Abila is located about 15 miles east of the southern end of the Sea of Galilee. Its archaeological history stretches from the Copper Age (3500 BC) to about 1500 AD. This website provides information on the excavations and at Abila and historical information on the site and nearby ancient sites. Pages describe the archaeological findings for each part of the site. There are pages devoted to tombs and basilicas found on the site. There are also glossaries of archaeological terminology and of archaeological periods for Syria-Palestine. The website also advertises fieldwork opportunities for students (only for forthcoming excavations at Abila).
The website of the "AHRB Centre for Byzantine Cultural History" is intended primarily as a platform to disseminate information about the Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies' (SPBS), events, research grants and publications. SPBS was established in 1983, with the object of furthering study and knowledge of the history and culture, language and literature of the Byzantine Empire and its neighbours. The website is a great resource for students, postgraduates and those engaged in higher levels of research. The site features abstracts and longer reports on current projects. A page of links directs the user to a variety of online sources concerning the Byzantine Empire. This centre is the result of a collaboration between the universities of Newcastle and Sussex, and The Queen's University, Belfast. The aim of the centre is to bring together art historians, textual scholars and archaeologists, and the resources to enhance the following projects: Evergetis; Networks; Constantinople; Colour; and Skylitzes. The Centre receives funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) (now the Arts and Humanities Research Council - AHRC) within the Research Centre Awards scheme.
The monument known as the Long Walls of Thrace or the Anastasian Wall lies 65 km west of Istanbul and stretched from the Black Sea coast across the peninsula to the coast of the sea of Marmara to the west of Silivri. The Wall is part of the additional defences for Constantinople constructed during the fifth century AD, which continued in use until the seventh century. The aims of the project are to study and record the surviving structure of the Wall; investigate the remains of aqueducts and water channels, examine associated remains of forts and other structures, study the settlement archaeology of the Wall and its environs. The website presents an interim report of the 1998 investigations. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The official website of the International Association for Classical Archaeology (AIAC) publishes a short history of the association and news about events, publications and other activities related to the association and its members, including recent annual reports as PDF files. There is information on how to register (for a fee) and the benefits (e.g. discounts on books and free access to some museums) offered to members. The AIACNews newsletter can also be downloaded in PDF files. One useful service is a series of calendars of events, mostly focusing on Greek and Roman cultures and antiquities in both Athens and Rome, as well as a list of meetings and conferences at international level. These are the "Roman archaeological agenda"; "Roman cultural agenda"; "Athens archaeological agenda"; "Conferences" and "Lectures in the world" sections. The lists of events are comprehensive and worth checking. The association itself often organises meetings and conferences; details of forthcoming meetings and conferences are available on the website. This website may be helpful to researchers in Classical archaeology, especially those planning to visit Italy or Greece. Postgraduate students and researchers may also be interested in becoming members of the association.
One of the finest and most diverse collections in Athens, and also the oldest in Greece, it is no surprise to find that the Benaki Museum's website is exemplary in form and content. It offers all the necessary information for the prospective visitor, including QuickTime movies of many of the galleries, details of past, present and future collections, and overviews of the collections. A journey through the museum passes through Ancient Greece and the Roman period, the Byzantine period, the Frankish and Ottoman occupations, to the struggle for independence in the nineteenth century and the establishment of the Greek state thereafter. Each section is represented by a selection of choice artefacts, the illustrations of which can be enlarged. The Museum also holds important collections of historic heirlooms, over 6000 paintings and drawings by Greek artists and those who visited or were inspired by the country, as well as Coptic, Chinese (largely the gifts of George Eumorphopoulos) and Islamic art and a collection of Toys and Games from Greece and the wider world. There is admirable attention to the history of the museum, with special features on the founder, Antonis Benakis, and other significant donors, as well as the building itself (the Benakis' residence in Athens) and plans for the division of the collection (the Islamic collection, the Department of Historical Archives, and the collection of Toys and Games) and their prospective homes. The Museum's Archive collection is particularly important, and there are separate pages for the Historical (much relating to the Greek War of Independence and the later rise of Eleftherios Venizelos), Neo-Hellenic Architecture and Photography archives. The last has further links to pages devoted to James Robertson, Nelly's, Voula Papaioannou and Dimitris Harissiadis, all of which are well illustrated. All three archives are responsible for publications, details of which are listed.
The British School at Athens' website provides information about the School; its activities and organised events; its museum and archive; its library; and the archaeological site of Knossos. A list of present and past members is available and there is information on how to become a member. The website provides access to the library of the School; lists the publications by the School including the Annual; and publishes events organised by the School; field and bursary opportunities in Greece; it details how to become a friend or member; and how to apply for permits or the facilities available to the School's members, including the Fitch Research Laboratory and the hostels. The School organises courses for both undergraduates and postgraduates. This websites is an essential resource for researchers wishing to carry out research in Greece.
The Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (BCH) is a major academic journal publishing papers and excavation reports related to the research activities carried out by members of the French School of Athens; all contents are in French. The Bulletin is well known by both scholars and students interested in the archaeology of Greece and it is an essential publication on Aegean, Minoan, Mycenaean, Greek and Byzantine archaeology. The journal publishes two issues every year, the first issue contains academic papers and the second one contains further papers and the excavation reports of excavations run by the French School or in which the School participates; news and summaries about all excavations carried out that year in Greece are also included. It is possible to perform searches of the journal, but full-text search of the contents is not available. At the time of review all issues from 1877 to 2000 were included; newer issues are also planned to be digitised, but will probably appear online a few years later after the printed version. However, the available issues remain of paramount importance for any scholar or student. This website should be an essential tool of work to study the archaeology of ancient Greece.
In separate sections can be found also the volumes of the tables of contents, which could prove very handy, and the "Suppléments au Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique", which publishes a series of monographs. Among the available volumes in the series are: "Iconographie classique et identités régionales" (Classical iconography and regional identity); "Les villes de Macédoine à l’époque romaine" (The Macedonian villas of Roman period); "Recherches sur la céramique byzantine" (researches on Byzantine ceramics, proceedings); "L’habitat égéen préhistorique" (the prehistoric Aegean environment, proceedings); "La Vallée de l’Énipeus en Thessalie" (the Enipeus Valley in Thessaly); "Polydipsion Argos. Argos de la fin des palais mycéniens à la constitution de l’État classique" (Argos from the end of Mycenaean palaces to the constitution of the Classical state, proceedings); "Les ateliers de potiers dans le monde grec aux époques géométrique, archaïque et classique" (the workshops of ceramists in the Greek world during the Geometric, Archaic and Classical periods, proceedings); "Dikili Tash. Village préhistorique de Macédoine orientale" (Dikili Tash, prehistoric village in eastern Macedonia); Mykénaïka (proceedings of the 9th international conference on Mycenaean and Aegean texts, 1992); "La Crète mycénienne" (Mycenaean Crete, proceedings, 1997); and "Delphes cent ans après la Grande fouille. Essai de bilan" (Delphi a century after the great excavation, proceedings, 2000).
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and focuses on the site of Amathonte, southern Cyprus. Amathonte is a Classical site that was inhabited between the 8th century BC and 7th century AD. Among the monuments unearthed are: the necropoleis; the agora: several houses and two palaeo-Christian basilicas; the wall; the harbour; a temple dedicated to Aphrodite. This website contains several illustrated articles on individual buildings, and on aspects of research. The article focusing on the harbour contains a drawn reconstruction of a machine that was probably stationed there. The website also includes an extensive bibliography, organised by categories of research. Several plans of individual buildings and the whole town are available in the 'diaporama' (gallery) section, where higher resolution copies of all pictures in the articles are accessible. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
The Corinth Excavations website gives brief details of the excavations at Corinth which serve as a field laboratory and training ground for the American School of Classical Studies. The web pages concentrate on the facilities available at the excavation site and the staff involved in the research. There are also brief reports on the results of the excavations carried out between 1998 to 2002 together with links to other web sites about excavation in and around Corinth.
The 'Dumbarton Oaks' website is the home page of the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, a respected institution based in Washington, which possesses significant research collections in Byzantine Studies, Pre-Columbian art and the history of landscape architecture. Containing guidance to the building, collections, research, and publications of the institution, this useful website also aims to improve access to the publications of the Dumbarton Oaks institution by providing free online versions of many works in its specialist fields. Not only a useful guide to the institution itself, this website is also an extremely useful source of many full-text articles previously published concerning the history of Byzantium and the history and archaeology of pre-hispanic, particularly Maya, Central America. Information about fellowships, grants and stipends is offered on the site.
The French School of Athens is publishing the final reports of its excavations in the Greek island of Thásos in a series of volumes that is available free and full-text in this website. At the time of review, most volumes since 1944 were available, and further volumes should be published some time after their printed version. Thasos was an important settlement with two harbours; it is famous for the cult of Herakles (Hercules for the Romans) that predates the formation of the Greek culture in the island. The first volume of the series indeed focuses on the sanctuary of Herakles.
Thásos was settled by the Parians and successively held by Persia, Athens, Sparta, Macedonia, Rome (after 197 BC); it became part of the Byzantine Empire in the 4th century AD. This long and rich history is mirrored in the volumes, which focus on several topics including the agora; Greek and Byzantine ceramics; the history of administration and cults; the terracotta from the Thesmophorion; and the seals on amphorae useful to determine the exchange network in which Thásos was inserted. This is a reference series in French and may be useful to many researchers and students specialising in the archaeology of Greece.
This website is a draft publication of the Project Troia (current excavations at Troy) and it publishes a catalogue of Greek, Roman and Byzantine pottery. For each class of materials there is a short description of the vessels found with drawings or colour pictures. Among the classes of pottery included are the Attic Red-Figure and Attic Black-Glaze wares; lamps; “Pale Porous” ware; Terra Sigillata wares; Knidian Relief Ware; Roman Lead Glaze and Red Slip wares; Pompeian-Red Ware; Byzantine Glazed wares; cooking and coarse vessels. It is possible to download the entire catalogue as a single PDF file or a TAR archive. An extensive bibliography is available. This website is a pre-print version; a special draft edition can be downloaded for free or a printed copy of the edition may be purchased by clicking on "purchase printed version". This website may be useful to researchers interested in Greek, Roman and Byzantine ceramics or Troy.
This site provides an attractively illustrated introduction to the coins and measures of Judaea from early times until the crusader period with historical background and a useful basic bibliography. Before the adoption of Greek and, later, Persian coins (or 'darics') in the 7th-4th centuries BC, a sophisticated system of inscribed weights, based on the unit of the Shekel, was used in Jewish areas. The first Judaean issues proper were not struck until the 4th century BC under Persian and Seleucid licence and were based on the widely used Athenian owls or Persian modes. The Seleucid Antiochus VII also struck hybrid Syrian-Jewish issues in the later 2nd century. The first properly 'Jewish' coins, with Hebrew inscriptions and lacking the portrait heads of earlier issues for religious reasons, did not appear until the time of John Hyrcanus (135-104 BC) and his successors when Judaea became fully independent. The series of coins from the reign of the Herodian dynasty and the Roman conquest down to the Late Empire and Byzantine period provide a fascinating potted history of Judaea as well as important insights on economic and iconographic matters. There is also a short section on the revival of coins of Israel in the 20th century, both in the Mandate period and after independence in 1948. The resource is part of the Jewish History Ring published by Amuseum.org (The Jewish Museum in Cyberspace) and associated with the American Jewish Historical Society. It is a useful complementary source for students of ancient history and archaeology working in the East Mediterranean or those studying general numismatics as well as an attractive introduction for the interested amateur.
This website describes the "Laconia Rural Sites Project", a series of archaeological projects in Laconia, Greece. The focus of the investigations was to ascertain whether the sites were continuously inhabited or used merely as storage or semi-permanent residences during local agricultural cycles. Surface characteristics and soil were analysed to discover the nature of human activity on the sites from the early Helladic to the Byzantine period. The project organisers have employed an interdisciplinary approach to the project to learn how the rural sites functioned. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Leave scheme.
This is the official website of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, available in Turkish only. The website includes articles and photographs of the museum collections, including information on several archaeological sites. Several sections of this website are incomplete. At the time of the review the greatest value of the website was in the series of pictures available.
This is the website of the National History Museum of Romania, a complex page which reflects the holdings and the activities of this institution based in Bucharest. The section dedicated to the collections of the museum comprises subsection devoted to the historical period according to which they are organised: prehistory; lapidarium; a copy of Trajan's column; ancient history; the Middle Ages; modern and contemporary history; the treasure, where objects made of precious metals are kept in a specially protected vault; and numismatics. Images with he most interesting and valuable items in these collections are posted on the site and can be viewed in large JPEG files. Museum staff is involved in research as well, and the site introduces the various archaeological sites and research projects conducted by the museum. The section on the publications holds online versions of books and doctoral theses, as well as the journals: "Cercetări numismatice", "Cercetări arheologice" and "Muzeul Naţional". The temporary exhibitions and events are introduced on the site. This is a web page rich in information and a useful tool for anyone interested in prehistoric archaeology, medieval archaeology and Romanian history.
The Northeast Church Project, part of the Sussita/Hippos Excavations, aims to further explore a sixth century Byzantine structure (the Northeast church) located in the city of Sussita (Hippos), Israel. During the Roman period, the Decapolis city of Hippos was a centre for Greek culture and later became a significant Christian centre in the Byzantine period. It is located 2km east of the Sea of Galilee at the top of a flat diamond-shaped mountain, 350m above sea level. This resource details the work carried out as part of both previous and current excavation seasons together with brief details on the project's background as well as information on joining the project. The website contains the full-text reports of previous seasons fieldwork including figures, plates, loci sheets, excavation blog, slideshows and photos. There is a linked website (excavations main website) published by the University of Haifa with full reports of recent excavations; opportunities for volunteers to dig; additional photo galleries; and more updated information on the state of the project.
Perperikon is an important archaeological site in Bulgaria, in the eastern Rhodope range (Rodopi Planina); it was used as religious centre since the end of the 5th millennium BC (Chalcolithic figurines). This website written by Nikolay Ovcharov, the archaeologist who discovered and excavated it, summarises the research carried out so far. The website is available in Bulgarian or English and there is a Flash multimedia version and an HTML version; the HTML is the most complete version. The website contains several sections: "news"; "general Info and road map" where archaeological drawings of the architectural structures are available; "legend and history", which focuses on the main subjects of cult at Perperikon (Orpheus, Dionysus, and the Christian Holy Cross); the archaeological excavations ("Perperikon unearthed"); the surrounding monuments ("Perperikon and the eastern Rhodope"); a gallery of pictures ("virtual tour"); and others.
The long history of Perperikon is summarised in a chronological table in section "legend and history"; it spans from the 6th millennium BC (first traces of human occupation of the area) to its destruction in the 14th century AD. The Thracians worshipped the sun and extracted gold and silver from mines in the area. The cult of Dionysus became particularly important and an impressive temple dedicated to this divinity was built on the acropolis; historical sources report of an oracle. The Byzantines established an important ecclesiastical centre at Perperikon and a 9th or 10th century reliquary in the shape of a cross containing wood (one of three found in Bulgaria) may contain parts of the cross carried by Jesus. Among the monuments outside the settlement are a cave shaped as a womb (Rock Womb at Nenkovo); Thracian megaliths; the tomb of a 13th or 14th century bishop; and others.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Byzantine site of Caricin Grad, Serbia, which has been identified with Justiniana Prima. If the identification is correct, then the town was founded by emperor Justinian (527-565). A series of articles present an overview of the discoveries, with particular focus on Christian and military buildings, the urban plan, and material culture. The site is located in the ancient province of Dacia Mediterranea. There is a bibliography and a 'diaporama' - a gallery of pictures.
This is the website of the Hellenic Society, one of the foremost organisations in the British Isles promoting the study of ancient Greek and Byzantine culture. Included here are: information on membership; details of publications (including the Journal of Hellenic Studies, Archaeological Reports and numerous supplementary volumes); details of available grants, prizes and support for schools; listings of events such as lectures and meetings; a list of the Society's current officers. Via the publications section users may also view contents lists for the Journal of Hellenic Studies from 1999-2008, along wiith abstracts for the volumes from 2001 onwards.
This is the website of the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, the main organisation in the United Kingdom encouraging the study of Roman history, archaeology and culture down to the early Byzantine period circa 700 AD. The website provides useful information on the structure and activities of the society, such as: forthcoming conferences and meetings; information on grants and bursaries; details of the library; and recent society news. Also included are details of Roman Society publications such as the journals Britannia and the Journal of Roman Studies, and their associated monographs. The contents page and abstracts of volumes of these journals published from 2002 onwards is available online, in addition to the content pages of volumes dating back to 1996. There is also a useful series of weblinks to similar associations and societies involved in classical studies. This website will benefit students and researchers in the field of Roman and ancient Mediterranean studies.
This is the highly detailed and well thought-out website of the Sphakia Survey, an interdisciplinary archaeological project whose main objective is to reconstruct the sequence of human activity in a remote and rugged part of Crete (Greece), from the time that people arrived in the area, by c. 3000 BCE, until the end of Ottoman rule in AD 1900. The project's research covers three major epochs, Prehistoric, Graeco-Roman, and Byzantine-Venetian-Turkish, and has involved the work of many people using environmental, archaeological, documentary, and local information. The website includes: photographs of Cretan landscapes, objects and archaeological finds; illustrated versions of the project's preliminary articles; a searchable database of the site catalogue; a case study based on one period (Graeco-Roman) in one of the eight regions surveyed; and a description of the project's research methodology. This resource is a joint project between the Sphakia Survey project and the Humanities Computing Development Team at the University of Oxford. The website is part of an online course for adult learners; an educational video based on research at Sphakia is available. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Ammaedara, Tunisia. Ammaedara (now known as Haí¯dra) was a Roman and then Byzantine town. This website concentrates on the Byzantine architecture, offering illustrated articles containing several drawings representing reconstructions of ancient buildings. In particular, two Byzantine churches and several mosaics have been unearthed. There is a gallery of pictures ('diaporama') with colour photographs of some of the mosaics, and a bibliography.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on Xanthos, which is a World Heritage site. Xanthos was the largest town of ancient Lycia. The town and the Lycian culture are the subject of a few illustrated articles. The history of the Letoon, a surviving temple of Leto, is remarkable. Built on an area previously sacred to Lycian deity Elyanas, it has yielded the only information of pre-Greek religion in Lycia. The Greeks reused the area and built three sanctuaries: the Letoon for Leto, and two others dedicated to Artemis and Apollo. The area of the two Greek temples that have not survived was reused by Christians, who built a church there. This website only presents an overview of the many subjects and therefore is most suitable for use by undergraduate students. There is also a bibliography; contact details of the French archaeological project; a few maps and plans; and a 'diaporama' - a gallery of pictures.
Umm el-Jimal is a well preserved Byzantine/Early Islamic town in the lava lands east of Mafraq, Jordan. There are over a hundred and fifty standing buildings, one to three stories, and several towers up to five and six stories. A programme of excavations has been carried out at Umm el-Jimal by Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan. The website gives brief descriptions of the results of the excavations plus more detailed field reports and interpretations. At the time of review the website was being expanded with many pictures; larger sections on the history of excavations; and an heritage section focusing on the preservation of the ancient culture in the contemporary population. Several academic papers published by the excavation team are available in PDF format. This is a website to explore and keep an eye on. Some information is already available but much more is promised (too many placeholders for future pages complicate accessing those pages with information).
This Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project aims to apply the Historic Landscape Characterisation technique to the Eastern Mediterranean for the first time. This recently developed process, which makes use of GIS to integrate historical, archaeological and geographical data, will allow the project to compare the post classical landscapes of two locations: Naxos in Greece and Silivri in Turkey. In doing so the project will aid the study of the two areas’ neglected Ottoman and Byzantine past. This website offers a brief description of the project, but promises that results will be made available online in the future.
A Visual Tour through Late Antiquity provides a selection of images of artistic evidence and material remains from the 4th to 7th centuries. The prime focus of the website is late antique Gaul at the time of Gregory of Tours (538-594) but context is provided by a variety of other images. The collection is divided into five sections: Late Roman court and aristocracy; Imperial art of 6th century Ravenna; Gallic art of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries; Frankish art and artefacts; and Royal grave goods. The Visual Tour through Late Antiquity was originally compiled for the use of students at the Nipissing University (Canada) but it also provides a good general introduction to some famous late Roman and early Frankish images and artefacts.
This is the website of the Zippori (Sepphoris) excavation project, an archaeological site in the Lower Galilee between the Mediterranean and the Sea of Galilee. It is run by the Israel National Park Authority. This resource includes information on: Zippori during the Roman Period; the Art and Architecture of Byzantine Zippori; the Mosaic Pavements of Roman and Byzantine Zippori; a Bibliography; and a History of the excavation and the Hebrew University team. A history of the site's excavations is provided, as are recent reports on the park, running from 1998 onward.
Zippori, a former ancient capital of the Galilee, possessed a vibrant religious, commercial, and social community. Today, Zippori covers 16 square km and the excavations were opened to the public in 1992.