This is the official website of the Czech Institute of Egyptology, which is carrying out excavations at Abu Sir (directed by Miroslav Verner) and El-Hayez, near Bahariya Oasis (directed by Miroslav Bárta). The contents include practical information and an history of the institute; research news; a preliminary report of the excavations at Abu Sir; a shorter report on the excavations at El-Hayez.
Abu Sir is a Old Kingdom (third millennium BC) archaeological site, where pyramids and a necropolis have been unearthed. Among the royal monuments presented in illustrated articles are: the pyramid "Lepsius no. XXIV"; the mastaba of the king's son Nakhtkare; the unfinished pyramid of King Neferre. The report also contains illustrated articles for several tombs up to the Persian period (fifth century BC). The report on the excavations at El-Hayez in the western desert documents finds from the Palaeolithic (Acheulean stone tools; dated to 500,000 years ago) to the Roman period. The Roman period is the best known; it is at this time that at least ten agricultural settlements existed in the area. The discovery of a Roman court; several potter's kilns; and a necropolis are reported.
This site publishes some thousand images from the 1905 - 1907 Breasted expedition to Egypt and Sudan. The American Egyptologist James Henry Breasted was director of the Haskell Oriental Museum and the University of Chicago, the forerunner to the Oriental Institute. In 1905 - 1907 he led an expedition to Egypt and Sudan where monuments and inscriptions were recorded using photography. This site is a part of the website of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago. Some 1055 images from the expedition are available on the site along with some background information. This site is easy to navigate and useful for anyone interested in Egyptology and Ancient History.
The "Progetto Mummia" website publishes an illustrated E-book in Italian about facial reconstruction and a report on a project entitled "3D facial reconstruction and visualization of ancient Egyptian mummies using spiral CT data". Although in Italian, the eBook is lavishly illustrated and the simple texts should be easy to understand using a dictionary or translator. The report in English explores the attempt to reconstruct the face of a person living in Egypt more than two thousand years ago using the mummified remains of that person and modern computer technology. The mummified head in question is probably from the Ptolemaic era, around third to fourth century BC. The head has been scanned with Computer Tomography (CT) and the bone structure and what is left of the soft tissues have been reconstructed and modelled in the computer. Then a model for reconstructing the face has been applied that include mathematical modelling of soft tissues with some anthropological input. The information, the formulas and the images are very instructive and this is a valuable resource for anyone interested in Egyptology, archaeology and the application of computers in the humanities.
Absolute Egyptology is a site that is focussed on ancient Egyptian history. It contains sections with articles about the different dynasties and kings of ancient Egypt. The articles are fairly extensive and illustrated with images and drawings. There is a virtual tour of the mastaba at Beit Khallaf in Middle Egypt. Although the site is hosted by a commercial company that designs websites it is obviously a labour of love by the Swedish amateur Egyptologist Ottar Vendel. The site is easy to navigate and pleasant to look at and although the articles have no references the information is balanced and to the point. This site is a good introduction to Egyptology and especially ancient Egyptian history for students and anyone interested in the subject.
The Abydos Survey of Paleolithic Sites (ASPS) website contains information about the archaeological surveys of the ancient Egyptian site of Abydos. The survey is conducted by archaeologists working under the umbrella of the University of Pennsylvania University Museum, Yale University, and New York University Institute of Fine Arts. The site contains images from the site, information about the project and a number of articles and references to books concerned with the site and, among other things, using computers in archaeology. The articles are in PDF-format.
The Achaemenid or Persian empire dominated much of the modern Middle East and Central Asia from the 6th century BC down to its conquest by Alexander the Great in the 320s BC. It was characterised by vast linguistic and cultural diversity because of the many regions it absorbed. This predominantly French language website (with some German translations), produced by the Collège de France in association with the Ministère de l'Education nationale and the Ministère de la Recherche, is a major electronic resource for the study of the history, literature and archaeology of the Persian Empire and surrounding areas. The online resources include: the Journal of Achaemenid Studies and Researches (JASR); Achaemenid Research on Texts and Archaeology (ARTA); The Bulletin d'Histoire Achéménide, a major source of bibliographic information on recent Achaemenid studies; NABU, a series of scholarly papers; a major corpus of cuneiform Persian texts arranged by editor which will eventually be fully searchable by date, reign, find spot and text type. In addition, the site provides a rich mine of information on archaeological sites (with maps, plans and images and links to external websites), as well as corpora of Egyptian, Anatolian and Aramaic texts and sections on coinage and glyptic. Many of the texts can be easily navigated as Acrobat files and some of the papers require the ability to download large images. This is an indispensable source of information for advanced students and researchers working on the history and archaeology of the ancient Near East in the middle of the first millennium BC.
This website publishes the complete text of the out-of-print volume "The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium, Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Symposium, University of Cincinnati, 18-20 April 1997", which has been published in the Aegaeum series. Each paper is available as an individual PDF file. Several studies on cultural, religious, and economic aspects of the Bronze Age Aegean related to the ancient Near East are available. There are studies of cultural and artistic influences (Aegean objects in the ancient Near East and Near Eastern influences in Aegean culture); Minoan and Mycenaean exchanges in the Mediterranean; artistic styles in frescoes, ceramics ivories and other artefacts; theoretical and methodological papers. The discussions were recorded and are also available as PDF files transcripts. This website may be precious to researchers who cannot access the book, and perhaps save a trip to the library to the others.
'Aigyptos' is a database project which aims to provide rapid access to research bibliographies in Egyptology from the prehistoric to the Graeco-Roman periods and includes materials relevant to Coptic and Nubian studies. The searchable database is in German but the comprehensive introduction with detailed search instructions is also available in English. The project is a collaborative venture between the Instituts für Ägyptologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Ägyptologischen Institut der Universität Heidelberg. The compilation of the databases is an on-going project. Comprehensive bibliographies are available from 1990 with more selective coverage before this date at the time of writing. The search engine is based on a wide-ranging keyword system drawing heavily on the "Lexicon der Ägyptologie" and is accompanied by detailed advice on how to use the databases. This is a specialist resource aimed at advanced students and researchers in Egyptology and related fields.
The Akhmin Mummies Studies Consortium (AMSC) is an organisation dedicated to examining ancient Egyptian mummies in the USA to further the knowledge of the population in places such as Akhmin and other Egyptian sites. The consortium uses methods such as computerised tomography (CT) to build up representations of the mummified person that is examined. The organisation arranges talks and workshops and publishes articles and reports on its research. The site contains images of mummies and reconstructed portraits along with a bibliography of reports and articles published by the consortium.
The Amarna Project is dedicated to the exploration and preservation of the ancient Egyptian site of Amarna. The city of Amarna was for a short period of time, during the 18th dynasty (14th century BC), the capital of Egypt. It was founded by the king Akhenaton, the king who promoted the worship of the sun disk, Aten, and who came into conflict with the traditional religious organisations because of that. It is an interesting site in that it tells us about this very special period of ancient Egyptian history as well as everyday life of ordinary citizens. The site contains texts about the site and the projects on the site, as well as maps and images. There is also an extensive bibliography of publications concerned with the site of Amarna.
The American Research Center in Egypt (ARCE) website contains information about the work and mission of the centre. ARCE is a non-profit-making private organisation of educational and cultural institutions in USA which exists to promote research on Egyptian history and culture and to foster a broader knowledge about Egypt among the general public. Its mission is to function as a base for researchers in Egypt, to preserve the cultural heritage of Egypt and to disseminate the results of research. The website is easy to navigate and provides information about the following: current expeditions and conservation projects; membership; key personnel; ARCE publications; the e-newsletter; grants and fellowships; and other activities (including language schools and meetings) run by the centre.
Ancient Egypt is an attractively produced and easy to use online learning resource for upper Key Stage 2 schoolchildren and their teachers produced by the British Museum Education Department. The website provides a thematic overview of ancient Egyptian civilisation in an interactive and hypertext medium with many high quality illustrations, maps and an A-Z glossary of terms. Each thematic section, covering topics such as geography, religion, everyday life, pyramids, temples, writing and trades, provides an overview of the subject together with didactic stories based on ancient Egyptian texts. The Challenge section aims at developing observational and analytical skills within the context of study. Teachers are provided with an excellent set of learning resources running parallel with the student material which include lesson plans, work sheets and suggestions for class discussion. The website is also ideal for home learning. Shockwave is required for some the applications but the software can be downloaded for free. While Ancient Egypt is aimed largely at a school audience, the resource may also benefit those who teach archaeology and Egyptology at other academic levels for its didactic insights.
This online resource about Ancient Egypt covers the history of the region from the earliest settlements to the end of the Roman period. The site acts as a general historical overview, with a page describing the major events of each traditional period. Egyptian culture also receives some attention, with a page on hieroglyphics and another on the concept of the underworld. There is an image gallery of the pyramids and some Egyptian art; a timeline of key events (hyperlinked to other pages); an introduction to the 'Book of the Dead'; a short glossary of terms; and a categorised list of links, which was unfortunately in dire need of repair when checked. This site forms part of an online courseware unit from Washington State University's 'World Civilizations' project. It is targeted at students about to begin university and first year undergraduates.
This website acts as portal for resources on Egyptian archaeology published by the Frank H. McClung Museum of the University of Tennessee. The website lists the special exhibitions held by the museum and archives the resources written in those occasions; it also publishes occasional papers. At the time of review, there were two exhibitions available: "Ancient Egypt, the eternal voice" and "Scholars, scoundrels, and the sphinx"; both are educational in their scope and aimed at an audience up to undergraduate level but can be also used in teaching. The former exhibition summarises some key concepts on history; daily life; religion; and writing in ancient Egypt by examining a few artefacts, reproduced in colour. There are some illustrated introductory texts on the culture of Naqada and its characteristic "wavy-handled" jars; jar sealings; the concept of ba and cats in Egyptian religion; funerary practices and scarabs. The latter exhibition uses old black and white photographs and is an unusual introduction to early excavations. The referenced paper entitled "Papyrus: a blessing upon pharaoh" is an overview of the production and consumption of papyrus in ancient Egypt and it mentions some particular uses such as its use in boat building, cooking and medicine. Students up to the undergraduate level and teachers may find in this website a useful introduction to some aspects of ancient Egypt.
The Ancient Egypt Magazine is a journal concerned with the study of Egyptology. The editorial board is made up, mostly, of Egyptologists from the University of Manchester. The magazine is mostly concerned with the description of artefacts and museums, the articles are geared towards the lighter side of the subject. The articles are written by highly acclaimed scholars in the subject area and cover a wide variety of topics, such as the reconstruction of the life of an Amun priest of the Twentieth dynasty or the non-destructive investigation of mummies. The website contains free online versions of back issues of some of the magazines from volume 1, issue 1, 2000, and forward; the complete text of the older issues and from the newer, contents and text to a varying degree. All back issues have, however, freely available book reviews and lists of links to websites that are deemed to be useful for the readers. This resource is useful for students of Egyptology and anyone interested in the subject area.
AERA (Ancient Egypt Research Associates) developed out of the American Center in Egypt-sponsored Sphinx Project and was incorporated in 1985 for the purpose of funding and facilitating the research of the Giza Plateau Project, one of the most famous archaeological complexes in the world and the centre of the pyramid building programme of the ancient Egyptian 4th Dynasty (c2613-c2494 BC). This resource provides an outline of AERA's aims and activities and features an attractively illustrated series of newsletters from 1998 onwards providing brief articles and news stories on a wide range of relevant topics such as the environmental and geological context of the plateau as well as a précis of results of the excavation work. In addition there is a guide to the radiocarbon dates which have been produced from archaeological work on the Giza Plateau and a description of the Virtual Giza Project which aims to publish all the relevant data in an electronic format. This website, published by the Faculty of Advanced Studies of Harvard University, will interest Egyptologists at varying levels of specialisation.
The website for the Ancient Egypt Site, which has been developed by a Belgian Egyptologist, introduces users to the culture, history, monuments and language of ancient Egypt. The resource consists of short articles on key topics and important archaeological sites; these are accompanied by maps and photographs. The site also has an alphabetical index, and the 'world wide' section provides a bibliography and links to other online resources as well as information about recent archaeological discoveries. There is also a list of movies relating to ancient Egypt - this may be of interest to those researching the reception of the ancient world in modern times.
The Ancient Egypt Web Site focusses on information about Egyptology through images. It is the personal site of Simon Hayter, a student of Egyptology at Manchester University. The site contains a multitude of images from Egypt and from Egyptological collections from all over the world. In addition to the images, there are written reports and articles. The site also contains a list of ancient Egyptian kings and Sir Alan Gardiner's Ancient Egyptian Dictionary is downloadable as a PDF-file.
This blog edited by Paul Cowie reports news related to the Ancient Near East and Egypt from prehistoric times to the 7th century AD. The same author also publishes ArchaeoWiki, which is an ongoing project publishing several referenced short articles on the ancient Near East. Several full-text academic papers published by individual authors on the Internet in PDF format are included in the references. Most articles discuss individual archaeological sites, but there are also a few other themes included, such as "Egyptian topographical lists"; "Amarna tablets"; and a gazetteer of Levantine polities under Egyptian rule or influence. This website may be useful especially to students.
This website publishes a collection of pictures on the subject of ancient Egypt that may be useful to both lecturers and students to illustrate lectures and essays. There are photographs of Egyptian monuments; artefacts conserved at the major world museums of Egyptian antiquities (including the sphinx and the pyramids); modern paintings by artist Ángel Salvadó inspired by ancient Egypt; and a collection of pictures of Egyptian obelisks now located in major Italian and French squares. The videos were inaccessible at the time of this review. The photographs document both the art of the ancient Egyptians and the influence that such art is still having on European art and architecture. This website is recommended to anyone in need of some pictures of Egypt.
This website publishes the results of the research project entitled "Illness, health and socioeconomic conditions in the ancient Egypt. A multidisciplinary project" and coordinated by Prof. Edda Bresciani of the University of Pisa. The simple website is an online database containing data about all known Egyptian mummies conserved in Italy. As part of the project, several palaeopathological and genetics tests were carried out and these are available by clicking on the top menu in each record. The data available for each mummy are sometimes scanty, as it was impossible to perform a robust set of tests on all mummies, but at least the cause of disease and some essential information are given for every mummy. Unfortunately, at the time of review parts of the database did not work properly, leaving some data inaccessible.
Apuntes de Egiptología is a free and full-text online journal published by the Centro de Estudios del Antiguo Egipto and edited by the late Prof. Jorge Roberto Ogdon. The yearly journal publishes short referenced papers in several languages (primarily Spanish, English and French) and on any subject related to ancient Egypt, including archaeological and text-based studies. Some papers have illustrations; most are available as Web pages, with a few available in PDF format. Although the contents are reliable, the presentation of the contents does not look professional: the journal is the effort of a group of scholars to circulate their work and keep alive Egyptology in Argentina. This should not be considered a problem and it is hoped that after the death of the editor the journal will continue to be published. The journal also publishes timely reviews. Researchers in particular may find this journal useful.
This is the official website of the Archaeochemistry research in the eastern Mediterranean (ARCHEM) project directed by Andrew J. Koh. As part of the project, researchers extract organic residues from artefacts (primarily ceramic vessels) and analyse them. The website provides a basic introduction to the work being carried out by Koh and colleagues and publishes some reports in PDF format. The project benefits from a lab at the Institute for Aegean Prehistory Study Center for east Crete (INSTAP-SCEC) and has analysed samples from Greek (Aphrodite's Kephali; Azoria; Gournes; Gournia; Mitrou; Mochlos; Petras; Plakalona Tourloti; Priniatikos Pyrgos) and Egyptian (Sedment; Areika; Aniba; Buhen) archaeological sites. No results have been published yet on the website, though this is a very recent project. Koh has carried out a detailed study of building C.7 at Mochlos as part of his PhD and an introduction to his thesis is available on the website; the full thesis may be purchased. An important aspect of this project is the integration of chemical analyses in the excavation process: analyses are carried out on suitable artefacts as they are unearthed, before any destructive processing, like washing, is applied. The website provides an essential introduction to the goals, methods and current work of the project. Interested researchers will find contact details of the project team; guidelines on how to select and handle artefacts for analysis; and a list of events in which the project is being presented.
Archaeogate is a portal for Italian archaeologists which also publishes numbers of preliminary reports of Italian excavations. Most of the contents on this website are in Italian and prepared for Italian students, but many preliminary reports are in English and useful to an international audience. In the section "Egittologia" (Egyptology), among the "rapporti di scavo" are preliminary reports of excavations in Egypt (Dra Abu el-Naga; Bakchias; Kí´m el-Ghoraf; Dime - El-Fayyum; Khelua; Medinet Madi; Antinoe; Kom El-Ghoraf; Nelson's Island; Uadi Sikait; Khelua; Farafra; Tebtynis - Umm el-Breigat; Gebelein; Abuqir; and Mersa - Wadi Gawasis); Sudan (Gebel Umm Nabari; Abu Dom; Gebel Barkal - Napata); and Bahrain (Siwa). Worth noting are the sites of Wadi Gawasis, where archaeologists have found the first Egyptian seagoing ships, and Gebel Barkal - Napata, which is the main site of an important Nubian culture. "Missioni italiane"; "itinerari" and "gallerie fotografiche" contain photographs of Italian excavations in Egypt and Nubia; some photographs originate from archives of old excavations; there are also interactive and archaeological maps of the region. In section "antichità classiche", there are "rapporti di scavo" (preliminary reports) on Roman sites such as Colleferro; Correggio; Scoppieto and Carthage. In the section "vicino oriente" (Near East), the "rapporti di scavo" (preliminary reports) include sites in Oman (Khor Rori; Salut); Armenia (Artaxata; Azat River Valley; Armavir); and Turkmenistan (Nisa - Mithradatkert). Mithradatkert was the capital of the Parthian Empire. All reports are accompanied by several colour photographs of the archaeological sites discussed as well as of some of the artefacts found.
This website produced by Prof. James A. Harrell of the University of Toledo, USA, focuses on the geology and archaeology of ancient Egyptian quarries. He presents a survey of rocks and quarries in his website, as well as an article on the Turin papyrus dating from 1150 BC, which is considered the world's oldest geological map. The article is brief but thoroughly illustrated. A few other papers, such as "Survey of ornamental stones used in pre-Mamluk mosques of Cairo" and a bibliography are also available. Researchers in Egyptology would find this website worthwhile.
John and Peggy Saunders of the Oriental Institute of Chicago have made available their valuable collection of photographs of almost 40 archaeological sites in Egypt and Mesopotamia which were taken during their work in the Middle East, particularly at the site of Nippur, between 1973 and 1990. The archaeological sites featured in this resource, which range in date from the 3rd Millennium BC to the middle of the 1st Millennium AD, can be searched using an interactive map or an alphabetic list. The images are presented in the form of thumbnail images which can also be viewed at full screen size and can be used for not-for-profit purposes by students, scholars and the general public. While the photographs include little in the way of commentary or further description of the archaeology, this website is a very useful adjunct to existing printed-medium reference books. This website is an indispensable source or relatively up-to-date photographs of important archaeological sites in Egypt and Mesopotamia, particularly significant because of the political and military troubles in the latter region since the 1990s, and will benefit students and researchers working on the archaeology and ancient history of the Near East.
Archaeology's interactive dig: Hierakonpolis is a site containing information about the present multinational expedition to Hierakonpolis that begun in 1967. Hierakonpolis, or Nekhen, was situated in Upper Egypt and was a cult centre for the hawk god Horus of Nekhen and played an important role as a capital at the end of Predynastic time in Egypt. The site contains images and reports from various of the later stages of the expedition and is a valuable resource for anyone studying the Predynastic era of ancient Egypt.
Arkamani is a web portal and journal focusing on the archaeology of Sudan for Sudanese students. The Arabic section publishes some original research and Arabic translations of foreign academic papers; the English section contains English referenced papers, often translated from various foreign languages, on the prehistoric archaeology; Nubia; Kerma; the Napatan kingdom; the Meroitic kingdom; the Christian kingdoms; and miscellaneous papers. There is also an extensive bibliography both in English and Arabic; abstracts of Russian papers on Meroitic studies; several papers in Arabic (titles in English), including some historical written sources; original Arabic papers (Arabic contents; file names contain English translation of titles). The website publishes a substantial number of contributions to Sudanese archaeology, and although many are available in Arabic only, the website makes easy to find relevant texts. While researchers and Arabic speakers will find this website most useful, English speaking students may appreciate the many important papers on several African civilisations that could be used at undergraduate level.
This resource provides online photos of Ancient Art and Architecture, covering material from the Ancient Near East, Ancient Egypt, Minoan and Mycenaean civilisations, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Greece, and Rome. The pages are part of Art Images for College Teaching, a database of visual resources for use in education, a project that also covers arts of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods, the eighteenth to twentieth century, and also non-Western art. The author encourages users to contribute their own images, and the value of the site will increase with user involvement. The admirable intention and large scope of the database is at present restricted by a limited depth. In its current state, the site is of most value to the general public who would desire a general overview, although there is inevitably some imbalance in that the resource can only use the photos that it has. Thus there are photos of the sculpture of East pediment of the Parthenon, but none of the West, nor a view of the temple as a whole. The temples at Paestum receive a significant proportion of images. The Erechtheion is represented by two 'Caryatids', and not the temple as a whole. There is a reasonable selection of Archaic and Early Classical Greek sculpture, but later and famous works attributed to Praxiteles, Lysippus or Polyclitus are absent. Egyptian art is represented by eleven images. Roman architecture and sculpture receives more, with 5 pages, but is similarly selective. There are a number of factual errors, such as the mislabelling of Parthenon South metope 28, and East pediment figure G. No measurements are provided with the photos. The descriptions provide identification, location and date, although bibliography is provided for each image. If the author's hopes and intentions are satisfied, this resource could be of immense use for novices to ancient art.
The Association of Curators for Collections from Egypt and Sudan (ACCES) is an organisation for people responsible for collections of artefacts from Egypt and Sudan in the United Kingdom. It is funded by Museums Libraries Archives Council (MLA) which is Non-Departmental Public Body (NDPB), sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). The site contains mainly information about how to contact the association, about membership and frequently asked questions about collections in the UK. There are some reports in PDF format that are downloadable.
This resource introduces the Association pour sauvegarde du Ramesseum and provides a brief illustrated guide (in French and English) to some of the most important monuments of the reign of the New Kingdom Pharaoh Ramsses II who ruled in the 13th century BC, namely a great temple at Thebes (the Ramesseum) and his tomb (KV7). The temple complex of Ramsses (whose full name is the 'House of millions of years of Usermaat-Setepen-Re that unites with Thebes-the-city in the domain of Amon') was begun in the second year of his long reign (1279-1213 BC). The central temple composed of interconnecting courtyards, hypostyle halls and sculpted pylons (featuring for instance the famous relief of Ramsses 'victory' at the battle of Qadesh) was surrounded by other sanctuaries, a royal palace and a mass of storerooms and buildings of economic function. The website describes the architecture and layout of the monument and discusses its decoration within its historical and religious context and provides a virtual restoration based on modern research. Christopher Leblanc of the Louvre contributes a concise guide to the Pharaoh's tomb (KV7) in the Valley of the Kings, its subsequent treatment in ancient times and the results of ongoing study, particularly the renewed French excavations since 1991. There is also a page with links to sites of related interest. Undergraduates and researchers in Egyptology and ancient architecture will particularly be interested in this resource.
The Australian Centre of Egyptology was established in 1989 Macquarie University to coordinate with the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities archaeological excavations in Egypt conducted by Australian expeditions. In addition to this the centre organises other activities such as helping Australian students to be able to excavate in Egypt and publish reports on such fieldwork. The website contains contact information for the centre, a bibliography of publications along with short reports on fieldwork in Egypt.
This is the official website of the Australian Institute of Archaeology (AIA) at La Trobe University. The "AIA Newsletter" contains short articles of all current activities of the Institute and is available in PDF format. The scholarly journal "Buried History" is published by the Institute and focuses on Biblical archaeology; indexes of the volumes and abstracts of the published papers can be accessed for free. At the time of the review several sections of the website were incomplete.
The Beazley Archive is a research unit of the University of Oxford's Faculty of Literae Humaniores; this is its website. The original archive of Sir John Beazley (1885-1970) included about 250,000 photographs, notes, drawings and books relating to ancient Greek and Roman art. In 1979 information technology (IT) projects began with the Pottery Database of Athenian figure-decorated vases of the 7th-4th centuries BC. Since 1992 IT projects on other aspects of classical art have been created. This website displays information about the Archive, including publications and bibliographies, and gives access to the IT projects and databases. These include: gems; pottery; sculpture; and the dictionary. For example: Pottery - The Beazley Archive text database records information about Athenian figure-decorated vases illustrated in publications available to the Ashmolean Library. Begun in 1979, it now has over 67,000 entries, with fourteen fields, including bibliographical references, find-place, shape and iconographical terms. In 1992 the Archive began to participate in a European Union project (RAMA) linking the collections of seven museums across Europe via the Internet. This project enabled the Beazley Archive to begin digitising its photographs and drawings. These include a vast collection of images of classical sites. An enhanced version of the original database is now available via the website (users may search for images according to location). The Dictionary feature of the resource is an excellent alphabetical guide to classical sites and terminology (including references to places, technical terms, buildings, people, gods and other figures from myth); each explanatory entry is accompanied by relevant images from the archive's collection. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement Scheme.
The Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem contains collections encompassing all great civilisations surrounding Israel, including Greece, Egypt, the Levant and Mesopotamia. There is a short history of the museum and its founder, Dr Elie Borowski, as well as pictures from some of the artefacts in the permanent collection and a QuickTime VR tour of the rooms. Past and forthcoming events (lectures, conferences, special exhibitions, etc.) are listed and described with some illustrations or even a full interactive catalogue (e.g. Three Faces of Monotheism). Section "study resources" also publishes a list of books and periodicals from the museum's library that are being sold: this may interest some researchers. There is also an online shop selling publications, gifts and reproductions and it is possible to subscribe to a mailing list diffusing announcements. The website does not provide much information on the collections, though at the time of review more information was forthcoming. Yet, students and researchers may find useful information, even if they do not plan a trip to the museum.
The website of the Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage, part of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt, provides information on a variety of projects undertaken by the centre. The work of the centre is divided into the following programmes: Archaeological Map of Egypt; Architectural and Urban Heritage; Natural Heritage; Photographic Memory; Egyptian Folklore; Arts Documentation; Eternal Egypt; Manuscripts Heritage; and International Relations. The first two sections combine GIS mapping projects with photographic galleries of ancient monuments and urban architecture. The other sections provide images and information related to Egyptian heritage, though coverage is a bit uneven and not all aspects of the site were working at the time of review. The website may be of most use for its imagery bank, which could be used for lectures or essays on ancient Egypt, environmental archaeology, Islamic art and architecture, Egyptian folklore and modern history.
The Boletín Español de Investigación Egiptológica "ISIS" is an online free and full-text journal that publishes papers and reviews on ancient Egypt; readers are advised immediately that the quality of published papers and articles is highly variable. All articles and papers are referenced and most are illustrated, but some are really short essays rather than papers. The articles focus on archaeological; historical; religious and philological issues as well as linguistics and musicology. There are preliminary reports of excavations that are usually of a more consistent high quality. For each article it is mentioned the original place of publication (some articles are adaptations or republication of previously published works). The "reviews" section collects both positive and negative reviews for each reviewed book; some reviews originally were not authored for the journal. Abstracts are provided for all articles. Overall, this website may be useful primarily to researchers as some shorter articles contribute to the archaeological and linguistic debate, but they are unsuitable for students being short notes or comments on specific issues. Some articles are works in progress (and at the time of review some articles were inaccessible because they were being re-edited): unsupervised students should therefore not read or use the articles without guidance or until they have gained enough experience to assess the validity of the arguments put forward on their own.
British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan is an online reviewed free journal of Egyptology published by British Museum. It publishes articles within the area of studies of ancient Egypt and Sudan and is not limited to research that is directly connected to the British Museum. The articles are all in PDF format and are freely downloadable. The first issue was published in January 2002. Submissions of papers is welcome. The covered topics range from social archaeology to individual depictions (i.e. Fayum portraits). This website is a valuable resource for both researchers and students in Egyptology.
The Brooklyn Museum; Features Mut Precinct describes the ongoing expedition to excavate the temple compound, dedicated to the goddess Mut at Luxor, Egypt. Brooklyn Museum has been excavating the site since 1976 and since 2001 the museum's team shares the site with an expedition from Johns Hopkins University. Luxor in Egypt is the site for the ancient Egyptian town of Thebe, the capital during the 18th dynasty. Mut is the consort of the creator god Amun and was an important part of the Theban Triad of Amun, Mut and their son Khonsu. She is often depicted in the form of another goddess, Sakhmet, as woman with a lion's head. The website is simple but informative and contains general information about Mut and the expedition as well as reports from the latest excavation seasons. Although specialised on one single site this website is a valuable resource for anyone interested in Egyptology.
This website publishes a research project by Pearce Paul Creasman on two boats from the funeray complex of pharaoh Senwosret III of the XII Dynasty, also known as Khakaure. The pharaoh reigned around 1850 BC and was buried with five (or six) boats at Dahshur; of these four are known and the study focuses on the two boats preserved at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The boats were discovered by Jean-Jacques de Morgan during excavations in 1894-1895; the website summarises their history and contains some background information on pharaoh Senwosret III. Section "Current Research" of the website also publishes a poster (2008 Poster Award winner at the 2008 Archaeological Institute of America annual meeting) and the pamphlet exhibited in the museum, both are available in different sizes in PDF format. In addition, there is a gallery of images and a bibliography (focusing on ships, boats and seafaring in Egypt). The two boats presented in this website were symbolic funerary boats; boats appear frequently in Egyptian funerary contexts. This website may be useful to researchers and advanced students interested in Egyptian funerary boats.
The Cairo Department of the German Archaeological Institute was founded in 1907 and carries out research within the area of archaeology and related subjects in Egypt. The institute is a German federal agency within the of responsibility of the ministry of foreign affairs. The department is organising excavations at a number of locations in Egypt. It publishes journals, reports and a newsletter. The website gives access to the newsletter (in German) as PDF-files and contents of journals and series. It contains information about the various excavations and projects conducted by the department.
This website publishes the free and full-text book "Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien" by Carl Richard Lepsius (1810-1884), which was published between 1849 and 1859 after an expedition to Egypt in the years 1842-1845 that had been funded by the King of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm IV. The book is published as a series of colour pictures of each page by the library of the Martin-Luther-Universität of Halle-Wittenberg in occasion of the 150th anniversary of its publication. In addition to the complete digital version of the 12 volumes of the actual book, there is also a short biography of Carl Richard Lepsius and technical information (in PDF format) about how the book has been digitised. The magnificently illustrated book may be of great interest to researchers in the history of archaeology and Egyptology and parts of it (especially the illustrations) are still valuable for archaeological research. This website is part of a larger project on Carl Richard Lepsius and has been partly funded by the Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft.
The Carlo Bergmann's Discoveries website reports of the travels of Carlo Bergmann in the Libyan Desert. He has travelled the desert, following ancient caravan trails since 1982. He has documented his journeys and the website contains reports and images about some of the later expeditions. The Libyan Desert is a barren land where very few people travel. Carlo Bergmann has is interested in the ancient history of the land and has documented his findings. And regarding the remote location of some of the visited sites some of that documentation may be unique and not found anywhere else. The site is unusual in its design and not completely straight forward but the nature of some of the reports makes it a valuable resource for researcher of the ancient history of the Libyan Desert.
The Centre for Computer-aided Egyptological Research (CCER) at Utrecht University in The Netherlands specializes in matters related to the application of computers in Egyptology. The Centre's activities concern developing general methods and programs, and providing worldwide advice and support. In this respect it coordinates the activities of the Computer Working Group of the International Association of Egyptologists. The centre publishes a series of CD-ROMs with pictures and data of Egyptian artefacts. A small selection is freely available online in the virtual exhibition. This website provides further resources useful to egyptologists: a multilingual Egyptological thesaurus; a database of 58,000 ancient Egyptian private names (Prosopographia Aegypti); a list of Egyptologists; an illustrated article on the great temple of Abu Simbel; an educational software presenting a trumpet found in the tomb of Tutankhamun (with sound recording); and a few fonts.
The Centre Franco-Égyptien d'Étude des Temples de Karnak (CFEETK) website publishes a summary of the archaeological research being carried out at Karnak, Egypt. The website contains three main sections: an illustrated presentation of recent and current research; the excavation of the temples with several historical photographs; and a bibliographic list of publications related to Karnak, including a list of films. The latter section also contains an Adobe Illustrator plan of the site and 3D samples of virtual reconstructions. Further pages of interest are a photographic plan of the reliefs found in the hypostyle hall in the temple of Amon; two videos on the making of the photoplan and how granite was drilled in antiquity; and a list of temples with photographs. In addition, there are indexes of periodical publications such as ASAE; BIFAO; BSFE; and Kêmi; as well as other publications. There are also lists of the labels used in the inventories. This website offers little to the casual visitor or the undergraduate student, but it can be precious for researchers.
Modern Karnak occupies the northern half of the site of ancient Thebes. Thebes became important when a group of temples was built during the 11th dynasty and it reached the maximum splendour during the New Kingdom. The greatest of the temples is that of the god Amon, which was begun by Senusret I and completed by Ramses II. The hypostyle hall is found inside this temple; it is decorated with reliefs and inscriptions and its roof rests on 122 columns that are more than 21 metres high and built in nine rows.
The Center of Studies of History of the Ancient East was founded in 2002 at the Argentine Catholic University to promote research within the field of egyptology and history. The centre helps students get their fieldwork and it publishes Antiguo Oriente an annual peer-reviewed journal. The centre organises an annual conference. The website is published in both Spanish and English although the Spanish part is more elaborate and complete than the corresponding English part. The site contains abstracts from the journal Antiguo Oriente and a short bibliography along with a newsletter in PDF-format.
The publication of 'Centuries of Darkness' by Peter James et al in 1991 provoked a stormy scholarly debate about the nature of the chronological frameworks used by archaeologists to study the Mediterranean and Near Eastern world in the second and first millennia BC. The discussion of the so-called Dark Ages between 1200 and 700 BC was especially controversial as it advocated a drastic downdating of many major historical events and archaeological horizons by several centuries. This website, published by several of the original authors in 2000, provides an interesting angle on the debate in the form of 100 reviews of the book and a sample of the responses made to the critics derived from a wide range of academic and popular publications. Also included is a series of frequently asked questions about the 'Centuries of darkness' debate in which the authors address many of the specific criticisms of their argument. A very useful page listing websites devoted to ancient chronological studies and details of other books by the authors complete the resource.
This resource is by no means an exhaustive guide to the debate about Bronze and Iron Age chronology in the Mediterranean and Near East and the authors' partisan position, which is rejected by the majority of contemporary archaeologists and historians working in the field, is clear throughout. Nonetheless, the website is a valuable source of bibliographic reference to publications on ancient chronology. It also provides important insights into the politics and polemics of scholarly discourse and the nature of academic authority. It will benefit in particular third-level students and researchers in archaeology and the Bronze Age history of the Near East.
This is the website of the exhibition "Céréales en Égypte ancienne" (cereals in ancient Egypt) organised by the Agropolis Museum of Montpellier, the Ancient Egyptian Agriculture Museum of Cairo and the the University Paul Valéry Montpellier III. It is written in French, but an English version was being prepared at the time of review. The website publishes several illustrated articles on all uses and archaeological evidence of cereals in Egypt. All stages of the preparation of bread are presented, from plantation of seeds to the production and consumption of bread. Many ancient Egyptian social ranks, from pharaoh to farmer, are investigated to determine their role in the production and storage of bread, which were controlled by the pharaoh. In addition, the website explores the role of bread in religion and its use during rituals and ceremonies. The many pictures can also facilitate an iconographic study of bread in ancient culture. The website also integrates another section, originally prepared for a separate exhibition focusing on traditional methods of bread-making in Egypt. To some extent, bread-making has been a ritual unchanged throughout the millennia and the anthropological perspective offers a very good comparison. The preparation of bread in the Nile Delta and Upper Egypt is also presented in some detail, with an interesting page detailing bread-making at Mârî Girgis. This website may be useful especially to students.
The Champollion and Rosellini Egyptian Expeditions website published as part of the Oxford Digital Library is an important source of archival material on the early archaeological explorations of Egypt. The website contains several issues of Rosellini's "Monumenti dell'Egitto e della Nubia : disegnati dalla spedizione scientifico-letteraria toscana in Egitto : distribuiti in ordine di materie" (1832-1844) and Champollion's "Monuments de l'Egypte et de la Nubie" (1844-1899). The database can be browsed or searched and for each record it is given the original author, dimensions, eventual publication and other essential information. The quality of pictures is adequate for screen view and the printed texts can be read with ease; an interactive version that facilitates printing is available by clicking the "zoom" button. This is an important website for any researcher studying Egyptian and Nubian antiquities and especially the history of archaeological explorations.
This part of the main Louvre website is devoted to the collections of the Department of Egyptian Antiquities. It displays and describes many of the 5,000 works held at the museum, categorised in the following themes and time periods: Pharaonic civilisation; Egyptian religion; From the end of Prehistory up to the Middle Kingdom (circa 3800-circa 1550 BC); The New Kingdom (circa 1550-circa 1069 BC); The last pharaonic dynasties and the Ptolemaic epoch (circa 1069-30 BC); Roman Egypt; and Coptic Egypt. The site also includes a history of the collection, a map of Ancient Egypt and a timetable of the opening times for each element of the collection.
This website focuses on the excavations at the ancient settlement of Amheida, Upper Egypt, by Columbia University. The excavations are richly illustrated and each section of the excavations can be accessed by both textual and geographic menus. The geographic menu is particularly intuitive and permits to zoom on the area of interest or use interactive animations to verify the spatial relationship of each excavated area. The "animated site map" provides access to all the multimedia content regarding the settlement in an interactive format, satellite pictures of the area in which the settlement is located and an interactive map of Egypt, where it is possible to visualise on a map all the ancient Egyptian sites by type or chronology. A series of complete field reports is available also as PDF files. Selected bibliographies have been coiled for specialists and students. This website uses intensively large pictures, PDF files, flash animations and QTVR panoramic images and is best viewed with a broadband connection.
Croato-Aegyptica: electronica is a project aiming at creating a database of all Egyptological objects kept in museums and collections in Croatia. The project is organised by the University of Zagreb and the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb. All relevant objects will be analysed and entered into the database of this ongoing project. The website contains information about the project and about the collections in Croatia that keeps ancient Egyptian artefacts.
This is the official website of Current Research in Egyptology, a UK postgraduate conference. The website announces new conferences and lists past ones. An edited book is produced from the papers presented at each conference, a complete list of these with individual authors and titles is available on a page. The individual papers can also be searched and browsed through the "database" interface. Postgraduate students in Egyptology may find this website useful.
This website publishes the preliminary results of the excavations of the tomb of the high priest Neb-wenenef at Dra' Abu el-Naga carried out by a joint team of the universities of Heidelberg, Leipzig and the Pennsylvania Museum of Philadelphia. Neb-wenenef served under the rule of pharaoh Ramses II (ca. 1280-1215 BC) and his tomb is located near ancient Thebes; the tomb has been numbered "TT 157". The website is a referenced and illustrated short article. There are also pictures of nearby tombs, but overall the written contents are very succinct. The website may be useful primarily to researchers.
This is the website of the David M Robinson collection at the University of Mississippi's University Museum. The Museum holds over 2000 objects, a collection built up principally by Dr Robinson, the excavator of Olynthos, his wife and Mr and Mrs Frank Peddle. The website puts online photographs of a significant and diverse proportion of the museum's holdings. Of Greek artefacts, there are inscriptions, coins, sculptures, mosaics and other objects, mainly small bronzes and terracottas. The Roman objects are organised in the same categories. In addition there is an important collection of Greek and South Italian vases, of which there are around ninety photographs presented here. There is also a small section on Egyptian artefacts. In all cases, there is a brief accompanying description, but no dimensions. A bibliographical reference is provided for most of the inscriptions, vases and sculptures. Many of the Greek vases are also linked to the relevant entry on the Perseus website. A number of the photographs of vases are out of focus, so whilst the images provide a general impression they may in some cases be inadequate for detailed study.
'Death in ancient Egypt' is a useful corpus of web links to images illustrating various aspects of the burial practices and beliefs about the dead and the afterlife in ancient Egypt with brief explanatory narratives by Dr Alexandra O'Brien. Part of the online Research Archives of the Oriental Institute of Chicago, the project aims to develop new ways of disseminating information about ancient Egypt by making use of existing resources on the WWW in a hypertext medium. The visual material is arranged into thematic sections such as tomb scenes, provision for the dead in the afterlife, ushabti figurines and religious or eschatological beliefs about the human personality. The sources are drawn from a wide variety of museums, institutions and personal home pages whose web addresses are listed separately providing a useful series of online resources in Egyptology. The editors invite feedback from the users of the site, though the resource does not appear to have been updated since 1999. Nonetheless, 'Death in ancient Egypt' is useful source of images, particularly for school and undergraduate teaching.
The Deir al-Barsha website contains information about the Belgian archaeological mission to Deir al-Barsha an important cemetery from dynastic time in Egypt. The expedition is conducted by the Catholic University of Leuven. The site contains reports and images from the excavations of 2002, 2003 and 2004 and a bibliography of publications concerned with the site.
The archaeological site of Deir el-Medina near the ancient city of Thebes in Egypt was home to the community of workers who constructed the royal tombs of the New Kingdom. This impressively organised and comprehensive resource, published by researchers at the Department of Near Eastern Studies of Leiden University, is a database of the extraordinary corpus of texts and artefacts which the site has yielded to archaeologists together with an exhaustive bibliography of relevant publications. The database, which at present comprises almost 3000 entries, is part of a larger Leiden University research project which intends to publish all the non-literary texts discovered at Deir el-Medina. Each inscription is catalogued according to its physical appearance, provenance (where known) and present location, contents (including useful keywords), dates and official Egyptian terminology, publication records, and scholarly commentary. Particularly useful is the introductory guide to the using the database which helps you navigate your way through the enormous corpus of papyri and ostraca from the settlement which have been scattered around dozens of worldwide institutions. Also included is an index to Cerny's seminal work 'A Community of workmen at Thebes in the Ramesside Period' (Cairo 1973) and a separate index of the inscribed objects from the site. This database will be an indispensable resource for specialist researchers and advanced students in Egyptology and related subjects.
The Delta survey website lists information about archaeological excavations in the Nile delta. The survey has focussed on assessing lesser known excavations in this area. The site provides and extensive listing of the excavations and a bibliography. The Delta survey is conducted by the Egypt Exploration Society which was funded in 1882 as Egypt Exploration Fund in order to explore, survey, and excavate at ancient sites in Egypt and Sudan, and to publish the results of this work.
The Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan at the British Museum houses an extensive collection of objects. In addition to the care and display of the collection the department organises the study and publication of the objects. The website contains information about the collections, images and. The department publishes a journal, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan (BMAES). In addition to the information about the objects and research, the site includes a reading list and a link list to web resources concerned with Egyptology.
The website of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures: Egyptology at the University of California, Los Angeles, contains information about courses at the department along with information about current and past research. One of the main projects is the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, which is aiming to be a modern major reference for the study of Egyptology.
The website of the Friends of Neferhotep publishes information on and collects donations for the tomb of Neferhotep (TT 49) in the Valley of the Nobles at Thebes. Neferhotep was accountant of grain of Amun and lived during the eighteenth Dinasty. The website publishes a description of the tomb and several photographs, as well as information on the recent restorations taking place in the tomb, including some measurements with laser technology. Researchers may find this website useful.
The Description de l'Egypte digital collection is a fully digitised version of the 11 plate volumes and nine text volumes that make up the Description de l'Egypte, originally published between 1809 and 1822. This work was produced by the scholars and scientists accompanying Napoleon on his invasion of Egypt in 1798. Their task was to study the Egyptian civilisation in all its aspects. Over 150 scholars, together with 2000 professional artists and technicians, eventually collaborated to produce the Description de l'Egypte, a massive work of both text and illustrations that attempted to inventory Egyptian topography, flora and fauna, ancient and modern monuments, and peoples and customs.
The website provides access to scanned images of the first edition ("Imperial edition"), which is divided into three main themes: antiquities; the modern state; and natural history. Users can browse through the volumes as thumbnails or in page-turning format, and zoom features allow for a closer look at the text or any of the over 3000 impressively detailed illustrations. In addition, search tools allow users to search by keyword or by browsing an index of terms. The website is accessible in both English and French, though the text of the volumes is entirely in French. This is an excellent resource for those interested in Egyptian history and civilisation, as well as for students and researchers concerned with European colonial history.
Desheret is a website that collects an extensive list of links to collections of Egyptological material all over the world. The website is created by three students of Egyptology at the Catholic University of Leuven. The name, Desheret, refers to the red crown of the kings of Egypt representing Lower Egypt, one part of the double kingdom of ancient times. In addition to the links to collections and museums there are images of Egyptian artefacts taken by the Desheret team. In addition, there is a bibliography of the late Belgian Egyptologist Jan Quaegebeur.
This digital repository of pictures can be freely accessed clicking on "Gast" when prompted to login. The free resources include a large archive of Egyptological photographs (ca. 1250 photographs at the time of review; mostly tombs); photographs of manuscripts and incunabula conserved at the UB Bibliotheca Palatina (ca. 5700 photographs at the time of review); and other pictures relevant to the history of the University of Heidelberg. This website will be useful to primarily to researchers and lecturers.
This website has been developed by UCL for the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology as a learning and teaching resource for higher education. The website provides much information about ancient Egyptian culture especially useful to Egyptology students. Guidelines for teachers are given in the "Learning" section and sometimes at the bottom of pages. A simple map of ancient Egypt shows the locations of major towns and important sites in various epochs. Clicking on the names of the sites brings up bibliographic information for published reports on the site in question. A timeline summarises the political history and cultural background of Egypt through the ages. This lists the various ruling dynasties and the individuals within them. Most of the names of the kings link to pages of images, biographical, or bibliographical information. Other sections include: archaeological records; art and architecture; communications technologies; ideology and beliefs; technologies and industries; foreign contacts; social history; and the exact sciences. Each section is then subdivided, leading the use to increasingly specific information. Multimedia aspects include a wealth of digitised photographs of artefacts, as well as several 3D reconstructions (VRML, AVI, MPEG and JPEG files available; AVI files are very large) of tombs and settlements. On of the most useful parts of the site is the A-Z index, which enables researchers to quickly access information on a given topic. This gives the site the functionality of a reference guide to ancient Egypt. About 3000 pages have been written by Wolfram Grajetzki, an expert in funerary archaeology; hundreds more have been written by Stephen Quirke and invited contributors. Digital Egypt for Universities receives funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).
The Digital Karnak Project website is an educational website that uses GIS and 3D virtual reality techniques as well as other interactive means. The virtual reality model of the temple allows to view the temple by reign, following the complex patterns of construction, modification and destruction that are now obscured by the latest building phases at the archaeological site. Videos, PDF guides and short articles complement the virtual visit to the temple. A simplified version of the Virtual Reality model of the temple is also made available in Google Earth, for a completely interactive experience. The central part of the website (accessible through "browse archive") uses videos and illustrated and referenced articles by Egyptologists to provide essential contents. Pharaohs; architectural techniques; religion; and rituals are prominently featured. This website targets primarily undergraduate students, but it is a good introduction to the important Egyptian site of Karnak, one of the largest temple complexes in the world, for anyone.
This database contains references to written records of people (prosopography) living in the Soknopaiu Nesos area of Al Fayyūm from Demotic and Greek sources dating from the seventh century BC to the fifth century AD. The database can be searched, and each record has appropriate bibliographic references; there is also a general bibliography. The high number of personal written documents in the area makes this area particularly suitable for a prosopographic study. Each record can be printed selecting the printable version. This specialist database may interest primarily researchers in Classics and archaeology.
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
This is the website of "The Nahal Tillah Regional Archaeology Project" by the University of California at San Diego. This project is a part of "Archaeology in the Levant", led by the department of anthropology, University of California. The website gives details of the staff involved in the project and abstracts of recent publications. A page to a sequence of Photograph galleries contains only dead links. It can be difficult to follow some hyperlinks through server maps, some patience and several attempts are required.
The project obtained new archaeological data from southern Israel to examine the role of early Egyptian civilization in the rise of urban communities in the southern Levant during the late 4th-3rd millennium BC (especially 3300 - 3000 BC). In particular, "the discovery of an unambiguous incised serekh-sign with the name of Narmer, most likely dating from the end of his reign, adds texture to models concerning the process of early Egyptian expansion into southern Canaan".
This website publishes the digitised collection of 19th to early 20th century photographs portraying Egyptian antiquities that is being conserved at the Frank H. McClung Museum. There are 121 black and white pictures with captions that can be searched by keyword, browsed by theme (museums; temples and tombs; towns and desert life), or by chronological period of the depicted antiquities. Each picture can be viewed with or without captions, in different sizes. It is possible to create a personalised gallery by adding any pictures to the "portfolio", which can be made public or maintained private. This intuitive website can be used by both researchers and students.
The Echoes of Eternity website contains images, descriptions and analyses of artefacts found in the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. The aim of this site is to allow students of Egyptology and anyone interested to see images of the artefacts found in the museum along with extensive descriptions and analyses of the objects. The texts contain short descriptions of the themes found in the objects along with references to literature concerning the time periods and settings concerned.
The Edfu project is conducted by the Archeological Institute of the University of Hamburg and aims at translating and publish all text material that is found at the Horus temple of Edfu in Egypt. The temple at Edfu was built during the Ptolemaic era (around 300 to 30 BC) and is one of the best preserved temples of ancient Egyptian times and was dedicated to the worship of the falcon god Horus. The temple is inscribed with a great number of religious inscriptions and is a invaluable source of knowledge about ancient Egyptian religion. Despite its comparably late date the texts are considered to be based on much older traditions and is, because of that, deemed to be of great interest for the study of older stages of Egyptian religion. The website contains information about the project, images and a bibliography. In addition there is a virtual library with links to publications regarding the temple in PDF-format.
Tour Egypt is the official website of the Ministry of Tourism of Egypt and the Egypt Tourist Authority. Although the website targets tourists, the section presented here contains several pages written by experts, and is a clearly written and comprehensive introduction to Egyptian antiquities. There are pages summarising the history of Egypt, and giving details of its monuments and archaeological sites. There are summaries and transcriptions of texts written on stones, paintings, monuments and papyri, including several Amarna letters. The converter for Egyptian hieroglyphics helps in familiarising non-experts with the characters. Illustrated articles cover a wide range of aspects of ancient Egyptian life, including topics as varied as: agriculture; symbolism; dance; childbirth; humour; food and diet; sports; textiles; faience (a type of glazed ceramic); calligraphy; the navy; and attitudes towards foreigners. Information on Greek, Roman, Christian and Islamic antiquities is also included. There are pages about ancient individuals and ancient deities. Particularly interesting is the section on building, especially the part on pyramids. One section focuses on early travellers and explorers; some full-text books by pioneers of Egyptology, such as "The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh" by W. M. Flinders Petrie, are also included. An extensive section concentrates on funerary rituals and mummification. Another section focuses on scientific research in antiquity, with commented transcripts of some 'chemical manuscripts'. Many pages include references to published scholarly texts. Alternative theories, which have accompanied Egyptology from the start, have limited coverage and they are clearly labelled and separated from scholarly interpretations. Students in particular will find the website a valuable reference tool. The website uses HTML to integrate all texts and facilitate navigation.
The Egypt Archive is a collection of images of Egyptological interest taken by Jon Bodsworth. the website contains a collection of images from sites in Egypt along with photographs of ancient Egyptian artefacts from a number of museums. The site is easy to navigate and the sets of images are organised in groups and categories. The images are grouped into categories corresponding to an era or a site. For example, the category of Middle Kingdom contains images from sites such as Hawara, Lisht and Dahshur where important monuments from that era are found. Although the list of images are not commented and the visitor needs to know something about the sites beforehand it is valuable for the student of Egyptology to be able to look at images of the sites and the monuments and artefacts found there.
This is the official website of the Egypt Exploration Society, which was founded in 1882 as the "Egypt Exploration Fund" by Amelia Edwards. Several famous Egyptologists have worked for the Fund and Society since its inception, including Edouard Naville (first director of funded excavation); William Matthew Flinders Petrie; Howard Carter; Frances Llewellyn Griffith; Norman de Garis Davies; and many others. Excavated sites include Abydos; Tell el-Amarna; Nubia; Saqqara and Memphis. There is a fascinating article on the history of the society, which is a chapter of history of Egyptology by itself and basic illustrated articles on several projects carried out by the Society. It is possible to join the Society through the website, obtain information about its publications and browse events and conferences of interest to the members. The newsletter of the Society is available freely in PDF format.
The Ricardo A Caminos Memorial Library is reserved to members, but other scholars are welcome to apply for access. The full catalogue is online and is searchable. The website also provides contact details, information on the Society's archive (for materials from field projects) and updated information on the activities of the society. This website is an essential reference for many Egyptologists considering the importance of the Egypt Exploration Society.
This website presents the preliminary reports of the archaeological excavations at Mersa Gawasis, Egypt, by the University of Naples and Boston University. A general introduction to the archaeological site is available and can be accessed using the menu at the top of the page ("presentazione", etc.); the reports can be accessed by clicking on "rapporti di scavo" on the menu on the left. The short introduction and menus are written in Italian and the reports are written in English. The preliminary reports summarise the research carried out each year; they are accompanied by several pictures. The reports are composed of introductions; a description of all archaeological strata excavated ("archaeology"); notes on geoarchaeological and geophysical studies; a series of summaries focusing on specific categories of artefacts such as lithics, ceramics, organic materials, inscribed documents; anchors; and references. Of particular interest are the organic finds, which include wooden vessels; ropes; baskets and ship components. The ship components recovered so far include parts of the hull and parts of two steering oars and appear made of wood from Acacia nilotica (Nile acacia) and Cedrus lebani (cedar). All the organic materials have been found inside sealed caves, which are now subject to conservation efforts also described in the reports. The excavators interpret the archaeological site as the main Egyptian harbour used for voyages to Punt from the early Middle Kingdom to the early New Kingdom.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the region of Myos Hormos, Egypt. It is the preliminary report of a survey by French archaeologists of the Roman forts on the ancient Myos Hormos trade route and includes some information about the ancient settlement of Koptos (modern Qift). Several illustrated articles summarise the surveying campaigns carried out so far. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. The website includes a small bibliography and a map of the region.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of El Adaima, Egypt. It was the site of a late Predynastic cemetery; several illustrated articles report on the funerary evidence. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and contains some information on current research on the temples at Karnak, Egypt. There are a few articles useful especially to researchers. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos in the articles.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Saqqara, Egypt. It contains important information on recent research at the site, well known both to Egyptologists and the general public, and on pyramids of the Egyptian Ancient Kingdom. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. An extensive bibliography and a map are also included.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Tanis, Egypt. The site, located on a tell, was used as settlement during the XXI and XXII Egyptian dynasties, who built temples with colonnades and other buildings. Several illustrated articles summarise the archaeological evidence, which has often an artistic value. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
Enim is a free and full-text online journal focusing on Nilotic and Mediterranean Egypt launched in 2008. Only a few papers were available at the time of the review, and these concentrate on the study of the hieroglyphic language. The papers are in French only and can be downloaded as PDF files. Abstracts and the general website are also available in English. It is possible to read the submission guidelines for the journal. This is a specialist resource that will be useful primarily to researchers.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Egyptian antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on Egypt and Egyptology and several pages on individual objects from the collections of the museum (about 200 in April 2006). There is a map and a timeline. An extensive and updated bibliography of publications in French is available. The presentations of individual objects are recommended to anybody with even a passing interest for Egyptology. Most objects have artistic value and are described and interpreted in detail; several pictures are also available for each of them allowing to see all sides of objects. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long).
The Egyptian Antiquities Information System (EAIS) is a project that aims to create Geographic Information System (GIS) for the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) which is part of the Ministry of Culture in Egypt. Its objective is to to locate and describe Egypt's historical and archaeological sites. This means among other things creating a database of maps and reports of all important sites in Egypt and in order to help protecting and preserving them. The project has been supported by the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of International Cooperation in Egypt and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Finland. From 2007 the project will be a part of Supreme Council of Antiquities and thus be solely founded by Egyptian government. The website contains information about the project, images, maps and case studies.
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), Egypt Art website gives online access images of the museum's collection of ancient Egyptian artefacts. There are some two thousand objects in the collection. The site allows browsing by different kind of classification, such as by time period or by category of artwork. In addition there is information about the collection and a short list of suggested reading. This is a valuable resource for anyone interested in getting an overview of the collection of Egyptian objects at LACMA.
The 'Egyptian Mirage' website provides access to the 19th century studio photographs of Egypt held in the collection of the Griffith Institute, Oxford. The online collection consists of over 1200 photographs of the major Egyptian tourist attractions, such as Luxor, Cairo, Alexandria, Port Said and Aswan. The photographic subjects are mainly ancient Egyptian, Christian and Islamic monuments, but scenes of everyday life from the late 19th century are also included. It is possible to browse the photographs in sequence or by gallery, or they may be searched via the site's search engine. The photographs are important for assessing the conservation of the monuments, and some may show details now lost. The photographs are clear enough to be used for research purposes or by students for their assignments. An accompanying database of late 19th century photographs from the Levant region is also available via the Griffith Institute.
A site as wonderful in its detail as it is frustrating in its navigation, Egyptian Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom is a website providing information about and diagrams of major Egyptian burial sites constructed between the 16th and 11th centuries B.C. (Dynasties XVIII-XX). With extensive descriptions, Kelley Ross (of Los Angeles Valley College) takes us through the tombs and various chambers of pyramids and the Valley of the Kings, highlighting their major features and offering brief inventories of their contents, along with scholarly theories from some of the more recent secondary sources. The majority of material is directed towards an undergraduate or general interest user who is specifically interested in the physical construction and setting of Egyptian funerary rituals, both of whom will appreciate the number of diagrams and their level of detail.
This is the website of the chair of Egyptology at the Collège de France, which contains information about courses and research activities (with extensive reports) by staff at the institute and publishes the free full-text Bulletin d’Information Archéologique in PDF format since issue 23, as well as a few illustrated articles. The illustrated Bulletin is a newsletter publishing preliminary reports on recent fieldwork in Egypt, as well as reports on tourism; endangered or damaged antiquities; reviews of books, CD-ROMs TV programs and websites; research on mummies; museums; restoration and preservation projects of Egyptian heritage; exhibitions; thefts, looting, illegal trade of antiquities and returns of illegally acquired antiquities (unfortunately the scale of the problem requires a regular section, sometimes impressively large); and conferences. The Bulletin contains articles and reports in French or English. This website will be useful especially to researchers.
The Egyptology and The Giza Pyramids website is a collection of articles written by John Legon. The articles are not concerned only with the pyramids at Giza but include subjects such as other ancient Egyptian pyramids, the canon of arts and the Kahun papyrus. This is a valuable resource for anyone interested in Egyptology.
This portal about Egyptology by Prof. Juan José Castillos provides information and news on the discipline in Uruguay. The website includes details of papers and books by Uruguayan Egyptologists on a variety of topics and in a variety of languages. Egyptologists have a chance to see the research work done in Uruguay. Its amateurish look should not put off anybody.
Egyptology Resources is a website from the Newton Institute at the University of Cambridge that functions as a gateway to Egyptological information online. The site was established in 1994 and was the first website to especially focus on the study of Egyptology. The opening page leads to a number of categories: essential resources; institutions; museums; digs; publishers and booksellers; journals and magazines; organisations and societies; interesting Egypt Web pages; and other resources of interest. Each section lists Internet resources from all over the world, together with some commentary. The site hosts a searchable database of ancient Egyptian words based on the 'Beinlich wordlist', and a large number of email addresses for Egyptologists. Some news and notices of conferences can also be found on this website. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
Electronic Open Stacks is an online repository of old archaeological books provided by the University of Chicago Library. The Web page contains links to several full-text volumes in digital format. Most of the collection focuses on excavations and studies of Egyptian, Near East and Classical sites, but there are also some miscellaneous texts. Among the most important books are: the "Grammaire Egyptienne" by Champollion in its posthumous 1836 edition; the topographical dictionary of Rome by Platner; catalogues of mummies in the museum of Cairo; catalogues of Egyptian papyri conserved in Berlin; and a book on Hadrian's villa at Tivoli. All books have been scanned and are available as images preserving any illustration and the original layout. Apart from their historical value, the books publish fundamental archaeological excavations by pioneers and some are fundamental texts at the basis of our present knowledge. Experienced researchers only should use these books as they are outdated in some conclusions.
Professor Michel Barsoum presents in this website his theory suggesting that the Pyramids of Giza were built using an early form of concrete instead of limestone quarried blocks. The author with other colleagues has conducted a sophisticated study of the limestone blocks (published in a printed journal) including extensive scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses and concludes that the stones are probably made of reconstituted limestone. The amorphous (i.e. regular) structure of the pyramids' stones at atomic level and the presence of silicon dioxide nanoscale spheres have not been recognised in natural limestone. The employment of casting would explain their regularity and precision, which often leaves no space in between stones. The website contains the recording of a lecture by the author where the author presents the theory (and it is just a theory being discussed at the time of review) and some interviews. The research was partly funded by the National Science Foundation. Researchers in material culture and material science applied to archaeology may find this website useful.
ETANA is a cooperative project between ten scholarly institutions and organizations, funded by the Mellon Foundation, with the aim of enabling wider access to Abzu (the Internet gateway for Ancient Near East studies) and the digitization of core texts in the field. At the time of review, there were over 350 digitized texts, covering topics including ancient Egyptian and Babylonian history, biblical archaeology, and the religion of the Semites. There are also over 180 digitized cuneiform texts. Texts include an electronic version of the 'Pantheon Babylonicum: Nomina Deorum e Textibus Cuneiformibus Excerpta et Ordine Alphabetico Distributa' by Deimel, Panara, Patsch and Schneider. The site also offers a short list of links to archaeological projects and organizations affiliated with ETANA. The ETANA core texts collection can be browsed alphabetically, or keyword searches can be performed using the Abzu interface. Abzu also offers details of a vast array of websites, online journals, and ebooks relevant to academics and students working in this area.
The Eternal Egypt project is an online database of Egyptian historical and cultural resources, and is available in English, French and Arabic. In partnership with the Egyptian Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage and the Supreme Council of Antiquities and with the financial and technical backing of IBM, the resource features the following: high resolution images of key artefacts; panoramic webcam views of live sites of historical importance in Egypt; and reconstructions of lost or damaged sites. The library section provides a series of essays on key aspects of ancient Egyptian civilisation, accompanied by a useful glossary, while an interactive map of the country provides a selection of objects, with commentary, from the most important archaeological sites. There is also a detailed timeline. The resource can be browsed by topic, artefact, character or location. Topics covered include: arts and crafts; science; agriculture; commerce; culture and society; and government. A QuickTime plugin is necessary to view some of the features of the site. Eternal Egypt was winner of Museums and the Web 2005 Best of the Web: Best Innovative or Experimental Application.
This is the official website of the excavations at Tell el-Balamun, Egyptian Nile Delta, carried out by the British Museum. The archaeological team writes in this preliminary report about the key discoveries, namely three enclosure walls dated to 360 BC; ruins of a citadel dating to 650 BC; a Roman paved street; three temples; and small cemetery. A series of full reports in PDF format is available on individual monuments and the overall research project accessing the "reports in detail" section. This website may be useful to both students and researchers.
The Excavations in Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt website contains information about the archaeological excavations conducted by the Monash University at the site. The Dakhleh Oasis is situated in the western desert of Egypt and has been inhabited since predynastic time. The objective of the project is to describe life at the oasis from predynastic time till the modern era. The website contains information about the excavations along with articles and reports in PDF-format.
The website "Exploring Nubia" offers an introduction to the archaeology of Sudan and presents reports and results from the Mahas survey. Sudan was known as Nubia in the past, and in the short introduction it is possible to appreciate its long history and many kingdoms. Kerma, Meore and Medieval Nubia are featured, and there are a few pictures. A book on the subject by one of the authors is advertised. The second part of the site, the Mahas survey, is the most interesting. The 2002 report, linked from the home page, lists over 45 new archaeological features in the area. The main report, however, offers a series of illustrated pages on the many features found. These include: rock-art; New Kingdom and Napatan sites; Meroitic and post-Meroitic settlements; Medieval and post-Medieval sites. Fieldwork reports from several seasons are available. The survey is a cooperative project between the Universities of Khartoum (Sudan) and Leicester (UK). A bibliography that includes books on oral traditions completes the site. Although the pages are very simple, the access to some pages is not intuitive or organised, and the introduction to Nubian archaeology is very succinct. Nonetheless, Nubia is one of the few regions in the world rich in history but largely unexplored. This site may possibly be the only source of information on some of the sites mentioned and should be visited by anybody interested in ancient Egypt or the archaeology of Africa.
The Fayum Villages Project is researching the important area of the Fayum, Egypt. The Fayum is a depression which benefits from waters coming from the Nile and it has been inhabited since the Neolithic. There is an illustrated general introduction and a few articles on some ancient periods. There is also a study of the origins of the name, but it is incomplete. There is a full by Katja Mueller entitled "Statistical Applications for the Graeco-Roman Fayum". A very interesting list of villages with some details about each one is accessible separately. Bibliographic references are given in several pages. This website is still being constructed and is clearly aimed at researchers or advanced students.
This German website publishes a bibliographic database of occurrences in ancient Coptic hagiographic texts of female representations. Field "Kommentar" contains short descriptions of the actual figures, but there are no pictures. Access to the database is free and all contents are full-text; a printable version can be selected. The database can be browsed or searched. Specialist researchers intrerested in Byzantine and early Arab Egypt; early Christianity and Coptic religion and culture may find this database useful.
This is the official website of the Geo-Archaeological Information Applications (GAIA) laboratory in the School of Human Evolution and Culture Change at Arizona State University. The laboratory contains numerous case studies on GIS applications in the archaeology of the ancient Near East. The website contains information about the new "Digital Archaeological Atlas of the Holy Land" and the projects; the "Jordan Antiquities Department Information System" (JADIS) database; a presentation of the Iraq Cultural Heritage GIS database; and true colour Landsat satellite images of the Levant (including Cyprus), Egypt and Morocco. The JADIS database contains data about all known archaeological sites of Jordan from 20,000 BC to the modern ear and can be searched by keyword, or browsed through a Java applet (TimeMap). A version of the JADIS database using Google Earth was not working at the time of review. The West Asian Spatial Temporal Atlas (WASTA) is an extension of the JADIS database containing more archaeological sites in Mesopotamia and Near East; it uses the TimeMap Java applet. Simple instructions on the use of the Java database are provided. The Landsat satellite images available on this website picture Israel; Palestine; Jordan; Lebanon; Cyprus; Syria; Iraq; Saudi Arabia; Egypt; Libya; Turkey; Iran; Kuwait; Morocco; Algeria; and Western Sahara. They are available as georeferenced photographs (GeoTIFF format) and have been compressed. They can be very large, over 100 Mb each. Details on how they were produced and how to obtain and produce similar images of other areas are given. This website is important for researchers of GIS applications in archaeology as well as for those interested in the ancient Near East.
This website by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is archiving scholarly publications on the excavations at Giza, a World Heritage site. Excavation diaries; historic glass plate expedition photographic negatives; object register books; maps; plans; sketches; unpublished notes; and academic papers are being converted to electronic form to create an integrated archive which is being made available over the Internet. Quicktime and other multimedia panoramas and online video walkthroughs give illustrations of Giza today. A new library section contains several ebooks in PDF format as well as many papers from the Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and newsletters. All publications by George Reisner on Giza are already available. The editors of the website aim to expand their library and are appealing for contributions. This website may be useful to any student, researcher or simple amateur of Egyptology.
Giza is a vast necropolis that housed hundreds of individual tombs of Egypt's governing elite during the Old Kingdom (Dynasties 4-6, about 2630-2250 BCE) as well as some of the most famous pyramids (those of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure) and the Great Sphinx.
The complex of ancient monuments near Giza in Egypt, including the Sphinx, the Great Pyramids and numerous mortuary temples, forms one of the most famous archaeology sites in the world. This is the website of the Giza Plateau mapping project, sponsored by the Oriental Institute of Chicago, which aims to combine traditional archaeological surveying with modern computer imaging in order to understand the original landscape context, both cultural and geomorphological, of these great monuments and their many ancillary facilities such as the worker's settlement and the harbour area.The resource consists of a series of illustrated annual reports between 1992-2001 and other articles outlining the survey work and excavation on the plateau of Giza. This work provides a fascinating insight on the day to day workings of the monumental complex and the relationship between the worker's areas and the religious institutions who employed them. The reports are accompanied by maps, architectural plans and photographs of the area under study. These can be viewed as thumb-nails or at full-screen size. The Gaza Plateau Computer Model section of the resource offers an impressive series of AutoCAD virtual reality images of the main monuments together with articles explaining the underlying methodology of the computer graphics database. At present only the final images, and not the underlying data, is in the public domain. This resource will appeal for the most part to specialist researchers and students interested in ancient Egypt but also to those who are interested in the use computer graphic packages, particularly AutoCAD, in archaeology.
The Global Egyptian Museum is an excellent resource for both students and teachers to learn about the Egyptian material culture. The website is a multimedia gallery of images presenting to the reader Egyptian artefacts conserved in museums outside Egypt. The repository already lists over 1,000 artefacts, and for several additional images; audio commentaries; and videos are available. All materials can be browsed or searched through the simple interface; for each artefact there is at least a colour picture and a concise description with bibliography. The multimedia features available for several records help learning about ancient Egypt through its material culture, and there are good chances that some materials found on the website can be seen in a museum near the reader. Researchers will also find the website useful because it allows to compare materials scattered across the world with ease using multimedia technologies that are better suited for this scope than printed publications. Indeed, the website is part of a project to catalogue all Egyptian artefacts outside Egypt as the plundering of the past ages has produced incoherent collections of Egyptian materials all over the world.
This is the website for the Great North Museum: Hancock in Newcastle upon Tyne, opening in 2009. This museum, part of the Great North Museum project brings together world class collections from the Hancock Museum, the Museum of Antiquities, and the Shefton Museum. The Museum’s collections encompass natural history, palaeontology, archaeology, Egyptology, Ancient Greek and Etruscan art, a large-scale, interactive model of Hadrian's Wall, ‘World Cultures’ - ethnographic objects from the last 250 years and a planetarium. The website includes information about the project as well as basic information about the museums’ collections and location as well as a link to the Hatton Gallery, the other component of the Great North Museum Project. The Museum's funders include the AHRC and MLA.
The Griffith Institute website contains information about the activities of the institute. The Griffith Institute is a part of The University of Oxford and and specialises in Egyptology and Ancient Near Eastern studies. The website contains many valuable resources, such as a collection of images from Egypt, lists of the institute's publication and the Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings, partly in an online version in PDF-format. Although the site is not easy to navigate it is a valuable resource both for students of Egyptology as well as researchers within the field.
This is the website of an amateur who has travelled the area of Cairo taking many colour pictures and Quicktime panoramas (not working at the time of the review) that are published on this website. There are also interviews with Dr Zahi Hawass and a special section managed by Dr Hawass himself with updated information on recent excavations and finds. The texts are usual simple and brief descriptions, and the main strength of the website are the pictures of Saqqara; Meidum; Dahshur; Giza; Abu Sir; Abu Roash; and Abu Ghurab as well as some of several pyramids. Most of the other sections are collections of links suitable for the general public.
The personal page of Dr Zahi Hawass can be recommended as a primary source of reliable information on new researches and discoveries in Egypt. Interested people will find also plenty of information on this archaeologist who is serving as Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities since 2002.
In short, this website may be useful in teaching and research primarily as a source of pictures and news.
The website of the "nicht-königlichen Frauen des Neuen Reiches" (The not-so-royal ladies of the New Kingdom) contains a short presentation of the project; a bibliography and a searchable genealogical database of ancient women of the Egyptian New Kingdom, which contains data on their names; titles; roles; jobs; movements; as well as the dynasty and pharaoh of their time. This is a specialist database that sheds light on women in ancient Egypt; it should interest most Egyptologists and not just those involved in gender studies. Researchers or postgraduate students may find it useful.
This website published by the library of the University of Heidelberg contains a significant number of free and full-text e-books on archaeology; Egyptology; and modern languages literature. It is possible to access digitised manuscripts (Bibliotheca Palatina; Codices Salemitani; and Heidelberger Handschriften) as well as documents and books on the region of Heidelberg; incunabula; documents about the university of Heidelberg; geological writings; art history books (especially nineteenth century European art); archaeology (Minoan, Mycenaeans, Greeks, Romans, Etruscans, iconography, pottery) and Egyptology books; literature of South Asia; World War I archival documents; and other special documents preserved at the university. It is possible to search or browse through the documents and books, mostly written in German. Among the texts are the full-text edition of Arthur J. Evans' "The Palace of Minos" and other works by Evans; works by Adolf Furtwängler, Bernard de Montfaucon, Heinrich Schliemann, William M. Flinders Petrie, and John Ward; and Matthew A. Sherring's "The sacred city of the Hindus: an account of Benares in ancient and modern times". The list of available books is increasing. Since fundamental works of archaeology in the public domain can be accessed through this website, archaeologists at all stages may find this website useful.
The Hierakonpolis Online website contains information about the multinational expedition to the site in upper Egypt. Hierakonpolis or Nekhen was an important site during predynastic time in Egypt. The expedition has been excavating on the site since 1967. The website contains information about the excavation along with information about the Friends of Nekhen, an association dedicated to supporting the expedition. The association publishes a newsletter with news and reports regarding the excavation at Hierakonpolis and archaeology in Egypt in general. The newsletter is accessible online as PDF-files.
This website is an online diary of the archaeological excavations carried out by Egyptologist Betsy Bryan of John Hopkins University (Baltimore, USA) and her students at Mut precinct, near Luxor (ancient Thebes). The area dug by the team includes the Temple of Mut; the Thutmose III gateway; Temple of Ramesses III. The galleries of pictures are organised by year and there are some short descriptions of the work done. The website presents a few of the artefacts and monuments unearthed, but it has also the potential of illustrating fieldwork to novice archaeologists. In addition to anybody interested in the Mut precinct, lecturers may find this resource useful to present forthcoming fieldwork. Some may also be inspired and create their own online diary.
The House of Ptolemy is a resource guide, intended as a study aid and to provide bibliographical material for students of Greco-Roman Egypt. The main focus of the site, as its name suggests, is the period of the Ptolemaic kings (331 BCE - 30 BCE), descendants of Macedonian Greeks. There are also compendious sections on Roman, Byzantine and modern Egypt. Within these periods, links are arranged by theme into sets and subsets, in a fashion that is generally clear and efficient. Topics covered include: historical overviews; Ptolemaic numismatics; Ptolemaic genealogy and king lists; the transition to Roman provincial Egypt; the city of Alexandria; the culture of Ptolemaic Egypt; the Ptolemaic empire outside Egypt; the Jews of Egypt. Most of the links are presented with a comment from the site's author: this is a personal list, not a faculty or institutional webpage. The selection of items is therefore prone to subjectivity and its completeness cannot be guaranteed; furthermore, material of widely varying intellectual depth, rigour, and specialisation is included among the links. At the time of writing this review, the site was last updated in 2002 - this meant that some of the links were no longer functional. Nonetheless, there is a wealth of material here, well organised; the numerous awards garnered by the page indicate its worth. This site is a useful starting point for students.
This is the official website of the Humboldt University Nubian Expedition, largely bilingual English and German, but with some German only pages. The website publishes information about the research project by the Humboldt University of Berlin in Nubia (Dar al-Manasir region and especially the two large river islands of Us and Sur) and contains several short preliminary reports, with maps and colour photographs. The finds span a very long period of time, from the Neolithic to modern times. Archaeologists have found a few Neolithic sites; several sites associated with the Kerma, Napata and Meroitic cultures and datable to the New Egyptian Kingdom; a post-Meroitic tumulus; several medieval churches (one of which has been excavated in the 2007 field campaign) and other sites. Pottery, tombs, lithic tools; rock art; and late antiquity parchments (written papyri) have been found in large quantities. The research project has been funded by the Packard Humanities Institute and the Gerda Henkel Stiftung. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
This is a collection of pictures originally prepared for the course "Notions d'histoire de l'art et d'archéologie : Egypte et Proche-Orient anciens" by the late Prof. R. Tefnin. The collection contains over 500 colour and B&W photographs at medium resolution reproducing mainly tomb frescoes, artistic artefacts and architectural masterpieces such as the pyramids; there are also a few didactic drawings. The photographs are listed with a small thumbnail; clicking on the thumbnail it is possible to access a larger version of the photograph. However, only part of the picture can be seen, and the website requires minimal interactivity to display other parts of the picture. Metadata with information on the subject are provided on each page, and users should be aware that some pictures are taken from books. All photographs are copyrighted and suitable only for personal or internal use only. Although students may find here some useful pictures, the collection remains most useful to lecturers to prepare their courses.
This website focuses on the computed axial tomography (CT) scan of a single mummy of an ancient Egyptian female aged about 30. It has been published by the Institute of Medicine of the University of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, and was developed for the exhibition 'The Secret of the Mummies: Eternal Life at the Nile'. The website provides a few details on how the scans have been performed, and includes six Quicktime movies and virtual realities taken from the scans. The virtual realities can be particularly useful to students of medicine wishing to apply CT technology to mummified remains. The educational colour coded movies are also essential for archaeologists with little or no medical knowledge who wish to understand the potential of CT technology for this area.
This is the official website of the Institut d'Égyptologie François Daumas, which publishes the "Orientalia Monspeliensia" series of monographs: table and contents are available in PDF format. The website also contains information about the institute, the staff and research carried out. Illustrated and referenced preliminary reports on recent missions to Egypt are published in section "Chantiers"; among the sites at the time of review were Ermant, Oxyrhynchos and Tôd. The website also provides access to the searchable catalogue of the library of the institute. This website may be useful especially to researchers.
This is the website of the Institute of Egyptology, Waseda University, the leading research institution for Egyptology in Japan. The website provides richly illustrated reports on excavations. The Waseda University research project in Egypt began in 1966 and since then fieldwork has been undertaken at the private tombs on the West Bank of Luxor; the palace of Malqata; the pyramids in Abusir; the Khufu Boat Project; and the Western Valley of the Kings. Among the recent projects are the expedition to Dahshur North and the quarries at Qurna, Gebel Silsilah, and Aswan. There is some interactive content including VRML (virtual reality modelling language) models (e.g. the tomb-chapel of Ipay and Dahshur), and QuickTime panoramas. The website is also available in Japanese. Both researchers and students in Egyptology may find this website useful.
This is the official website of the International Commission of the Later Prehistory of NorthEastern Africa. It publishes information on the organisation, its members and its activities. The Commission organises regular symposia; information, circulars and programme of the most recent one are available in the website. Researchers interested in the later prehistory of Egypt and Sudan (and surrounding areas) may find this website useful.
The International Society for Nubian Studies website publishes information on the association and membership as well as notices regarding relevant conferences, and especially the Nubian Studies conference. In section "archaeological projects" there are a few recent papers related to the Merowe Dam Archaeological Salvage Project as well as a useful "Provisional Type Series of Monuments" document listing and illustrating some of the commonest types of architectural features encountered in the area of the project, primarily huts and tombs, by typology. All documents are freely available in PDF format. Researchers and advanced students in particular may find this website useful.
Internet-Beiträge zur Ägyptologie und Sudanarchäologie (IBAES) is an online free and full text series of thematic edited volumes on Egyptology; all contents are in German with a few contents available also in English. Several volumes are available (abstracts and full contents in PDF format) from the simple interface of the website. Among the topics are: the mummy as cultural phenomenon; gender studies in Egyptology (especially differences between king/queen and male/female divinities); "Statue and Cult. A study of funerary practice in non-royal tombs of the residence during the Old Kingdom"; animal cults; genealogy; "Tomb decoration in the Old Kingdom"; economy and religion; and the site of Musawwarat al-Sufrah in Sudan. Several monographs focus on Egyptian religion and related issues. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
An Introduction to the History and Culture of Pharaonic Egypt is a website dedicated to the study of Egyptology. It is a labour of love for André Dollinger and although not written by an Egyptologist it is rich with references and includes an extensive bibliography. The website covers a diverse collection of topics, such as: history; mythology; life in ancient Egypt; the dynasties; and chronology. Each section consists of an extensive set of short articles, dealing with a number of sub topics. For example, the section on mythology contains sub sections on individual goddesses and gods. This nice looking site is easy to navigate. The site functions as an extensive introduction to the culture and history of ancient Egypt and is useful for any student of the area.
The Karnak Hypostyle Hall Project website contains information about the research project conducted by the Memphis University at the site. Karnak was the main temple for the worship of the Theban triad of gods during the New Kingdom in ancient Egypt. The triad consisted of the god Amun, his consort Mut and their son Khonsu. The hypostyle hall was built by the 19 dynasty rulers Seti I and Ramses II. The website contains field reports from the research and general information about the project. An image gallery is under construction.
This is the website of the Kelsey Museum of the University of Michigan which is home to nearly 100,000 artefacts from the ancient Mediterranean, Egypt and the Near East ranging in date from 5000 B.C.-900 A.D.The website provides an open-access database of the objects in the collection and provides a detailed guide on how to search the collection and download the necessary software. Readers can also browse the collection image by image. Work on the database appears to be still in progress and is due to be completed in Autumn 2002. The resource also includes numerous attractive online versions of exhibitions which have taken place at the Kelsey Museum since 1997. These provide fascinating insights both into the collections themselves and the archaeologists associated with the museum since its foundation and can be used as freestanding study modules for the wide range of topics featured as they also include bibliographic information. There is a guide to past and present excavations in North Africa and the Middle East which have been sponsored by the Kelsey at sites such as Carthage, Cyrene and Apollonia, St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai, Seleucia on the Tigris, Pisidian Antioch and currently at Kedesh in Israel and Abydos in Egypt. Apart from the general didactic value of this resource for archaeology students and researchers, this site will also appeal to those interested in electronic publishing and virtual museums.
The University of Michigan sponsored excavations at Karanis (in Egypt) from 1926 to 1935. On this web-site there are images of some of the artefacts which were discovered from these excavations, including coins, sculptures, wall-paintings, houses, glassware and other containers. There are no papyri on this site.The stated aim of this site is to, "increase students' understanding of these pieces and of the site [of Karanis] generally by giving them online access to material as well as more contextual information." This will be of particular interest to students of archaeology, but it may also be useful for historians. Crucially, however, there are no commentaries accompanying the images, which limits the usefulness of this site.
This is the official website of the archaeological excavations at Kerma, Nubia (Sudan). The website is available in French and English (click on E or F on the logo to switch between the two), but published papers are only available in one language (some are in English and some in French). This well organised website publishes short articles, accompanied by several colour pictures, on the history of Kerma and the research carried out so far by the Swiss team working there. Similarly organised are sections "Archaeological Sites" and "Museum". Section "Publications" contains a comprehensive bibliographic list with several papers freely available in PDF format. Section "Media" lists the recent TV and radio broadcasts to which team members have participated. Although all links point to external resources, at the time of review it was possible to access the original broadcasts, all of which were in French. A simple sitemap, contacts and an internal search engine complete this commendable website.
Kerma, referred to as Kush in Egyptian texts, is a very important site consisting of a settlement and the eastern necropolis, dated between 2500 and 1500 BC, and it was the capital of the Nubian kingdom. The nearby Nubian sites of Napata and Meroe are also mentioned in the illustrated texts and papers. In addition to have been an independent kingdom, Nubia's history is inextricably intertwined with that of Egypt: throughout the long history of ancient Egypt, pharaohs invaded several times Nubia, but a few dynasties of pharaohs were also of Nubian origin. This website provides a concise and clear history of the facts, including a chronological table, and section "Publications" expands on many themes. This website also publishes the preliminary reports from the ongoing excavations. It is an essential website for anyone interested in the ancient history of Africa or Egyptology, hosting contents that should satisfy everyone, from the curious amateur archaeologist to advanced researchers.
The British Museum is an institution actively involved in carrying out archaeological fieldwork since its foundation. Egypt has been a staple of the museum; the project presented in this website (it contains updated preliminary reports of the excavations since 2002, in PDF format) is "The Safwat el-Mokadem project", focusing on Kom Firin, in the Delta of the Nile. The archaeological team has investigated a mudbrick and limestone temple dating to the period of pharaoh Ramses II and occupying an area of 44,000m² encircled by a mudbrick enclosure. Greek wares dating to its later period have been found. The illustrated pages of the website provide an introduction to the archaeological site; anyone interested on this archaeological site should head directly to the reports section. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
The KV-10 website focuses on the exploration of the tomb of pharaoh Amenmesse in the Valley Of the Kings, Egypt. The tomb is adjacent to that of Tutankhamun and is one of the few royal tombs where fieldwork is currently being carried out. The website provides background information on the tomb, the history of its exploration, short reports of yearly fieldwork, and photographs ordered by year of excavation. Recent excavations have unearthed the huts of the workers that built it, and this discovery is likely to contribute significantly to our understanding of the burial site. A few maps are also available. Among the artefacts that have been recovered are: a game board; blue faience beads; Ushebties (small statues); a mummified shrew; and pottery. There is also a bibliography of recent research on the tomb. From the links page, it is possible to access a small section on the most important Egyptian monuments, which may prove valuable to students.
This website publishes a series of picture galleries, some information organised as diary and several links to articles about the "tomb" KV-63 in the Valley of the Kings, Egypt. KV-63 was discovered in 2005 and announced in February 2006. The tomb is the first one to be found in the Valley since the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922; the two tombs are located only 14.5 metres apart. Seven coffins (one gold coffinnette), several jars and a few masks have been found. Further research is ongoing and updates are being published timely. Egyptologists (amateurs, students and researchers) will find this website useful for it publishes reliable and updated information about a discovery that captivated the mass media and still has not been fully studied. The website is an excellent (and rare) example of how it is possible to present ongoing research to a broad general audience without compromising the quality of research or affect in any way future publications.
"Late Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt" website by Francesco Raffaele concentrates on the archaeology of early Egypt. There are several articles, some focusing on specific data or artefacts (mostly using his own papers) and some illustrated general articles. Appropriate bibliographies are given in most articles. Most pictures in the articles have been copied from other publications and this should be kept in mind before reusing them. Separate galleries of images are available and some contain unreferenced pictures, which should not be re-used by students without supervision. An extensive gallery focuses on Egyptian antiquities conserved at the Archaeological Museum of Naples. Among the pictures are several maps and photographs of objects. It is possible to browse the articles or access them through indexes; there is a special section on Saqqara. Researchers will also find information on relevant conferences and book reviews.
The period examined by the website is approximately 5200-2710 BC and includes the Naqada phases (I-IIId) and the earliest kings of Egypt; it is the time of the unification of Egypt. The Naqada culture had its centre in the eponymous site, and included the regions between Abydos and Hierakonopolis. Abydos becomes an important dynastic centre, where several tombs of kings have been discovered.
This website mirrors some positions held by the author on specific topics and universal consensus should not be assumed. However, the website can be a very good introduction to the period examined for students, and the many illustrations will help in understanding the material culture.
This is an excellent resource offering articles on ancient history and archaeology together with an impressive library of photographic images of ancient sites which can be down-loaded for free for non-commercial use. The website is laid out geographically with sections on Greece, Persia, Anatolia, Carthage and Punic Sicily, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Judaea, Germania and Rome (as well a Dutch language resource on Dutch history) while the authoritative but very readable text has many cross links between them. There is no overall structure to individual sections: the Greek entries have a strong emphasis on Alexander the Great and his successors, on various authors such as Plutarch and Herodotos (including selections of extracted texts) and a series of short encyclopaedia-style entries on politicians, philosophers and literary figures. The Judaean passages discuss, for instance, Messianic claimants, the Diaspora and anti-Semitism in the ancient and mediaeval worlds, alongside more linear accounts of the Roman wars and potted biographies of leading Jewish figures. This website will benefit both students and teachers of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern world but the author makes the pointed observation that students must combine the use of electronic resources with proper library research for which the Web is not a substitute.
This is the website of the Manchester Museum, part of the University of Manchester, and a major public Museum in Manchester, UK. The Museum, with its origins in the 18th Century, encompasses a huge range of artefacts, specimens and objects (some 4.25 million) and includes important collections of anthropology; archaeology; archery; Egyptology; geology; human remains; natural history; numismatics; palaeontology. The website describes the collections in more detail (as well as showcasing highlights from them) and the museum's online catalogue can be searched. Further areas of interest include links to the Museum’s research (related to both its collections, practice and the institution’s own history), staff and extensive community outreach work. As a university museum, the Manchester Museum receives some core funding from the AHRC.
This is the official website of the scholarly journal "Mediterranean Archaeology", which is the official journal of the Australian Archaeological Institute. There are indexes of current and past volumes and it is possible to purchase many volumes. Guidelines for submission of papers are provided.
The Museen im Nildelta website publishes information on a research project in collaboration between Egyptian and German scholars and that focuses on the collections of three museums: the Sharkea National Museum, Herriat Raznah; the Ismailia Museum; and the Museum of the University of Zagazig. The project is carried out by archaeologists at the Seminar für Archäologie und Kulturgeschichte Nordostafrikas (AKNOA) in the Humboldt University of Berlin. The results of the project are to be published in the Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum (CAA); only an introduction to the project is available online. Researchers interested in the project may gather some information on the website, where there are also contact details of the archaeologists involved.
The National papyrological funds website is an online repository of papyrological collections held in Spain. Among the digitised collections are: the Abadia de Montserrat Collection; the Palau-Ribes Collection; and the Fundación Pastor Collection. There are currently thousands of papyri digitised, but the team expects to produce a catalogue of all Spanish papyri. The texts range from small fragments to whole parchments. They are written in different languages (Egyptian demotic, hieratic and hieroglyphics, Coptic, Arabic, Latin, and Syriac Hebrew) and cover a broad temporal range, from the seventh century BC to the tenth century AD. There are literary and religious texts as well as writing pertaining to daily life, including receipts and invoices, contracts, and letters. The texts are transcribed in the original language in which they were written and are not translated. Accessing the catalogue is easy from section "Digital Catalogue". Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The North Kharga Oasis Survey (NKOS) is co-directed by Corinna Rossi (Cambridge University) and Salima Ikram (American University in Cairo). The survey is focusing on the northern area of the Kharga Oasis, Egypt's Western Desert. This website contains preliminary summaries of the fieldwork seasons; short descriptions with a few pictures of the main sites investigated; maps; and a bibliography of books and papers produced as a result of the survey. The area was an important crossroad between Egypt and south and west Africa in antiquity and was the most important alternative route to the Nile Valley. The information provided by this website is scanty and short of a preliminary report, but researchers interested in the region will find essential information and a useful list of publications to expand their knowledge. The survey has received funding from the National Geographic Society.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Seddenga, Sudan (ancient Nubia). Seddenga is located between the second and third cataract of the Nile, north of Kerma (land of Kush), in a territory scarcely explored. Several illustrated articles focus on various topics, a Neolithic cemetery; an Egyptian temple of Queen Tiy; a cemetery used by people of Napata and Meroë culture; a medieval church (tenth century) and other topics. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a topographic map of the site and an extensive bibliography.
This German website publishes the preliminary results of a project focusing on the archaeology of Nubia, and especially Meroë, the Meroitic Empire, and its language. There are several pages detailing the project; section "Archäologie" contains a series of illustrated short reports, including a short history of research; useful tables to help deciphering the Meroitic language; and a substantial bibliography. Most pictures can be enlarged by clicking on them. A separate gallery of images contains a large number of photographs of buildings; ceramics and ornaments. The images are perhaps the most valuable resource of this website and may be useful to both students (to complement readings) and researchers.
Developed and compiled by Scott Noegel (University of Washington), Okeanos is a comprehensive and detailed online gateway to a large cache of electronic resources related to the study of the culture of the ancient, Biblical, classical and late antique Near East. Sections covering the following types of resources are included: atlases; Bible; bibliographies; general resources; journals; discussion lists; museums; and philology. The structure of the site makes navigating these links simple, and sections are typically organized by topic and then by geographic location. Overall, the material presented by Okeanos will be most relevant to students and academics already involved in some aspect of ancient near-eastern studies who wish either to locate a particular journal or to familiarize themselves with the entire breadth of scholarly activity in the field.
This eclectic website publishes the results of researches carried out by Dr Harold Dibble and Dr Shannon McPherron. Most of the archaeological sites excavated by the authors are Palaeolithic caves located in southwestern France, with the notable exception of the Egyptian site of Abydos. Among the French sites are Pech de l'Azé IV (dataset; preliminary report available in PDF format); Roc de Marsal (Neanderthal infant possibly intentionally buried, stone and bone assemblages; large preliminary reports available in PDF format); Combe-Capelle Bas (dataset; Mousterian facies); Fontéchevade (Tayacian industry, variant of the traditional Mousterian); Roche de Solutré (Solutrean culture characterized by large bifacially retouched blades; QuickTime panorama movies); Kadar (dataset from the 1970s Museum of Sarajevo and University of Kansas excavations); Abydos Survey for Palaeolithic Sites (ASPS; Palaeolithic and Roman sites located, Levallois and Nubian cores indicate two independent cultures; preliminary and final reports are available in PDF format). There are a few picture galleries and a bibliographic database with several papers available in PDF format. Some Windows software written by the authors is available in a separated page; the simple programs are especially designed for survey data collection and spatial recording of artefacts. Some helpful pages introduce all the programs. This website contains many datasets; reports; photographs; and specialist software that make researchers as the intended audience.
The On-line geographical information system for the Theban necropolis (OLGIS-TN) website is an online interface to a database containing information about the cemeteries at Luxor in Egypt. The project is part of the Theban Necropolis Geological Mapping Project of the University of Charleston and the Serapis Research Institute. The basic idea is to use the Web to access data about the Theban necropolis through a geographical information system. The data in the system consists of contribution from scholars working in the area and such sources as topographical maps, satellite images, reports and photographic collections. This site is still under construction but the system is online and working at the time of review. Although a little daunting at first sight this resource is invaluable for researchers and students within the area of the archaeology of Egypt.
The OsirisNet website is constructed by the amateur Egyptologist Thierry Benderitter with the help of Jon J. Hirst for translations to English. The site is centred around a number of descriptions of ancient Egyptian tombs. The site contains descriptions of royal tombs as well as tombs of Egyptian noble men. Each tomb is described at length with images and, most often, a bibliography for the sources. In addition to the descriptions of the tombs there are virtual tours of some tombs and some articles about different topics, such as ancient Egyptian gods, monuments and artefacts. There is one section of the site that is dedicated to monuments that contain descriptions and slide show with literally thousands of images. This site is not mainly aimed at researchers of Egyptology but is a good introduction to the subject for students and anyone interested in Egyptology.
The official website of the Oxford Expedition to Egypt (OEE) publishes information on the project, information to purchase books and the "Linacre College Oxford Expedition: Scene-details Database". The database contains drawings of scenes depicted in Egyptian art (funerary contexts) from Dynasty III to the end of Dynasty VI (First Intermediate Period) as well as basic information on their location. Chronologically the database includes the Old Kingdom. Some PDF files, a map and an index facilitate access to the information. There is also a bibliography and a glossary. The database is organised hierarchically (or pyramid-like as the authors suggest) and is easy to use. For instance, boat scenes may be found selecting "themes" and then "commerce"; similarly several dance and music scenes can be accessed accessing "themes" and then dance and then "Dance, music and games". Although the database was born out of a project published in the printed series "Egypt in Miniature", it can be used without accessing the books. Researchers in particular may find the database useful.
This website brings together the Netherlands scientific journal on vertebrate palaeontology, Egyptology and the archaeology of northwest Europe "PalArch". It publishes scholarly articles and reviews of books in the fields listed above. The articles are freely available and can be accessed through a list of abstracts. Some monographs or CD-ROMs, however, must be ordered. A newsletter is also published regularly, but only a few articles within this are freely available. It is possible to become a member of the foundation which publishes the journal for a modest fee or obtain access to all the contents by covering the costs of production and any shipping charges. Authors are invited to publish in the journal. This website may be useful especially to researchers of Egyptology, which is the journal's main focus.
This is the official website of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (Penn Museum). The multimedia website of the museum contains information on the collections and research carried out at the museum. The collections span all continents but the information available at the time of review was scanty. A keyword tagging system simplifies accessing research materials, which are as varied as the collections but concentrate on the ancient Near East and South Asia. Wroth singling out is the lab of Biomolecular Archaeology that has carried out important research on ancient wine. The usual general information to visit the museum or access some research offices is also available. Both researchers and students may find the "research section" of this website useful.
This resource is part of the World Art Treasures website, which is hosted by Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) and published by the Jacques-Edouard Berger Foundation. It is a guide to the antique site of Abydos, in Egypt, featuring Seti l's votive temple, which is dedicated to Osiris, and an Osireion, designed as the god's own tomb. The tour takes you through rooms in sequence using a sensitive image map. For each room, there is a description (including its architectural features, decorations and purpose) and a sensitive map with "hot spots" linking to an image or a group of images. The site also has a glossary and a history of the pioneers, researchers and travelers of Egyptology associated with Abydos.
The website of the "Muzeum archaeologiczne w Poznaniu (Poznań archaeological museum)" focuses on prehistoric and medieval archaeology of Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) and the prehistoric archaeology of Egypt and the Sudan. The website provides information on the museum's opening hours; location; history and collections; publications; conferences; research projects in which museum staff participates and a list of archaeologists working at the museum. Section "The Górka Palace - the seat of the Museum" contains an historical video entitled "Restoration of the Górka Palace (1960-1966)" by Zygfryd Ratajczak; unfortunately the video appears inverted like seen in a mirror. Permanent exhibitions include: the prehistory of Wielkopolska; death and life in Ancient Egypt; and the granite obelisk of Ramesses II. A section also contains short articles and some photographs about previous temporary exhibitions. There are also working sample versions of computer programs related to heritage management. Section "Archaeological field research" contains illustrated papers (some available only in Polish) on the field researched carried out by museum staff around Poznań (mostly medieval archaeology) and in Africa. There is the report (in PDF format; maps and photographs in separate pages) of the 1981 mission at Tassili-n-Ajjer in Algeria; and photographs of other African projects, unfortunately most without captions or accompanying text. Prehistoric rock art appears to be an important research theme, with interesting discoveries at Tassili-n-Ajjer (Algeria) and Dakhleh Oasis (Egypt). This website is a valuable resource for both the archaeology of Poland and Egypt that may be useful primarily to interested researchers, who should check periodically the illustrated articles in the "news" section.
This website by amateur Egyptologist Vincent Brown publishes an English translation of the "Pyramid Texts" found in the pyramid of fifth dynasty pharaoh Unas. The translation of the hieroglyphic texts has been compiled using several sources, referenced, and therefore may appear inconsistent at times. The website also allows readers to select a location on a map of the pyramid and from there to click through pictures and visually navigate the pyramid. By clicking on any panel with hieroglyphs, the translation of those utterances appears. This is a very useful tool because it is possible to read the texts panel by panel while moving through the chambers of the pyramid within a virtual reconstruction. Since the texts reference to the final journey of the deceased pharaoh to the sky and the internal architectural structure of the pyramid also references to such a journey, the website makes possible to interpret the texts along with the architectural context. The texts can also be read on a single page. There are hyperlinks to full-text academic translations of the "Pyramid Texts"; students should be aware that some of the other external hyperlinks point to websites presenting unverified hypotheses.
Sir Flinders Petrie's 1880/82 survey of the Giza plateau which included the Great Pyramid of Khufu and the relatively unknown Trial Site is probably the most detailed Egyptian study ever undertaken by a surveyor. This website presents the original 1883 edition of 'The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh' which is complete with all measurements and accounts of technical work, much of which was dropped in the later 1885 edition. The chapters of the book are available from the opening index as separate web pages and the associated illustrations may be accessed either from the index or from hyperlinks in the text. Links are provided to pages dealing with metrology and ancient Egyptian measuring systems and also to other sites devoted to metrology and ancient Egypt. Some measures have been updated with more recent data. This is a specialist resource for Egyptologists.
The Pyramids of Egypt website is a gallery of photographs by amateur Egyptologist Frank P. Roy. Pictures of several Egyptian pyramids and architectural monuments are available; in many pages there are clickable maps that provide an overview of the relative location of the monuments in the major architectural complexes. Among the monuments are the pyramid of Djedefre at Abu Rawash; the complex of Saqqara (pyramids of Menrere, Pepi I, Djoser, Unas, Teti, the archaic mastaba of Mereruka, etc.); Hawara (pyramids of Fayum including those of Sensworet I, II and Sneferu at El-Lisht); the Giza plateau (pyramids of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure; the sphinx); Dahshur; Zawiyet el-Aryan; Abu Ghurab (sun temples); and Abusir. There are also photographs of artefacts conserved at the Egyptian museum and modern Egypt and the desert. There is a timeline of pharaohs and a page shows how the pyramids of the Giza plateau may have been positioned in relationship to stars, though the suggested stellar alignment is arbitrary and therefore the mentioned date invalid. The author has republished some data like the dimensions, volume and ancient name of the pyramids. The pictures are of adequate quality to be appreciated on a computer screen (including Powerpoint presentations) or to be used in essays by students; high quality prints can be purchased. This gallery is an excellent source of pictures that can be used for teaching, learning or just enjoy pyramids at home; most data and texts are obviously taken from other sources and should therefore be ignored for academic purposes.
This website documents the fragments of textiles found by archaeologists from the University of Southampton at the ancient port of Quseir el Qadîm in Egypt. Consisting of fabrics from the ports periods of maximum importance - before the 3rd Century CE and after the 12th - discoveries have shed light both on the sophistication of the textiles produced at these time, and also the scope of trade - in the Roman era the port was a centre for trade with India, and in the Islamic period an important stopping point for Hajj pilgrims. As well as describing the project, the website is contextualises and illustrates some of the most important finds.
This website publishes a searchable database of all articles published in the Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde (ZÄS) since volume 90 (year 1963). The search can be performed by author, title or year. Abstracts are not available. This is a basic, specialist database that may be useful primarily to researchers.
The website of the Enhancement of the Organisation and Capabilities to Preserve Cultural Heritage Assets of Egypt: Risk Map for North Saqqara Site is a project for the preservation of the ancient site of Saqqara in Egypt. It is a co-operation between the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Egyptian Supreme Council for Antiquities. Saqqara is an important site with a history that goes back to early dynastic time until later Coptic time in Egypt. The site contains information about the archaeological site and the project that uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to construct a map for risk assessment of the site.
Part of the World Art Treasures project, which is based on a collection of slides and photographs by Jacques-Edouard Berger, founding director of the Swiss-based Foundation Jacques-Edouard Berger (Jacques-Edouard Berger Foundation), this website brings together a number of Roman portraits found attached to mummies in Fayyum, Egypt. They are currently scattered world wide in museums and collections. The Fayyum portraits are either painted on wood or cloth and all date from the end of the first to the end of the fourth century AD. The website includes some images of the portraits and these are organised by their present location. Information is provided about tombs and burial rites and the techniques and the materials used. The role of the Fayyum portraits is discussed and a history of Fayyum (the region) is also provided. Information about certain images is only available in French and two lectures can also be listened to in French, for which a RealAudio Player is required.
The "Rome in Egypt" website publishes "an updated repertory of the temples built in Egypt by Roman emperors for autochthonous cults" and is the result of a research project directed by Prof. Edda Bresciani at the University of Pisa, Italy. The website consists of a database of Egyptian archaeological sites that can be browsed by site name, temple, Roman emperor or virtual map. There is also an extensive bibliography, divided by site. The virtual map requires Internet Explorer to work and the XVR plug-in and is an interactive map with a nice animation, and no additional contents; it is not necessary to use it. For each record some data are available and these often include an interactive map; photographs; short texts describing the temple and its state of conservation; and an essential bibliography. This website is a very useful reference tool for both students and researchers.
The Russian Academy of Sciences: Centre for Egyptological Studies website contains basic information about the research centre. In addition there is a list of publications and information about research projects and archaeological excavations conducted by the centre. The centre was created in 1999 and its main activities include education of researchers, conducting research projects and excavations as well developing educational program in Russia in Egyptology. The centre runs an institute in Cairo. The site is easy to navigate and although the translations to English of the original Russian texts are not of highest quality there is no problems understanding the texts. This resource is valuable for researchers and students in Egyptology.
The Rylands Papyri website gives online access to the extensive collection of papyri held at the Manchester University, John Rylands University Library. The collection contains some seven Hieroglyphic, 19 Hieratic, 166 Demotic papyri along with numerous Coptic, Arabic and Greek texts. It is one of the largest collections of its kind in Britain. The collection contains the so called Rylands Library Papyrus P52 or St John’s fragment which is thought to be the earliest extant copy of New Testament canonical writing. The website gives access to images of the papyri and the interface allows the user to zoom in and study the texts in detail. The website is instructive and easy to access. This is a valuable resource for students and researchers alike.
Akhethetep, a Fifth Dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh reigning sometime around the middle of the 3rd Millennium BC, was buried in a magnificent mastaba tomb in the necropolis in Saqqara, the royal burial ground of Memphis, the capital of the Old Kingdom. This equally magnificent interactive website provides a lavishly illustrated account of the tomb and attempts to 'restore' its mortuary chapel, which has been in the Louvre since 1903, to its original context by means of a virtual reality reconstruction. This combines the results of research by French Egyptologists from 1991 onwards on its architecture, layout and artistic decoration with modern virtual reality animations, using Flash and Quicktime. Although the chapel was removed from Saqqara by Maspero and Bénédite to protect it from looters, the work itself was never documented and many aspects of the original monument remain obscure. The resource provides an interactive guide to various aspects of the tomb layout within its historical and physical context, with maps of major Egyptian sites, plans of Saqqara and a highly visual chronological chart of ancient Egyptian chronology. Particular emphasis is placed on the carved reliefs of the mortuary chapel, which are interpreted in terms of their iconographic and artistic properties, and the underlying significance of the hierogylphs, key examples of which are translated into French. The resource also features reports of research and excavation at the mastaba itself and a host of other architectural, artefactual and scientific results. 'De Saqqara de Louvre' will interest students and researchers in Egyptian archaeology as well as the general public who can read French.
Saqqara Online is a website that describes the Dutch archaeological expedition to Saqqara in lower Egypt. The site describes the work on the site that started in 1975 as an Anglo-Dutch expedition. Since 1999 the excavations have been organised by the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden and the Leiden University. Saqqara is an important site since early dynastic time I ancient Egyptian history and has been inhabited since then. It is also the site for the step pyramid of the third dynasty king Djoser, the first pyramid ever built. The site is extensive and contains information about the site and the various excavations conducted on the site. It is a valuable resource for students and researchers of Egyptology.
"The Search for Tutankhamun" is a digital archive of the five seasons of excavation undertaken by Howard Carter between 1915 and 1922 in the Valley of the Kings, Egypt. The excavations were funded by the fifth Earl of Carnarvon (1866-1923) and resulted in the discovery of perhaps the most celebrated archaeological find of the past century: the tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun. The digital archive is derived from three main sources - Carter's excavation notebooks, photographs and maps. The original notebooks (held within the Griffith Institute and catalogued as Notebooks 'D' and 'E') are available here as scanned images for direct comparison with the transcribed text. The original excavation photographs are similarly available, whilst maps of the excavation area and surrounding tombs provide a geographical context. The archive is arranged in chronological order, from the first excavation season in 1915 through to the sixth in 1922. The notebook pages, containing observations and details of finds, are arranged in order corresponding to the excavation season to which they belong. The photographs and maps are similarly arranged, but are also provided separately in a complete gallery.
The Sefkhet website is an annotated list of links to various resources in the area of Egyptology. The descriptions are short but to the point and the links have been classified and put into different sections, such as Egyptological Databases and Online Resources, Excavation Sites and Foundations, and Electronic Museums with Online Egyptological Collections. There is even a section of links to be avoided, for example to discussion lists where extremely biased opinions are dominant. Although the site is very anonymous and no references are made to the creator of it, the title of the link list makes a reference to Sackler Library, Oxford University. There is a good collection of useful links on the page and this makes this to a valuable resource for students and researchers alike.
The Sen-en-Mut project website describes the excavations conducted by the Institute of Studies of the Ancient Egypt, Madrid, at Deir el Bahri outside Luxor, Egypt. Deir el Bahri is the site for the mortuary temple of Hatshepsut of the ancient Egyptian 18th dynasty. She is the famous female king of the New Kingdom. Sen-en-Mut is Hatshepsut’s architect, rumoured to have been her lover and who was allowed to make a tomb for himself in the temple complex. It is this tomb the expedition is excavating. The site contains reports from the last seasons along with images and some articles regarding Sen-en-Mut. The site has two versions, one Spanish and one English, the Spanish version being more extensive than the English containing more images and excavation reports. The site is easy to navigate and is a valuable resource for both researchers and students.
Based at the Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations of the University of Toronto, SEPE is a broadly based archaeological research project aiming to examine the relations between Egypt and her neighbours through excavation and survey, concentrating on the Late Period East Delta site of Tell Tebilla and on relatively neglected aspects of Egypt's exploitation of the south Sinai region. Tell Tebilla originally stood on Lake Manzala, a maritime lagoon serving the important town of Mendes on a major branch of the River Nile. Tebilla and its neighbours were in the forefront of the hostile relations between Egypt and its Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian rivals during the Late Period. The South Sinai project aims to reconstruct the economic and commercial value of the El-Markha plain and of the Sinai in general which was exploited by the Pharaohs for its copper and turquoise resources. The resource publishes many of the results of the multi-disciplinary excavation and survey project with numerous maps and illustrations (including notable use of satellite imagery) and images of artefacts and includes a slideshow of the site. This website provides a useful and up-to-date guide for undergraduates and researchers in ancient Egyptian archaeology and history. Also included in this website, which is also available in Arabic (with summaries) is an extensive bibliography of published works and information for those wishing to particiapate on the proeject in future years.
The story of Sinuhe is one of the best known and most discussed literary texts from ancient Egyptian sources. Therefore, the amount of articles and discussions is more than abundant. This website publishes an exhaustive bibliography (up to about the year 2000) by Barbara Lüscher, who started working on it in the 1980s as a student at the University of Basel. The bibliography is quite impressive. A series of PDF files includes a precise bibliography for each ancient word, hieroglyph, or grammatical problem, and a general bibliography. Researchers or advanced students may find this specialist website useful.
Sisyphos is an Internet search engine providing access only to archaeological and Egyptological websites. Similarly to Intute, the resources accessible through this website have been selected according to their scientific relevance. Sisyphos covers all aspects of Classical (Greek-Roman) Archaeology as well as the Minoan and Mycenaean civilisations; Etruscan studies; and Egyptology. In addition, the website also lists general archaeological resources (history of the subject, theories, methods, institutions, excavation techniques). The bilingual interface in German and English is effective; it is possible to search or browse the listed resources. The strength of this website is evident for its core fields of Classical Archaeology and Egyptology, and within them, the ancient art of those civilisations. The available metadata is sufficient to determine the relevancy of the resources, but there are no descriptions evidencing merits and faults of the websites or the targeted audience. It is therefore recommended to use its search facilities performing a full-text search of the included resources; it works like Google but it yields more relevant results.
Coptic is the name given to the latest stage of the ancient Egyptian language from the first century BC and written in an alphabet deriving from Greek and Demotic. The term is applied more generally to the distinct culture of Egyptian Christianity and its diaspora which still uses the Coptic language in its religious rituals. This website, produced by the St Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society of Los Angeles, is part of an on-going project to preserve and promote Coptic culture by providing digital resources for Coptic language, literary, archaeological and artistic study. Projects include the Coptic Microfilm Library (CML) which aims to put all relevant Coptic and Arabic texts online and the Mapping of Coptic Monuments project, which will record all Egyptian Christian architectural and archaeological sites. The Manual of Coptic Studies (at the time of review almost completely empty and not updated since 1996) includes: the liturgy and texts of Coptic Christianity; a history of the language; a guide to Coptic writing; a directory of Coptic scholars. Other features include a useful slide show of frescoes from Coptic churches and monasteries. There is also a run of newsletters from the mid-1990s and downloadable software. The links page provides further information on websites of Coptic interest.
The website of the Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur journal publishes the contents and abstracts (since 1994) of this German Egyptological journal published by the Archaeological Institute of the University of Hamburg. The abstracts (and papers in the printed edition) are mostly in German with some written in English or French. There are guidelines for prospective authors.
'Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization' is a full-text open access ejournal, with issues available online from 1991 through to 2009. The journal is published in English and French from the Jagiellonian University Institute of Archaeology, in Poland. Recent articles are primarily in English, and all articles are freely available in PDF format. Example article titles include: 'Egyptianising Grave Monuments in London's Brompton Cemetery'; 'Dwarf Figurines from Tell el-Farkha'; 'Gazelles and Ostriches from Tell el-Farkha'; 'A Forgotten Scarab of Horemheb', among others. Volume 11 was a special issue covering recent research on Greek colonies of the northern Black Sea coast. The journal will be of interest to scholars of... "pre-dynastic and early dynastic Egypt, the archaeology of ancient Egypt and Middle East, archaeology of Greece, Cyprus, Italy; the history of collecting and the history of archaeological research". The journal website has full details of the Editorial Board and submissions process.
The Sudan Archaeological Research Society (SARS) homepage gives information about the activities of the society. SARS was founded in 1991 and is a UK based society concerned with the archaeology and ancient history of Sudan. Sudan has for a long time been a zone of contact between the peoples of Central Africa and those of Egypt and the Mediterranean world. The website contains brief descriptions of fieldwork conducted in Sudan and a list of publications concerning the archaeology of Sudan. There are also downloadable lists of the holdings of the society’s libraries in London and Khartoum. The site is a little confusing but fairly easy to navigate and although the information may be a little sparse it may be of interest for students and researchers in the subject of the archaeology of Sudan.
This website provides a brief overview of Tell Abqa'in's history and presents pages on several portions of the site itself, namely the central gateway, perimeter walls and wells. Tell Abqa'in, located in the Bahriya Governorate, seventy five km south-east of Alexandria, Egypt, has long been regarded as one of a chain of forts constructed during the reign of Ramesses II on the edge of the western portion of the Nile Delta and out to the west along the coast. However, the only other known fortress is located 300km west of Alexandria at Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham. As part of a major project to examine this Ramesside military occupation in Marmarica and the Western Delta, a University of Liverpool team directed by Susanna Thomas has been working at Tell Abqa'in since 1996.
The Tell el-Borg website contains information about the archaeological expedition to north Sinai conducted by the Trinity International University, USA. The site was surveyed in 2000 and there has been excavations going on since then. Tell el-Borg is an interesting site with its canal that is believed to date back to the 2nd Millennium BC. The canal was likely part of a defence system during ancient Egyptian time and may be the 'Walls of the Ruler' mentioned in the ancient story of Sinuhe. The site contains general information about the expedition and the excavations along with images and reports from the different seasons. The site is sparse but contains some useful information about the research project. It is of interest to researchers and students of Egyptology.
The Tell el-Daba Homepage is an online report from the excavations in the eastern Nile delta of the site of Tell el-Daba, conducted by the Austrian Archaeological Institute in Cairo. The remains of the settlements on this site have been identified with the ancient capital of the Hyksos during the 15th dynasty. The Hyksos were an Asiatic people who ruled lower and middle Egypt during the second intermediate period between the middle and new kingdom of ancient Egyptian history. This site was populated as early as the 12th dynasty during the middle kingdom and throughout dynastic time. The main page of the site includes a map of the area and clicking on an excavation site on the map opens up a page with a report on the excavations at that particular location. The reports consist of texts, images and maps. This site is a valuable resource for researchers and students of the ancient history of Egypt.
This website provides information from the Theban Mapping Project (TMP). Established in 1978, the project aims to build "a comprehensive archaeological database of Thebes", the ancient Egyptian capital. This website documents the project's mapping of the tombs in the Valley of the Kings. It includes two online atlases, both delivered via a Flash interface: the 'Atlas of the Theban Necropolis', providing detailed aerial mapping; and the 'Atlas of the Valley of the Kings'. This second atlas provides detailed descriptions of more than sixty royal tombs, including videos, plans, and images. It also includes a 3D narrated tour of the tomb of Tausert and Setnakht (19th and 20th Dynasties). As well as the maps, the site hosts a number of well-illustrated essays and articles on tomb development, the history of the Valley of the Kings, mortuary beliefs and practices, and the ongoing excavations of KV 5 (the tomb of the sons of Rameses II). A resources section contains a bibliography, glossary, links to other relevant Internet sites, and advice on becoming an Egyptologist. A timeline provides a useful overview of Egyptian history from pre-history to the end of the Byzantine period. This is a first-class website that should be useful for students and scholars at all levels.
The Theban Necropolis Database website is a web interface to a database of private tombs on the west bank of the Nile at Luxor, Egypt. There are over 400 rock cut tombs in this area and many of them have been excavated during the 19th century and some of them are now in a poor state of preservation. The idea behind this project is to collect data about the tombs in a database and to make this database available to the public. Luxor is the site of the ancient Thebes, the capital of Egypt during the 18th dynasty and besides the temples and the royal tombs, in the Valley of the Kings, there are many private tombs that often contain vivid descriptions of life in ancient times. The website is very sparse but contains a search page with a search interface and a map to facilitate searching the database. The resulting pages contain, names of the tomb owner, maps and images, titles held by the owner and references to where the tombs are described in detail. This is a very specialised site but is a valuable resource for students or researchers interested in New Kingdom private tombs of Thebes.
The Tomb of Harwa website describes the excavation of the tomb of Harwa at Luxor. Harwa seems to have been a very influential man during the era of the Nubian kings of the 25th dynasty of ancient Egyptian history. There are a number of statues of this man in museums all over the world and it is quite possible that he was the real ruler of southern Egypt during some time. There is a shabti, a funerary statuette, of Harwa wielding the crook and the flail which are considered to be symbols of royalty. The website contains on-line reports of the excavations that began in 1995 and a virtual tour of the tomb itself. This site concerns only one tomb but may be of interest to students and researchers of Egyptology.
This website publishes the preliminary results of the archaeological research at the tomb of Menna (ancient Thebes, Egypt) carried out during 2007 and 2008. In addition to a short description of the project, the website outlines the key phases of the project (surveying; digital epigraphy; conservation; archaeometry; and archaeology). Some of these phases are then described in more detail in the "diary" section. The website is lavishly illustrated with colour pictures, but only contains short texts or preliminary findings. Surprisingly some pages do not display correctly with either Firefox or Internet Explorer, causing some text to be overlapped by pictures: it may be necessary to save some pages on a local disk and open them with a Word or HTML editor. Smaller images can be enlarged by clicking on them. Researchers in particular may find this website useful, since it includes updates on recent research without a general overview of the monument.
The tomb of Senneferi is one of the 'Tombs of the Nobles' on the West Bank at Luxor in Egypt. This website aims to provide up-to-date information on a University of Cambridge archaeological fieldwork project in progress. It professes to be an experiment in the online presentation of information and is wide ranging in its coverage. The site is made up of a large collection of well illustrated pages, some aimed at specialists, some not. Topics covered include Senneferi and his family; a brief history of Tomb TT99; later re-use of the tomb; the architecture, wall paintings, conservation, excavation, and finds. There are dig diaries for 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001, a list of related publications, and reports on each season's excavations from 1992 onwards. Quick time videos illustrate the area and archaeological activities, while a slide show presents many examples of finds and wall paintings. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The website presents a topographical bibliography of Ancient Egyptian statues of unknown provenance. The online materials consist of Parts 1&2 of Volume VIII of a series of volumes on Ancient Eyptian objects including: hieroglyphic texts; statues; reliefs; and paintings. The website publishes the full version of Parts 1&2, Volume VIII, as well as short samples of Parts 3&4. The topographical bibliography is regularly updated and the authors invite Egyptologists to contribute to the project by contributing corrections and additions. All files are made available in PDF format. This is a great reference work for all Egyptologists.
Created by the University of Michigan Library, Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity offers a good visual and descriptive introduction to magical practices, devices and ornamentation from the pre-Christian period. Developed around the University's own extensive collection of papyri texts, each section begins with the description of a specific type of magical object, ranging from a early magic recipe books to a protective amulet. This description is followed by a series of related images that detail the features, significance and functionality of these apparatuses. The objects described come predominantly from the Mesopotamian and Egyptian regions, between the first and fifth centuries C.E. The site will be of appeal to anyone who has an interest in early magical rituals and practices during the height and decline of the Roman Empire. Those new to the subject may also wish to explore the brief, but helpful, bibliography at the end of the exhibit.
The Travellers in Egypt website is dedicated to the stories of people who have travelled Egypt through history. It is an on-line journal with contribution of many scholars and writers. Egypt has for a long time been considered a land of mysteries where the remains of ancient times seem to function as a beacon for adventurers and curious travellers. There are a plethora of descriptions and reports from the multitude of journeys to Egypt and this site is dedicated to publishing some of those writings along with articles about those people that were drawn to Egypt and their journeys. The site has the appearance of a blog with links to archives and different themes. It is easy to navigate and contains a mass of information. This is a site about the travels to Egypt where the Egyptologically interesting material is secondary to the descriptions of the journeys themselves. It is still a valuable site for anyone interested in Egyptology or the history of Egyptology as well as those interested in travel writing or the culture of Egypt.
Trismegistos is an online 'platform' or service which enables the cross-searching of a variety of projects dealing with metadata of published documents relating to the study of late period Egypt (roughly 800 BCE - 800 CE). The aim of this developing service is to overcome any barriers of language and discipline in the study of documents written not only in Greek, Latin, and Egyptian in its various scripts, but also in Aramaic, Carian, and other languages. In total it contains nearly 100,000 records. The basis of the online resource is a searchable database, of collections of papyrological and epigraphic texts by the Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections and the project Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in Graeco-Roman Egypt. The 'Leuven home page of papyrus collections' is a comprehensive and invaluable database of information on collections of papyrus and ostraca from the ancient Mediterranean world (circa 2000 B.C.- circa 500 A.D.) scattered in almost 30 countries and 350 institutions. It includes contact details and URLs of many of the scholars and institutions active in papyrological research. The database appears to be an on-going project and the level of detail and number of links listed for individual collections vary considerably. There is a straightforward keyword search but the collection can also be browsed by country of origin, by institution and, where known, by archive provenance. References to literary papyri are cross-linked with the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), though this is not immediately apparent. Several useful sections describe and contextualise public and private archives in antiquity and describe how they have survived and come down to us in the modern world. Many of the entries on individual institutions also provide brief accounts of their collection history in addition to summaries of past and present research projects. This is a valuable resource, particularly as a gateway site, for researchers in archaeology and Egyptology, ancient history, classics and biblical studies who are interested in papyri and related materials.
"Tutankhamun: anatomy of an excavation" is an attempt to bring together the vast amount of material that was generated by Howard Carter's excavations in the Valley of the Kings, between 1915 and 1922. It is hoped that the finds documentation, both photographs and records, can be presented in its original form via a searchable, online database. Currently available within the database is a considerable proportion of the 600 individual finds recovered from the excavations, the majority of which have accompanying photographs of the find itself and its associated record card (with digital transcript). A good idea of the richness and variety of the finds can be gained from the photographic corpus. In addition to the finds database, a separate image search facility allows the retrieval of photographic information only. Further information about the excavation is provided in the form of diaries from the various participants, including A.C. Mace, A.H. Gardiner and Howard Carter himself. Amongst the entries are accounts of the actual opening of the tomb. A full inventory of the material regarding the excavations is available in list form, and more material is likely to be added to the online archive as it becomes digitally available.
This website publishes the lavishly illustrated preliminary results of the fieldwork being carried out by the Ägyptologisches Seminar der Universität Basel in the Valley of the Kings. Siptah (mer-en-ptah), who's name means "Son of Ptah, Beloved of Ptah, was the son of Seti II". After an introduction with a short video, the website presents pages on the single tombs, starting from tomb KV 47, the tomb of Siptah (mer-en-ptah or "Son of Ptah", "Beloved of Ptah"), who was the son of pharaoh Seti II. There are maps, drawings and photos illustrating the research. There are a few pictures of fieldwork in progress, including a short video. Worth mentioning are the exploration of the corridors (often a source of surprises) and the research on frescoes; an updated bibliography is also available. The page on Queen Tiaa's KV 32 tomb is short because less new research has been carried out there. As a result, the page summarises past work, includes a few notes on the last fieldwork and has a poignant picture of her mummy. The page on Ramses X instead starts presenting some technical difficulties in excavating the Valley, namely how to procure electricity in that remote and delicate region, and then continues presenting some "minor" discoveries (a depicted "ostrakon" is presented in more detail). And more depicted or inscribed ostraka have been found in the houses of the workers, suggesting this was a form of art practised by the workers, perhaps by the painters as training exercise. Further discoveries and shorter reports are published in the news page (Aktuell). Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
The University of Melbourne's Classics and Archaeology Virtual Museum Project puts online the majority of the contents of the Classics and Archaeology wing of the University's Ian Potter Museum, together with a number of collections not owned by the University. This vast online resource offers access to Greek, Roman, Egyptian and Middle Eastern manuscripts, pottery, coinage, bronzes, vases and sculpture.The centrepiece of the site is the database that allows the user to search the collection. Over 7000 images are available, and there are a number of photos for each object, taken from differing angles and with varying degrees of detail. This makes the site particularly useful for research, as do the full descriptions, bibliographies and comparisons for individual pieces. This information, with all other relevant data such as date, provenance and material, is attractively presented and easily accessible. The self-directed tour allows the user easy access to full lists of the artefacts and the history of the individual collections. There is extensive documentation about the development of the museum and the virtual museum project.
This is the home page for the Institute of Egyptian Art and Archaeology at the University of Memphis (Memphis Tennessee, rather than Memphis, Ancient Egypt). The site consists of an introduction to the Institute, an online exhibition of a few of the artefacts held at the Institute, a photographic 'tour' of major architectural and archaeological or historic sites in Egypt including Aswan, Giza and Luxor. The exhibition area is small but of good quality, with fairly detailed images of artefacts taken at different angles, and accompanying descriptions. The photographic tour of Egypt does not go greatly beyond the realm of holiday snaps, but short explanations of the subjects photographed may provide a basic introduction to Egyptology for the general public. The site also gives news of any upcoming special exhibitions at the institute. This website is nicely presented, but slight in content, and is aimed more at the public than the academic market. Architects or Egyptologists may however find some use for the images at the site (copyright permitting).
The Valley of the Kings Foundation website concentrates on some of the recent archaeological fieldwork at the world-famous Valley of the Kings, Egypt, where the tomb of Tutankhamun is located. The archaeological project presented here with field reports and diaries has explored the 'Gold Tomb' (KV 56) and the surrounding area. Tomb KV 56 had already been excavated long ago, but now the rigour of modern archaeology has been applied. Most of the findings from the area date to the Amarna period. The website has not been finished, but all reports are available. Considering the importance of the Valley of the Kings and the rarity of modern excavations, this project appears very commendable. The results published in the website are of certain interest to researchers, as the importance of findings such as the missing fragment of Horemheb's sarcophagus (KV 57), can only be understood by specialists.
The Victoria Museum of Egyptian Antiquities website contains information about the museum at Uppsala University. The museum is named after the crown princess Victoria, the wife of king Gustav V of Sweden who travelled Egypt and collected artefacts. Her collection was later to become a part of the university's collection of ancient Egyptian artefacts. The website contains an overview of the museum and a catalogue with descriptions and images of the objects. There are also some publications that are accessible on-line. Although, the information is sparse it gives the researcher in Egyptology an overview what kinds of objects are in the museum with some basic information about them.
This virtual museum concentrates on Egyptology and is hosted by the nonprofit California Institute of World Archaeology. The pleasant interface uses a changing upper menu and integrates pictures, short texts and some reference tools such as a glossary, a chronology, and maps. The antiquities pictured in the museum are currently not accessible due to continuing efforts in preserving and restoring them. For this reason, readers should be wary that interpretation and authenticity of the artefacts has not been verified. However, the collection is impressive and represents many typical Egyptian artefacts. It is possible to access the full collection or a reduced 'highlights' section containing selected pieces. A separate glass section focuses on Egyptian glassware and faience (a type of glazed ceramic) and is also accessible in full or through a highlights selection. The collection can be browsed in a straightforward and effective manner, and an individual bibliography is provided for each artefact. The colour pictures are suitable for use with a computer monitor, but cannot be zoomed, although a larger version can generally be seen by clicking on the image. Multiple views of some objects are available, but the majority are limited to a single picture. Thus, the virtual museum is no substitute of a visit to a real museum, but it does allow some access to these objects which would not otherwise be on display. Students in particular may find this website informative.
This is the website of the Virtual Kahun project, a collaborative venture between the Manchester Museum and the Petrie Museum, London. This project brings together the excavated material, separated in various museums since its excavation by Flinders Petrie in the early part of the 20th century, in the form of a digital archive and 3D interactive reconstruction of the original excavation report. The town of Kahun in the Fayoum of lower Egypt was home to the pyramid builders of the 12th Dynasty King Senwroset (1897-1978 B.C.) and was abandoned after less than a century of occupation. The excellent preservation of many items belonging to the inhabitants, many apparently in situ, provides a unique opportunity to study everyday life in ancient Egypt. The resource consists of an illustrated introduction to the archaeology of the town and to Petrie's excavations there between from 1890s-1920s, including links to complete online texts of some of the original publications. A searchable database allows the reader to browse the artefact collection record by object type, provenance, material and period. The 3D reconstructions allow a virtual visit to every building which was excavated by Petrie (unavailable at the time of last review). Also provided are teaching notes to accompany the National Curriculum Key Stage 2 which, when combined with the images and maps and the Virtual Egypt link, make it an ideal resource for schools. This website will appeal to a wide audience: school children and their teachers, the interested amateur, undergraduates and researchers in archaeology and museologists.
The Women and Gender in Ancient Egypt website is an online version of an exhibition at the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University of Michigan, between March 14 and June 15, 1997. The exhibition was curated by Terry G. Wilfong, associate professor of Egyptology at the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Michigan and consists of artefacts from the collections of the Kelsey Museum and the University of Michigan Library. It examines the lives and roles of women in ancient Egyptian society. It appears that women had higher status and were able to hold higher offices in ancient Egypt than what was possible in later Greek and Roman times. Although there are examples of women ruling as kings, the society was still a male dominated society. The site consists of a number of pages or chapters that covers certain areas such as; gender and religion; gender and power; other genders; and gender, fertility and sexuality. Each page consists of a short text and links to images of a number of artefacts relevant for the topic. This resource is easy to navigate and is useful for any student of Egyptology and especially those interested in gender studies.
The World of the Pyramids website provides access to online seminars and papers on ancient Egypt. The seminars are learning texts adapted from published books and are entitled 'Ancient Egyptian society and family life' (with sub-sections on marriage, child-bearing, dress and entertainment) and 'Agatha Christie and archaeology' (focusing on the excavations which the crime novelist visited in the 1930s). The latter seminar merges English literature, history of archaeology, the social role of train travel and Egyptology into a singular collection of stories, anecdotes and research. The papers focus on various arguments from different perspectives as varied as history, religion, gender studies, literature, historical photographs, literature and myth; each is illustrated throughout. A short illustrated paper also presents the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamen.
The Yare Egyptology website is a commercial site selling digital versions, on CD-Roms, of old and out-of-copyright books in Egyptology. The site allows the visitor to browse the archive or search for specific books. The database contains bibliographic information about the books and in some cases reviews. The site allows the visitor to purchase digitised version of those books. Getting copies of old or rare books is a problem for researchers and students in Egyptology and despite this being a commercial site it is a valuable resource for the reason alone that it gives access to material not easily found otherwise.
Dr Zahi Hawass is Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities and director of the excavations at Giza. His personal website gives information on Egyptian antiquities and particularly the work by this scholar. There are articles covering a range of subjects relating to ancient Egypt, as well as a biography. Many of the pages are richly illustrated with photographs and diagrams illustrating ancient Egyptian monuments, reconstructions and artefacts; there are interactive videos and maps. Students are reminded that this is a personal website and not a general resource on Egyptology. Researchers interested in working in Egypt may want to know what is going on in Egypt in relation to antiquities; they are also likely to have to ask a permission to Dr Zahi Hawass, probably sooner than later.
The website also invites readers to become fans and subscribe to a newsletter: Dr Zahi Hawass has become a world celebrity and frequently appears in the media in relation to Egyptian antiquities and new discoveries. Here students in particular are encouraged to assess the public profile of a modern and successful archaeologists. Amateur and very young archaeologists may become fans, but anyone seriously involved in archaeology should not give in to Dr Hawass' (or any other archaeologist) celebrity status.
The website of the research institute "Ägyptologisches Seminar der Universität Basel" publishes some information on the institute as well as institute- and research-related news. Section "Forschung" (research) is particularly interesting as it contains pages describing some of the current projects run by members of the staff. Among the projects are "Diachronic Grammar of Egyptian and Coptic" and Mission Siptah - Rames X. As part of the latter project the institute is carrying out fieldwork in some tombs of the Valley of the Kings, namely KV 47 (Siptah); KV 32 (Tiaa); KV 18 (Ramses X); KV 54 (Tutankhamun's cache, not the tomb); and some ancient houses of workers. A series of linked websites have been produced by the research centre, including one for a bibliography; one for VisualGlyph, a hieroglyphic text-processing program (further information may be requested); and a list of Egyptian hieroglyphic words discussed and translated in German. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.