This site, part of the larger LacusCurtius resource (q.v.), contains an online version of Platner and Ashby's seminal Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. This large reference work contains valuable information on almost every monument of ancient Rome, and was for many years the standard work of first call for students of the ancient city. Although subsequently eclipsed by the works of Richardson and latterly Steinby, it is still an invaluable work (enjoying the considerable merits of brevity and of being in English) and the version presented here is very useful. The Dictionary is accessible through a hyperlinked page of buildings usefully sorted by type, and one click will take you directly to the required entry. Cross-references to other entries in the Dictionary are also hyperlinked. Furthermore, in cases where Platner and Ashby refer to ancient literary sources mentioning a specific building, Mr Thayer, the website's owner, has included a link to the relevant passages in his own collection of online texts (for Cassius Dio, Suetonius, Pliny, Martial and others). This is an intelligent use of the Internet's advantages over the printed page, and makes this online version even more useful than the original book. Mr Thayer has also appended his own pictures and notes to some of the Dictionary entries. This site is rather more useful for public or large commercial buildings than private dwellings, and much has been discovered since the Dictionary was originally published in 1929. There are more complete versions elsewhere on the Internet, but this one is particularly well presented and a supremely useful resource.
The Ager Tarraconensis archive represents data from a survey conducted between 1985 and 1990 in the territory of Tarragona in Spain. The survey used field-walking techniques to investigate the development of the classical landscape in the hinterland of Tarraco, the Roman provincial capital of Hispania Citerior (Tarraconensis). The survey demonstrated that the analysis of pottery scatters can make a positive contribution to a study of the relationship between Tarragona and its hinterland in antiquity. The evidence showed that the Roman landscape was heavily populated and densely exploited. The project was published in 1995 as a Journal of Roman Archaeology supplement. The archive makes data from the survey available including transect plans, field plans and density plots. Field survey data and pottery data is available to download as either Excel files or comma delimited text files (for use in a spreadsheet or database). All files are under 250kb in size and can therefore be downloaded quickly. The website is easily navigable through the standard ADS interface and users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions prior to accessing the resource.
This website publishes the preliminary report of the excavations at the Neolithic site of Akarçay Tepe, Turkey. At the time of review, the report was awkwardly divided in two pages, one in Catalan and one in Spanish. Obsidian and seashells have been found at the site and prove that a long distance exchange network was operational. The report also notices the architectural structures found so far, including some rectangular buildings. A long section focuses on the economy of the site; there also short notices on pedological and chronological analyses; zooarchaeology; stratigraphy; lithics; and other topics.
This is the official website of the excavations at Akarçay Tepe (nearest modern town is Şanlıurfa, in Turkey), the Anatolian Neolithic mound (350 x 150 m) that has yielded architectural structures and artefacts dated from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) to the Pottery Neolithic (PN) periods (dated ca. 7800 - 6000 BC). There is an introduction to the project; short reports of the yearly excavations since 1999 and short illustrated summaries of the main findings, including architectural structures, ceramics, stone and bone tools, as well as archaeozoological and archaeobotanical analyses. The radiocarbon C14 dates obtained from Akarçay Tepe are freely available from the CANEW project website. A comprehensive bibliography is available and there are some scanned versions of printed reports in PDF format (some in English and some in Turkish language). Readers should note that it is necessary to allow popups to access some resources.
Akarçay Tepe is particularly important because the stratigraphy clearly shows continuity between the PPNB and PN periods in the region. The mud brick buildings have stone foundations, multiple rooms and span both periods. Black Series pottery is associated with the earliest phases of the Pottery Neolithic period and quickly became an important local industry. The stone tools industry was also important and archaeologists could note the introduction of new technologies replacing the PPNB bipolar technique and a reduction of obsidian imports as the archaeological site entered the PN period.
This website focuses on "Albert Porter Pueblo," which is a prehispanic (Anasazi) village site located in the central Mesa Verde region, southwestern Colorado. The settlement served as community centre for the people of Crow Canyon. The excavations have conclusively demonstrated that the pueblo saw discontinuous occupation between A.D. 600 and 1050 (Basketmaker IIIÃ¢â‚¬â€œearly Pueblo II periods) and stable occupation from A.D. 1050 through the late 1200s (late Pueblo II through the Pueblo III periods). Excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo have been conducted from 2001 through 2004 with the declared research objective of examining the development and depopulation of ancestral Pueblo communities in the central Mesa Verde region. Yearly illustrated and referenced reports have been produced and these are freely available on the website. Among the finds are pottery and architectural structures. This website will be most useful to researchers.
This site describes the archaeological activities of the Oriental Institute of Chicago in the Amuq Valley in The Hatay province of south-eastern Turkey (formerly northern Syria). The highly fertile and strategically located Amuq Valley or Plain of Antioch was one of the great crossroads of the ancient Near East and was densely occupied since the 6th Millennium B.C. The area was home to major urban centres such as Tell Atchana, Tell Ta'yinat and Antioch itself and played a major role in the development of bronze metallurgy and urbanization in the 4th-3rd Millennia B.C. The website is based on the series of annual reports published by the Oriental Institute between 1996 and 2001 which describe the multi-disciplinary work undertaken by the project. This includes settlement survey and geomorphology, archaeological excavation at the tell sites of Atchana, Kurdu and Judaidah, and a project of metallurgical analysis and exploration of possible ore-producing sites. The layout of the site allows you to link directly with the relevant sections of each annual report from the home page as well as to other University of Chicago projects in the Near East. The reports are provided with numerous high quality maps, figures and photographs which can be viewed at a number of scales. Among the photographs are useful archive material from the earlier excavations in the area in the 1920s-30s.This is a detailed and attractively presented resource which will benefit undergraduates as well as archaeological researchers who wish to work in an inter-regional and inter-disciplinary context.
The Ancient City of Athens is an excellent website which has an extensive range of photographs of principal archaeological sites in Athens, taken from the slide collections of Prof. Kevin Glowacki and Nancy Klein of Texas A&M University. There are photographs of the following areas: the Acropolis; the agora; the Arch of Hadrian; the city Eleusinion; the Kerameikos; the Library of Hadrian; the Lysicrates monument; the Olympieion and south-east Athens; the Philopappos monument; the pnyx; and the Roman agora. There is also a section on the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron, in Attica. Within the different sections there is a good range of general and detailed views. The photographs from the Acropolis' slopes are particularly useful, not only because they are annotated but since access to these sites is difficult for most visitors to Athens. In addition, the Acropolis section provides far more than the usual snapshots, with detailed photos of architectural sculpture and pre-classical building works. The photos of the Agora and Kerameikos offer an excellent and comprehensive selection. In addition to the photographic archive the site offers a number of other resources, which are: an introductory essay on the topography and monuments of Athens; a very brief outline of Greek history to AD 1453; information about the tribes and eponymous heroes of the ancient Athenians. Bibliographic details are given, as well as links to other relevant websites.
Merv is an ancient town founded ca. 500 BC on a oasis in the desert by the rulers of the Achaemenian Empire to improve trades between India and Europe on the route that would be later known as Silk Road. The town has changed many rulers and names throughout its history and was known as Antiochia Margiana during the Hellenistic period. Since the 7th century AD the town became a major Islamic centre important for the Arab expansion; in the 740s the Abbasid revolution started here with the conquest of the town by Abu Muslim. This website summarises the history of the town and the ongoing archaeological excavations, with particular care in presenting the conservation activities of the town built on mud bricks. An updated list of publications and theses on Merv is available. There are also colour pictures and QuickTime panoramas available in section "Rotating Imagery of Ancient Merv". The AHRC funded ceramic database appears promising, but at the time of review was not working.
This is a commercial website focusing on the ancient Greek town of Olympia, the site of ancient Olympian Games, which have inspired modern Olympic Games. There are useful contents aimed at the general public, school pupils and first year undergraduates. In section "History" brief biographies of mythological characters and real historic people as well as a page on ancient daily life introduce the reader to the world of ancient Greece. Further pages focus on ancient music (with a reconstructed piece of Classical music), athletics, and the Games then and now (short videos accompany the pages). Section "Archaeological site" focuses on the ancient town of Olympia, presenting the principal monuments, including stadium; temple of Hera; and temple of Zeus. More locations are planned, but were not available at the time of review. There is a short video on the lighting of the torch of the Olympic Games at the temple of Hera and a video presenting a virtual reconstruction of the temple of Zeus. Of interest to both archaeologists and classicists may be the galleries of images accessible clicking on "Gallery" in the menu. Most of the other contents will be useful only to tourists or people planning a visit to Olympia. Some of the contents in this website may be useful to students studying ancient Greece and the Olympian Games; the contents focusing on Olympia at the time of review were too incomplete for use even on a student essay.
A description of the Roman city of Vienne. The website is presented in four sections. A virtual tour gives general information, architectural details and anecdotal information on the major Roman remains. There are reconstruction drawings of many of the major buildings. A virtual museum presents slide shows of wall paintings, mosaics, ceramic and metal objects and sculptures. Archaeology in the city explains the history of archaeological interventions that have taken place and the current status of the archaeology and how it is being conserved and preserved. A guide section gives information on the monuments and museums in Vienne, contact information and directions for visitors, and a short bibliography. The website is easy to navigate, and a help page sets out the layout of the site.
This website presents the international archaeological research project at Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Anuradhapura has been the cultural and religious capital of Sri Lanka for over 1,500 years. Despite our understanding of the urban process of Anuradhapura, knowledge of the role played by non-urban communities remains poor. This project represents the first multi-disciplinary (see section "Methodology") attempt to model the development of an Early Historic city in South Asia, and to assess its impact on non-urban communities, and the environment within its hinterland. Although the website publishes aims and objectives as well as some of the ongoing activities, preliminaries reports were notably missing at the time of review. A list of useful publications is available. The project has been funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
This Italian website publishes an extended archaeological report on one of the Emilian terremare. The Terramare were a type of lake-dwellings characteristic of the northeastern Italian peninsula during the Bronze Age. There are pictures and drawings of selected artefacts representing the local material culture. Section "download" allows to download several pictures and drawings in ZIP files. Section "Links e approfondimenti" contains the updated bibliography (on the Bronze Age of that part of the Italian peninsula), with a few full text academic papers in PDF format. Section "Utilities" contains a free Access database to catalogue ceramics in Italian excavations, which may be useful as starting point for anyone planning fieldwork in Italy; the interface can be modified in Microsoft Access. Researchers may find this website useful.
Several pages are also specifically designed for schoolchildren and teachers, especially within section "Scuola e didattica". In addition to freely downloadable educational materials written in Italian, there are also reports of the work carried out with classes of pupils, illustrated by the children. The teachers have succeeded in presenting the archaeological research in great details (including archaeobotanical studies and the forms for cataloguing materials) and by using their imagination and creativity (and some reconstructions of experimental archaeology) the children have reconstructed the past in their minds, and expressed it through their drawings. From the drawings it appears that the children were quite engaged in their archaeological experience and anyone considering the teaching of archaeology to children should look at these experiences.
This well-presented resource is the website for the archaeological excavations at Aphrodisias (in the ancient Roman province of Caria, in modern Turkey) undertaken by the Institute of Fine Arts in cooperation with the Faculty of Arts and Science at New York University. Introductory information is provided on the history of the site and the excavations, and then the user may access more detailed pages on key areas of the archaeological site. The following locations are covered: the temple of Aphrodite; the cult image of Aphrodite; architecture and sculpture of the bouleuterion (council chamber); the sculptor's workshop; the north agora; the Sebasteion; the basilica; and the stadium. Within each section images and plans are accompanied by detailed explanatory text. An overall plan of Aphrodisias is provided and the user can move the mouse over this to be given names of buildings; on clicking on the building a closer view is given. One can then click on this building for a closer view. There is also a map based on the geophysical survey carried out between 1995 and 1998. Finally, there is an extensive bibliography of relevant material (divided into sections for ease of use), with a particular emphasis on excavation reports.
The Institute of Classical Archaeology at the University of Texas has intensively surveyed 36 square kilometres in the chora of Metaponto since 1981. Over 780 sites dating from the Greek and Roman periods have been identified at a density of about 22 sites per square kilometre. Analysis of the results indicates that site density varies throughout the various periods and that particular elevations in the landscape were favoured. The website presents an updated summary of research carried out so far and contains an extensive bibliography.
Shields Pueblo, the subject of this website publishing the excavations reports, was occupied primarily between 1050 and 1300 A.D., but the earliest traces of human settlers date back to at least 775 A.D. The pueblo is located in Colorado (Mesa Verde region). Crow Canyon Center has carried out fieldwork at the pueblo from 1997 to 2000. The website aggregates three excavation reports; the 1997 report is only available on paper. Thirty-five architectural structures and significant amounts of pottery, especially Mancos black-on-white ware, have been unearthed. The 1999 report documents most of the findings. Although the archaeologists at Crow Canyon Center have produced better websites for other settlements, Shields pueblo is a particularly important settlement for the period from 1200 to 1300. Whilst this is normally a declining period in the Mesa Verde region, at Shields pueblo circular masonry features were constructed within the depressions created by the collapse of late-abandoned kivas dating ca 1200 A.D. The lengthy and very detailed reports succeed to engage the reader in the stimulating subject. This website will be most useful to researchers.
The Crow Canyon Archaeological Center's website provides information on the center's research on the archaeology of the Mesa Verde region, and the educational programs in partnership with Native Americans linked to this research. The website provides detailed information on their full program of activities for adults, youths and schools groups and is primarily aimed at an American audience. The Crow Canyon Archaeological Center's mission is to conduct archaeological research and public education programs in partnership with Native Americans and institutions with common interests. The website has links to current research projects and an important multisite database useful also to map most contexts. The centre also offers fellowships and fieldwork opportunities. This website may be useful to both students and researchers.
An attractively illustrated online publication of the excavations at Castle Rock Pueblo in the Mesa Verde region of south-western Colorado between 1990 and 1994 consisting of a rich, multi-layered presentation of the finds from the site within its wider geographic and cultural context including detailed documentation of the oral history of the site from the time the area was first examined archaeologically in the 1870s until recent times and a Native American perspective of the ancient village by Marie Renya. The excavations at the pueblo have revealed that it was occupied from the A.D. 1260s until A.D. 1280s and that it included at least 16 kivas, 40 surface rooms, nine possible towers, a D-shaped enclosure, two possible plazas, numerous retaining and village-enclosing walls, and several middens. The website is designed and structured to interest a wide variety of individuals from specialist researchers to school children. The main report resembles a traditional printed volume with sections on geographic background, architecture and settlement organisation, chronology, artefacts and ecofacts, and a wealth of multi-scale maps and images together with synthetic accounts of population, subsistence, trade, rock art and an extensive glossary and bibliography. This report and the accompanying database of all the finds, contexts and laboratory results from the site are easily navigable and appreciation of the archaeology. The website features, in addition, a virtual fieldtrip of the pueblo at several key periods of its use, namely the mid 13th, late 19th and late 20th centuries AD, aimed at students, teachers and the general public. The website site is a highly successful attempt to develop the traditional archaeological site report in electronic form and present an important period of native North American culture in addition to offering a fascinating insight into the history and practice of North American archaeology. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
This is the official website of the "Archaeology in the Levant" research project at the University of California at San Diego. The website provides information on the activities of the Levantine Archaeology Lab, and particularly of the research on GIS applied to Levantine archaeological sites. The website also publishes preliminary reports of field excavations and studies, among which are "the Edom Lowlands Project: Iron Age State Formation in Southern Jordan, ca. 1200 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 500 BC"; " the Chalcolithic Sanctuary at Gilat, Negev Desert, Israel"; and "Ethnoarchaeology in India: Traditional Bronze Casters in Tamil Nadu".
"Archaeology in the Reconstruction of Beirut" is an online collection of papers, articles and reports regarding the archaeology of Beirut. Throughout its turbulent history, the physical fabric of Beirut has undergone waves of destruction, demolition and decay, followed by periods of extensive reconstruction. Beirut is undergoing a new phase of reconstruction and, consequently, many of the physical remains of the past are being swept away. This website presents a collection of texts, which not only highlight this problem but also demonstrate how archaeology can play a vital role in Beirut's reconstruction. The collection comprises excavation reports, background materials, discussion articles and images.
This simple website produced by John Rick focuses on Wiñay Wayna, an Inca settlement located on an elevated perch overlooking the Urubamba River, near Machu Picchu. There is a short descriptive summary of the research carried out; an interactive map; and a virtual tour (Zoom plug-in required) connected with the map. The virtual tour consists of a series of panoramic images linked one with the other, so that it is possible to explore the archaeological site with the computer. Considering that the archaeological site cannot be easily accessed, this website may be useful to both students and researchers interested on this Inca site.
The required Zoom plug-in appears discontinued and as a result the existing version does not install correctly for use in recent browsers. A solution for Firefox in Windows is to install the plug-in for Internet Explorer and then copy the file "NPRVRT34.dll" (readers may need to search the file in the hard disk) into the "plugin" directory of Firefox.
This is the illustrated report of the excavations by the York Archaeological Trust at Hungate, York. The excavations have unearthed evidence of Anglian, Anglo-Scandinavian, Medieval and post-Medieval periods of occupation. The website is lavishly illustrated with colour and historical photographs; maps and diagrams. Special sections focus on topics such as metalworking (nails and mail for armours); leatherworking; and ceramics. The website makes full use of the hypertextual capabilities of HTML.
This is the illustrated report of the excavations by the York Archaeological Trust at Low Petergate, York. The excavations have unearthed the foundations of some medieval and post-medieval buildings. The material evidence suggests that hornworking; leatherworking; and metalworking were practised at the site. The reports contains details of the finds; maps; photographs and an extensive bibliography.
This is the illustrated report of the excavations by the York Archaeological Trust at Dringhouses, on a Roman road running from York to Tadcaster. The site was in use during the Roman period, especially during 150-200 AD. Building 1 has been interpreted as a mansio, a government residence to accommodate travelling officials. Human (cemetery) and animal (cattle, which was the dominant species, pigs and whale) bones have been recovered and full osteological and archaeozoological reports are available. Among the finds are ceramics, iron slag and coins (interactive database with photographs and details available). Analyses of plant remains suggest that "wood, coal and probably also peat (or perhaps turves)" may have been used for fires; the use of peat at such an early date is especially important because requires to reconsider the environmental impact of Roman settlements. This is a comprehensive report and especially important because it focuses away from major towns such as York and presents valuable information on a suburban Roman settlement.
This website has been designed by the Venetian branch of Archeoclub d'Italia, a non-profit association of volunteers and amateur archaeologists. The site includes issues of the newsletter "ArcheoVenezia", available in full-text as PDF files, information on recent discoveries and a section on the island of Lazzaretto Nuovo, situated in the lagoon of Venice. The newsletter ArcheoVenezia, accessible by clicking on "Pubblicazioni", sets out a series of articles on the archaeology of Venice and its lagoon. Topics covered include: Venetian ships; amphorae; coins; gardens; glass items; fortifications; archaeological fieldwork at islands of the lagoon (Torcello, Sant'Erasmo, Lazzaretto Nuovo, etc.); bells and bell towers; stone sculptures; chimneys; pottery; bricks and wells. Some of the articles are illustrated and provide recent information on the unique environment of the lagoon of Venice throughout its millenary history. The section entitled "Rassegna stampa" contains archaeological news from local newspapers, mostly about the island of Lazzaretto Nuovo, but there are also reports on important discoveries, such as the first Roman architectural structures found in the lagoon of Venice, in the remote island of Lio Piccolo. Due to the particular nature of the environment, the only long-term archaeological excavations in the lagoon are being carried out at the deserted island of Lazzaretto Nuovo, where the association runs a summer fieldwork school. The illustrated pages about the island provide information on its medieval past. Only a limited number of discoveries and studies are reported, but most of them are unpublished. Researchers interested in the archaeology of Veneto, rather than students or the general public, would find this website useful.
This website publishes a collection of illustrated articles, each focusing on individual archaeological sites in Israel. Among the topics are Akko during the Crusader Kingdom; the Canaanite sites of Arad, Gezer, Hatzor and Nahal Refa'im; the Chalcolithic sites of Be'er Sheva , Golan, and Cave of the Treasure (metal hoard); Bethsaida (of Biblical fame); the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Carmel Caves; the Philistine settlements of Ekron and Tel Qasile; the Herodium; Jericho; Jerusalem; Masada; Megiddo; the Islamic Nimrod fortress; Qumran (settlement and Dead Sea Scrolls); a Roman boat from the Sea of Galilee; Shaar HaGolan (Neolithic figurines); Tiberias; Timna (copper mines and Hathor Temple); Zippori (Sepphoris); and several articles on recent discoveries and underwater archaeology. Many articles focus on Biblical archaeology, but there are also some on prehistoric, Roman, Islamic and Medieval archaeology. This website maybe useful especially to students considering the introductory character of the articles.
Archaeological excavations at the ancient Indus city of Harappa in Punjab, Pakistan, have been going on since 1986. The results of these excavations are rewriting our understanding of the ancient Indus Valley civilization. Harappa is the first ancient Indus city where it has been possible to document the transformation from a small village (founded ca. 3500 B.C.) to a great urban centre and to follow that transformation through a continuous sequence of archaeological deposits. This website presents a comprehensive general introduction to the ancient Indus Valley and a collection of 90 slides focussing particularly on the latest discoveries. The slides consist of maps and plans of Harappa, images from reconstruction models and photographs of artefacts.
This website focuses on the ancient site of Arslantepe, which was inhabited from the Chalcolithic period (fifth millennium BC) to the Roman period. The most important monuments date from the fourth millennium BC, when a Hittite palatial complex with painted walls, bronze weapons, seals, and written tablets had been built. A royal tomb and a temple are from the same period, when Arslantepe was capital of a small Hittite kingdom. Also important is the discovery of the third millennium BC fortified citadel. The sections of this website outline the geographic, historical (chronology) and cultural contexts. A few pictures document some findings now preserved at the local museum. Of particular interest is the section about research, which contains short articles on metalworking; formation of administrative systems; ceramics; bone tools; stone tools; and surveys carried out in the region. This website is thoroughly illustrated, but the content is not as extensive as one might wish: most texts are short introductions or overviews. Hence this site is likely to be of most use to students. The English version is updated after the Italian version and therefore readers are advised to check the Italian version first for contents.
These Web pages contain photographs of archaeological remains (architectural features and sculpture) from Athens and the surrounding region of Attica. The following sites are featured: the Akropolis (Acropolis); the agora; the Kerameikos; the Pnyx; the Olympieion; the region of Attica; Sounion; and Thorikos. Each has its own section of the website where the user may access images of buildings (in their present state), sculptures and some inscriptions. Brief descriptions are provided for each photograph, along with relevant bibliography. The photographs are clear, and the site is easy to navigate; this is therefore a useful visual resource for archaeologists and classicists.
This website publishes a single paper by Prof. David Schloen on the discoveries made at Ashkelon from 1985 up to the date of the paper, 1995. Further research is being carried out at Ashkelon by the Leon Levy Expedition (Harvard University); a separate website on the expedition is linked.
The ancient settlement of Ashkelon is situated 40 miles south of Tel Aviv in Israel and was the site of Canaanite kings and later a Philistine settlement. Canaanite Ashkelon has yielded the oldest and largest seaport yet, with Middle Bronze Age ramparts, and an arched gate still standing two stories high.
This is the website of the Assiros Toumba excavations conducted between 1975 an 1987 by Dr K.A. Wardle of Birmingham University. Evidence of continued occupation from the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 2000 BC) through to the Iron Age (ca. 700 BC) was uncovered, with a series of Bronze Age granaries and an Iron Age destruction level being the principle discoveries. The website provides information on chronology and stratigraphy, recovered finds (including pottery analysis) and provides a list of publications on the subject.
A useful illustrated guide to the history and archaeology of the important archaeological site of Assur in northern Iraq providing a brief account of the city's long history and of the various excavations at the site together with short preliminary reports of recent German and Iraqi work there. Most of this resource is in German, but an English translation is provided for the section on recent excavations. Assur, the eponymous capital of the Assyrian empire, was first occupied in the 3rd millennium BC and was subject to the Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian empires until the 19th century BC when it emerged as a major political power in its own right during the Old Assyrian Period. It remained the political and religious focus of the Assyrian kingdom until the foundation first of Calah (Nimrud) and then Nineveh and was finally destroyed by the Medes in 612 B.C. The city was later refounded and functioned as a political centre of the Parthian and Sassanian kings between the 1st century BC and the 3rd century AD and was later occupied in Islamic times. Excavations began in 1821 and have continued to this day, involving many of the eminent figures of Assyriology such as Claudius Rich, Henry Layard, Hormuzd Rassan and Robert Koldewey. This website provides a useful overview of this fascinating archaeological site which has produced extensive remains of temples, palaces, houses and graves, as well as archives of cuneiform documents. In addition there is a page of links to websites of Near Eastern interest and some news reports on Iraqi archaeology. The resource will benefit in particular students and teachers of Assyriology and Near Eastern history and archaeology.
Pella, one of the cities of the ancient Decapolis, is one of the largest archaeological sites in modern Jordan and was occupied continuously for 6000 years from the Neolithic to the Byzantine and early Islamic periods c5000 B.C.- circa 800 A.D. This website provides a guide to the current excavations conducted by the Department of Archaeology, University of Sydney and offers information for potential volunteers on the latest season of fieldwork at the site. There is a select bibliography of research on Pella since major excavation work began there in 1963 as well a detailed and attractively illustrated account of the most recent seasons describing, among other things, the Chalcolithic grain storage and processing complex, the Middle Bronze Age city walls and cult remains, the LBII/ Iron Age 'temple' and the Byzantine Cathedral. Some prior knowledge of the site is required as the website lacks a historical or archaeological overview, site plans or a location map. A useful resource for undergraduates and researchers in Near Eastern archaeology which also provides links to the wider archaeological programme of the University of Sydney.
The Ban Chiang Project website provides some essential information about the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Ban Chiang, Thailand, which has been excavated by a team of the University of Pennsylvania. Archaeologists have found a settlement and cemetery at Ban Chiang as well as evidence of metallurgy dated between 2100 BC to AD 300. Archaeometallurgical analyses have demonstrated that the ancient smiths preferred bronze to pure copper already from the Early period. Short articles are available on metallurgy and crucibles. An article shows some examples of "rollers", a small artefact frequently found with different decorations in tombs; its function is still uncertain. There is a large and updated bibliography as well as several galleries of pictures (slideshows). This website may be useful to both students and researchers. A separate website by the same research group provides further information for researchers.
This website publishes preliminary reports of the excavations at Shiqmim, Israel. At the time of review the website only contains some papers in PDF format. These include "Desert Chiefdom: Dimensions of Subterranean Settlement and Society in Israel's Negev Desert (ca. 4500-3600 BC) Based on New Data from Shiqmim"; "A Method for Skeletal Arsenic Analysis, Applied to the Chalcolithic Copper Smelting Site of Shiqmim, Israel" (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ICP-MS); "Recent Discoveries Concerning Chalcolithic Metallurgy at Shiqmim, Israel" (a smelting installation distinct from crucibles and evidence for copper production at Mezad Aluf are reported); and "Evidence of Interpersonal Violence at the Chalcolithic Village of Shiqmim (Israel)", where three circumscribed depressed fractures found on the skull of an adolescent boy and leading to his death are discussed. Researchers may find this website useful.
This website presents the excavations of Berenike, a Graeco-Roman harbour located in Egypt on the Red Sea. Berenike was founded by Ptolemy II (Philadelphos), king of Egypt, using the name of his mother. Its initial purpose was to establish the provision of elephants from Africa after the Indian route had been blocked by the Seleucids in the Near East. Because of the protected and strategic position of the harbour, the Romans eventually transformed it into an emporium on the route of spices such as myrrh, frankincense, and pearls, as well as textiles. This website offers: an overview of the site in antiquity and in the present day; the illustrated preliminary reports of the excavations; an updated bibliography; some details of the excavations; and a series of illustrated papers read at conferences. The papers include topics such as 'Long distance trade at Berenike'; 'Religions in Berenike'; 'Ring cairn graves of Berenike' and 'The Palmyra connection'. Interested researchers may contact the project directors to obtain a password which provides access to the database of findings.
This website introduces the archaeological excavations currently being undertaken in Bethsaida, Israel, just north of the Sea of Galilee. The town is frequently mentioned in the New Testament and it is purported to be where many of Jesus' miracles were performed. In addition to uncovering the Roman-Hellenistic town, excavations have revealed an iron-age city gate complex, and it is now believed that Iron Age Bethsaida was the capital of the kingdom of Geshur. The website provides a brief history of Bethsaida and the excavations, and contains details of lodgings and expenses for archaeologists wishing to work on the dig. There are pictures of a few of the more important recent finds, including Powerpoint presentations, and a three-dimensional virtual reality walk-around of the iron-age gate system (requires Cortona VRML client).
Supplementing the book by K. Buxton and C. Howard-Davis, the Bremetenacum Excavations CD-ROM pages at the Archaeology Data Service provide the digital data files - the excavations' finds catalogue - that were originally included on a CD-ROM attached to the the print volume. A summary of the excavations and the contents of the published volume are also included. Ribchester (Bremetenacum), on the northern edge of the Ribble flood plain, has been known as a major Roman establishment since the time of Leland, and was also noted by Camden and Stukley. It is famous for the discovery of a fine Roman cavalry parade helmet, now in the British Museum, and frequent excavations have taken place during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The excavations which are reported in this volume were undertaken in 1980 and 1989-90, prior to the use of an extensive area to the north of the fort as an extension to the cemetery of St Wilfred's church and the redevelopment of the Ribblesdale Mill site at the northern edge of the town. The report synthesises this and previous work in an integrated format in order to present the current state of knowledge on the archaeological site.
The Butrint Foundation was founded for the conservation and preservation of the ancient city of Butrint and its hinterland. The earliest settlement at Butrint dates from the Bronze Age. It became an independent city in the 3rd century BC. The city passed through Greek, Roman, Slav, Byzantine, Venetian, and Turkish control. It was abandoned in the Late Medieval period. There are substantial remains from the all periods of occupation; the archaeological site is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The website describes the history of the site and the archaeological activities being undertaken. The regular excavation reports are published under "Annual report". A full bibliography of the archaeological site is available. There are links to other websites, and news about current projects (notably there is a "virtual Butrint" project). Butrint is the first archaeological site of Albania to have been excavated and promoted to the public after the collapse of the communist regime. It has been a success story and hopefully other Albanian sites will be modelled as this one. The website provides a useful gateway to plenty of information on several aspects of this challenging enterprise and it may interest both students and researchers in archaeology and cultural management.
Cadw, 'the official guardian of the built heritage of Wales', is the Welsh Assembly's historic environment division and is responsible for protecting, conserving and promoting a numerous and diverse range of sites. This attractive and well laid out website includes extensive information on Welsh monuments, buildings, parks, gardens, landscapes and underwater archaeology. The places to visit section includes a map with links to descriptions and images of historic sites. There are details of opening hours, admission prices and an events programme. The learning and discovery pages include information on castles through history, including those of the Welsh princes and of Edward I, with detailed information on specific sites and resources for teachers. Owners of historic properties can access advice about listed building status and securing grants. The legislation section details laws relating to heritage protection and guidance on access and listing. Cadw has many guides and publications, some of which can be viewed online or downloaded as a pdf file, although others can only be purchased in hard copy. The site is also available in Welsh.
Castrum Inui is a Roman site near Rome, where ongoing archaeological excavations have unearthed a small temple (5x10 m) dated to the fifth century BC and dedicated to Inuo, an early god later identified with Pan. This website publishes news of recent discoveries, still at an early stage at the time of the review, and many photographs of the excavations, some of which are collected in a separate gallery of photographs (clicking on pictures opens larger versions in new windows). The photographs are the most valuable asset of this website. There is information on how to visit the archaeological site and contact details of the archaeologists working at the site. Considering the proximity to Rome and the early date of the discoveries, this archaeological site provides a rare opportunity to study some early antiquities of Latium when Rome had yet to become an Empire and before Greek culture influenced the Romans (Inuo was still an Italic god unrelated to Greek mythology) without the problem of later architectural modifications cancelling or obscuring the evidence from ancient periods. Both students and researchers are likely to find this website useful.
The Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük was first discovered in the late 1950s. It became famous due to the large size and dense occupation of the settlement, and the spectacular wall paintings and other art that was uncovered inside the houses. This website presents the results of investigations at Çatalhöyük since 1993. There is a wide variety of material in the website including detailed archive reports, newsletters, excavation diaries, an excavation database (searchable by unit number, feature number or by keyword from the discussion element of the database record), a forum, a searchable gallery of pictures, information on the project and practical information. The gallery of pictures includes photographs and illustrations of artefacts and architectural structures as well as photographs taken during the excavations. The site is well illustrated with photographs and line drawings. Various reconstructions are presented as images, VRML models and Quicktime panoramas.
This website publishes a series of virtual panoramic images of the archaeological site of Chavín de Huántar, located in Peru, at the bottom of Cordillera Blanca’s eastern slopes, and dating to about 900 BC. The website provides a short summary of the archaeological site ("the setting"), and some special features for the old and new temples. The society inhabiting the settlement of Chavín de Huántar practised agriculture. Aimed primarily to John Rick's students, the website may be useful to anyone interested in pre-Inca Peru; researchers and advanced students in particular may request to the author a CD-ROM with additional panoramic images.
The required Zoom plug-in appears discontinued and as a result the existing version does not install correctly for use in recent browsers. A solution for Firefox in Windows is to install the plug-in for Internet Explorer and then copy the file "NPRVRT34.dll" (readers may need to search the file in the hard disk) into the "plugin" directory of Firefox.
The ancient Greek colony of Chersonesos was founded in the sixth century BC by colonists from Heraklea Pontika. It is located in the extreme southwest corner of the Crimea region of Ukraine. The territory, or chora, of Chersonesos is a well-preserved example of ancient countryside. Many of the stone farmhouses and much of the dense grid of country lanes still exist. In 1992 the University of Texas and Archaeological and Historical Museum of Chersonesos began a joint project examining the chora. This website gives an introduction to the project and brief reports on excavations carried out in 1997, 1998, and 2000. The parent page, the Institute of Classical Archaeology home page, has links to photographic galleries and QuickTime panoramas associated with the project. A separate website on Chersonesos has been published.
The city of Cihuatán was once a great Mayan centre that flourished in what is now El Salvador in Central America. Since 1975, Dr Karen Olsen Bruhns of San Francisco State University has been excavating at the site. These pages constitute the Cihuatán Project home page, providing information about the site, its history and past archaeological investigation. The ruins of Cihuatán were first encountered by western travellers in 1878 when German-American Simeon Habel was told by locals that he had passed an ancient city on his journey to Guazapa. However, the first visit was not until 1925, when the American archaeologist Samuel Lothrop visited the site and mapped the Western Ceremonial Center. Conflict during the second half of the 20th century meant work was abandoned during the 1970s and 1980s, and did not recommence until 1993.The information provided via these webpages includes a brief background section on Mayan civilisation, detailing its rise and fall. Cihuatán was constructed during the Late Classic period of Mayan civilisation, and information is provided regarding the city's construction, layout, inhabitants and eventual decline as a population centre. Images are provided, in addition to links to other Mesoamerican sites of interest.
The Concangis website details excavations that took place on part of the Roman Fort at Chester-le-Street from 1990-1991. The excavations revealed parts of the primary timber and turf fort, the secondary stone fort and the later town of the Roman period and evidence of Medieval and Post-Medieval activity. The site includes both a brief overview report and a more detailed 'academic' report which are designed to be a more personal account of the experience of the excavation than the related publications. There are also detailed illustrated reports on the pottery, coins, small finds, worked stone and environmental materials. There are also many photos of the excavations and an online version of the site directors daybook.
This archive, hosted by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS), represents the raw information from a project designed to collect and analyse archaeological data from two Near Eastern sites - namely Tell Brak in north-eastern Syria, and Kilise Tepe in Southern Turkey. The data is intended to aid study into the use of space within the two different urban settlements, and the respective excavations utilised standardised objectives and procedures to enable more comparative analyses.Much of the identification and analysis of the materials recovered from the excavations was undertaken in U.K. laboratories, specifically at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research (Cambridge), at the EAU (York), and UCL (London). The final versions of these analyses have been compiled into a single electronic archive in Cambridge.Available through these webpages are the various components of this electronic archive, including sections on the sampling procedures, excavations, and many final reports on artefactual and environmental materials. The text-based files are available for download in HTML, RTF (rich text format) and plain text formats. Images are available as TIFFs, whilst other file types include comma-delimited and Microsoft Excel files.
This is the website for the Corinth Computer Project, which is based at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States. The project was founded in 1988 with the aim of developing a computerized architectural and topographical survey of the Roman colony of Corinth. The project is particularly concerned with uncovering information about the different stages of the city's development and the impact of non-Roman influences, including Hellenistic, Byzantine and Venetian. There is also an emphasis on research into Roman strategies of city planning. The site offers a detailed methodological essay about the project as well as information about Corinth in Greek, Roman and modern times. The text in each section is accompanied by city plans and photographs, including a number of photographs of the process of excavation, and of the regional landscape. The 'reference' section of the site also provides a glossary of archaeological terms used, a bibliography and links to selected resources for classicists on the Internet. The Corinth Computer Project is a well thought-out scholarly website which has won a number of awards.
The city of Corinth, one of the richest and most important urban centres in ancient Greece, has been excavated by the American School of Classical Studies in Athens for more than a century. This attractively presented website is part of an on-going project to present some of the discoveries in digital form with special emphasis on aspects of planning and urban layout in the colony of Roman Corinth from 44 B.C. onwards as well as providing a critical guide to the various descriptions, written and artistic, of the ancient city from the 17th to the 20th centuries A.D.Highlights of the site include attractively illustrated discussions of both the urban layout and its buildings and on landscape organisation in the surrounding territory accompanied by quality maps, interactive site plans and digital terrain and digital elevation models. Travellers accounts of the topography of Corinth between the 17th-20th are deconstructed using insights drawn from ethnography while techniques of local history are employed to reconstruct parts of the ancient city now covered by the modern village of Corinth. Other features include a glossary of ancient architectural and planning terms and a bibliography for further study. An interactive site plan of the ancient city provides a building by building analysis of the architecture in addition to a 360' photographic panorama of the modern terrain. QuickTime and Autodesk Whip plug-ins are required for these features but online technical help is provided where necessary. In addition to providing an attractive resource for study for undergraduates and researchers, the Corinth Computer Project website is a valuable addition to the corpus of websites which create an interface between archaeology and digital imaging.
The Corinth Excavations website gives brief details of the excavations at Corinth which serve as a field laboratory and training ground for the American School of Classical Studies. The web pages concentrate on the facilities available at the excavation site and the staff involved in the research. There are also brief reports on the results of the excavations carried out between 1998 to 2002 together with links to other web sites about excavation in and around Corinth.
This website provides an introduction to the archaeological research at the city-state of Halai in central Greece together with a description of the on-going excavation and survey work carried out by the Cornell Halai and East Lokris Project (CHELP) directed by Dr John Coleman. Halai was first settled in the Neolithic period and then, after a break in occupation, was continuously occupied from the Archaic to the Byzantine periods (c700 B.C. to 1300 A.D.). The website provides a period by period guide to the main architectural and artefactual discoveries at the site together with a series of annual reports and research papers on various aspects of the site and its surrounding area. There also is a searchable database of artefacts from the site. The resource also includes an extensive bibliography, including publications by earlier excavators at Halai, and a image library of almost over 250 pictures. A clickable AutoCAD map of the acropolis shows the different phases of occupation and provides useful plans of the excavated areas. The website is easily navigable thanks to a series of indices and a search facility. The website contains also galleries of pictures (maps, drawings and photographs) of the sites of Kephala in Keos, Elean Pylos, and Alambra in Cyprus. This website will be of use to both undergraduate students and researchers, particularly to those interested in the development of the Greek city-state.
This website publishes the archaeological reports of the excavations at Goodman Point Pueblo, a settlement in the valley of Crow Canyon, Colorado. The initial report is available in PDF format. Full illustrated reports of the most recent excavations are also available. Goodman Point Pueblo is part of a cluster of Pueblo III (A.D. 1150Ã¢â‚¬â€œ1300) village sites stretching from Hovenweep National Monument in the west to Yellow Jacket and Castle Rock pueblos to the north and south. The pueblo contains 13 roomblocks, a minimum of 107 kivas, one great kiva, at least one bi-wall complex, several towers, and a semi-continuous masonry wall and has been dated to A.D. 1225 to 1285. Several architectural structures at the site were at least two stories tall. Several artefacts have been unearthed during the excavations, including corrugated and black-on-white pottery; many manos, metates, and other ground-stone tools; bones of turkeys, rabbits, and other animals; projectile points and other flaked stone tools; single-bitted axes, mauls, cores, hammerstones, and peckingstones; pendants and a marine shell ornament; a large elk or deer antler; and a siltstone palette. This website may be useful to researchers.
Danebury, an Iron Age Hill Fort situated in the county of Hampshire in southern England, has been the subject of a major programme of excavation directed by Professor Barry Cunliffe that began in 1969 and ended in 1988. The Danebury Excavations Digital Archive aims to provide a number of original datasets and images from these excavations in order to facilitate new research and interpretation. The excavation programme at Danebury has been written up in a number of volumes. Four of these are concerned with the site and the material remains from it and are also available online through the ADS Library. The digital datasets can be used in conjunction with these publications and, in the preface to the excavations volume, Cunliffe described the potential use of the excavation archive, "A data-set of the kind derived from Danebury will continue to be reworked by students for the foreseeable future asking new and increasingly sophisticated questions". The four datasets available (Pits, Pottery, Animal Bones, Daub) are available to download as comma delimited text files and documentation is provided describing the relationships between tables. The 29 JPEG images available are very high resolution and, as a result, are very large in size (c.4500kb - 5500kb). The images are, however, thumbnailed on the index page allowing for users to preview them prior to download. The site is easily navigable through the standard ADS interface and users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions prior to accessing the resource.
The Deansway Archaeology Project was initiated in 1988 in advance of the redevelopment of a large part of the centre of Worcester. The excavation lay in the centre of the medieval city and offered an excellent opportunity to gain a detailed understanding of the development of urban life between the late Anglo Saxon and post-medieval periods. The excavations recorded substantial buried remains, and the results allowed a detailed understanding of the development of settlement in Worcester from the Roman period to the early post-medieval period. From the later Anglo-Saxon period intensive occupation led to the build-up of ground levels, intercut by pits. The website presents the aims and objectives, methodology, results (organised by chronological period: prehistoric, Roman, post-Roman, Late Anglo-Saxon, Medieval and post-Medieval), further work and references for further information. Some of the website is dated with results only referring to work up to 1996. Most of the website is not illustrated. The site is most suitable for those looking for a quick summary of the work carried out and references for further information. It is part of the much larger English Heritage website.
"The Defences of Chester" is the website of a reconstruction project to support a recently published report on the defences of Chester. Although currently detailing only the early and middle Roman defences, the research will ultimately encompass all major periods as regards the defences of Chester. Many illustrations are provided, mainly 3D computer reconstructions, although future work aims to make animations and QTVR (QuickTime Virtual Reality) movies available.
The archaeological site of Deir el-Medina near the ancient city of Thebes in Egypt was home to the community of workers who constructed the royal tombs of the New Kingdom. This impressively organised and comprehensive resource, published by researchers at the Department of Near Eastern Studies of Leiden University, is a database of the extraordinary corpus of texts and artefacts which the site has yielded to archaeologists together with an exhaustive bibliography of relevant publications. The database, which at present comprises almost 3000 entries, is part of a larger Leiden University research project which intends to publish all the non-literary texts discovered at Deir el-Medina. Each inscription is catalogued according to its physical appearance, provenance (where known) and present location, contents (including useful keywords), dates and official Egyptian terminology, publication records, and scholarly commentary. Particularly useful is the introductory guide to the using the database which helps you navigate your way through the enormous corpus of papyri and ostraca from the settlement which have been scattered around dozens of worldwide institutions. Also included is an index to Cerny's seminal work 'A Community of workmen at Thebes in the Ramesside Period' (Cairo 1973) and a separate index of the inscribed objects from the site. This database will be an indispensable resource for specialist researchers and advanced students in Egyptology and related subjects.
Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project is an online collection of digital photographs and measurements based on a large marble street plan of the ancient city, completed around the start of the third century AD. Parts of it survive in numerous fragments, the assembly of which into a coherent 'jigsaw' has long challenged archaeologists. Stanford University's Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project has collected high definition digital photographs and computer measurements of the 1186 surviving fragments (these may be viewed here) and is now aiming to develop computer algorithms that might help to establish a more useful searchable version of the map. The user interface for the selection from Stanford's database which been made so far is available online. This site, though, is the news page for the technical side of the project. It contains a detailed description of the process which the Stanford team is developing, which will be of interest to those who seek to bring the latest technology to bear on ancient problems. The site also offers background information on the original map itself, as well as a detailed annotated bibliography of relevant reference works. There are also useful press reports and news updates about the progress of the project.
Tell Dothan, a large settlement site located in a fertile and strategic plain in the northern Samaria hills of Israel, was occupied almost continuously from the Chalcolithic through to the Byzantine period and has been identified as the location of various biblical events. The Dothan Publication Project is an attempt to publish online the results of the main excavations at the site between 1953 and 1964.Published so far are the excavations in the Western Cemetery of the settlement which has produced tombs spanning the Late Bronze II-Iron Age I periods (ca. 1400-1100 B.C.). The complete inventory of grave goods is published along with a full photographic archive and a description and analysis of the tomb architecture and a discussion of burial customs in the Eastern Mediterranean in Late Bronze and Early Iron Age. Several articles reproduced from the Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research provide a general introduction to the site.This website is a useful addition to the corpus of online excavation reports and will appeal to students and researchers in archaeology and related fields.
Dunadd, a fortified hilltop site in Argyll, Scotland, is one of the most important Early Medieval sites in Britain. Subject to archaeological investigation between 1980-81, many excavation reports and documents from this fieldwork have now been made available via the ADS (Archaeology Data Service) for public use. Dunadd was the royal centre of the early Scots in the kingdom of Dal Riata. Previously excavated twice (in 1904-05 and 1929), Dunadd underwent further excavation between 1980-81 to to establish dating criteria for the site's defences. These investigations, undertaken by Dr A. Lane of the University of Cardiff, were published as "Dunadd: an Early Dalriadic Capital" in 2000 and are accompanied by the specialist reports and stratigraphic/locational information made available via these webpages. A series of images, including a computer generated reconstruction of the site, are also available.
Digimap is a JISC-funded Web service that delivers Ordnance Survey (OS) cartographic products and digital map data across the Internet via a simple-to-use interface. Building on a successful JISC-funded Electronic Libraries (eLib) project, it provides convenient, on-demand access to some of the best and most detailed map data available anywhere in the world. e-Map Scholar aims to promote and enhance the use of digital map data in learning and teaching, by developing resources applicable to all geo-spatial data available to the academic community and to enable staff to provide new, exciting and adaptive learning materials using geo-spatial data. The website provides access to teaching case studies on the Built Environment and Archaeology among other subjects.
Copán is a Maya ceremonial centre dating to the Old Empire. This archived website publishes a brief summary of the research carried out on the acropolis during the season 1989-2000. The report focuses primarily on the Hunal and Margarita Tombs. The Hunal Tomb has a vaulted chamber where lie the bones of a male, who has been identified as K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo', dynastic founder of the Classic period Copán polity. The Margarita Tomb instead contains the bones of a female, who has been identified by indirect evidence as the wife of Yax K'uk' Mo' and mother of Ruler 2. The Margarita Tomb was also built on the site of a pre-existing chamber. Students interested in Mayan archaeology may find this website useful.
The archaeological site of Ras Shamra is situated a few kilometres east of the Mediterranean coast of Syria, and constitutes the remains of the ancient city of Ugarit. This website documents the discovery of Ras Shamra and the early excavations. Ras Shamra produced a large number of artefacts some of which are displayed in a virtual museum on the website. The site also produced a number of texts inscribed on clay tablets. These are currently being examined and presented as high resolution images with transliterations and translations of the inscriptions.
This website presents the preliminary reports of the archaeological excavations at Mersa Gawasis, Egypt, by the University of Naples and Boston University. A general introduction to the archaeological site is available and can be accessed using the menu at the top of the page ("presentazione", etc.); the reports can be accessed by clicking on "rapporti di scavo" on the menu on the left. The short introduction and menus are written in Italian and the reports are written in English. The preliminary reports summarise the research carried out each year; they are accompanied by several pictures. The reports are composed of introductions; a description of all archaeological strata excavated ("archaeology"); notes on geoarchaeological and geophysical studies; a series of summaries focusing on specific categories of artefacts such as lithics, ceramics, organic materials, inscribed documents; anchors; and references. Of particular interest are the organic finds, which include wooden vessels; ropes; baskets and ship components. The ship components recovered so far include parts of the hull and parts of two steering oars and appear made of wood from Acacia nilotica (Nile acacia) and Cedrus lebani (cedar). All the organic materials have been found inside sealed caves, which are now subject to conservation efforts also described in the reports. The excavators interpret the archaeological site as the main Egyptian harbour used for voyages to Punt from the early Middle Kingdom to the early New Kingdom.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Tell el-Herr, Egypt (Sinai peninsula). The site is located on a strategic position between Egypt and the Levant and has been occupied from the fifth century BC to the sixth century AD. The site was a Roman settlement, later a Persian settlement and finally an early medieval Egyptian site. Several illustrated articles concentrate on the archaeological evidence unearthed by a French team of archaeologists. Achaemenid, Roman and Ptolemaic monuments are discussed. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
This is the website of the Ename 974 project. The village of Ename, East-Flanders, Belgium, is home to several historic monuments dating from the Early Medieval to post-Medieval periods. Excavation of the Benedictine monastery, present between 1063 to 1795, and the early-medieval trade settlement (975-1050), led to extensive remains being uncovered that required presentation to the visiting public. The result is the Ename 974 project, which utilises IBM developed 'Timescope 1' technology to provide digital 3D reconstructions, superimposed onto real-time video images of the low-level remains. The concepts and methods behind the Timescope 1 technique are outlined, accompanied by QTVR (QuickTime Virtual Reality) movies of the site and the digital reconstructions.
This is the Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut website relating to excavations at the ancient city of Ephesos in Turkey. With occupation evidence dating from the Neolithic through to the late 15th Century AD, Ephesos reached its heyday during the Greco-Roman period when it was home to the Artemision temple complex, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The website provides a contextual background of the settlement's history and its previous excavation since 1895, but is mainly concerned with recent excavation and archaeological research - in particular the 1999 and 2000 excavations undertaken by the Austrian Archaeological Institute (Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut). Excavation reports are available for both years, but more detailed information is provided on certain parts of the city such as the theatre, Tetragonos Agora (marketplace) and the upper city. Also available is information on the inscriptions and sculpture recovered from Ephesos.
Erétria on the island of Euboea was an important settlement during the Mycenaean, Greek and Roman period. This website summarises the results of the ongoing excavations by the Swiss Archaeological School in Greece. There is a gallery of pictures including both monumental remains and artefacts (such as mosaics); the large high definition pictures are in JPEG CMYK format suitable for press printing and should be downloaded and opened with a specialist program, most browsers will return an error when attempting to open them. Section "theater" by Elisa Ferroni is in German only and publishes the results of a test pit in the area of the theatre, it includes a map; a report on the stratigraphy of the theatre; a detailed report that summarises with drawings and pictures all typical shapes of pottery encountered in the stratigraphy; and a short article suggesting a date for the strata based upon all other studies. There is a timeline (chronology) and a short illustrated article on the landscape. Section "history" publishes a set of illustrated articles each focussing on a period of the settlement of Erétria. Of particular interest are the Early Helladic potter's kiln and the 8th century BC tomb called "Heroon", where a funerary bronze cauldron was found. The town flourished since the Archaic period, and was sacked by the Persians of King Darius in 490 BC, just before the battle of Marathon, and then in 411 BC the town switched side from the Athenians to the Spartans and in the eponymous battle of Eretria the Athenian fleet was destroyed. Philosopher Menedemos was born at Eretria. There articles on the literary sources mentioning the town and epigraphic studies. A large section focuses on numismatics with an article by Monica Brunner and a gallery of pictures in "coins of Eretria"; a separate Euboean coins database which contains information on over 600 Euboean coins recently sold at an auction; it is still possible to access the pages of the auction and access the prices of sale that may be useful in studies of the trade of antiquities. The database contains all inscriptions on coins. There is an extensive bibliography on Euboean coins. On the website of the Swiss Archaeological School in Greece there is also a bibliographic database specialising on Eretria. If a hyperlink appears broken, it might be worth retrying a few times to click on the original link; there were problems with the server at the time of review.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Roman town of Labitolosa, Spain. Through a series of illustrated articles, this resource summarises the discoveries made on the site, and the main monuments found there. In order to understand the articles, it is necessary to have some prior knowledge of the typical layout of a Roman town, so this may not be an ideal resource for absolute beginners. A bibliography and a small 'diaporama' (gallery of pictures) are also included.
This German website presents reports on excavations carried out at the Carmelite Friary and Museum of St. Dionysius and an account of the Medieval Stained Glass in the city of Esslingen am Neckar. Excavations at the Friary site revealed the foundations of the building which had eventually disappeared about 1800 and also a 13th century corn mill and post-medieval tannery. Large quantities of well preserved artefacts, particularly pottery were recovered. The Dionysius church excavation excavations revealed considerable remains of the three phases of earlier churches under the present building. The link to the page on the Museum of St. Dionysius does not work from the German home, but everything is fine from the English page; this section is available in German only however. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
This website publishes the free and full-text version of the Études péloponnésiennes series of monographs. The volumes publish the French excavations at the sites of Argos and Gortys (Arcadia) in the Peloponnese. Among the subjects covered by the volumes are the temple of Apollo Pytheus at Argos; the thermal baths at Gortys; the necropolis of Argos; the theatre of Argos; sanctuaries in Arcadia; the hypostyle room at Argos; and the nimphaeum in the agora of Argos. This is a reference collection of volumes in French about important excavations, and may be useful primarily to researchers.
The French School of Athens is publishing the final reports of its excavations in the Greek island of Thásos in a series of volumes that is available free and full-text in this website. At the time of review, most volumes since 1944 were available, and further volumes should be published some time after their printed version. Thasos was an important settlement with two harbours; it is famous for the cult of Herakles (Hercules for the Romans) that predates the formation of the Greek culture in the island. The first volume of the series indeed focuses on the sanctuary of Herakles.
Thásos was settled by the Parians and successively held by Persia, Athens, Sparta, Macedonia, Rome (after 197 BC); it became part of the Byzantine Empire in the 4th century AD. This long and rich history is mirrored in the volumes, which focus on several topics including the agora; Greek and Byzantine ceramics; the history of administration and cults; the terracotta from the Thesmophorion; and the seals on amphorae useful to determine the exchange network in which Thásos was inserted. This is a reference series in French and may be useful to many researchers and students specialising in the archaeology of Greece.
An online summary report on the excavations carried out at the site of the Lanark Friary by the Lanark and District Archaeological Society (LADAS) in 1999. Two trenches were opened. The excavations revealed a stretch on medieval wall which may have been associated with the monastery, and an 18th century well. Large numbers of artefacts were found including medieval pottery and architectural fragments. Photographs illustrate the excavations and some of the finds. There is also a brief history of the monastery.
The website "Excavations at the Deserted Medieval Village of Vöhingen" relates to this vilage that lay in what is now the commune of Schwieberdingen in the administrative district of Ludwigsburg, Germany. Excavations by the Department of Medieval Archaeology, Landesdenkmalamt Baden-W¨rttemberg have been in progress since 1990. The first certain mention of the village is in the 13th century but there is evidence to suggest that it was first established in the 6th century. This simply and cleanly presented website consists of a number of pages in German and English versions, each with small illustrations, describing the major findings of the excavations.
This Azoria project website publishes the preliminary reports of the excavations of the Iron Age and Archaic town of Azoria, Crete, Greece. The website outlines the methodology applied and there are illustrated preliminary reports of the excavations carried out since 2002. The Azoria project aims at investigate state formation processes in the Aegean by identifying and analysing patterns of land use and culture change in the area and this guiding interest is evident in the reports.
The excavations have unearthed two main public buildings, the Andreion Complex on the upper West Slope and the Monumental Civic Building on the upper Southwest Terrace. The employment of the same method of construction, spine-wall, in both public and private buildings dating to a late phase of the town suggests that works were carried out as part of a single program of architectural renovation without distinction between public and private. The excavations have also yielded evidence of reuse of Minoan stonework (Minoan schist kernos reused face down on a staircase). Preliminary analyses of the organic remains suggest that olives (abundant); grapes; wheat; barley; hackberry; almonds; figs; poppy seeds; pulse; pigs, sheep; goats; and fish were consumed at the site. There is also evidence of wine and oil making.
This online volume accompanies the printed excavation reports for Kissonerga-Mosphilia in Cyprus, and comprises the appendices and chapters 15-27 of Lemba Archaeological Project, Cyprus, Volume II.1A, "Excavations at Kissonerga-Mosphilia, 1979-1992" by Edgar Peltenburg et al. (Studies In Mediterranean Archaeology Volume LXX:2) Jonsered 1998. The excavations, under the auspices of the University of Edinburgh, were concerned with excavating building remains from the Chalcolithic and Neolithic. All chapters are available in PDF format.
This website publishes the preliminary results of the ongoing excavations at Lefkandi Xeropolis by a joint team of the University of Oxford and the British School at Athens. The first section, "New Excavations" provides short illustrated accounts of the work carried out year by year. Several structures and tombs have been unearthed, and a fragment of centaur as well as a set of figurines (including one of a boat, perhaps an early version of a galley) have been found. This section also illustrates the multidisciplinary approach of the current excavations. Section "History of Research" instead contains short illustrated reports of past excavations in the island (directed by Mervyn Popham and Hugh Sackett), focusing on both settlement and cemeteries. There is an updated bibliography. This website may be useful to both researchers and students.
Xeropolis is a plateau facing the sea that was occupied from the Early Bronze Age until the end of the Geometric period. It is one of the most important Greek sites to study the transition from Mycenaean to Greek culture. The recent excavations directed by Irene S. Lemos have been made possible thanks to a grant by the Packard Humanities Institute.
The ancient city of Nimrud in northern Iraq was the capital of the Assyrian Empire from the reign of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) until it was destroyed by the Babylonians in 612 BC. This website, published by the Metropolitan Museum in New York as part of the online 'Explore and learn' service, is an attractive interactive guide to the archaeological discoveries at Nimrud since the 19th century and helps to contextualise the collection of Near Eastern artefacts from the museum. This resource provides a history of the numerous colourful individuals who have excavated at Nimrud such as Henry Layard, William Loftus and Hormuzd Rassan in the 19th century, Max Mallowan (husband of novelist Agatha Christie who also worked at Nimrud) in the middle of the last century and the Iraqi department of Antiquities in more recent times. In addition is a brief description of the various palaces excavated at the site and of the extraordinary collection of ivories and carved stone reliefs unearthed in these vast, multi-roomed complexes. Also included is a short description of the 1989 excavations of the Queens' Tombs. This website is a very useful addition to the corpus of didactic websites and is aimed in particular at the general public and school children (and their teachers). It will also benefit undergraduates studying the archaeology and ancient history of the Near East. These excellent and beautifully illustrated pages will interest and improve a wide range of individuals from the general public and school children to more specialised undergraduates and teachers in the archaeology and history of the ancient Near East.
This website describes the excavations on two early prehistoric sites at Pinarbasi, 25km from Çatalhöyük in central Turkey. The excavations were conducted in 1994 and 1995 under the joint direction of the University of Edinburgh's Department of Archaeology and the Karaman Museum. These sites were of particular interest due to the possible presence of a series of rock-shelters dating from the Early Neolithic, and an open-village settlement of similar date. Information on the sites' discovery, location and excavation is provided, along with details of the results. Particular attention has been directed to the plant remains, animal bones, and chipped stone recovered from bulk sampling.
This website consists of a brief description of the investigations at Quoygrew on the Orkney Islands carried out originally by the University of Southampton and latterly by the University of York. Excavations have revealed Viking and possibly Pictish middens and a Medieval house. Landscape surveys have been carried out using augers and GPS mapping systems. The site has a detailed interim report summarising the results of land survey, geophysical survey and excavations carried out by the University of York. There is also information on the field school associated with the excavations.
This website is a report on excavations carried out in 1998 at Silgenach, South Uist by the School of History and Archaeology, Cardiff University. The website includes a number of mounds that are under the threat of erosion, particularly from cultivation and burrowing by rabbits. The excavations revealed occupation from the Beaker period through to the Early Iron Age. The extensive presence of Early Bronze Age cultivation horizons indicate the presence of a buried landscape of considerable importance.The report follows the standard format of a printed report with images and references launched in separate windows from links within the text.
This website publishes the free and full text reports of the excavations by members of the French School of Athens at Delos. Most of the issues focus on Greek art, including artefacts such as figurines, lamps ceramics and mosaics. Delos was believed to be the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. Each issue focuses on particular areas of the settlement (both private and public) or classes of materials. Delos is an important archaeological site for the study of ancient Greece and this website may be useful to many students and researchers since it contains many reference works.
The Hampshire and Isle of Wight Extensive Urban Survey was funded by English Heritage as part of their national programme of Extensive Urban Surveys. The survey covers 30 historic small towns and provides a review of their historical and archaeological significance. For each town there are downloadable Archaeological Assessments and a Strategy Report in PDF format. The Archaeological Assessment report summarises the history and known archaeological data of the town, presents an analysis of the plan of the settlement and identifies areas of significant modern development, leading to the identification of areas of archaeological importance. The Strategy report aims to provide guidance about the management of the archaeological resource in each town. This may be adopted as Supplementary Planning Guidance by District and Borough Councils.
This website is a simple and illustrated presentation of the archaeological site of Colletière aimed primarily at undergraduate students and the general public. About the year 1010 three settlements were established on the shores of Lake Paladru. The archaeological sites were occupied for a mere 30 years and then abandoned. The sites became flooded and as a result show an unusual state of preservation. The settlement at Charavines has been the subject of extensive excavations. At low water levels these excavations can be performed by traditional techniques, but the majority of the excavation is performed underwater. Charavines was a defended site and weapons, riding equipment, and armour have been recovered. Agricultural and industrial artefacts as well as culinary implements have also been recovered, along with personal ornaments, musical instruments, and gaming pieces. This website introduces these elements of the investigations as a series of illustrated pages. A set of pages describe the various scientific investigations being carried out.
The Five Points Site is the American government's official site on the archaelogical dig beneath the present-day Foley Square Courthouse, exploring the remnants of the notorious nineteenth century Manhattan Irish slum of the Five Points. The slum generally occupied what is now the area of Foley Square, Columbus Park, Collect Pond Park, and various Lower Manhattan correctional facilities, including the Tombs. The area, which was razed in a slum clearance in the 1890s, was the focus of an archaelogical dig conducted by the United States General Services Administration and various contracted companies in the early 1990s. The description of the archaelogical work conducted is accompanied by scanned historical images provided by the New York Historical Society and the New York Public Library. Researchers, teachers, students and interested members of the public will find photographs here of excavated lodgings and unearthed artifacts to be of special interest. Among items uncovered here, some are surprisingly expensive and precious, and were possessed by well-off artisans who chose to live near their businesses in the late eighteenth century, despite the increasingly grim reputation of the neighbourhood. Remnants here point to the rough character of daily life as much as they do to the history of immigration, politics, industry (such as the first garment district), all of which shaped the character of New York City. A short biography of recommended reading is provided.
This website tells of the discovery and of the history of the structures at Flag Fen, which was discovered by accident in 1982. The rest of the website is mainly devoted to visitors to Flag Fen, describing the various attractions such as the reconstructed Iron Age roundhouse, the animals and birds that may be seen, and the Roman herb garden. The website is aimed at undergraduate students and the general public.
This website publishes the free and full text version of the final reports of the archaeological excavations at Delphi carried out by members of the French School of Athens. Delphi was considered by the ancient Greeks to be the centre of the world. Delphi was once the site of an oracle of the earth goddess Gaea. Later, Apollo substituted Gaea, after the Greek god defeated the monstrous serpent Python, which guarded Gaea, and expelled her from the sanctuary. Apollo was the main divinity worshipped at Delphi, but the sanctuary also honoured Dionysus. The sanctuary became famous for the oracle: it was believed that the word of the local sacerdotess, referred as Pythia, were the words of the god. The Pythia was very influential in the Greek world and because of this several wars were fought to control the town and the oracle. Recently scientists discovered in the area of the sanctuary a source of natural ethylene gas, which could have been responsible for the trance-like state of the sacerdotess and the vapours noted by ancient authors. A sacred way connected the sanctuary to the proper temple of Apollo and it was lined with treasuries that several Greek cities had offered to Apollo (those offered by Athens and Thebes are the subject of specific volumes). The Athens treasury contained a wall covered with inscriptions, including musically annotated hymns to Apollo, which are the subject of one of the available volumes. Several volumes focus also on Greek art and especially sculptures. Of particular importance is the "Charioteer of Delphi" (about 470 BC), a bronze cast of "Severe" style, which represents the passage from Archaic to Classical art (an entire monograph focus on this statue, and several more describe art works of Archaic period). Delphi was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.
Since Delphi is a fundamental archaeological site for the study of ancient Greece, this website may be useful to a broad range of scholars and students, from those seeking the picture of a particular monument or art work to anybody carrying out research on any subject (archaeology, classics and art history primarily) related to ancient Greece.
This is the official website of the non-profit Foundation, for Calabrian Archaeology which is promoting the archaeological exploration of the Greek sites of Mamertion and Monte Palazzi in Calabria, Italy. The website provides some information on the activities of the foundation, primarily the two digs in Italy. There are several pictures of the sites and very short reports. The "news" section provides short bulletin and news and is the place where calls for volunteers are announced: interested students may wish to check it regularly.
Ancient Mamertion is mentioned by Strabo and probably was settled during the third century BC. Monte Palazzi was occupied from the fifth to the third century BC.
This website provides information about a project intended to scientifically examine the Viking Age harbour at Fröjel, Sweden. The harbour was abandoned in the 12th century and the area has been little exploited since that time. The website gives a history of harbours and trading during the Viking Age. There are a set of illustrated excavation reports and papers, available as HTML or PDF download files. A newsletter gives information on the progress of the excavations and information on artefacts, with data tables, and burials. An object gallery contains photographs and drawings of a number of the more interesting artefacts. A few reports are also available in Swedish.
This is the official website of the Greater Angkor Project (GAP), which will run until 2009. Large attention is provided to environmental and spatial issues connected to the research at Angkor. The website provides some basic information about the project and contains some papers and one BA thesis. It might be useful to students interested in GIS techniques and researchers focusing on Angkor.
The research project is co-ordinated by the University of Sydney (Australia) in collaboration with the Ecole Française d’Extrême Orient (France), APSARA (Cambodia), the body responsible for the management of the Angkor World Heritage Park, and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. Contact details for all the researchers are provided.
Hacinebi is an important ancient settlement site on the Euphrates river in south-eastern Anatolia which was excavated in the 1990s by an archaeological team led by Gil Stein of Northwest University Anthropology Department. This website provides a useful online guide to the discoveries at the site, with a particular focus on the Late Chalcolithic period (4100-3300 BC) when, according to the excavators, a commercial enclave (or 'colony') was established by people from southern Iraq as part of the so-called Uruk phenomenon. This is a term used to describe the first major economic integration of the various regions of the ancient Near East which may also have had a political dimension. The site was later settled, apparently after a gap in occupation, in Early Bronze Age I (3000-2800) and later in the Achaemenid-Hellenistic (5th-2nd centuries BC) and Roman periods. An outline of the aims and methods of the interdisciplinary project and of the cultural background to the Uruk phenomenon is accompanied by annual reports from 1992-1997 and a period by period account of the settlement history. Also featured is an illustrated selection of the artefactual record (including Uruk bevel rim bowls and seal impressions and distinctive 'eye idols'), a discussion of the relative and absolute chronology, and a bibliography of recent publications from the 1990s onwards. This resource will benefit undergraduates and researchers in Near eastern archaeology as well as those interested in ancient economic history.
This website details the excavations at Tell Hammam al Turkman (Syria), 80km north of Raqqa, which have been conducted since 1981 under the direction of J. W. Meijer and the Faculty of Archaeology of the University of Leiden. The project has been jointly financed by the Faculty of Archaeology and the Netherlands' Organization for Scientific Research. The archaeological site was deemed to be of value due to its potential to provided a well-stratified guide to the settlement history of the area. In addition, it was also considered of particular interest because of its apparent role in international trade networks during the Middle Bronze Age. Information on the site's location and on-going excavation is provided, along with details of the results. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This is the website of the Hamoukar Expedition of the Oriental Institute of Chicago, a multidisciplinary archaeological research project on a major tell site and its surrounding territory in the semi-arid Jezira region of north-eastern Syria. Although the ancient name of this city is unknown, the site is one of the largest tells in Syria and is located on a strategic route between the major political centres of Nineveh and Aleppo and must have played an important role in the political and economic life of the region. The settlement was occupied intermittently between the Uruk and the Islamic periods c.4000 B.C.-c.700 A.D. and reached its greatest extent of 103 hectares in the third millennium B.C. Discoveries in the earliest Uruk levels provide important information on the emergence of complex societies in northern Mesopotamia which questions traditional assumptions concerning the origins of urban cultures in the Near East. The interdisciplinary focus of the project also examines ancient land-use, animal husbandry and water management in this fertile but arid part of Syria. The resource consists of a number of annual reports together with a dossier of newspaper articles on Hamoukar while the accompanying illustrations, including a series of useful contour plans showing the changing extent of the site over its occupation history, are of high quality and can be viewed at a number of scales. These pages will interest university level students and researchers of Near Eastern archaeology as well as providing insights into the practise of archaeology in the contemporary Middle East.
Harappa.com is a resource focussed upon South Asia's past (mainly India and Pakistan) and is largely devoted to early modern media from the Raj period. The site can be divided into two main sections with one half focussing on the ancient city of Harappa and the other dealing with the Raj period of India and Pakistan. The half of the website that deals with the Raj does so largely through the use of early media. The largest section by far is the image section which contains a huge number of photographs, lithographs, postcards and engravings. The photograph section is in itself huge and contains large detailed sections on "Hawkshaw's India" (a 19th century album of India and Pakistan detailing in photographs the life of Major Edward Crichton Hawkshaw), 'Magic Lantern India 1895' (hand-coloured images by William Henry Jackson), "Bremner's India 1883-1923" (Fred Bremners images of Baluchistan, Sindh and Punjab accompanied by a number of essays) along with an 130 image photomap of India and Pakistan, biographies of the photographers and a bibliography of books on Indian Raj photography. The lithograph section contains 8 lithographs, mostly from the Illustrated London News, with accompanying articles and the Postcards and Engravings sections contain a large number of coloured and black and white postcards organised by subject. Aside from still images the website also contains a large selection of black and white and colour newsreels and archival movies in QuickTime format together with clips and interviews with significant figures including Gandhi, Jinnah and Attia Hosain (Real Audio format). The Harappa website also contains a 'Bazaar' link to an online store selling Indus Valley Replicas ceramics, 35mm Slides, books, archival film, teaching resources and image rights. There are also pictures of the important archaeological site of Mohenjo-Daro. The website is easy to use and is structured thematically.
The archaeolgical site of Tall Harmal (ancient Shaduppum) was occupied from the 3rd millennium B.C. onwards and particularly flourished during the Isin Larsa and Old Babylonian periods (c2200-1600 BC) when the city was an important urban centre and political power in southern Iraq. This website provides a brief guide to recent archaeological work at the site carried out by the Baghdad Museum and the German Archaeological Institute in Baghdad and building on the major campaigns on the site undertake by the Iraqi Department of Antiquities between 1945 and 1963. The resource, part of the home page of Assyriologist Dr Peter Miglus of the University of Halle, provides a brief summary of the history and archaeology of the the city of Shaduppum together with preliminary reports of the 1997 and 1998 campaigns illustrated with images of architectural and stratigraphic features. The temples and palaces archives have revealed over 3000 cuneiform documents in addition to a wealth of artefacts, private houses and numerous temples illustrating the social and cultural development of the period. This website will particularly interest students and teachers of Near Eastern archaeology and ancient history.
Hattusha (modern Boghazköy) in central Turkey was the capital city of the powerful Hittite Empire in the second millennium B.C. and is a UNESCO world heritage site. This is an attractively presented and highly informative online guide to the archaeological site and current excavations, published by the German Archaeological Institute in Istanbul (DAI). The resource is available in English, German and Turkish and includes links to websites relevant to archaeological research in Turkey. The historic overview of Hattusha (variously spelt Hattusa and Hattuscha) and its hinterland from the 6th millennium B.C. onwards provides an introduction to the excellent guide to the archaeology and topography of the settlement itself. This guide is illustrated with many very high quality plans and photographs, including some computer reconstructions, and includes the important Hittite rock sanctuary of Yasilikaya east of Hattusha which is noted for its rock-cut reliefs. The news section (available in German only) provides a detailed account of the current DAI excavations in and around Hattusha and a bibliography of research by the DAI team.This website will have a broad appeal to anyone interested in Eastern Mediterranean archaeology, from undergraduates and specialist researchers to the general public. The quality of the presentation and content reflects the academic pedigree of the publishing institution.
This online paper reviews progress in Atlantic Scottish Iron Age studies over the past twenty years, with particular reference to a long-term programme of fieldwork in west Lewis undertaken by the University of Edinburgh. Studies of a number of roundhouses are described with plans and photographs of many. Pottery finds are discussed and there are a number of line drawings illustrating a variety of vessels. The economy and environment are discussed. An extensive bibliography is also provided.
This is the official website of Helike Foundation, which has carried out recent excavations at the site of Helike, on the Peloponnese peninsula of Greece. Helike was destroyed by an earthquake followed by a tidal wave in 373 B.C. Its destruction is believed by some to have been the origin of the Atlantis myth. This website publishes an illustrated preliminary report on the recent discoveries. The excavations have yielded materials and structures from the Early Bronze Age to the Roman period. In the Early Bronze Age strata, archaeologists have possibly identified a corridor house. On the top of the Early Bronze Age layer, sediments containing marine microfauna suggest that the Bronze Age site was destroyed by a natural catastrophe similar to what happened to Classical Helike. Calls for volunteers appear on the website and it is possible to contact the Foundation to request more information or for a donation. Undergraduate students may find some useful information on this website.
The Historic Rural Settlement Group website describes the work of this independent body in promoting discussion relating to the conservation and management of the physical remains of Scotland's rural history in terms of the landscape, historic buildings and archaeological remains. Previously an advisory body (then known as MoLRS, the 'Medieval and Later Rural Settlement Advisory Group') to Historic Scotland, the Group now supports the Historic Rural Settlement Trust in their development of educational projects. The Group holds public meetings and seminars, and produces a range of materials on its website including minutes of meetings, annual reports, project case studies, notes from workshops, and a searchable bibliography. Two articles provide details of surveys of historic sites in Raasay, and the Ross of Mull.
Household and City Organization at Olynthus website is the electronic version of Nicholas Cahill's book 'Household and City Organization at Olynthus' (Yale UP 2002), a major study of the domestic architecture and social and economic life of a classical Greek settlement of the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. A searchable database of the excavated artefacts and interactive GIS/ Virtual Reality plan of the site plan and architectural units from the final publication (1929-1952) is planned for the future. Olynthus, located in the Chalcidice peninsula of northern Greece, provides a rare example of a well excavated and published classical Greek domestic quarter. The city was laid out on a Hippodamian street grid from 432 BCE onwards but was destroyed and largely abandoned in 348 BCE. The level of architectural preservation was very high and many domestic artefacts were found in situ when excavated. It is a text-book example of Greek town planning and provides a unique insight into the relationships between the public and private spheres in Greek society. The text provided on this website is fully searchable. The website is hosted by Stoa.org, a consortium for electronic publications in the humanities, and is also connected to the Perseus Lookup Tool which provides a comprehensive guide to the Greek passages texts quoted throughout the text. This site will interest a wide range of students and researchers working on Greek archaeology, social and economic history.
This website provides extensive histories of Rome's founding, Kings, the Early and Late Republic, the Imperial era, the Decline, the Collapse, Constantinople, Religion, Society and the Army. Biographies of Emperors and famous Romans are provided. Also available is a list of Roman place names and their modern equivalents, a register of all major battles involving Roman (or Byzantine) forces and a timeline plotting the reigns of the Emperors. The texts are supported by many photograph galleries of Roman remains from throughout the Empire, while interactive maps are on hand to provide locational information about towns, provinces, tribal incursions and the extents of the Empire at different points in time. The website also includes a search engine, bulletin board, children's section, timelines and a site guide.
This website introduces the author's reasons for researching crannogs (which are small artificial island dwellings built and inhabited in the lochs of Scotland from between around 4,000 BC to the seventeenth century). Various forms of crannog are described and illustrated with reconstruction drawings. Also included is a catalogue of crannog sites in the Inner Hebrides with photographs, descriptions, and brief results of investigations for each. These descriptions may be accessed from lists or image maps.
The National Institute of Research on Preventive Archaeology (INRAP) is a public research organization affiliated to the French Ministries of Culture and Research. The Institute carries out evaluations and excavations of threatened archaeological sites and then publishes the results, partly on this website. The site makes available the publication "La France archéologique" with some illustrations and interviews in PDF and MPEG video format. There is a section presenting recent news and another focusing on recent discoveries. The section about preventive archaeology in particular features definitions of the terms and some illustrated case studies. The section about the excavation sites contains a searchable form and directly accessible sections of a database of all the excavations carried out by the institute. For each record and site a short description, the geographic location, any published picture and information on the excavation and publication are provided. The website also includes a section on French legislation on archaeological matters and a glossary. The English version of this website features only a limited amount of the original contents. This website is a key resource for recent discoveries in France, as most of the archaeological research in France is carried out under the control of this public institute. Researchers may benefit from all sections of this website, while students are likely to find the section about discoveries to be the most interesting.
The 'Institute for Environmental History' claims to be... "the only one of its kind in Western Europe", and is located at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. The Institute has worked closely as part of the AHRC Centre for Environmental History (2002-2006), and the Institute website has a description of this project, its members, and there is a list of selected academic papers - three of which are available as free full-text PDF files. There are also links to the Institute's 'Timeline of Waste', and an Institute weblog related to the... "history of waste management and the social and cultural representations of waste". The Institute also hosts the Scottish Coastal Archaeological and Paleoecological Trust, and the Shorewatch public archeology project. The Institute website also has a details of staff, and the courses it offers.
This is the website of the Institute of Egyptology, Waseda University, the leading research institution for Egyptology in Japan. The website provides richly illustrated reports on excavations. The Waseda University research project in Egypt began in 1966 and since then fieldwork has been undertaken at the private tombs on the West Bank of Luxor; the palace of Malqata; the pyramids in Abusir; the Khufu Boat Project; and the Western Valley of the Kings. Among the recent projects are the expedition to Dahshur North and the quarries at Qurna, Gebel Silsilah, and Aswan. There is some interactive content including VRML (virtual reality modelling language) models (e.g. the tomb-chapel of Ipay and Dahshur), and QuickTime panoramas. The website is also available in Japanese. Both researchers and students in Egyptology may find this website useful.
This is a website detailing the excavations and survey at Bornish, which have provided a detailed picture of the structure, chronology and extent of the settlement at Bornish, South Uist. The earliest settlement dates to the Middle Iron Age. Above this was an extensive industrial occupation of the 4-5th centuries AD. This in turn was replaced by a complex of buildings dating to the period immediately prior to the Viking conquest. Subsequent activity involved a shift in settlement and Viking occupation from the 9th to the 12th centuries. The excavations have been carried out from 1996 to 2000 and from this website it is possible to access the previous reports. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
The website "The Iuvanum Survey Project" describes an archaeological excavation conducted jointly by the University of Oxford, Oberlin College, Ohio, and the Abruzzo Archaeological Superintendent, Italy. Excavations at the Roman 'municipium' of Iuvanum have revealed a pair of temples, a theatre and a substantial forum complex. In the early medieval period, however, the site was abandoned. This excavation concentrates on the area around the city, to ascertain its use agriculturally. The project aims to discover settlement patterns and their relationship to the identities of those living in the area over time. The distribution of ritual space is also investigated. The website provides a brief description of the project and its aims, as well as the project team. It is part of a larger survey of the Sangro Valley. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board within the Research Grants scheme.
The Jerablus Tahtani Project, located in northern Syria, is an archaeological research programme designed to investigate four key themes: the expansion of the Uruk civilisation in the 4th millennium BC; secondary state formation in Early Bronze Age Syria; urban recession in the Near East during the late 3rd millennium BC; and the early history of archaeologically inaccessible Carchemish. Fieldwork, conducted as the British contribution to the Syrian government's International Tishreen Dam Rescue Programme, focused upon the excavation of Tell Jerablus Tahtani and was undertaken between 1991 and 2000, with the University of Edinburgh. Excavation Reports from 1998, 1999 and 2000 are available online via the website, as are several of the major databases from the site (downloadable in Excel, Access and Word formats). A bibliography is also provided.
The "Jerusalem Archaeological Park" website boasts a virtual reconstruction model of Israel's most important site stretching from Temple Mount to the Mount of Olives. The park is an open museum and the archaeological discoveries span a range of 5,000 years from the Bronze Age to the Middle Age. The park also contains the Davidson Center within a palace dating from the Umayyad period, which has been combined with modern architecture in an innovative way. The website provides historical notes on three key periods: First Temple period; Second Temple period; and the Early Islamic period. There are also sections on water systems; the history of research; biographies of excavators of the site and historical figures; a bibliography; and historical sources. There are maps and a comprehensive timeline. A section on virtual panoramas publishes a few small panoramas, and interestingly it documents each step undertaken in their production with a series of illustrated articles. This is a wonderful site for those interested in archaeology, Biblical History, Jewish Studies and may be useful to both students and researchers.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Neolithic site of Abu Hamid, Jordan. An overview of the site and some preliminary results of the excavation and associated research work are discussed in a few illustrated articles. Particularly interesting is the section concentrating on rituals: some fourth millennium BC figurines have been found, including some violin-shaped ones. These figurines, dated ca. 3800 BC, are found across the entire Levantine coast. Similar figurines were manufactured about five hundred years later in the Cyclades, and have spawned the tradition of Cycladic figurines. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) contains many colour photos and drawings. There is also a map, an extensive bibliography, and the contact details of the excavators.
Jorvik is located in York, and recreates the sights, sounds and smells of the Viking city of Jorvik in 948 AD. The website includes visitor information, and details of the Archaeological Resource Centre, York Archaeological Trust and the Coppergate excavations.
Kaupang, near Larvik on the southeast coast of Norway, was a permanent settlement and port of the 9th century. It is probably the most important site from the Viking Age in Norway, and one of very few urban sites from this period in Scandinavia. The large number of rare and magnificent finds, the thick cultural layers with extensive structural remains, roads, wharves, and evidence of activities of many kinds, in combination with numerous indications of contact throughout Northern Europe, make Kaupang one of the most interesting archaeological site in Norwegian Viking-Age research. Intensive excavations were begun in 2000 by the University of Oslo, and with post-excavation work, are planned to continue to 2007. This website is a collection of pages outlining the reasons for the investigations, the methodology, and the threats to the site from agricultural activities. There is an annual report for the year 2000, a short report on pollen and zooarchaeological studies, and a more general report on the investigations carried out thus far.
The Kerkenes Project is a collaborative and multidisciplinary venture between the Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara and the British Institute of Archaeology in Ankara to explore the urban dynamics and landscape development of the city of Kerkenes in central Turkey from the early prehistoric period until the end of the Iron Age. Kerkenes was the largest city in pre-Hellenistic Anatolia, covering some 2.5 square kilometres. Kerkenes has been identified as the ancient Pteria, which was the scene of major military conflicts between the Assyrians, Persians and Lydians, including the famous 'Battle of the Eclipse' in 585 B.C. recorded by the Greek historian Herodotus. The website provides information on the work carried out since 1993 by Dr Geoffrey Summers. The website is divided into three main sections. The first section publishes the first decades of work and contains information on the historical background; photographs of early discoveries including an ivory plaque; drawings; maps, including 3D maps; and several preliminary reports. The second section publishes recent preliminary reports (some in PDF format); a geological background; further photographs from the excavations; the results of a geophysical survey; a postgraduate thesis on the application of multi-sensor remote sensing techniques by Zeynep Nahide Aydin; a useful bibliography. The third section contains information on the "Kerkenes Eco-Center Project" and environmental research carried out in Kerkenes. This is an important resource for researchers studying the Ancient Near East.
This website focuses on the excavations at Khirbet Cana by the University of Puget Sound. It contains the field reports of the various excavated squares as well as specialist reports by the project's geologist, ceramicist, lithic analyst, and glass technologist. Images of a number of the artefacts that were unearthed are also provided. These include Byzantine coins, a Neolithic obsidian arrowhead, a Hellenistic lamp fragment, and decorated pottery from the Byzantine and early Islamic periods. There is an aerial photograph of the site, and an excavation diary, but little to place Khirbet Cana in its historical or geographical context.
The website "Kilise Tepe" describes an excavation in the Goksu Valley between Karaman and Silifke in South-central Turkey. The excavation was carried out by a team of experts from the UK in conjunction with Turkish archaeologists. The page contains a brief outline of the project, those who took part in it, its sponsors and publications arising from the excavations. The free and full database of the projects at Kilise Tepe and Tell Brak and other documents are now accessible online in a separate depository.There are links to a picture of the site, and to organisations that lent their archaeologists to the project or supported it financially, such as English Heritage, British Museum, The Leverhulme Trust and the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
Kommos is an important Minoan settlement on the southern coast of Crete, in the Mesara region, which has yielded architectural and ceramic findings from the Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. This website written by the excavation team summarises the evidence, publishes a few colour pictures and republishes in electronic format many of the printed final reports and studies on Kommos and the Mesara. Sites such as Phaistos, Aghia Triadha are frequently mentioned and the subject of some papers. Kommos was an important harbour in antiquity and buildings of palatial architecture, smaller than proper palaces, have been found in the settlement and may have been used for local administration. Some buildings may have been used for ship storage. Long-distance exchanges at Kommos are detected from pottery, which includes also Anatolian, Cypriot and Italic vessels. The Phoenicians appear to have continued to use the site for trade during the Iron Age. Some papers as well as unpublished data, including the field notebooks, are made available by the authors in the T-Space online research repository of the University of Toronto.
This the website of the Kouphovouno Project, which is undertaking excavations at the settlement of Kouphovouno, just south of Sparta, Greece. Kouphovouno was occupied between Neolithic and Early Bronze Age and is a rare Neolithic sites surviving in southern Greece. This website publishes information on the project as well as illustrated preliminary reports of the excavations in Word or PDF format, with colour photographs of unearthed artefacts and maps. The project's main objectives are to establish a stratigraphic sequence for the Middle Neolithic, Late Neolithic and Early Helladic periods using 14C dating; to interpret the domestic architecture of the site; and to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment of the site. After a survey in 1999 several, yearly excavations have been carried out. The project also aims at understanding the increase in settlements in the Final Neolithic and the development of complex societies in the Early Helladic period by focusing on the apparent difference between northern and southern Greece settlement patterns. The Kouphovouno project is a collaboration between three universities and is directed by Professor W. G. Cavanagh (Nottingham). A full report is due to be published as a BSA Supplementary Volume. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
The archaeological site of Kusakli in the mountains of Cappodocia in eastern Turkey, the important Hittite city called Sarissa mentioned in historical documents of the later second millennium B.C., has been excavated by a team from the prehistory department of the Philipps-Universität Marburg since 1992. This attractively presented German language website provides an historical overview of the ancient city together with a brief guide to the archaeological and geomorphological discoveries at Kusakli-Sarissa. Other institutions associated with the Kusakli project include the Institüt für Geophysik of the University of Kiel and the Malcolm & Carole Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology at Cornell University. Unlike other Hittite centres which developed out of older settlements, Kusakli was a new foundation of the 16th century B.C. and its dramatic, naturally fortified location contributed to its importance in the settlement hierarchy of the Hittite empire. Largely abandoned when the Hittite empire collapsed after 1200 B.C., the city was refortified from the 7th century B.C. onwards. The resource provides an area-by-area guide to the current excavations on the acropolis of Kusakli itself and at the sanctuary of Huwasi 2.5 km to the south which is probably mentioned in a Hittite text discovered at the main site. The text is complemented by numerous high quality maps and photographs, which can be viewed both as thumbnails and at a larger scale. Also provided is a list of publications on the site (which can be also be viewed as a PDF. file) and links to other websites of interest to Hittite studies.This website is a useful addition to the corpus of online reports on current excavations in Anatolian and Near Eastern archaeology and will benefit students and researchers in these areas, even those with limited German.
L'Anse aux Meadows is the earliest known European settlement in America, dating to ca. 1000 AD and therefore pre-dating Columbus' (re-)discovery of America in 1492. The Viking settlement was probably inhabited for only a few years; problems with the native populations seem to have caused the departure of the Vikings. This website published by Parks Canada summarises the archaeological (for both Vikings and Native Americans) and environmental evidence. However, so many are the open questions on this topic that this website can only be considered an introduction aimed at undergraduates and the general public.
Archaeologists have worked at the site since the 1960s and a series of dwellings, workshops as well as one furnace have been unearthed (and some partially reconstructed). Evidence of metalworking has been found. Parts of ships have also been recognised in the material evidence. The website provides some basic evidence regarding the possibility that this location is Viking Vineland, but the problem cannot be solved yet, and certainly the evidence available on the website is not enough to tackle the problem. Yet, this is a website on an extraordinary archaeological site that will provide solid basic evidence on a highly debate topic in archaeology.
Le Yaudet is a promontory jutting out into the Baie de la Vierge at the mouth of the river Leguer in Brittany, France. It has been occupied since the Mesolithic era and was a defended site in the Late Iron Age and the Roman period. It underwent intensive domestic and agricultural use during the Medieval period.The site has been investigated by the Centre de Recherche Bretonne et Celtique, University of Brest in collaboration with Institute of Archaeology, Oxford since 1991. These pages give brief details of the results of excavations so far carried out. They are illustrated with photographs of archaeological features and artefacts recovered from the excavations. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The official website of the excavations being carried out at Ashkelon, Israel and funded by the Leon Levy Fundation provides a basic overview of the recent (2007 onwards) campaigns primarily aimed at attracting volunteers and students. Section "Learn" at the time of review only contained a useful bibliographic list. There are also a few galleries of images (without captions) and some old press releases.
The excavations focus on the local Canaanite (2000-1200 BC) and Philistine (1175-604 BC) periods, or the Bronze and Iron Ages. During the Canaanite period Ashkelon was one of the oldest and largest harbours. During the Philistine period Ashkelon thrived as member of the Philistine pentapolis. Undergraduate students, especially if looking for fieldwork opportunities, may find this website useful.
Living with Heritage (LWH) is an international project based at the University of Sydney, Australia that focuses on Angkor, the capital of the Cambodian Khmer kingdom from the 9th century to the 15th century and now a World Heritage Site. The website is largely incomplete and part of a series of similar websites published by the same university. There are a few preliminary reports and a BA thesis. The extensive and updated bibliographies under section "Resources" may be the most useful part at the time of the review. There are also brief presentations of the members of the research team and recent news. Many contents (especially multimedia contents) are planned to be made available via this website at the end of the research. Researchers may find useful some parts of this website.
This is the website of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. The website contains a list of lectures and conferences organised by the Society, a list of publications with their contents and abstracts for older volumes, and a printable application form. The society was founded in 1855 'for the purpose of investigating the antiquities and early history of the Cities of London and Westminster and the Metropolitan County of Middlesex'. Currently the Society arranges lectures and conferences, publishes research on the history and archaeology of London and Middlesex, helps to monitor the state of historic buildings and monuments in Greater London and acts as a discussion and news forum for members.
This website presents the excavations at Los Adaes, Louisiana, USA, a Spanish outpost founded in 1716, in the territory of the Adaes people, at the frontier with the French controlled area. The website contains short illustrated articles summarising the archaeological and historical evidence of the battle for the control of the area between France and Spain in those years in section "at the edge of an Empire". "Life on the frontier" instead focuses on the everyday life at the site, which was too far from any other Spanish town and therefore had to provide for supplies independently by trading with the local native American populations like the Caddo people. A section also focuses on the archaeological excavations, but it contains mostly educational articles aimed at inexperienced archaeologists. There are some special articles adding more data on some topics, a few references and a gallery of images. There is also an accessible version of this website, which is neat and preferable for reading and printing. This website is a nice overview of 18th century Louisiana, but the information about the archaeological site are too scanty for a learned audience, which is a pity because the website could have targeted multiple audiences.
This website, from the University of Cinncinnati, details a multi-disciplinary project organised in 1996 to investigate prehistoric and historic settlement and land use in central Albania. Focusing on the Greek colony of Apollonia, the project utilises techniques of intensive archaeological surface survey. Interim reports from 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001 are provided, accompanied by a 1999 geoarchaeological report and a 2001 lithics report. These reports are available to view online as HTML files and contain colour images. There are also links to other websites of potential interest. The website is also available in Albanian.
This is the website of the Mallakastra Regional Archaeological Project (MRAP), a multi-disciplinary archaeological and geomorphological project centred on the Mallakastra region of central Albania sponsored by the University of Cincinnati and the Institute of Archaeology, Tirana. This area of Albania is best known in the archaeological literature from the presence of the Greek apoikia (colony) of Apollonia, and a major aim of the project is to examine the cultural interactions between Greeks and native Illyrians in the first millennium B.C. The wider emphasis, however, is to study changes in human settlement and land-use in this region from the Palaeolithic period to the present day through a combination of field-walking, excavation, lithic analysis and geomorphological survey. The website consists of a series of fieldwork and artefact reports from 1998 onwards which are attractively illustrated with numerous high quality maps, data charts and photographs though the resource lacks a general introduction to the archaeology of the area or a bibliography so this is not an introductory survey for undergraduates. The MRAP website is a useful online tool for students and researchers studying the archaeology of Albania, the Balkans, Greece or the wider Mediterranean world but the resource will also benefit those interested in the wider issues of multi-disciplinary landscape studies.
Mapping the Medieval urban landscape: Edward I's New Towns of England and Wales is the website for a project which aimed to look at towns founded by Edward I in the late 1200s in an attempt to understand the processes by which urban landscapes were created in the Middle Ages. The project looked at 12 towns in Wales and England: Aberystwyth; Harlech; Criccieth; Caernarfon; Newborough; Beaumaris; Conwy; Rhuddlan; Caerwys; Flint; Holt; Overton; and Winchelsea. The attractive and easy to use website consists of a number of pages describing: the project aims; background; methodology; the people involved; details of the pilot study at Winchelsea; and an impressive clickable map of England and Wales allowing the viewing of maps and a small amount of information on each of the study towns. Fuller reports on the findings of this project are not available here but will be disseminated via the website of the Archaeology Data Service in due course. Not all of the links work. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This is the website of the Medieval Settlement Research Group (MSRG). The MSRG aims to advance knowledge of settlements of all kinds, particularly those in the period between the 5th and 16th centuries. A detailed Policy Statement outlining research, survey, conservation and excavation of medieval rural settlements is published on the web-site. There is also information on MSRPG research grants, conferences and meetings, current projects, publications and a guide to MSRG archive held at the National Monuments Record.
This is the website of the Megiddo Expedition of Tel Aviv University. The archaeological site of Megiddo in Israel, the Armageddon of the Book of Revelation, was occupied continuously from ca. 7000-500 B.C. and features prominently in Near Eastern and biblical history in the second and first millennia B.C., particularly in the period of the United Monarchy when it was one of King Solomon's regional capitals. This attractively presented website provides a useful introduction to the history and archaeology of the settlement and surrounding region as well as providing information on a wide range of topics connected with digging in Israel and biblical archaeology. Apart from providing reports on the renewed excavations at the site by Tel Aviv University and a history of previous campaigns at Megiddo, this website describes a number of ancillary projects connected with Megiddo including the landscape survey of the surrounding countryside, the magnetometer survey of the city itself, the petrographic analysis of the pottery discovered during excavations and a guide to the controversy surrounding the dating of archaeological sites of the United Monarchy. Also featured is "Revelations from Megiddo" the newsletter of the expedition which has numerous articles on issues related to the archaeology and history of Megiddo and the Jezreel Valley.The text is accompanied by numerous attractive images including a 3D virtual tour of the highlights of the archaeology. VISCAPE is required for this presentation. The website also provides detailed information for volunteers wishing to take part in the archaeological excavations.This site will mainly appeal to the interested amateur and to undergraduates but also provides a useful overview for a more specialist audience, particularly the extensive bibliography and the up-to-date chronological information.
This website describes the excavations at the open-air Mesolithic site of Siebenlinden, located on the outskirts of the town of Rottenburg, Germany. The excavations were conducted by the State Office for Historical Monuments of Baden-Wurttemberg between 1990 and 1995 and were reopened in 2001. A large amount of lithic evidence was recovered, mainly in the form of triangular microliths although scrapers, burins and truncations were also common. Several hearths were observed (some of which were possibly situated within habitation structures), while a wide range of faunal and botanical evidence was recovered implying that no specialised, species-based economy was in operation. The website presents details on all of the findings from the excavation, and also provides an image gallery.
The Minnesota Archaeological Researches in the Western Peloponnesos (MARWP) project has focused on three areas of Greece: Messene; Pylos; and Morea. The website publishes the preliminary reports and some methodological papers on GIS. There is an interactive map of the Peloponnese that allows to zoom in at village level. The Pylos Digital Archive had to be a collection of images of the Mycenaean palace at Pylos, but it appears abandoned with just a few detailed maps. Students in particular may find this website useful.
A personal website focusing on Minoan archaeological sites. The aim of this site is to provide basic information about all the major and some of the minor archaeological sites of the Bronze Age civilisation in Crete. This website is primarily aimed at those who have little knowledge of Minoan society or those who have visited Crete and would like to learn more or to look at pictures of the sites they may have visited. Teachers and students of archaeology may be interested in some of the photos. The website is divided into palaces; settlements; tombs; and other sites. Caution should be exercised in the accepting the presentation of some of the Cretan sites: Galatas, Petras and Ayia Triada are listed among the "other sites" in spite of their palatial architecture. Pages describe the sites and their archaeological history and are liberally illustrated with photographs. Photographs act as thumbnails to larger images. The author permits downloading of images for personal use, though requires permission to be sought for other uses. The entire website is also available in Polish. This website is still a mighty useful website for those in need of a picture of some Cretan site; the available pictures were taken at times when overgrown plants did not hide the architectural remains.
At the time of review the website author was publishing higher resolution versions of many images; there is also a link to a Google Earth application that maps the archaeological sites and allows to access some pages through a GIS interface.
This website publishes the preliminary reports of the recent excavations at Phoinike, near the modern town of Sarandë, Albania, by a team of Italian archaeologists at the University of Bologna. Phoinike was probably the capital of the koiní²n tí²n Epeirotí²n also known as Epirus. The excavations carried out since 2001 have concentrated on the basilica; theatre; thesaurí²s and some houses all dated to the Hellenistic and Roman periods. The website publishes illustrated texts and two galleries of pictures, one of the 1926-1927 excavations directed by L. M. Ugolini and one on modern Albania with photographs taken by P. Giorgi in Albania (some ethnographic and artistic photographs). There is a list of undergraduate and MA theses with indexes; news about the project; a list of publications by the current field team with indexes and contact details of the archaeologists involved in the fieldwork. This website may be useful especially to students; researchers may find some information on the latest findings.
The Mitrou Archaeological Project (MAP) is an on-going collaborative project between the University of Tennessee and the Greek Archaeological Service which aims to examine a small island in the Bay of Atalanti, eastern Lokris. Mitrou is largest prehistoric site known in the region and may have served as a port for the Late Bronze Age city of Orchomenos some 20 km to the south-west. The site has also been identified as the Opoeis in Homer's Iliad which sent 40 ships to Troy and was thus the home of Patroklos and Lokrian Ajax. The resource provides a brief introduction to the site and its prehistory, a series of useful topographical and archaeological pictures, a selection of the survey finds from the Early Helladic to the Protogeometric periods and details of the project personnel. This resource provides a basic introduction to an important archaeological site and information on fieldwork opportunities at the site.
The Mochlos Excavation Project involves the excavation of a number of related sites on the island of Mochlos and its adjacent coastal plain, located just east of the Bay of Mirabello in eastern Crete. There was extensive occupation from the Bronze Age through the Hellenistic era and into the Byzantine era. This website has pages on the Bronze Age on the island with the Early Minoan cemetery (very famous for the gold finds) as well as the Late Minoan III chamber tombs, the artisans quarters and the settlement at Chalinomouri on the mainland. There is also an updated list of publications. Students in particular may find this website useful; it is also good for teaching purposes.
This website focuses on the ancient settlement of Mohenjo-Daro ('Mound of the Dead'), which was an important centre in the Indus Valley from the Kot Diji phase to the Harappan phase (third millennium BC). This site contains over a hundred photographs of the settlement, an illustrated essay that provides a good introduction to the site, and an extensive bibliography. Mohenjo-Daro traded with Babylon and Mesopotamia; it existed while the Egyptian pyramids were built and was for a time the largest city on Earth: the first urban centre in the Indus Valley and one of the first in the world. Apparently, Mohenjo-Daro was abandoned suddenly, without any clear indication of what may have happened. No destruction layers have been found; no significant changes in the culture and no alterations in the funerary patterns have been detected. It seems that the Indus River changed course, and thereafter a parallel stream, the Saraswati or Ghaggar-Hakra River, dried up. Mohenjo-Daro and other settlements probably experienced depopulation and de-urbanisation rather than destruction and total abandonment. The pictures in this website show a settlement planned in detail, and are very evocative. Lecturers in need of pictures for a presentation or students looking for a concise introduction may find this website useful.
This digital archive, hosted by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS), details the excavations undertaken by the Museum of London Archaeology Service (MoLAS) in 1996 on the site of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, London. It is part of the 'Digital Archiving Pilot Project: Excavation Records' (DAPPER) project funded by English Heritage.Since the discovery of the Middle-Saxon trading port of 'Lundenwic' in London's West End during the 1980s, over 70 excavations have been undertaken - half of which have yielded evidence for the 7th to 9th Century settlement. However, many of these investigations were small-scale, and helped little in establishing a street-plan and layout for the port. The large-scale excavations at the Royal Opera House in 1996 provided an excellent opportunity to address this problem.The excavation's findings suggested the settlement reached a peak in the reign of Offa of Mercia (757-796 AD). The remains of 63 rectangular timber buildings were uncovered, along with evidence for a variety of of crafts and industries, including metalworking and weaving.The digital archive available via these webpages contains a substantial dataset for Middle Saxon urban stratified sequence of buildings, roads, yards and open areas. MoLAS utilised a hierarchical post-excavation system that divided the basic field contexts into groups and sub-groups. An explanation of this method is available in HTML, .doc and plain text formats. The groups themselves are available in ESRI shape file format, suitable for ArcView GIS. Comma-delimited files, for use within a relational database, detailing finds and context information are also available. The digital archive comprises files in the following formats: MS Word; MS Excel; Autocad R14; DXF; ArcView SHP; plain text; delimited text; dBase; Surfer; TIFF; WMF. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The Museum of London website provides a host of information about the museum and its collections. The site has details of permanent collections and of past and current exhibitions. The Museum's galleries deal with all aspects of London life. This site provides a taster for the galleries and exhibitions, which include life on and around the Thames from prehistoric times to the present day. The museum has a strong interest in the archaeology of London and this is reflected on the website. There is a section devoted to the London Archaeological Archive and Research Centre (LAARC), which includes a searchable catalogue of London archaeological sites and general information on archaeology in London. The learning section contains information and resources for teachers. Other features of the website include details on: opening hours, location, events and news. The site includes a database of oral sources, and contemporary opinions on London and by Londoners. Parts of the site (especially useful for visitors) can also be viewed in German, Spanish, French, and Italian.
Mycenae: Research and Publication is a website detailing excavations undertaken at this important ancient Greek site. The resource features both short texts and images (plans as well as photographs of the archaeological excavations and finds) to guide the user around the archaeological site. The resource is divided into the following key sections: the west slope; the prehistoric cemetery; the south house and annex; the cult centre; the temple complex; the room with the fresco complex. Details of relevant publications are also given. The website is a simple and rigorous introduction to the archaeological site of Mycenae for students, with several colour images.
The colony of Chersonesos in the Crimea was founded according to tradition about 420 BC. Excavations at Chersonesos began early in the 19th century and have continued ever since. The ancient city was continuously inhabited from the 5th century BC until the 14th century AD, when it was overrun by the Golden Horde. The best-preserved parts date to the Middle and Late Byzantine periods. Excavations are conducted each year by Ukrainian and foreign archaeologists. This website highlights the more interesting parts of the ancient city and its surrounding countryside (Chora). The preliminary results of excavations are presented as a gallery of photographs, principally of finds, with brief explanatory notes. Most of the pages contain large numbers of illustrations and can be slow to download. The "collections" section contains substantial parts on epigraphy and sculpture, and there are also many articles on the excavations. The website has many broken links and incomplete parts, but the completed parts are significantly larger than the average website for archaeological excavations, enough to satisfy both researchers and students.
This website focuses on the ongoing excavations at the Iron Age settlement of Zincirli Höyük, Turkey. The illustrated website presents past and recent research as well the research goals for the future in a several pages. Zincirli was the capital of a small Aramean kingdom and boasted a monumental palace, massive outer walls, and ornate city gates adorned with sculpted stone reliefs. A page outlines the main finds of the recent excavations, including a written stele naming a royal official called "Kuttamuwa". Further excavations are planned and volunteers may wish to contact the project directors. Both students and researchers may find this updated website valuable.
This website contains one final excavation report that summarises the work carried out at the Late Roman site of Nicopolis ad Istrum, Bulgaria, by Andrew Poulter. This is a short illustrated summary based on the final publication and will be useful especially to undergraduate students. One of the primary aims of the research was to explore the transition between the Late Roman and Early Byzantine periods (ca. 200-600 AD). The key finding was that the transition was all but smooth: a substantial change "in form, probably in economy, and certainly in function" that took place in the fifth century AD remains unexplained but at least evident in the archaeological record. The report outlines architecture, society and economy of the town before and after such transition.The project was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
A brief illustrated guide to the excavations at the Parthian city of Nisa in Turkmenistan undertaken by the Centro Ricerche Archeologiche e Scavi di Torino (University of Turin) and the National Department for the Protection, Study and Restoration of Historical and Cultural Monuments of Turkmenistan. The project, which begun in 2000, aims to establish a general topographical map of old Nisa and to study the spatial and functional relationships between individual buildings within this important Parthian centre, including the fortress in the southern part of the site. The Parthian kingdom was the political successor to the Persian Empire destroyed by Alexander the Great and, between 243 BC and 228 AD, was the most powerful entity in the Near East, covering a vast area taking in modern Iran and parts of Iraq, Turkey, Armenia, Azarbaijan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan. It rivalled successively (and successfully) both the Seleucid kingdom and the Roman Empire until it was conquered by the Sassanians in the 3rd century AD. The resource provides a useful overview of the excavation campaigns from 2000 onwards, with valuable up-to-date photographs of many of the buildings and excavation trenches as well providing information on the archaeological team from the University of Turin. The website is part of Parthia.com which provides the essential historical and archaeological background information to the site of Nisa itself which is lacking in this particularly context. "The Nisa expeditions" is a useful addition to the corpus of online websites of archaeological sites and would interest students and researchers of ancient history and classical and Near Eastern archaeology.
A prototype for a comprehensive interactive report on the Northwest Palace, Nimrud, Assyria (Iraq). The process of constructing a fully rendered 3D computer model is described in some detail. There is a gallery of test renderings and a partial VRML model of the throne room is available to explore. There are samples of scanned photographs and line drawings used in the design of architectural features. There is a section of transcripts of Conference Talks and Presentations related to the project and the background, including archaeological investigations is presented. This website is a preliminary version of a research study aimed primarily at researchers.
The trust was formed from a joint initiative between the Norwich Society and the Norwich City Council in 1966 and aims to preserve, restore and maintain within the City of Norwich for the benefit by the nation, buildings of architectural or historic merit. This basic website provides information on the history of the trust, its resources and administration. The majority of the site gives brief details of restoration projects undertaken by the Trust, many with before and after photographs. The projects are archived chronologically. Detailed captions describe the state of the site before restoration and a history of uses since restoration. There is also a short list of architectural and Norwich and Norfolk links. The website will be of most interest to those interested in architectural restoration or the urban history of Norwich.
This is the website of the Archaeological Resource Centre of Novgorod State Museum. It presents news and information about archaeological discoveries in the city of Novgorod and locations nearby. Excavation reports may be accessed via a map of Novgorod or by a list of texts. Alternatively, users may browse an index of images of important artefacts recently uncovered. Information about the organisation is provided, as are links to other useful web resources. Although the site is available in both Russian and English, some of the reports it contains are in one language only, and users may need to install Russian fonts to read some of the pages. This website is supported by the Open Society Institute (Soros Foundation).
The Origins of Angkor Archaeological Project is a multi-disciplinary research project being undertaken by the University of Otago Department of Anthropology and the Fine Arts Department of Thailand. The aim of the project is to assess the seminal aspects of the social, cultural and technological development in the Mun River valley of Northeast Thailand. Four sites have been excavated, a Bronze Age site Ban Lum Khao, and three Iron Age sites, Non Muang Kao, Noen U-Loke and Prasat Phimai. In addition, recent excavations at Phum Snay and Baksei Chamkrong have begun to shed light on the previously poorly understood prehistory of northern Cambodia. This work has been completed with the assistance of Earthwatch and their volunteers. In the 2002 field season, The Origins of Angkor Project began investigations at a new site in Northeast Thailand, Ban Non Wat. The website of the project provides information on each of the sites excavated, with a virtual excavation of Non Muang Kao where complete site notes and digitised plans are available. In addition there is a long list of references for archaeology in the area, a list of abstracts and titles for current research being carried out by participants, a list of radiocarbon dates obtained for the sites and a slide show of artefacts found (some of these images are quite slow to download).
This detailed website is devoted to the study of Ostia, the principal harbour of Imperial Rome. Detailed plans and descriptions are given for 52 of the buildings of Ostia Antica, and there are many photographs of the sites as they look now. Another section describes the history of the excavations, with links to other excavation reports available on the Internet. An extensive section on current research provides up-to-date scholarly reports, and there are also summaries of recent colloquia. Reference materials include an extensive but non-annotated bibliography, maps, plans, topographical indexes, and 3D models available only as pictures. A further section provides ancient textual sources of information on Ostia. Texts include passages from classical historians, inscriptions, and graffiti found on the buildings. Another section provides information on the relationship between Rome and Ostia and the significance of the town on the Tiber. This includes more general material on Mediterranean harbours and maritime history. The website also provides links to various other sites connected with the Soprintendenza of Ostia, Rome and Roman archaeology.
The website "Paris, ville antique - Paris, a Roman city" is beautifully produced interactive guide to the early history of Paris (Roman Lutetia) providing a guide to the archaeology and history of the French capital from ancient times to the early Mediaeval period and presented in a hypertext medium. The site has a very good English version. Although Neolithic and Bronze Age occupation from the 4th-3rd millennia BC is documented at Bercy and beneath the Louvre, the history of Paris really dates from the oppidum, or defended settlement, of the Parisii mentioned (and possibly destroyed?) by Julius Caesar during the Gallic wars in 53-52 BC. The settlement was transformed by the conquering Romans into Lutetia which became one of the largest and most sophisticated cities north of the Alps but which by the 3rd and 4th centuries AD had become a fortified settlement protecting the region from barbarian invasions. Sections on the site are: the City; aspects of daily life; archeology in Paris; and a virtual tour of Roman Paris. Key features of this website include: a history of the town describing its natural setting and indigenous Celtic inhabitants; a guided tour of the city relating the ancient and modern topography within an interactive map; an account of the history of excavation in Paris from the time of Gregory of Tours in the 6th century AD to the more explicitly archaeological work of the Commission du Vieux Paris and the Service Régional de l'Archéologie; sections on daily life, trade, manufacturing and artistic production revealed through artefactual remains. Also included is a useful concise list of key ancient sources and modern publications on the history of Paris and a chronological chart. Apart from its appeal to the general reader, this website is an attractive didactic resource for archaeology students at school and university.
This website provides details of a series of four AHRC-funded workshops and plenary conference exploring the development of the medieval landscape and settlements with in it. Each workshop was based around a broad theme (‘Planning and Meaning’, ‘Working and Sharing’, ‘New People, New Farms’, ‘Belonging, Communication, and Interaction‘) and the website includes synopses of these, a summary report of each workshop as well as an overview of the plenary conference.
The city of Petra in Jordan was one of the wealthiest caravan cities of the ancient Near East which particularly flourished in Hellenistic and Roman times (c.300 BC-c.100 AD) and is famous for its beautiful 'rose red' architecture and dramatic topography. This is the web publication of the excavations by Brown University, Rhode island at the Great Temple, one of the major public buildings located in the centre of the city, between 1992 and 2001. A concise introductory history of the town is followed by a guide to the architecture of the Great Temple itself and a series of detailed reports on the excavation, reconstruction and conservation work of the Brown University project. Plans and photographs are numerous and can be viewed as thumbnails or at large scale. An extensive bibliography back to 1993 and details of the paper publication are also provided. This is an attractively presented and informative site which will appear to students and researchers of Near Eastern, Hellenistic and Roman art and archaeology and provide up to date information on this important archaeological site.
A valuable series of 10 fact sheets produced by the Council for British Archaeology (CBA) to encourage local groups and individuals to become informed about and involved in planning decisions which affect the historic environment in England. Based in part on a larger CBA project funded by English Heritage to promote 'stakeholder' involvement in heritage matters, the fact sheets guide the reader through a broad spectrum of issues ranging from basic definitions of the scope, nature and importance of planning procedures to heritage management (including a review of the main international protocols and treaties relating to heritage management subscribed to by the United Kingdom government) to the practical workings of development planning on a national, regional and local scale and how planning strategies will impact on the historic environment. The fact sheets also provide useful information on how interested individuals and associations can get involved in planning decisions at a variety of levels (including at the stage of policy formulation) by providing guidelines to the types of heritage policies would be reasonably expected to be included in heritage protection plans. This resource is a very lucid and intelligently written introduction to the subject of planning the historic environment, and, while aimed in particular at the general public and the non-professional, there is much here to benefit students and researchers interested in public archaeology and heritage management.
This Web resource accompanies Penelope Allison's 2003 book 'Pompeian households: An analysis of the material culture' (Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Monograph 42) and provides a valuable description and analysis of the form, function and decoration of 30 atrium houses found in Pompeii, together with an extensive database of their artefactual contents. Published by the Stoa Consortium, this website will benefit students and researchers of Roman history and archaeology as well as those interested in the history of domestic interiors and the anthropology of space. The houses analysed here were excavated between 1826 and 1978 so the level of documentation varies tremendously. Many of the objects from older exploration lack contextual or stratigraphical information but Allison's careful analysis of the scientifically excavated houses provides a framework for understanding the masses of material which cannot be assigned a definite findspot. Each house is described room by room in terms of function, decoration and architectural layout (with plans and photographs). The houses are also placed within the wider urban context of Pompeii and readers with SVG graphics can browse an interactive map of the town which links with the main catalogue of houses. Earlier scholarly interpretations are also discussed in the light or more recent understanding of the archaeology of the town. The site also provides an extensive glossary and bibliography as well as help in using the resource and its database.
This website presents information and photographs relating to archaeological surveys undertaken in the forum at Pompeii, which was destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79. The Pompeii Forum Project is a collaborative venture sponsored by the National [USA] Endowment for the Humanities and the University of Virginia (amongst others). A large archive of black and white images of the buildings found there is online here, along with detailed reports on the technology and instruments used to undertake the surveys. Further reports give details of a project which uses the principles of structural engineering to investigate the reconstruction of Pompeii after an earthquake there in AD 62 (seventeen years before the eruption of Vesuvius). The focus is on the urban centre of the Roman city of Pompeii, and its urban history through to modern times. There are also links to further resources on Pompeii for use by teachers and students, and a list of lectures and publications relating to the project.
This website is a guide to the archaeology of Port Royal in Jamaica, one of the largest English colonies in the Americas in the 17th century and a leading centre for trade and licensed piracy in the West Indies until it was struck by a devastating earthquake in 1692 and a major fire in 1703. The settlement, the only legal port of entry to the Jamaican interior, thrived because of the trade in slaves, sugar and other raw materials but also because it from here than buccaneers pillaged the ships of the Spanish Main with official English approval. Its tolerant multiculturalism and rakish population gave it the reputation in its time for being the 'wickedest city on Earth'. The Institute for Nautical Archaeology of Texas A&M University and Jamaica National heritage Trust have been investigating the submerged portions of Port Royal since 1981, revealing a fascinating slice of the social, architectural and commercial history of the town. The resource provides a detailed analysis of the buildings and their finds. These can be compared with contemporary historical records, such as wills, maps, and inventories, which are also provided online and together provide a unique combination of artefactual and textual history. There is also a select bibliography of published articles on Port Royal along with abstracts of dissertations on material from the excavations. The Port Royal website will benefit students and researchers of historical archaeology and underwater exploration but also will provide useful material for early modern historians of trade and colonialism in the Americas.
This website accompanies a television documentary produced by Louisiana Public Broadcasting. "Poverty Point Earthworks: Evolutionary Milestones of the Americas" examines the site now called Poverty Point State Historic Site in north-eastern Louisiana. The archaeological artefacts discovered at Poverty Point provide evidence of a highly developed ancient American culture that inhabited the lower Mississippi delta between 1750 and 1350 BC. This site includes one of the largest native constructions in eastern North America and the earthworks are the oldest of their size in the Western Hemisphere. The website includes brief information about the television documentary, a reconstructed plan of the earthworks, a transcript of the program, video clips of the geographic location, site structure, mound structure and artefacts (these clips require RealPlayer 7 Basic to play correctly), a list of related websites and credits.
The website "Primae Venetiae" is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project, focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The site is in Italian and funded by the European Union. The area discussed here corresponds to the modern mainland area of Venice, Italy. Three major sites are presented: Torcello; Altino (Altinum); and Concordia Sagittaria. For each location the website provides a short historical introduction (storia), a selection of pictures of artefacts from the respective local museums (visita al museo), some pictures of Roman structures and discoveries made in their areas (base dati archeologiche), a bibliography as well as a few sections on printed bibliographical materials and other publications available in PDF. The PDF files can be accessed most conveniently from the pages of Concordia. Of the three locations, Altinum was probably the provincial capital, but is largely unexplored. Concordia was an industrial site where arrows (sagittae) were produced and Torcello, an island in the lagoon of Venice, was the place to where the political and ecclesiastical authorities of Altinum moved during late antiquity. Inhabitants of Torcello are thought to have founded Rivo Alto, the ancient settlement of Venice. This website is very straightforward and can be useful to both students and the general public. The site could also assist students of Italian to obtain themed vocabulary in this domain.
The webpage of Professor Jeffrey R. Zorn focuses on Tell en-Nasbeh, which is a multi-period settlement some 8 miles north of Jerusalem in Israel. Many scholars believe the settlement to be the biblical site of Mizpah, the scene of many important events in the Bible. In this attractively presented and well illustrated website, Dr. Zorn of Cornell University attempts to re-interpret the results of the old excavations from the 1920s-1930s in the light of more recent research into the archaeology of the Bronze and Iron Age in Israel. The author provides a useful introduction to the biblical history of the town, illustrated with extensive quotations, in addition to a brief history of the older excavations and a full bibliography of research up to 2006. Also included is a stratum by stratum description of the archaeological levels which extend from the Late Chalcolithic to the Hellenistic and Roman periods, illustrated with many useful, though rather small scale, photographs. Of added interest is a series of video clips of the 1935 excavations (MPG format) and a large scale reproduction of the original site plan from the 1947 report. The website also provides a link to the excavations at the important Iron Age site of Tel Dor excavations which are directed by Professor Zorn. There is also a collection of papers and articles (in PDF format) published by the author. This resource will be useful to those studying or interested in the Bronze and Iron archaeology of ancient Israel at a basic level and provides a useful interface between material culture and biblical texts.
This is the Project Troia website describing the results of the recent renewed excavations at the ancient city of Troy in north-western Turkey. This is a multidisciplinary archaeological and environmental project, sponsored by the University of Tübingen Institut für Ür- und Frühgeschichte and the University of Cincinnati Department of Classics, designed to re-examine this famous archaeological site in its wider landscape context. The website provides an outline of the aims and methods of the project together with a series of illustrated annual reports outlining the results of the renewed excavations at Troy in addition to various news items (including recent media coverage) relating to the project. This resource also includes a guide to recent research on Troy and its surrounding region published in the journal Studia Troica, providing tables of contents and abstracts of the relevant material, and a description of the 2001-2002 German museum exhibition Troia Traum und Wirklichkeit (Troy Dream and Reality), a virtual version of which can be accessed via the Project Troia web page.This resource is also available in a German language version. This website, and its related links, will be of use to undergraduates and graduates working in Mediterranean and Anatolian archaeology as well as to museologists, especially those interested in virtual museums.
"The Pylos project" website details the 1991-1998 excavations at the Bronze Age Palace of Nestor in the Western Peloponnese, Greece. The Pylos Project home page gives access to background material on the Bronze Age and post-Mycenaean occupations of the settlement. Reports on the 1991-1993 and 1994-1995 excavation seasons are also provided, accompanied by a bibliography of related material. The project utilised GPS, GIS and remote sensing via Landsat images, the implementation of which is described in the website. Unfortunately, the images intended to accompany the text are not available on the website. Although the resource can be still useful for students, researchers should check the recent literature.
This website presents the results of the Pylos Regional Archaeology Project (PRAP), which investigated the history of land use and landscape development around the Late Bronze Age palace (the so-called Palace of Nestor) near Pylos in Messenia, south-western Greece. In addition to preliminary reports of fieldwork between 1992-1997 and a bibliography of research by PRAP members, the site also provides detailed reports on the re-examination of finds from 1998-2005. The site also contains the following: a gazetteer of archaeological sites with accompanying thumb-nail maps; pottery and small finds databases, with images and descriptions of finds; a three-dimensional tour of the Palace of Nestor (this requires Quick Time); and photographs of the study area. This resource will be of particular use to undergraduate students and researchers interested in Mediterranean landscapes and survey methodology and in the long-term economic and social history of south-western Greece.
This website focuses on the Cypriote site of Pyrgos Mavoraki, which is being excavated by a team of Italian archaeologists led by Maria Rosaria Belgiorno. Pyrgos Mavoraki dates to the Early and Middle Bronze Age and has appeared in the news for its metallurgical workshops, where olive oil was used as fuel; an established industry of perfumed oil seems also proven. A page illustrated with large colour pictures outlines the history of the excavations and contains contact details of the excavator. There are also some notes on the palaeoenvironment and results of radiocarbon analyses. Individual pages concentrate on the different productive activities that have been recognised in the archaeological record: metallurgy (with full downloadable posters containing short texts, pictures and graphs); perfumes; textiles (short paper illustrated with colour pictures); wine; a personal section containing "free thoughts". At the time of review large parts of the website were still under construction, but what is available exceeds the expectations of a preliminary report. Pyrgos Mavoraki appears to have been an important site for the manufacture of luxury products and it is a great opportunity for the general public, students and researchers to follow the discoveries with little delay. The website is supported by the National Research Council of Italy, the Italian Foreign Office and the Municipality of Pyrgos-Limassol, Cyprus.
This is the official website of the Italian archaeological mission excavating the archaeological site of Qatna, also known as Mishrifeh, which dates from the Early Bronze Age III and IV (2600-2000 BC) to the Iron Age II (ca. 900-600 BC) periods. During the Bronze Age, Qatna was an independent kingdom contended by the Egyptians, the kingdom of Mitanni and the Hittites. The excavations have unearthed a vast Royal Palace, the second largest palace in Syria after that of Mari as well as a large pottery manufacturing area on the top of the acropolis. This website contains short texts and is thoroughly illustrated with maps; satellite and aerial photographs; colour photographs of architectural structures and artefacts; and drawings. A complete and updated bibliography of the excavations can be accessed directly or downloaded in PDF format. The useful menu on the top simplifies the navigation of this website. This website is principally aimed at students and the general public, but can also be used for teaching.
This resource presents a full report by R. Ross Holloway (Brown University) and Susan S. Lukesh (Hofstra University) on the excavations at the Bronze Age citadel site of I Faraglioni, Ustica carried out in May and June 1999. The report details work carried out in continuation of the 1991 and 1994 excavations looking at the changing nature of occupation along the interior of the citadel's defence walls. The report, although short, is well referenced and illustrated and is presented in an easily readable format. The illustrations, although small, are clearly captioned and the text contains bibliographic details of associated reports. An alternative version of the page with pictures is available from the Internet Archive.
This is the official website of the "Return to Cnidus" research project by the British Museum. The project started in 1997 and it includes digging sections of the ancient town of Cnidus, Turkey. Cnidus was an important Hellenistic town founded around 360 BC. British archaeologists have researched the area since 1812, and now several buildings have been unearthed. A short summary of the results of the excavations is the most valuable part of the website at the time of review. A list of publications produced by members of the project can be found in the introductory page. Students may find this website useful.
This is the official website of the excavations at Ugarit (Ras Shamra), in French only. There are short illustrated articles and an updated bibliography. Clicking on some illustrations opens larger pictures and some maps of the archaeological site may be of particular interest.
Ugarit was an important Bronze Age settlement and harbour, the site of a local kingdom and the principal "port of trade" in the Levant for tin, which was sourced in Elam and reached Ugarit via Mesopotamia. A special quarter at the harbour (Minet el Beida) hosted representatives of foreign powers that traded with the kingdom. Ugarit was conquered by the Egyptians (1400-1350 BC) and later by the Hittites (1350-1200 BC), though the kingdom enjoyed some freedom in trade. Texts in seven languages have been found in most houses, some of which were written in the local language, Ugaritic. Substantial amounts of Cypriot and Mycenaean pottery have been found in Late Bronze Age contexts. Ugarit was destroyed by the so-called Sea People at the end of the Late Bronze Age.
This website publishes preliminary reports in German on the excavations of the Roman town at Lahnau-Waldgirmes, Germany. The website contains a map, pictures and description of some artefacts and information on the canalisation system across the archaeological site. The website is frequently updated and may be useful to both students and researchers.
This website publishes the preliminary results of the excavations at Sagalassos, Turkey. The town is located in the region of Pisidia, which was formerly under Persian and Hittite control. The recent excavations have unearthed a number of Hellenistic architectural structures such as the Bouleuterion; the Market Building and the Agora. Several important Roman buildings such as the Odeion; Hadrianic Nymphaeum; Makellon (a food market); and Roman Baths have also been uncovered. There is also a list of printed publications and a bibliography in PDF format; the "The Sagalassos Series" and "Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology" can be purchased from this website. This website may be useful especially to students.
This website summarises the excavations at Sand Canyon Pueblo, one of the most significant Pueblo III village sites in the central Mesa Verde region, southwestern Colorado. The first section of this site is a descriptive and interpretative summary of all findings by architectural block. Some tables, interactive maps and a bibliography complete what is in fact an excavation report. Frequent hyperlinks to the second part of the site, which is a database containing maps and descriptions of each block, provide further information and integrate the information. Minor annoyances on the site are the many hyperlinks opening in a new window and the interactive maps that are downloaded again each time the magnification is changed. This website may be useful to researchers.
Shropshire County Council publishes Secret Shropshire as part of the Digital Midlands project. The site looks at the local history, natural environment and archaeological of the county, and offers 10,000 images and 300,000 records taken from the Shropshire Archives. The site can be fully searched by keyword, browsed by area, or explored by theme or learning journey. Amongst the themes covered are aerial photographs and maps, buildings and monuments, human activity, human history, landscapes, natural history, people and events, transport and communication, and the learning zones cover topics like crime and punishment, the Battle of Shropshire in 1403 and mining.
The Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project is a multi-disciplinary research project set up to investigate the use of land in a typical north-west Norfolk parish. A range of archaeological techniques is being used to study the parish. The website gives brief details of a number of projects, some with interim reports of their results. There are detailed descriptions of archaeological techniques, post-excavation activities, and of the techniques used in making facial reconstructions from excavated human skulls. News about the organisation set up to coordinate the project and current activities are available. There is also a forum to discuss recent activities and eventually get involved in the project. Researchers and professional archaeologists may be interested in this website.
This website publishes the preliminary reports of the excavations at Sepphoris, Israel, by the University of South Florida from 1993 to 2001. Some of the reports are illustrated, and should be treated with caution as more complete publications are available on paper. A revised edition of an academic paper appeared in Israel Exploration Journal [44, 3-4 (1994), pp. 216-227, and 45, 2-3 (1995), pp. 171-187] and entitled "Excavations at Sepphoris: The Location and Identification of Shikhin" by Strange, Groh and Longstaff is available along with a bibliography of early publications and a preliminary report Joan Keller on glass finds. This website acts as archive for reports of early excavations at Sepphoris and may be of interest especially to researchers. A separate website (Zippori) documents the results of recent excavations.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Byzantine site of Caricin Grad, Serbia, which has been identified with Justiniana Prima. If the identification is correct, then the town was founded by emperor Justinian (527-565). A series of articles present an overview of the discoveries, with particular focus on Christian and military buildings, the urban plan, and material culture. The site is located in the ancient province of Dacia Mediterranea. There is a bibliography and a 'diaporama' - a gallery of pictures.
The archaeological site of Sha'ar Hagolan in the Jordan Valley in Israel, dating from the 6th millennium BC, is one of the most important early Neolithic villages excavated in the Near East and has produced an impressive quantity of ancient art objects and the largest assemblage of prehistoric artefacts recovered in the country. This resource offers a guide to various aspects of the settlement which has been excavated by Yosef Garfinkel of the Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, since 1989. The website provides a brief summary of the aims and methods of the research excavations and an account of the historical significance of the site as well as a brief note on the Sha'ar Hagolan museum and some images of the excavations and its key artefacts. An online version of Garfinkel's article "The Yarmukian Culture in Israel" from the journal Paleorient 19, 1 (1993) provides a useful introduction to the Neolithic background of the site and is complemented by a short bibliography of key readings (in addition to the more extensive bibliography published with Garfinkel's article). This site is a useful addition to the online resources available in Near Eastern prehistory for knowledgeable undergraduate students and researchers.
This website provides information about Reading University's The Silchester Town Life Project. Silchester was called by the Romans "Calleva Atrebatum" and was located within the territory of the Atrebates, one of the major late Iron Age tribes in southern Britain. The project initiated with excavations of the Insula IX during 1997-2002; a section of the website focuses on that part of the project. The excavations are described in site diaries and blogs (especially for the most recent seasons) which presents a number of artefacts and brief descriptions of each week's digging activity and the archaeological features uncovered. Excavations are still being carried out. There are links to reports on the excavations of each season and a finds report. There is a movie gallery and a picture gallery; the website is being expanded as excavations progress. Students may be interested in the regular Field School, which is open to volunteers. This project has received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the research grants scheme.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The site is in Portuguese and focuses on Bracara Augusta, a Roman provincial capital on the Iberian peninsula, in modern Portugal. The website introduces the reader to the history of Bracara from before its foundation as a Roman town up until the Middle Ages, when Bracara became Braga. The historical account is supported by an extensive chronology summarising important events in the town and its state during the reign of the Roman emperors. Short illustrated articles in the "base de dados" present accounts on all the most recent excavations in the area, which can be accessed by a simple click. The website includes a small but basic bibliography. All these sections are illustrated with small colour pictures and ancient prints. However, the section "visita" examines in greater detail some of the surviving architectural structures and associated artefacts. Apart from conventional buildings such as the spa and a domus, the website also presents structures such as the frigidarium, a sanctuary to a local divinity and the local cloaca. A few reconstructions in the form of both computer-generations and drawings accompany the illustrations, as well as maps. The navigation of the site is very simple and it is also possible to access directly other sections of the Simulacra Romae project. This website may interest both students and researchers thanks to its comprehensiveness and clarity.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. Burdigala, in modern Bordeaux, was a Roman provincial capital located in France. The website, which is in French, contains an account of Burdigala's history, which includes a reconstruction of the ancient town and its perimeter traced onto a modern aerial photograph. The virtual visit "promenade" provides access to illustrated articles on several buildings and artefacts relevant to the Roman period. It is possible to access them either via a clickable map or a list and the articles appear in a new window. The articles focus on the main Roman monuments such as the amphitheatre, the necropolis and the mithraeum. There are also short introductions to the museum and recent excavations. An extensive bibliography is provided. The navigation is very simple and it is possible to access from any page the other sites which are part of the project Simulacra Romae. This website is an introduction to Roman Bordeaux that may be of interest to students and the general public, but of particular note for historians, archaeologists and classicists. At the time of cataloguing both the 'chronologie' and the 'articles en ligne' sections were under construction.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. This site is in Spanish and focuses on Carthago Nova, a Roman provincial capital located on the Mediterranean coast of Spain, on the site of modern Cartagena. The introduction concentrates on the history of Carthago Nova and is richly illustrated. There is also a short accompanying chronology. The section "visita monumentos" focuses on the monuments of the area. The illustrated articles can be accessed by clicking on a map or selecting them from a list and they helpfully open in a new window. The section on monuments includes articles on the Phoenician wall, the amphitheatre, the domus Fortuna and domus Soledad, the harbour, villas, necropolis, mines and fishing bays in the area. Another article focuses on the development of the ancient town. Some articles are illustrated by colour pictures, drawings and maps. A separate illustrated section presents the artefacts in the museum and there is an extensive bibliography. The section entitled "articulos on line" contains several papers in PDF format about the Roman past of Cartagena, its region and archaeological research carried out in the region. Subjects include: the necropolis; building activities; hydraulic engineering; frescoes at the casa (domus) de la fortuna; coins; the introduction of the Tuscan order in architecture; the use of construction materials in late antiquity; and the role of computer science in archaeology. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The site is in Spanish and focuses on Corduba, a Roman provincial capital located in Spain, on the site of modern Cordoba. The history of Corduba is richly illustrated and contains several maps of the development of the Roman town. A short chronology outlines the main events. The virtual tour of the town "visita monumentos" presents illustrated articles concentrating on themes such as cellars, ceramic ovens, funerary and domestic architecture, and the walls. This is a good insight into social practices of the time. In addition there are monuments featured such as the old (Aqua vetus) and new (Aqua Nova) aqueducts, the sanctuary of imperial cult, the palace of Maximianus Herculeo, the bridge and Bridge Gate, Villa Cercadilla, the Forum, Via Augusta and the theatre. The archaeological map, in a separate section, completes the visit to Roman Corduba by plotting on a map all the discoveries dating from the Roman era, with short information provided for each record. There is an extensive bibliography, and many scholarly papers freely available in PDF format in the section entitled "articulos". The papers explore many topics of Colonia Patricia Corduba, as Roman Cordoba is known in Spanish. Subjects include Roman pottery, domestic architecture, funerary traditions and contexts and several of the monuments presented in the articles are analysed in greater detail. This website can be useful for both students and researchers.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The capital presented here is Emerita, a Roman provincial capital located in Spain, on the site of modern Merida. This website includes a short history of Emerita and a chronology. The virtual tour (visita) of the Roman town includes mostly themes such as hydraulic, defensive and transport infrastructures, villas, religious buildings and funerary contexts. There are also articles focusing on a few specific monuments such as the thermae, the forum, theatre, circus, the amphitheatre and the domus. The illustrated articles are accessible via a clickable map or a list and the articles open in a new window. A detailed list with addresses of all the excavations dating from the Roman period in the town is accessible in a separate section. For each excavation a full report in PDF format can be downloaded. A few papers are also available in the section "articulos". The subjects discussed include the history of the territory from prehistory to late antiquity, research on funerary contexts, as well as papers on Visigoth and Islamic artefacts.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The site is in French and discusses the Roman provincial capital of Lugdunum, located in France, and known as modern Lyon. The website introduces the readers to Lugdunum with a short history and chronology. The virtual tour (promenade) of the Roman town concentrates on the main monuments, including the forum, theatre, odeon, sanctuaries, industrial quarters, the necropolis and the aqueducts. The illustrated articles are accessible via a clickable map or a list and open in a new window. The texts are generally short and simple. This website also contains an extensive bibliography and a few papers are freely available in PDF format. It is possible to access from any page the other sites which form part of the Simulacra Romae project. This website is very simple and serves as an introduction to Roman Lyon for students.
This website is part of the "Simulacra Romae" European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The site is in French and provides information on Narbo, a Roman provincial capital located in France, on the site of modern Narbonne. The website introduces the readers to Narbo with a short illustrated history and chronology. The section "Les fouilles" contains brief illustrated articles on excavations of Roman artefacts and buildings in the area of Narbonne. One page focuses on some interesting underwater findings in the harbour. The sites are plotted on a clickable map or can be accessed by address. Whilst this website does not provide the most comprehensive introduction to Roman Narbo, it does contain information on minor and recent excavations which may be more useful to researchers. There are useful links to other part of the Simulacra Romae site.
The website "Simulacra Romae : Tarraco" is part of a European project focusing on Roman provincial capitals. The capital discussed here is Tarraco, a Roman provincial capital located in Spain, on the site of modern Tarragona. The site is in Spanish and introduces the Roman town with a short history and chronology. The virtual tour "visita" divides the monuments according to their location within or outside the town walls. Short illustrated articles are accessible either via a clickable map or a list and open in a new window. Monuments presented include the theatre, amphitheatre, forum and necropolis, while the tower of the Scipios, the mausoleum of Centcelles, the aqueduct and the Arc de Berí are also featured. The database (base de dades) is a repository of information about most archaeological excavations from the Roman period in the area. The records can be selected on a map or list and open in a new window. The records are generally short and provide only essential information, but often include plans and sections. The website also contains an extensive bibliography and some papers are freely available in PDF format from the section "articles on line". The papers and database may be of interest to researchers, while the other sections of this website introduce the Roman heritage of Tarragona and may be useful for students.
This is the official website of the Superintendence of Pompeii, the public organisation responsible of the excavations and conservation of Herculaneum; Oplontis; Stabiae; Boscoreale; and Pompeii, the wealthy Roman city near Naples destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. An English translation is provided for some pages, but is often rather unidiomatic. Navigating the website is unnecessarily difficult. Several useful resources are buried deep within it - suggested itineraries, a history of the excavations, pictures and descriptions of the individual buildings. The English version sometimes difficult and incomplete. The Italian version is substantially different and with more contents: it is a pity that the main website of UNESCO site could not be translated in English. A Flash animation (the world of Caius) is aimed specifically at children and is available in the English version. There are many virtual panoramas (QuickTime, Flash, and IPIX plugins required), also in the English version.
The Italian version contains important sections, briefly reviewed here. Section "La Soprintendenza" focuses on the organisation and activities of the Superintendence. Clicking on "modulistica" (forms) there are the forms and bureaucratic procedure to submit the request for an authorisation to publish photographs and videos, which is required also for published scholarly works. Clicking on "laboratorio di ricerche applicate" (the archaeobotanical lab) and then on "banca dati" it is possible access to an updated list of plant remains found during the excavations at Pompeii; going back one level and clicking on "bibliografia" instead it is possible to access the bibliography. Clicking on "ufficio stampa" (press office; also a separate section) will provide access to all recent official communications (comunicati stampa), and there are also the links to the "mediacenter" (a simple selector of virtual panoramas) and the "fotopiano interattivo" an interactive aerial view of Pompeii from where virtual panoramas of 24 buildings can be accessed. The panoramas are larger than usual, but also of low quality. "Mediacenter" and "fotopiano" are also accessible from other sections. Section "siti archeologici" has very limited contents, useful are just the PDF maps of the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum; practical information to visit the archaeological sites (more information in section "info visita"); some information on the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD (including poignant pictures of casts of victims); and the "mediagallery" (gallery of pictures). Sections "mostre ed eventi" (exhibitions and events) as well as "progetti e ricerca" (projects and research) are very similar and provide some information on recent projects and other activities. This website has some contents for everyone, but there are very few contents for researchers since most sections contain images and virtual panoramas (useful for students and in teaching), news, or practical information. The short texts (mostly in Italian) appear inadequate for use at academic level and target the general public.
The archaeological collections of the City of Southampton are detailed in a database at this website. Over 15,000 objects have been catalogued, with entries including: their construction material; the period from which they date; the site at which they were found; their physical dimensions; and any other general information that may be of interest to archaeologists. Photographs are included of many of the objects, though these images are of variable quality. The search engine provided by the site is effective and allows combinations of restrictions to be placed on the search, such as a specific period or settlement.Elsewhere, the site provides historical summaries of Southampton and its environs in every era from the prehistoric, through the Roman, Saxon, and Medieval, up to the early modern. The collection also features a small number of Egyptian artefacts, and a few miscellaneous curiosities brought back by travellers from elsewhere on the globe. Simple maps show the areas of Southampton occupied by previous settlements. The site also provides information as to the City Council's methods of documentation. The opening hours, location, and contact details of the Southampton Museum of Archaeology are provided, along with information regarding the Museum's identification service. A list of annotated links to related websites is also included.
This website publishes high quality pictures of the largest Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae, or "Mirror of Roman Magnificence". Such collections of artistic views of Rome and its ancient monuments were started in 1540 by Antonio Lafreri. Section "itineraries" includes eight tours of Rome using a choice of pictures made by some scholars, who also provide comments: it is perhaps the best way to access the repository for the first time. Tours include "The Belvedere Cortile: An Early Museum of Ancient Sculpture"; "Beatrizet and the Speculum"; "Viewing Ruins"; "Prints and Ritual in Renaissance Rome"; "The Campidoglio Engraved"; "Castel Sant'Angelo: A Military Itinerary Through Rome and the Speculum"; "Love and the Gods"; and "The Eternal City: Maps of Rome in the Speculum". An adequate search facility is also available. Both students and researchers of Classical archaeology and history of art may find this website useful.
This is the personal homepage of Christine Kleibscheidel. It contains information about her research and some of her full-text papers as well as her MA thesis. All texts are in German with English abstracts. There is a section on her research about water supply at Rostock, Germany, in Medieval and early modern times (13th to 18th centuries). She particularly focuses her attention on wells, shafts and wooden pipes found at excavations in Kröpeliner StraÃƒÅ¸e 34-36 and 55-56; Kleiner Katthagen 4, and KuhstraÃƒÅ¸e. Her MA thesis instead focuses on "basic methods used by traditional archaeology to determine gender in Hallstatt period graves", where she criticises traditional archaeological methods to identify gender as unreliable and suggests that only data obtained through skeletal analysis can be trusted. The texts in PDF and Word format are hosted on a free website with plenty of ads and popups.
This is the official website of the Stonehenge Riverside Project, which is focusing on Durrington Walls, in the World Heritage site including Stonehenge. The project aims at testing Parker and Ramilisonina's hypothesis suggesting that Stonehenge, a circle of stones, was a monument built to practise rituals for the dead, while Woodhenge, a circle of timbers found not far from Stonehenge in 1967 near Durrington Walls, was instead built to practise rituals for the living people. According to this view, stone was the preferred material to be used in rituals involving the ancestors because it was considered to be eternal as the ancestors while wood was the preferred material for rituals limited to the world of the living because wood is a perishable material like humans.
This website publishes a summary of the fieldwork carried out so far as well as yearly interim reports in PDF format containing several drawings and photographs. The 2006 field campaign has unearthed 8 dwellings and identified many more through a geophysical survey. The settlement has yielded pig and cattle bones; pottery; flint arrowheads and lithic debris. Prof. Mike Parker Pearson has interpreted the evidence unearthed so far as part of a seasonal settlement, where feasting within religious rituals and other ceremonies took place. This website is an essential resource to be informed on the latest discoveries concerning Britain's most famous Neolithic monument because it contains the preliminary reports of the past fieldwork and is aimed primarily at archaeologists (students and researchers). The 2006 season of the project was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the National Geographic Society and the McDonald Institute.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Syrian site Mari. The settlement was founded ca. 2900 BC and became an urban centre with an important palace. A significant archive of cuneiform tablets has been found at Mari, also containing literary and mythological texts. This website gives only a summary of the evidence, with short illustrated articles, and therefore it may be of most use to students. There are thematic articles on: urbanism; architecture; statuary; paintings; and archives. The article on urbanism is especially interesting, as it contains some information on the earliest phase of Mari; the reconstruction of the site by the Shakkanakku dynasty; and the system of canals used for irrigation. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) contains a number of colour images of the site and of some of the findings. There is also a map, a bibliography, and a glossary.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Tell Aswad, Syria. Tell Aswad is a large tell dating to the Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB). This resource presents the site and the research carried out there through a series of illustrated articles. These focus on: stratigraphy; architecture; funerary practices; stone tools; and figurines. The site is distinct from any other in the region because of its unique architecture. Several pictures and a summary are provided in the relevant section on architecture, but no comparisons are made. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) contains higher resolution versions of all images presented with the text. There is also a map, a stratigraphic sequence, a table of C14 dates, and a glossary of terms. This website is intended as a preliminary report, and therefore is aimed at researchers.
This website published by the French National Institute for Research in Preventive Archaeology (INRAP) focuses on the recent (2005-2006) excavations of a Roman villa near the northern French harbour of Saint-Malo. There is an introduction in PDF format accessible from the home page (only a few texts are also available in the website); a few drawings of the villa; a video interview with archaeologists Romuald Ferrette (director of excavations) and Michel Baillieu; an interactive virtual visit to the excavations (QuickTime panoramas); and a glossary. Although the website lacks more substantial interpretive texts, its reliance on multimedia visualisation makes it very suitable for teaching at all levels. The clear drawings reconstructing the villa at different phases of its architectural development and the virtual visit can be used to illustrate Roman villas in general. Researchers may find in the PDF handout, the video and the virtual tour a useful introduction to what has been unearthed.
This website provides an online guide to the Tafila-Busayra Archaeological Survey (TBAS), a three year project (1999-2001) carried out in the Trans-Jordanian Plateau south-east of the Dead Sea which was intended in part as a hinterland study of the Edomite capital of Busayra. Conducted by Dr Burton MacDonald of the St. Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia, the project attempted to connect, both geographically and chronologically, with the work of the Wadi al-Hasa Archaeological Survey (WHS; 1979-83) and the Southern Ghors and Northeast 'Arabah Archaeological Survey (SGNAS; 1985-86). The survey area, covering a region of some 480 sq. kilometres in the region from west of Tafila and Busayra to Jurf ad-Darwish in the east, had previous been explored by Nelson Glueck in the 1930s and Stephen Hart in the 1980s. The resource provides illustrated summary reports (including valuable artefact scatter data) which can be downloaded as Word files for each of the three years of the project along with bibliographic references to the paper publication in the American Journal of Archaeology, the Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan and the American Center of Oriental Research Newsletter. This resource will benefit specialists and students in Near Eastern archaeology, particularly those interested in long-term landscape developments and intensive inter-disciplinary survey methods.
Tel Dor is one of the few natural harbours on Israel's Mediterranean coast and is one of the country's largest archaeological sites. Throughout Biblical times the harbour acted as a magnet, drawing commerce and conquerors to the Carmel coast. The University of California team's work focuses on the ancient citadel and its approaches and the Roman temples. Previous work at Tel Dor has already revealed the huge stone gate of Solomon's city, cylinder seals from Assyrian times, numerous terracotta figurines from the Persian occupation, well-preserved stone walled houses from the Hellenistic period, and mosaic floors dating to Roman times. The website has brief excavation reports for the seasons of 1986 through to 1999. There is a bibliography and information for volunteers; a link to the official website of Tel Dor is also available.
This website, featuring the new excavations initiated by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 2003, provides a valuable illustrated overview of the history and archaeology of Tel Dor, including a comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography, and includes details of the project personnel and publication strategy of the project. Tel Dor is a large and important archaeological site on the Mediterranean coast 30km south of Haifa which played an important part in the commercial and cultural history of the Levant in the second and first millennia BC, though the archaeological record extends almost continuously down to Crusader times, circa 1300 AD. A period by period account outlining older and more recent discoveries is complemented by useful interactive photographs which provide a virtual guided tour of Dor. The chief aims of the new work and the wider research issues include: to provide a detailed stratified database to study cultural and ethnic changes at the town over time, particularly the presence and role of the Sea Peoples and the Phoenicians in the Late Bronze and Iron Age I-II periods; to further define the role of important harbour settlements such as Dor in the economy of inland empires, such as the Assyrians and the Persians, who dominated the region in the first millennium BC; the Hellenisation, and later Romanisation, of the indigenous populations of the region in the later centuries of the first millennium; the application of scientific methods such as sedimentology to aid the understanding of site formation; the application of computer technology to ceramic analysis. Given the quantity and quality of the archaeology and the important historical questions raised by Dor, this website will interest students and researchers in ancient Near Eastern and Eastern Mediterranean archaeology and history.
This website describes the results of the renewed excavations at Tel Hazor conducted since 1990 by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Complutense University of Madrid and the Israel Exploration Society. The bulk of the website is a series of illustrated reports covering the years 1991-2008 (further reports are planned), together with an introduction to the history of Hazor and a basic bibliography of recent research. This website will provide a useful introduction to the site for undergraduates studying Near Eastern archaeology or biblical studies or to those interested in participating in archaeological fieldwork in Israel. Students and volunteers may also find information to participate in the excavations.
Tel Hazor was the largest urban centre in Bronze and Iron Age Israel, straddling the major communication routes to Egypt, and played an important role in the history and culture of ancient Canaan and the biblical world. It has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site.
This website provides a brief overview of Tell Abqa'in's history and presents pages on several portions of the site itself, namely the central gateway, perimeter walls and wells. Tell Abqa'in, located in the Bahriya Governorate, seventy five km south-east of Alexandria, Egypt, has long been regarded as one of a chain of forts constructed during the reign of Ramesses II on the edge of the western portion of the Nile Delta and out to the west along the coast. However, the only other known fortress is located 300km west of Alexandria at Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham. As part of a major project to examine this Ramesside military occupation in Marmarica and the Western Delta, a University of Liverpool team directed by Susanna Thomas has been working at Tell Abqa'in since 1996.
The Tell Brak / Kilise Tepe archive is the result of an archaeological excavation focusing on the contextual analysis of the use of space at two Near Eastern Bronze Age sites. This archive represents the raw material of a project designed to collect and analyse data from two Near Eastern excavations, Tell Brak in north-eastern Syria, and Kilise Tepe in southern Turkey. The project was jointly initiated by Dr. R.J. Matthews and J.N. Postgate, and was funded by the Leverhulme Trust. The archive consists of introductions to the excavations at Tell Brak and Kilise Tepe; reports on archaeobotanical, zooarchaeological, micromorphological and ceramic analyses. The files composing the archive can be freely downloaded; they are in BMP; delimited text; plain text; MS Word; MS Excel; GIF; HTML; RTF formats. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The website describes the Tell Brak project in Syria carried out by archaeologists at Cambridge University, and focuses on the "investigation of urban growth and administration in Northern Mesopotamia in the 4th and 3rd millenia BC". The website lists relevant publications, the personnel involved in the project, research aims and results and is of use to graduates and postgraduates, or indeed anyone with an interest in archaeology, the period, or Syria. Through the project, the researchers explored the nature of urban settlement, the Akkadian imperial presence, and the post-Akkadian city as a focus of one of the earliest known Hurrian kingdoms.The Web page describes the physical features of the location, and Brak, a so-called "gateway City". The ancient name for the city was Nagar, which was a centre of Akkadian imperial administration. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
This website in the form of a blog publishes up to date information on the archaeological site of Tell es-Safi. Tell es-Safi is a large archaeological site located between Jerusalem and Ashkelon, which has been identified as Gath, one of the major Philistine centres. Preliminary reports are often linked, but contents are subject to change at short notice given the preliminary nature of such publications. This website may be useful to both researchers and students interested in the archaeology of Israel and the Philistines. Students may find information on how to participate in the excavations.
The "Goliath inscription", which is is written in archaic “Proto-Canaanite” script, but contains two Indo-European? names, Alwt and Wlt is worth singling out as a notable discovery from the site.
This is the online publication of the Oriental Institute of Chicago excavations at Tell es-Sweyhat on the banks of the river Euphrates in northern Syria. Sweyhat is one of the innumerable tell sites littering the semi-arid landscape of the Middle East and offers an insight into the development of urban civilisation and long-term occupation history at a relatively small settlement in this area from the Late Chalcolithic to the Late Roman/ Islamic periods ca. 4000 BC - 7th century AD. The Early Bronze Age levels of the settlement are particularly important and have produced rare examples of wall paintings from high status buildings of the early 3rd millennium B.C. The resource consists of a series of annual reports on the excavations and survey work at Sweyhat between 1991 and 2000. The later reports are well illustrated with contour maps, plans of architectural and archaeological contexts and numerous objects recovered from the site. The maps and plans can be viewed in large frame format. This lack of a more general introduction to the archaeological site and its region and the absence of overall conclusions or bibliographies mark this resource as being very much for the specialist researcher or dedicated undergraduate as the annual reports are presented in a format typically found in print journals. Nonetheless this website provides a useful guide to a excavation project at a relatively small and historically unimportant city.
This webpage is an extensive illustrated summary report of the excavations at Tell Halula, Syria, by a Spanish archaeological mission. The settlement of Tell Halula has been founded during the Pre Pottery Neolithic B period (ca. 8700 years ago) and has been in use also during the Pre-Halaf and Halaf periods (until ca. 6700 years ago). The research carried out at the site has addressed issues of early monumental building; the construction of the first canals for irrigation; evidence of social stratification; emergence of cattle farming, agriculture and pottery. The version in Catalan should be preferred; a high resolution of the pictures is available by clicking on them. The 2006 preliminary report is available in Spanish only from the home page of the website as a PDF file.
The Tell Leilan Project website publishes data, reports, analyses and papers from the excavation and survey at Tell Leilan, Syria. There are several full-text papers and posters ("publications"); details of recent conferences where the project has been presented; ArchaeoSim, a Java-based interactive applet for exploring social and natural dynamics of third millennium BC Subir, northern Mesopotamia ("simulations"); and articles from news reports. Section "works in progress" contains several illustrated preliminary reports, including maps produced after a regional survey, a spreadsheet detailing tablets and sealings in the Lower Town Palace, geomorphological survey project, retrieval of the Akkadian administrative building, schoolroom tablets, city gate with volume calculations. Many articles contain an extensive bibliography; hyperlinks within bibliographies usually provide access to the papers, articles or data, which are usually in PDF, Excel or PowerPoint format. The volume calculations PowerPoint presents a case study of GIS manipulation of 3D sections, georeferencing, vectorising and data manipulation that may be used in teaching.
Tell Leilan was a farming centre that fro importance within the Akkadian Empire. A layer dated to 2200 BC proves that climatic change affected the settlement; in particular a prolonged draught seems to have affected the site and according to the excavators might have caused the fall of the Akkadian Empire (several papers are available on this thesis). The Assyrian king Shamshi-Adad I (1813-1781 BC) expanded the settlement building a royal palace and the city gate; he also renamed it Shubat-Enlil ("the residence of the god Enlil"). The settlement prospered until 1726 BC, when king Samsu-Iluna of Babylon sacked it.
The archaeological site of Madaba 30km south-west of Amman in the highlands of modern Jordan is best known its well preserved Byzantine buildings and mosaics, including the famous mosaic map of Palestine discovered in 1896 but the area has in fact been the focus of urban settlement for more than 5000 years. The Tell Madaba Archaeological Project (TMAP) of the University of Toronto has examined the development of early urban society around Madaba since 1996 and has attempted to chart its long history of occupation from a Early Bronze Age tell site to a modern population centre within the wider context of long-term changes in subsistence and environmental adaptation. The settlement began as a medium-size tell site around 16 hectares in extent situated in the fertile upland plains of central Jordan. The town is mentioned in the 9th century BC Mesha inscription which provides an important link between ancient Moab and the Bible while later sources and archaeological remains attest to its wider prominence in ancient times. This resource introduces the aims and methods of this research project, provides a brief background to the archaeological site and its region along with preliminary reports of fieldwork from 1996 onwards and includes a concise bibliography of past scholarship and discoveries. The text is illustrated with numerous attractive satellite maps of the area as well as GIS topographic plans which will be augmented in future with full site plans, details of finds and video footage. This website is intended in particular for undergraduate students and researchers in the archaeology and human ecology of the Near East.
Tell Ta’yinat is a large low-lying mound located 45 kilometres west of Antakya (ancient Antioch) in Southeastern Turkey. This website publishes the preliminary reports of the University of Toronto excavations and a summary of previous research. As part of this research project, the data gathered in the Amuq Valley by the University of Chicago are being reviewed. The illustrated preliminary reports (1998 to 2005 at the time of review) are the most useful asset of this website that may be useful to both students and researchers.
Past and present excavations have unearthed so far several large palaces (called bit hilani); a temple; and numerous beautifully carved stone reliefs and sculptures. The history of the settlement spans the Early Bronze (ca. 3000 to 2000 BC) and the Iron Age (ca. 1200 to 550 BC). The discovery of ancient inscriptions has allowed scholars to identify the archaeological site as ancient Kunulua, capital of the Neo Hittite/Aramaean Kingdom of Patina/Unqi.
Tell Tuneinir, on the Middle Khabur river in north-eastern Syria, was continuously occupied from the Bronze Age to the mediaeval periods circa 2500 B.C.- 1500 A.D. and was a very active commercial and manufacturing town in the latest phases of its existence as well as being home to an elaborate Syriac monastic complex. This attractively produced resource provides a concise account of the results from the current excavations conducted by St Louis Community College, St Louis Missouri together with a bibliography of publications by the expedition team. The website provides an area by area description of the discoveries at Tell Tuneinir with plans and photographs of the buildings and archaeological contexts as well as selections of the small finds. The Bronze Age levels are particularly rich in zoological remains. There is a particular emphasis on the Byzantine and Islamic periods whose houses, market buildings and places of worship have been uncovered. The website thus provides a useful overview of a Middle Eastern settlement of the medieval period which will be of use to students and researchers of Late Roman, Byzantine and Islamic archaeology and art history as well as to those interested in the earlier levels of the settlement.
The Teotihuacan website is devoted to the Aztec religious site located in the Mexican Highlands. Although the site was probably founded in the second century BC, most of the surviving monuments were built in the first centuries AD. The website, maintained by Arizona State University, USA, and the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, presents the site and its monuments, including: the Avenue of the Dead; the pyramids of the Sun and Moon; the Feathered Serpent pyramid; and the ciudadela (settlement). For each monument there is normally a short description, a few pictures (click to enlarge) and a Quicktime movie. The sections on the pyramids of the Moon and the Feathered Serpent are extensive and present most archaeological evidence in detail, including: past archaeological excavations; the architecture; burials and graves; offerings; aerial views; and colour maps. Scientific analyses of stone; shell; ceramic; and organic materials and C14 isotopic analyses that have been carried out at the Feathered Serpent pyramid are summarised. The sections about these two monuments also benefit from an independent menu. A few maps, a chronological table and more movies are also available in separate sections. The movies are useful but short and the images are of low quality. A separate section publishes a journal, Teotihuacan Notes. A few illustrated articles by specialist scholars and excavators are available. These include topics such as: iconography at Teotihuacan; possible official military emblems from the ciudadela; the V Manta complex; "Cult and Activity Areas in a Domestic Context at Oztoyohualco"; and, in Spanish, decorated pottery. Teotihuacan is an important site of Mesoamerica and although the website hasn't been updated for a while, it provides an excellent introduction.
This Italian website publishes an extended and illustrated report on the terramara of Poviglio "Santa Rosa". The terramare were a type of lake-dwellings characteristic of the northeastern Italian peninsula during the Bronze Age. The website publishes a series of referenced essays authored by archaeologists. Unfortunately, there is no bibliographic list to see the titles of the references, but author and year of publication should be enough for researchers to find them. Section "percorso espositivo" publishes the brief texts displayed in the museum for the public. The remaining sections are full essays, focusing on stratigraphy; radiocarbon dating; loomweights; stone artefacts; funerary archaeology; the end of of the terramare. The terramara has been used to teach schoolchildren archaeology (a summary of the experience is available) and to involve the general public through a photographic exhibition. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The British School at Rome’s Tiber Valley project studies the changing landscapes of the middle Tiber valley from 1000 BC to AD 1000. The website is composed of a series of introductions to parts of the project, including a study of local Roman towns, a survey of South Etruria and excavations at Forum Novum - Vescovio. The Roman towns project analyses urban settlements in the middle and lower Tiber valley of central Italy, ranging from the larger privileged centres down to the smaller agglomerations and roadside sites. Conducted by a team from the University of Southampton. The town of Falerii Novi in particular has received a good deal of attention, and the website includes a geophysical survey of the town. The other towns discussed in the preliminary results section are: Baccanas; Castellum Amerinum; Forum Cassii; Otricoli; Portus; and Vignale. This part of the project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme. A bibliography and notices of past conferences complete this website. Students in particular may find it useful.
This website describes the history of the Roman town of Caistor. Surviving Roman remains in Caistor St. Edmund show the development of the town during the period of the Roman occupation. Details of the town defences, as revealed by excavation, are given. The economic relationships of the town are discussed and its industries described. The website is illustrated with a map showing the location of Roman remains, plans of the Roman town at various phases in its history and reconstructed views of the Roman Town. The history of the current parish church is also briefly described. A bibliographic note (further information) concludes the short series of pages. The website may interest both students and researchers interested in the area or old excavations.
The mound of Umm el-Marra, located in the Jabbul Plain east of Aleppo in northern Syria, was an important urban centre occupying a strategic position on the east-west routes connecting the Orontes Valley and the Mediterranean with the Upper Euphrates, which flourished between 3000 and 1200 BC. This attractively presented website provides a useful overview of the excavations conducted by John Hopkins University and the University of Amsterdam since 1994 and includes numerous maps, illustrations and drawings of the discoveries together with an up-to-date recent bibliography. A particular aim of the expedition is to explore the development of urbanisation in western Syria and the Upper Euphrates Valley in the course of the 3rd millennium BC and to determine the relationship of Umm el-Marra with better documented centres in the region, particularly the famous site of Ebla which dominated north-west Syria in the later 3rd millennium BC. The site is also believed to have functioned as a 'gateway' between the settled communities of the plain and the nomadic populations of the steppe lands to the east. The website provides a period by period overview of the Bronze Age levels, chronicling the fluctuating economic and political fortunes of the city, particularly the urban floruit of the Early Bronze Age, its 'decline' and almost total abandonment of the site in Middle Bronze I (2000-1800 BC), and its later relationship with the powerful kingdoms of Yamhad (Aleppo), Mitanni and the Hittites. Another phase of abandonment around circa 1200 was followed by more sporadic occupation in Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Roman and Islamic times but the site appears never to have regained its relative importance in the Bronze Age. This resource will benefit students and researchers working in the archaeology and early history of the Near East and is a useful addition to the corpus of online site reports for archaeologists working in this area.
The first extraction at Little Paxton, Cambridgeshire was fairly low-tech but, with the growing demand for houses and roads after the Second World War, gravel was extracted on a more intensive scale. Now the gravel extraction is at a large scale managed by Aggregate Industries. This company is working with Birmingham University Field Archaeology Unit to ensure that important archaeological remains are fully recorded before quarrying begins. This website is part of a larger site for the Nature Reserve that exists at Paxton Pits and provides information about the results of archaeological excavations at the site. The remains discovered show that the area was occupied for over 4000 years. Many of the settlements were identified by aerial photography of the crops before they were harvested and the topsoil was removed. Finds were collected from within the ploughsoil, and by digging trial trenches. Three Iron Age settlements were excavated in detail, providing opportunities for comparison between settlements of different size, date, and layout. The area continued to be farmed during the Romano-British period (1600-1950 years ago) until 400 CE. There is a short description of the results of the excavation, and some photographs of excavated sites and finds from the pits.
'Underground history' is an amateur website which provides a fascinating insight into both the industrial archaeology and the transport and social history of London. The author, Hywel Williams, assembles and presents a substantial portfolio of photographs, maps and background information on some forty decommissioned sections of the London Underground system which provide an alternative history of the Tube (and the Capital in general) from the late 19th century onward. The information is presented station by station and according to whether the tube lines were constructed by the deep level method or the cut-and-cover one. Other defunct underground features, such as the Kingsway tram underpass or obsolete entrances, passageways and platforms of extant stations are also included. The website, which is part of London Transport Web Ring, also presents weblinks to both official and unofficial organisations relating to public transport history and infrastructure, as well as a guide to novels and TV programmes featuring the underground system or using decommissioned stations as backdrops. Additionally, the author provides details of how to gain access to those parts of the network usually not open to the general public. While this resource is aimed primarily at the amateur transport historian or interested members of the public, there is much here too for the benefit professional historians of London and its transport system.
'Urban Archeology in Beirut: a preliminary report' [sic.] provides online access to a study presented to those scholars invited to become members of the International Scientifique Committee. The text provides information about an urban archaeology program in the central district of Beirut (at the site of Ancient Berytus). The exposed remains date to three periods: the Hellenistic to Byzantine period (300 BC to 600 AD), the late Medieval period (1000 - 1700 AD) and the period associated with the reconstruction of the Souk area (1840 AD). This website provides information about work undertaken at the site, and also contains details of some of the finds made from the excavations. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
This website concentrates on the study of settlements in southwestern Colorado between the years 600 and 1300 AD. It presents computer models based on agent-based software showing how environmental conditions could have shaped the history of the Puebloan peoples of the American Southwest. The models try to demonstrate that the changes in settlement patterns cannot be attributed to environmental causes only, and are simply illustrated with GIS maps. This website makes available also some black and white maps and a few compiled bibliographies. Notably, some of the papers and posters published by project members are freely downloadable in PDF format. The rest of this website, however, is of general interest only being an introduction to the project.
This is the website of the Virtual Kahun project, a collaborative venture between the Manchester Museum and the Petrie Museum, London. This project brings together the excavated material, separated in various museums since its excavation by Flinders Petrie in the early part of the 20th century, in the form of a digital archive and 3D interactive reconstruction of the original excavation report. The town of Kahun in the Fayoum of lower Egypt was home to the pyramid builders of the 12th Dynasty King Senwroset (1897-1978 B.C.) and was abandoned after less than a century of occupation. The excellent preservation of many items belonging to the inhabitants, many apparently in situ, provides a unique opportunity to study everyday life in ancient Egypt. The resource consists of an illustrated introduction to the archaeology of the town and to Petrie's excavations there between from 1890s-1920s, including links to complete online texts of some of the original publications. A searchable database allows the reader to browse the artefact collection record by object type, provenance, material and period. The 3D reconstructions allow a virtual visit to every building which was excavated by Petrie (unavailable at the time of last review). Also provided are teaching notes to accompany the National Curriculum Key Stage 2 which, when combined with the images and maps and the Virtual Egypt link, make it an ideal resource for schools. This website will appeal to a wide audience: school children and their teachers, the interested amateur, undergraduates and researchers in archaeology and museologists.
This website introduces an AHRC-funded project exploring the Saxon and Medieval archaeology of the town of Wallingford, in Oxfordshire, UK. With its rich townscape, preserving its medieval street pattern, large number of historic buildings and defensive structures (Saxon burh, medieval earthen ramparts and Norman castle) and a significant undisturbed archaeological record, the town has been identified by researchers due to its potential, yet the very limited amount of attention it has hitherto received. This project aims to employ a variety of approaches to expand knowledge of this key townscape and shed light on the nature of Saxon and Norman urbanism. The website details the results of the excavation seasons carried out so far, together with information about the study of Wallingford, including a comprehensive bibliography. The website also has a series of posters from the various trenches to read and download. The main project ran from 2008-10, but elements are continuing. A monograph is in preparation for the Society for Medieval Archaeology.
This website constitute the home page for not one, but two projects. The first is the 'Water supply of Constantinople', a study primarily investigating the Valens Aqueduct system that runs from modern-day Vize to Istanbul. The second project focuses upon the 5th to 7th century defences west of Istanbul known as the Anastasian Wall or the Long Walls of Thrace.The 'Water Supply of Constantinople' pages provide access to a large amount of information regarding the hydro-engineering undertaken by the Emperor Valens and his successors around Istanbul. The aqueduct constructed by Valens took 30 years to complete and stretched 150km, although over the next 150 years its length was extended to over 250km. Much information regarding previous excavations is provided. By investigating the changes in water supply and demand, the project aims to gain a better understanding of the life and development of the medieval city.The 'Anastasian Wall' pages discuss the project's aims and accomplishments, whilst also presenting information about the structure's background and history. A major facet of the project is the surveying of the remaining wall portions, the results of which are discussed by splitting the wall into north, central and south sections. Both sections of this website are navigable either by a standard toolbar, or by an interactive Flash map that depicts Constantinople and its surrounding region (and structures). Fieldwork reports from both projects and provided in English, although Turkish versions of the reports and the site itself appear to be under construction.
This website gives a description of the deserted medieval village of Wharram Percy, describing the occupation of the site from the Neolithic to Medieval period. The web pages include plans of the medieval village, a brief description of the church, and details of occupation throughout the history of the site. The text includes hyperlinks to glossary items.
This website provides archaeological information on Whittlewood, which is situated on the Northamptonshire/Buckinghamshire border between Towcester and Buckingham. The project aims to explain the origin and survival of contrasting patterns of nucleated villages and of dispersed settlements by examining the influence of prehistoric and Romano-British use of land; the chronology of medieval settlement formation; the significance of such factors as environment, demography and lordship on the settlement patterns; the functioning of the settlements in the 13th and 14th centuries; their varied experience of contraction after 1350. These topics are being addressed by archaeological fieldwork and historical research on 12 parishes in the Whittlewood area. The project receives funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB).
This website is an online publication of the archaeological excavations at Woods Canyon Pueblo, a large Pueblo Indian village situated in the Mesa Verde region of south-western Colorado. The village was occupied for about 150 years, and the departure of the village inhabitants toward the end of the thirteenth century coincided with the general depopulation of the Mesa Verde region as a whole. Eleven chapters synthesize the archaeological data and provide analytical and interpretive summaries; descriptive details are available in the accompanying electronic database. In addition, an activity designed for primary school children ("Woods Canyon Pueblo: Life on the Edge") focuses on the reasons why the village inhabitants choose to build their home on the edge of a very steep canyon. This activity includes interviews with archaeologists and contemporary Native Americans. The website succeeds in providing in-depth archaeological data from the site in an accessible format for academics, the interested public and an education package for children.
Yautepec was a significant Aztec city whose king ruled over several lesser city-states in the Yautepec river valley. The ruins of the city lie adjacent to and under the modern city of the same name, situated about 50 miles south of Mexico City. The Royal palace at Yautepec is the first such structure to have been excavated by archaeologists. Work is still ongoing. This website describes the excavations so far undertaken at Yautepec. It provides photographs of some of the structures and artefacts unearthed. The significance of the remains is explained, and there is a short section on urban life in Aztec Yautepec. There are maps of the site and a short bibliography of further reading.
The Yavneh-Yam Project, begun in 1992, is being conducted under the auspices of the Department of Classical Studies, Tel Aviv University. The site is situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, between Ashdod and Tel-Aviv. The project is intended partly as a training excavation for students, and the website is keen to recruit for forthcoming excavations. The aim of the project is to analyse the physical and social-anthropological characteristics of the various civilizations that have occupied the town since antiquity. These have included Greeks, Phoenicians, Jews, Christians, Samaritans, and Muslims. The website introduces the history and geography of Yavneh-Yam, and describes the excavations that have been undertaken. It also includes illustrations of some of the more impressive finds that have been made. A section on the recreational side of the excavations is intended to tempt future participants, and an online application form is available for those so induced.
This website is an online publication of the archaeological excavations at Yellow Jacket Pueblo, a large Pueblo Indian village situated in the Mesa Verde region of south-western Colorado, USA. The village was occupied for about 220 years, and the departure of the village inhabitants in the late thirteenth century coincided with the general depopulation of the Mesa Verde region as a whole. Thirteen chapters synthesize the archaeological data and provide analytical and interpretive summaries; descriptive details are available in the accompanying electronic database. The database can be browsed by archaeological feature, site wide data (including maps, photographs and tree ring dating results) and background information (including site overview, history of excavations and fieldwork techniques). The website succeeds in providing in-depth archaeological data from the site in an accessible format for researchers.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Tamna (also known as Timna; modern Hajar Kuhlân), ancient capital of Qataban, Yemen. The site was in use during the first millennium BC and became especially important during the fifth century BC thanks to extensive trade links. The website contains a series of short texts on recent studies and excavations by a French team and includes plans, colour pictures and an updated bibliography. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles.
York Archive Gazetteer is an online gazetteer which contains records of nearly 1,000 excavations and watching briefs undertaken by the York Archaeological Trust since 1972. The gazetteer gives a brief description of the archaeology found at the sites and the type and period of the major archaeological features encountered. The York Archaeological Trust was set up in 1972 to respond to the widespread threats to York's buried past posed by accelerated development. Anaerobic waterlogged deposits in some parts of York have preserved a wide range of organic objects which would not normally survive. Artefacts of: cloth; wood; and leather in remarkable states of preservations have been recovered from a number of sites. As a result the York Archaeological Trust has built up a collection of artefacts of particular importance. Probably the most spectacular and famous consequence of these investigations has been the unearthing of well preserved structural remains and paleoecological material dating from the Anglo-Scandinavian (Viking) period of the York's history. This has enabled a detailed reconstruction of the city at that time - a reconstruction which can be experienced at the Jorvik Viking Centre.
The York archive gazetteer is accessed via the ADS ArchSearch catalogue and can be searched alongside a number of additional datasets.
Excavations at Zeitah ('Zayit' in Hebrew) began in 1999 with the aim of understanding life in a local town setting in ancient Israel. Zeitah is situated in the Beth Guvrin Valley, located approximately 15 miles east of Ashkelon and 30 miles southwest of Jerusalem. The site was chosen in part to redress a perceived imbalance in archaeological research in ancient Israel, which has tended to concentrate on large urban sites at the expense of typical smaller settlements. Excavations thus far have unearthed remains dating from the Ottoman and Crusader periods, late Roman walls, and an ostracon dated to the mid eighth century BC. Recent work suggests that the town was subjected to a major military assault around 1200 BC. The project focuses on the period from the Late Bronze Age to the Iron Age. The website presents the archaeological site and the results of the excavations. There is an image gallery of the excavation areas and some of the finds. The website also provides information and an application form for students and volunteers.
This is the website of the Zippori (Sepphoris) excavation project, an archaeological site in the Lower Galilee between the Mediterranean and the Sea of Galilee. It is run by the Israel National Park Authority. This resource includes information on: Zippori during the Roman Period; the Art and Architecture of Byzantine Zippori; the Mosaic Pavements of Roman and Byzantine Zippori; a Bibliography; and a History of the excavation and the Hebrew University team. A history of the site's excavations is provided, as are recent reports on the park, running from 1998 onward.
Zippori, a former ancient capital of the Galilee, possessed a vibrant religious, commercial, and social community. Today, Zippori covers 16 square km and the excavations were opened to the public in 1992.
Ziyaret Tepe is a large man-made mound or Tepe on the banks of the Tigris in the Diyarbakir province of south-eastern Turkey which appears to have been the Neo-Assyrian capital of Tushan established by Ashurnasipal II (reigned 884-859 BC). This website offers an brief, attractively illustrated guide to the site which has been excavated since 1997 by an international team of scholars led by Timothy Matney of Akron University, Ohio and Lynn Rainville of Sweet Briar College, Virginia. It provides a useful source of information about on-going excavation and past research at this important, but largely unexplored, settlement, and will benefit undergraduates and researchers working in Near Eastern archaeology and history. Ziyaret is located in a highly strategic position connecting upper Mesopotamia with the Anatolian highlands, a position which gave it considerable commercial and military activity significance in Bronze and Iron Ages, particularly in the context of Assyrian imperial expansion. The excavations suggest that the settlement itself was occupied as early as the Early Bronze Age (c3000 BC) as well as producing evidence for activity as late as the Roman period. Of particular importance is the discovery of an archive of cuneiform texts, otherwise very rare in Anatolia in this period, dating from the very end of the Assyrian domination c620-610 BC. The website exists in English, German, Italian, French, Turkish, Norwegian versions with Arabic and Persian promised for the future (along with other features which are still in progress at the time of writing).