drawings by clicking the icons underneath some scenes. There are also maps of the Parthenon and diagrams of architectural features. The frieze is attributed to sculptor Phidias, and was set in place between 443 and 438 BC and carved about at that time; it represents a procession, possibly that of the Panathenaic festival.
The carved frieze from the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is the most famous, and controversial, collection of sculpture to survive from the classical Greek world. This clearly written and attractively illustrated resource, available in Greek and English, brings together all the surviving fragments of the frieze, presently housed in the British Museum, the Louvre and the Acropolis Museum, in a digital format. The site provides a concise and fascinating introduction to many aspects of the Parthenon and its sculpted decoration, including a history of the frieze and the building itself since its execution by Athenian statesman Pericles between 447 and 438 BC. The reader is given an outline of the religious significance of the Parthenon and the Panathenaic festival for the Athenian people as well as a discussion of the various interpretations of the temple iconography. The frieze itself is presented stone by stone with a commentary on each fragment, including reproductions of drawings by Carrey (1674) and Stuart (1757) which preserve details no longer visible on the surviving sculptures. Usefully, the sculpture from each of the four sides of the temple is presented initially as a series of continuous thumbnail images which allows the iconographic scheme to be viewed as a whole as well as detail by detail. This excellent website, produced by the Acropolis Restoration Service and published by the National Documentation Service (EKT), is intended by the authors to appeal to a wide-ranging audience from the general public to university level academics.
This online resource is dedicated to the marble sculptures - the metopes, frieze, and pediment statues - which originally adorned the Parthenon in Athens. It includes an image gallery of the marbles, and a history of the sculptures from their production in the fifth century BC to their removal to London by Lord Elgin in the early nineteenth century. The site's bias is towards the return of the marbles to Greece, although it provides information on both sides of this debate. This includes updates on the campaign for their return, media coverage of the topic and the arguments of the British government and the British Museum against the return of the sculptures.
Perperikon is an important archaeological site in Bulgaria, in the eastern Rhodope range (Rodopi Planina); it was used as religious centre since the end of the 5th millennium BC (Chalcolithic figurines). This website written by Nikolay Ovcharov, the archaeologist who discovered and excavated it, summarises the research carried out so far. The website is available in Bulgarian or English and there is a Flash multimedia version and an HTML version; the HTML is the most complete version. The website contains several sections: "news"; "general Info and road map" where archaeological drawings of the architectural structures are available; "legend and history", which focuses on the main subjects of cult at Perperikon (Orpheus, Dionysus, and the Christian Holy Cross); the archaeological excavations ("Perperikon unearthed"); the surrounding monuments ("Perperikon and the eastern Rhodope"); a gallery of pictures ("virtual tour"); and others.
The long history of Perperikon is summarised in a chronological table in section "legend and history"; it spans from the 6th millennium BC (first traces of human occupation of the area) to its destruction in the 14th century AD. The Thracians worshipped the sun and extracted gold and silver from mines in the area. The cult of Dionysus became particularly important and an impressive temple dedicated to this divinity was built on the acropolis; historical sources report of an oracle. The Byzantines established an important ecclesiastical centre at Perperikon and a 9th or 10th century reliquary in the shape of a cross containing wood (one of three found in Bulgaria) may contain parts of the cross carried by Jesus. Among the monuments outside the settlement are a cave shaped as a womb (Rock Womb at Nenkovo); Thracian megaliths; the tomb of a 13th or 14th century bishop; and others.
The art and archaeology browser is a tool provided by the Perseus website which allows the user to find archaeological objects from ancient Greece and the Roman empire featuring in Perseus' extensive online collection of text and images. The initial search page allows the user to select object type, and is divided into the following categories: architecture; coins; gems; sculpture; sites; and vases. Each section is then divided into further sub-categories in order to help the user to narrow their search for a particular object (for example, if looking for a building in the architecture category one may search by site, building, period, architect or type). Entries for each object give a brief summary with links to other pages of Perseus which can provide further detail. These include images and secondary source material which refer to the selected object. This will be a useful reference tool and starting point for those seeking information on specific ancient archaeological sites and artefacts.
This online catalogue of buildings found at archaeological sites throughout the ancient Greek world is provided by the Perseus digital library. The user may enter a search term for a particular site or building, or may browse the catalogue via the alphabetical table of contents. A wide range of types of buildings is covered and includes the following: temples; stoas; treasuries; theatres; palaces; and gymnasia. Featured archaeological sites include, among others: Aegina; Athens; Delos; Delphi; Eleusis; Epidauros; Miletus; Mycenae; Olympia; Priene; and Samos. Full catalogue entries include a description of the building as well as links to other resources on the Perseus website. These include images, maps, plans and links to secondary source material, as well as links to information on other related or comparable buildings.
The Perseus Project is a large digital library of online texts and images for the study of ancient Greece and Rome. The resources available via Perseus are extensive, including the following: primary texts (in the original ancient Greek and Latin languages as well as English translation); secondary texts relating to various aspects of the ancient world; a set of linguistic tools; and a number of large databases relating to the study of ancient archaeological sites and artefacts. The art and archaeology section of the website offers a searchable collection of art objects, sites and buildings, with descriptions and images drawn from museums worldwide. It includes architecture, sculpture, coins and vases, and provides access to supporting tools such as atlases and encyclopaedias. The study of the classical world via Perseus is further enhanced by: an interactive atlas; an extensive encyclopaedia with embedded cross-references; and a series of overview articles. The site also offers several further collections of primary and secondary texts: papyri (from the Ptolematic and Roman periods); English Renaissance texts (including all of Marlowe's works, a facsimile of the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays and other resources); London (atlas from 1780 to the present, texts about London, photographs and other materials); books on California and the Upper Midwest from the Library of Congress American Memory Collection; and documents on the history of Tufts University. Mirror sites are available in Berlin and Chicago.
This online encyclopaedia from the Perseus digital library is a comprehensive reference source for a vast range of aspects of the classical world. Via the encyclopaedia's table of contents the user is able to click on the first letter of the term for which they are searching and then browse through entries beginning with that letter. Alternatively they may type in a search term. The breadth of information here to some extent defies summary, but among other things the following are included: key individuals (authors and statesmen, for example); important sites throughout the Greek and Roman world; mythology and religion; art and architecture; historical events; literary works. Each encyclopaedia entry provides hyperlinks to relevant resources in the Perseus library, including cross references to other articles in the encyclopaedia and direct links to primary and secondary sources as well as to any related images. The encyclopaedia is an excellent starting-point for those seeking information on classical topics.
Based on the life's work and surviving archive of renowned Oxford epigrapher Lilian ('Anne') Jeffery (1915-1986), this online resource provides a major database and scholarly tool for the study of early Greek writing and literacy from circa 800-500 BC. Published by the University of Oxford's Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), the website provides information on thousands of inscriptions and their archaeological context as well as a biography of Jeffery by David Lewis reproduced from the Proceedings of the British Academy. The inscriptions can be searched by publication sequence, script types, letter form, site context, object type, region and sub region, and date range. Each entry is given an individual data sheet which includes detailed information about the inscriptions, as well as images, transcriptions and translations. There is also a series of maps showing the distribution of the inscriptions. Jeffery's book 'The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece' (first published in 1961) remains a seminal text for early Greek epigraphy but her archive contains a far larger collection of drawings, notes and supplementary material not included in the original publication or in the revised second edition edited by Alan Johnston in 1990. The archival material provided here is of considerable interest in expanding and elucidating the original publication.
The aim of the Geniza Project of the Department of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University is to develop better methodologies for Hebrew and Arabic scholars working with the so-called 'Geniza fragments', which are documents found in the Geniza chamber of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo in the late 19th century. This project ultimately intends to create a full-text database of transcriptions of the documents and to offer a dictionary and morphological tools to facilitate the study of the Geniza texts. The site's target audience is the scholar interested in Middle Eastern archaeology, history and religious developments. This resource requires Hebrew fonts. The site has its own search engine.
Propylaeum-DOK is a full text open access depository of dissertations and other documents related to antiquity and published by the Heidelberg University Library following the Open Archives Initiative protocol for metadata. Most dissertations are written in German and focus on the Hellenistic and Roman Mediterranean region, but there are a few resources on German archaeology; German perception of archaeology throughout time; Aegean prehistory; and Mediterranean prehistory. It is likely that as more dissertations and books are added, further themes will be covered. It is possible to perform full text searches across all documents stored in this depository, which can then be accessed in PDF format. Researchers may find find this depository very useful, and especially the convenient search function.
This website presents the results of the Pylos Regional Archaeology Project (PRAP), which investigated the history of land use and landscape development around the Late Bronze Age palace (the so-called Palace of Nestor) near Pylos in Messenia, south-western Greece. In addition to preliminary reports of fieldwork between 1992-1997 and a bibliography of research by PRAP members, the site also provides detailed reports on the re-examination of finds from 1998-2005. The site also contains the following: a gazetteer of archaeological sites with accompanying thumb-nail maps; pottery and small finds databases, with images and descriptions of finds; a three-dimensional tour of the Palace of Nestor (this requires Quick Time); and photographs of the study area. This resource will be of particular use to undergraduate students and researchers interested in Mediterranean landscapes and survey methodology and in the long-term economic and social history of south-western Greece.
This Web page describes AHRC-funded research to re-display the Ancient Greek and Roman collections at the University of Cambridge's Fitzwilliam Museum. The project aims to bring the University's archaeological scholarship into "conversation" with contemporary museum display practices, in the light of recent advances in art history research, moving away from 'thematic' or 'stylistic' displays, towards an understanding of the role of "changing technology, the complexities of workshop practices, and the role of ancient markets" as well the influence of collectors on museum objects. Outputs will include a new public catalogue and Web pages for visitors.
Recherches franco-helléniques is a series of monographs published by the French School of Athens; the free and full text monographs written in cooperation between members of the School and the Greek archaeological Ephorias can be accessed on this website. Among the volumes published are "Cité et territoire en Macédoine et Thrace Antiques" (city and terrirory in ancient Macedonia and Thrace) and "Les sceaux de Délos" (the seals of Delos). This website may be useful primarily to researchers.
This is a guide to the archaeological fieldwork in Greece currently carried out by the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History at the University of Birmingham, England and offers information on a cluster of sites in northern Greece (Assiros, Nea Nikomedia, Servia and Thermon) as well as the well known centres of Mycenae and Knossos. The website, whose construction is still in progress, provides concise descriptions of the topography and stratigraphy of the featured archaeological sites which range in date from the Early Neolithic to the Byzantine periods. There are bibliographic references to recent relevant publications. Of particular note is the section on the site of Assiros which has produced important new information on the Greek Dark Ages ca. 1200-700 B.C. Also included is an obituary of Cressida Ridley (1917-1998) who was an important figure in the archaeology of Neolithic Greece in the 20th century.This resource will provide undergraduate students and researchers with concise and up-to-date information on a number of highly important archaeological sites in Greece.
This is the official website of the "Return to Cnidus" research project by the British Museum. The project started in 1997 and it includes digging sections of the ancient town of Cnidus, Turkey. Cnidus was an important Hellenistic town founded around 360 BC. British archaeologists have researched the area since 1812, and now several buildings have been unearthed. A short summary of the results of the excavations is the most valuable part of the website at the time of review. A list of publications produced by members of the project can be found in the introductory page. Students may find this website useful.
This website publishes the preliminary results of the excavations at Sagalassos, Turkey. The town is located in the region of Pisidia, which was formerly under Persian and Hittite control. The recent excavations have unearthed a number of Hellenistic architectural structures such as the Bouleuterion; the Market Building and the Agora. Several important Roman buildings such as the Odeion; Hadrianic Nymphaeum; Makellon (a food market); and Roman Baths have also been uncovered. There is also a list of printed publications and a bibliography in PDF format; the "The Sagalassos Series" and "Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology" can be purchased from this website. This website may be useful especially to students.
The website of the School of History, Classics, and Archaeology at Birkbeck College, University of London, essentially provides information for those considering courses at Birkbeck, or who are already on one of the courses. However, the website also has a excellent set of resources aimed at its students which can be used by any interested party. The sections Undergraduate, Classics, and Medieval resources point the student towards useful websites and other resources in the field. There is also information on forthcoming conferences and projects within the School, as well as links to pertinent lecture and seminar lists at IHR and ICS. Each individual department has listings of its staff, their research interests, and contact details.
This is the official website of the Italian Archaeological School at Athens. The website provides information on the field activities and postgraduate courses organised by the School. There are also contact details and a brief history of the School. The notiziario (newsletter) publishes information of recent activities and field work; the most recent edition is available in PDF format. Members of the School run several excavations, including Pale (Cephalonia); Poliochni (Lemnos); and the Cretan sites of Ayia Triadha; Phaistos; Monastiraki Apodolou; Thronos; Prinias and Gortyna. Brief illustrated summaries of the excavations are available in section "attivití , scavi". The School hosts a library (online catalogue via Argo) and archives of photographs, maps and drawings. Access to the archives is restricted. This website may be useful to anybody interested on any of the archaeological sites that the School is investigating. The School organises lectures and conferences; a list of recent publications sponsored by the School is available.
This website is the online publication of a Stanford University conference entitled "Seeing the past". Many of the papers presented at the conference can be accessed through this website. Topics of the papers include general papers on human sight, Neolithic Catalhoyuk, Mycenaean art, Neolithic Italy, Bulgaria, Mesoamerica and Classical archaeology. There are thematic papers focusing on the Lupanar at Pompeii, the Greek symposium and visual problems with the imagery used in virtual reconstructions and aerial archaeology. This website can be useful especially to researchers.
The Virtual Museum System of Magna Graecia website is an ambitious project financed by the European Union to publish information on the antiquities of Calabria, Italy. Most contents are available in English, and a full-text search facility simplifies access to information; this website requires Internet Explorer. Here it is reviewed the Italian version because more complete and functional; since most contents are images it might be enough to click on the flag when textual pages appear to check if an English version is available, otherwise missing contents and broken links may prevent access to some contents. The website is divided in 4 main sections: Real; Virtual; Documents and didactic; and Info. Section "Reale" contains galleries of images of artefacts in museums (with floorplans) and archaeological sites; a few short referenced essays on ancient productive activities (e.g. oil and wine production; goldsmiths; etc.) are accessible selecting "cultural districts". Maps and lists of sites facilitate the browsing of information. Section "Virtual" also contains galleries of images, but these were produced from 3D models. Pictures of a selection of artefacts preserved in museums form the largest part of the collection; QuickTime pictures allow to zoom into pictures, but they are not tridimensional. The section also contains virtual reconstructions of ancient people (e.g. Archimedes; Pythagoras; Euclid; etc) based on statues. Section "Documenti e didattica" contains some educational texts; unfortunately only some were available in English at the time of review; the videos could not be accessed. A "Wiki" section aims at publishing more texts. Section "Informazioni" contains information about the project. This website may be useful for its many maps and illustrations to anyone interested in the archaeology of Greek colonies in Calabria. The texts are mainly aimed at students, and most are accessible only to Italian speakers.
Sisyphos is an Internet search engine providing access only to archaeological and Egyptological websites. Similarly to Intute, the resources accessible through this website have been selected according to their scientific relevance. Sisyphos covers all aspects of Classical (Greek-Roman) Archaeology as well as the Minoan and Mycenaean civilisations; Etruscan studies; and Egyptology. In addition, the website also lists general archaeological resources (history of the subject, theories, methods, institutions, excavation techniques). The bilingual interface in German and English is effective; it is possible to search or browse the listed resources. The strength of this website is evident for its core fields of Classical Archaeology and Egyptology, and within them, the ancient art of those civilisations. The available metadata is sufficient to determine the relevancy of the resources, but there are no descriptions evidencing merits and faults of the websites or the targeted audience. It is therefore recommended to use its search facilities performing a full-text search of the included resources; it works like Google but it yields more relevant results.
This website publishes the free and full text series of archaeological guides of sites excavated or studied by members of the French School of Athens. Several guides are available for the major sites; all guides provide a good introduction to the sites and monuments, and they are all written in French, but there are Greek translations of some. Among the sites are: Delos; Thasos; Malia (palace, quartier Mu and necropolis of Chryssolakkos); Delphi (archaeological site and museum); theatres at Argos; Amathonte and non-palatial sites of Crete (only those excavated by members of the School). These guides can be an excellent introduction to some sites for both researchers and students.
The website Skenotheke: Images of the Ancient Stage has been developed by John Porter, a classical archaeologist based at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. The site is dedicated to images of ancient Greek and Roman theatre which are available on the Web; as such, whilst it does not feature original content, it is a very useful one-stop resource for those interested in ancient drama and the locations where this was performed. Links are provided to virtual reconstructions of ancient theatres, as well as to images of modern productions of classical plays. Images of ancient theatres are arranged by geographical location. Sections are dedicated to the following: the theatre of Dionysus at Athens; deme theatres; other theatres across mainland Greece (including those at Corinth, Delphi and Epidauros); the theatres of Asia Minor; and those on the Greek islands. There are also resources on Roman theatre including that at Pompeii. In addition, the site offers a collection of images of Greek and Roman drama shown in ancient art (including: vase paintings; figurines; mosaics; frescoes; and architectural decoration). These images would be useful for those studying acting in the Greek theatre and related topics such as Greek masks. The site offers resources for the study of satyr plays and comedy as well as Greek tragedy.
This is the website of the Hellenic Society, one of the foremost organisations in the British Isles promoting the study of ancient Greek and Byzantine culture. Included here are: information on membership; details of publications (including the Journal of Hellenic Studies, Archaeological Reports and numerous supplementary volumes); details of available grants, prizes and support for schools; listings of events such as lectures and meetings; a list of the Society's current officers. Via the publications section users may also view contents lists for the Journal of Hellenic Studies from 1999-2008, along wiith abstracts for the volumes from 2001 onwards.
This digital archive, hosted by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS), details the analyses undertaken on soils and sediments from a terraced slope at an Early Bronze Age site on the Aegean island of Amorgos. The analyses aimed to determine the nature and amount of erosion on the slope during the past 5,000 years, and assess the impact upon the formation of the surviving archaeological record. The Early Bronze Age site of Markiani on Amorgos, Greece, appeared to have undergone an initial phase of illuviation and colluviation with increasing leaching and oxidation over time, probably associated with the establishment and occupation of the Early Bronze Age site and agricultural/pastoral usage of the hillslope. The Early Bronze Age occupation may potentially have continued for 800 years, but subsequent evidence shows dis-use, collapse and silting-up of the settlement ruins.The digital archive is available for download in the form of three text documents (all in HTML format), accompanied by 18 images (in GIF format). The images present locational information regarding the site, section drawings from the excavations and photomicrographs of the various soil structures.
This website publishes the preliminary results of the Southern Euboea Exploration Project. There are a few colour pictures and the newsletter "Seepage" available, as well as a short history of the project, pasta and present members as well as contact details. There is a bibliography, and further bibliographic references may be found in the newsletter. This website may be of interest especially to researchers.
This is the highly detailed and well thought-out website of the Sphakia Survey, an interdisciplinary archaeological project whose main objective is to reconstruct the sequence of human activity in a remote and rugged part of Crete (Greece), from the time that people arrived in the area, by c. 3000 BCE, until the end of Ottoman rule in AD 1900. The project's research covers three major epochs, Prehistoric, Graeco-Roman, and Byzantine-Venetian-Turkish, and has involved the work of many people using environmental, archaeological, documentary, and local information. The website includes: photographs of Cretan landscapes, objects and archaeological finds; illustrated versions of the project's preliminary articles; a searchable database of the site catalogue; a case study based on one period (Graeco-Roman) in one of the eight regions surveyed; and a description of the project's research methodology. This resource is a joint project between the Sphakia Survey project and the Humanities Computing Development Team at the University of Oxford. The website is part of an online course for adult learners; an educational video based on research at Sphakia is available. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
'Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization' is a full-text open access ejournal, with issues available online from 1991 through to 2009. The journal is published in English and French from the Jagiellonian University Institute of Archaeology, in Poland. Recent articles are primarily in English, and all articles are freely available in PDF format. Example article titles include: 'Egyptianising Grave Monuments in London's Brompton Cemetery'; 'Dwarf Figurines from Tell el-Farkha'; 'Gazelles and Ostriches from Tell el-Farkha'; 'A Forgotten Scarab of Horemheb', among others. Volume 11 was a special issue covering recent research on Greek colonies of the northern Black Sea coast. The journal will be of interest to scholars of... "pre-dynastic and early dynastic Egypt, the archaeology of ancient Egypt and Middle East, archaeology of Greece, Cyprus, Italy; the history of collecting and the history of archaeological research". The journal website has full details of the Editorial Board and submissions process.
Styppax, named after a celebrated Cypriot sculptor mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, is a valuable online resource for the study of sculpture from the island of Cyprus, particularly from the Cypro-Geometric, Cypro-Geometric and Cypro-Classical periods (circa 1050-300 BC). The resource consists of an extensive bibliography of published works (including book reviews) related to sculpture and related arts in ancient Cyprus but also to the surrounding region from which Cypriot material culture drew so many of its influences in the Iron Age. The bibliography includes sections on collections of Cypriot art in world museums, travellers accounts and the work of early archaeologists and antiquarians, provenience and distribution studies on Cypriot sculpture, as well as iconographic and religious aspects. Miscellaneous essays on aspects of Cypriot art include the full-text of Mylonas's 1998 University of Mannheim doctoral dissertation on 'Archaische kalksteinplastik Zyperns' (which includes a survey of stone sculpture on the island beginning circa 1900 B.C.) and Jenkins's article arguing for a Cypriot origin for the kouroi from Naukratis in Egypt reproduced from AJA 105 (2001). Also included are maps of Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean and a series of web-links to institutions holding substantial or significant collections of Cypriot art as well as to websites with images of Cypriot sculpture. This website will benefit a wide range of students and researchers working in Mediterranean and Near Eastern archaeology and art history.
This is the official website of the Swedish Institute at Athens. The website publishes a short history of the institute; a list of staff; contact details; a list of publications sponsored by the Institute; the services that the Institute provides to scholars; and the guesthouse at Kavala. The website is a contributor to the Nordic Library at Athens. In the section "Swedish excavations", short illustrated articles summarise the research carried out by the institute. Among the investigated sites are: Classical Aphidna in northern Attica; Asea in Arcadia; Asine in the Argolid (continually inhabited from the Neolithic to the Hellenistic period; the settlement and the Late Bronze Age and Geometric cemeteries have been found); Berbati Valley in Argolid (including Mastos hill); Dendra and Midea in the Argolid; Chania on Crete (Minoan "Master Impression" produced by a seal depicting a male figure towering a town on the sea); Malthi and the Swedish Messenia expedition; Paradeisos in Aegean Thrace (Neolithic figurine); and Kalaureia. A database containing essential data of all published artefacts excavated by the institute is freely accessible after registration (name and email required). For each artefact the catalogue number; chronology; material; publication details and a few other details (no description) are given. The database is not intended to replace the printed publications, nonetheless it can be very useful. It includes data from the excavations at Asine (including Zafer Aga); Berbati; Dendra and Midea.
This is the official website of the Swiss School of Archaeology in Greece. It publishes information on the school and its sponsored publications; there are also contact details, and staff and members lists. Press releases are available in PDF format. The main activity of the School is the excavation of Eretria in Euboea; there is a preliminary report on Eretria as well as a gallery of pictures (some aerial photographs included) and a bibliographic database on Eretria and Euboea. Readers are warned that the large high resolution pictures are in JPEG CMYK format suitable for press printing and therefore must be saved on a local disk and opened with specialist software; most browsers will return an error when attempting to open the pictures. At the time of this review the server also returned occasional errors with a few pages requiring to click the original hyperlink several times before access was granted. Annual reports of the excavations at Eretria appear regularly in the scholarly journal "Antike Kunst"; these reports are available full text in PDF format in section "publications", "Antike Kunst reports". Currently all reports since 1964 can be accessed, two files for each year: text and illustrations. This website may be of interest to researchers, especially those studying Eretria.
Supported by the British Academy, this is an online database of over 25,000 Greek coins found in British museums, institutions and private collections designed to complement the existing 30 printed volumes of the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum (SNG) which was initiated in 1931. The powerful search function allows the reader to search by: collection: country or state of origin; archaeological site; ruler or magistrate; date (600 BC-100 AD); denomination, weight, volume, or standard; obverse and reverse description; die axis; SNG reference. Each item has an individual entry and, in many cases, is accompanied by images of the coins. Although the absence of any introductory material means that this is a largely intended as a specialist resource for numismatists and ancient historians and archaeologists, dedicated undergraduates will also benefit from browsing the corpus of coins from the ancient Greek and Hellenistic world, particularly through using the image gallery function.
The Thesprotia expedition website publishes the preliminary results of the survey work carried out in the Kokytos river basin, Epirus, from prehistoric to modern times. The methods employed for the survey includes intensive surveying with grids 10x10 m or 20x20 m; GIS, GPS and geoarchaeological analyses. The earliest artefacts found date to the Palaeolithic (ca. 100,000 years BP), for which three archaeological sites have been identified. The survey has also found evidence of Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age human occupation; scarce is the evidence for the Iron Age. More substantial artefacts have been found for the Greek and Roman period (including epigraphs) and later periods. The website only summarises the preliminary results and publishes a few colour illustrations, often without caption, and contains an extensive bibliography.
This website publishes a collection of free and full text monographs by the French School of Athens on topics and archaeological sites related to ancient Greece. Among the monographs are: "Attic Black-Figured Lekithoi" by Caroline Henriette Emilie Haspels (1936); "Lois sacrées de l’Asie Mineure" (sacred areas in Asia Minor) and "Lois sacrées des cités grecques" (sacred areas in the Greek settlements) by Franciszek Sokolowski (1955 and 1969); "Problèmes historiques autour de la bataille des Thermopyles" (historical problems about the battle of Thermopylae) by Apostolos Dascalakis (1962); "Fonction des cavernes crétoises" (function of Cretan caves) by Paul Faure (1964); "Le symbolisme de l’oeil" (the symbolism of oil) by Waldemar Déonna (1965); and "Les matériaux de construction et la technique architecturale des anciens Grecs" (the construction materials and the architectural technique of the ancient Greeks) by Anastase Orlandos (1966 and 1969). This website may be useful primarily to researchers given the danger that some information published in these volumes will now be outdated.
This is the websit of the Trireme Trust, which was formed in 1982 to investigate the design and performance of triremes, Greek warships of the classical and Hellenistic periods. It has achieved this primarily through sea trials involving the rowing of Olympias, the reconstruction of an ancient trireme built by the Hellenic Navy and Greek Ministry of Tourism. The Trust's website presents both pictures and information relating to Olympias as well as newsletters, details of press coverage, conference reports, texts of relevant academic articles and a bibliography. These pages may be of interest to scholars of ancient maritime history and archaeology.
Diane Thompson of Northern Virginia Community College has created a fascinating web resource reflecting on the central role of the story of Troy and the Epic Cycle in Greek, Roman and European culture based on the content of her 2004 book 'The Trojan War: literature and legends from the Bronze Age to the present' (McFarland). She takes the reader on a 3,000 year journey from the archaeology of Troy and Mycenae and the Bronze Age origins of the epics, to the establishment and dissemination of the Homeric texts as seminal books in Greek and Roman times, to their transformation into Christian and later European literature during the Middle Ages, to the Renaissance and the Enlightenment periods and finally down to the reinvention of the tales in the 20th century by James Joyce, Wilfred Owen, Derek Walcott, Jean-Paul Sartre and the generation of writers who reflected their experiences of the Vietnam War through the poetry of Homer. One major section, focusing on the role of women in the Epics and how they have been central to recent feminist discourse, is also used to introduce important bibliographical material on ancient and modern interpretations of goddesses, powerful ancient women and gender roles generally, from both academic and literary authors. Each chapter, arranged in roughly chronological order, contains a summary of the historical context and links to etexts, images, film references and background material, including very useful bibliographic material. A linked series of pages provides a course guide to the module Myths and stories of the Trojan War taught by Thompson to college level students. The website is ideal for students of classics and ancient history (or European history generally), but also for those interested in the evolution of Western literary and artistic models.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Claros, in the Greek town of Colophon, Turkey, where a temple of Apollo has been found. The website offers several relatively short articles, including one (which is lavishly illustrated) summarising the archaeological evidence. This resource also features a plan, a bibliography, and a 'diaporama' - a gallery of pictures.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the classical site of Sinope (modern spelling Sinop), Turkey. Founded by colonisers coming from Miletus on the southern shore of the Black Sea, it was one of the most important towns in the Greek world. This site is aimed primarily at students, and contains a few illustrated articles summarising the archaeological research carried out so far. The most interesting part is the preliminary report of the French studies, which have been concentrated on the two workshops containing amphorae, those at Boz Tepe and Demirci. There are a few drawings of the amphorae, and some contextual information. There is also a brief bibliography, and a map. All images accompanying the text can be seen at higher resolution in the 'diaporama' (picture gallery).
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on Xanthos, which is a World Heritage site. Xanthos was the largest town of ancient Lycia. The town and the Lycian culture are the subject of a few illustrated articles. The history of the Letoon, a surviving temple of Leto, is remarkable. Built on an area previously sacred to Lycian deity Elyanas, it has yielded the only information of pre-Greek religion in Lycia. The Greeks reused the area and built three sanctuaries: the Letoon for Leto, and two others dedicated to Artemis and Apollo. The area of the two Greek temples that have not survived was reused by Christians, who built a church there. This website only presents an overview of the many subjects and therefore is most suitable for use by undergraduate students. There is also a bibliography; contact details of the French archaeological project; a few maps and plans; and a 'diaporama' - a gallery of pictures.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Hellenistic site of Zeugma (Seleucia), Turkey. The site is located on the Euphrates River, opposite ancient Apamea. The two sides were connected through a bridge of boats, which made Zeugma an important transit point in Mesopotamia. The illustrated articles summarise the historical importance of Zeugma and the mobile bridge on the Euphrates. In addition, the results of recent research on the necropolis and on subterranean architectural structures are outlined. There is a bibliography and a gallery of pictures. Students in particular will find this website informative.
This website describes the University of Chicago's excavations, since 1989, of the sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia near Corinth; this was one of the most important religious centres of the ancient Greek world and the location of the pan-Hellenic games. In addition to reports for the 1989-2007 field seasons, the resource includes a number of articles on various aspects of ancient Isthmia as well as a bibliography of publications by the project team. The resource offers numerous useful maps, plans and photographs of the sanctuary. Particularly attractive is a series of 3D views and contour plans illustrating the architectural development of the sanctuary of Poseidon from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BCE. Ability to view large images (using Adobe Acrobat) is required. This site will be of value both to undergraduates and to those initiating research into the archaeology of Greek religion and social life.
The University of Melbourne's Classics and Archaeology Virtual Museum Project puts online the majority of the contents of the Classics and Archaeology wing of the University's Ian Potter Museum, together with a number of collections not owned by the University. This vast online resource offers access to Greek, Roman, Egyptian and Middle Eastern manuscripts, pottery, coinage, bronzes, vases and sculpture.The centrepiece of the site is the database that allows the user to search the collection. Over 7000 images are available, and there are a number of photos for each object, taken from differing angles and with varying degrees of detail. This makes the site particularly useful for research, as do the full descriptions, bibliographies and comparisons for individual pieces. This information, with all other relevant data such as date, provenance and material, is attractively presented and easily accessible. The self-directed tour allows the user easy access to full lists of the artefacts and the history of the individual collections. There is extensive documentation about the development of the museum and the virtual museum project.
This is the website of the US Epigraphy Project, which is based at Brown University and is devoted to information about Greek and Latin inscriptions which are preserved in the USA. The digital catalogue is based on the contents of the book Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the USA : A Checklist, written by J Bodel and S Tracy. The key feature of the online resource is a searchable database of these inscriptions. The user may browse by collection or publication, or by using a search form which has a range of fields including: language; place of origin; date; type of inscription; type of object; and type of material. Searches then produce an image of the inscription along with essential information (provenance, date, material and object type) and bibliographic details, along with the inscription's US epigraphy number. There is also a list of links to other epigraphy websites and relevant search engines.
This online resource applies modern computer technology to create digital impressions of what 15 ancient Greek and Roman sculptures might have looked like in their original painted state, showing images of the pieces in their present format alongside the imagined polychromatic originals. Featured sculptures include: kouros and kore statues; statues of Apollo; a Parthenon metope; and Trajan's column. Contextual and historical information is minimal but there is a useful basic bibliography and a series of hyperlinks to sources of images of ancient art. The website also provides technical and methodological information on how the reconstructions were made. The 'Virtual Gallery' provides useful complementary learning materials for undergraduates studying classical art and archaeology and their teachers. It will also benefit art historians and artists interested in comparative historical materials.
The Zea Harbour Project focuses on the ancient Zea Harbour in the Piraeus, Greece. The harbour with shipsheds at Zea is among the largest Classical architectural complexes; 196 Athenian triremes were based here. The project uses both land and marine excavation techniques and has investigated also another of the three harbours of Athens: Mounychia, which hosted 82 triremes. Section "publications" is only available to team members; section "ancient history" focuses on the trireme and the shipsheds by presenting the information in a timeline format from the naval program of Themistocles to the sack of the Piraeus by Sulla in 86 BC. Annual reports from 2000 are available in section "project"; the 2005 report contains a video of a 3D reconstruction of the triremes, shipsheds and harbour. The most recent information can be found in the "news" section. A page describes the excavation techniques employed by the team, including the enclosure system adopted to survey the waters of the harbour. There is a gallery of pictures; it also includes photographs of column drums from the area. Classical Athens owed much of its power and influence to its navy and this updated website explores the heart of it with its many pictures and texts. It is an important contribution to our understanding of ancient Greece.
This is the website of the Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, an international journal of Greek and Roman antiquity focusing on research into epigraphic and papyrological material. This resource provides a guide to the contents of the journal from 1967 to the present together with the digitised texts of articles from 2001-2004 which are available free of charge for private study (free volumes made available might vary from year to year). The indexes of most volumes can be browsed in PDF format. The reproduced articles are in German, English, French and Italian.Information on the print version of the journal is also provided, such as editorial advice for authors and subscription details.This website provides useful a bibliographic guide to publications in an important classics and ancient history journal for university students and researchers, particularly for those competent in European languages.
The Austrian Archeological Institute's website is extremely well presented. Archaeological digs which the Institute have undertaken include about a dozen sites in Austria, as well as four sites without (Ephesos, in modern Turkey, Aigeora and Lousoi in Greece, and Tell el-Dab'a in Egypt). Information concerning the Egyptian dig is not actually on this website, but it refers the reader to two connected websites (the Institute of Egyptology and 'SCIEM 2000'). When one clicks on the city of one's choice, one is met with a succinct history of the city and the excavations, which are accompanied by relevant colour pictures. There is also a bibliography and contact details of those who have worked on the excavations should one require more information. In addition to the above, there is a list of the Institutes publications (including forthcoming ones). It should be noted, however, that the books, unlike, the website, are only available in German.