Summary of results of a survey carried out as part of reconsolidation works at Abbey Cwmhir, Radnorshire, carried out by the Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust in 1988. A historical account of the abbey is presented as background to the survey and the survey methods are described. An account of the original materials and building methods is given. Two photographs and a drawn elevation illustrate the surveyed masonry. The page is one of the project summaries presented on the CPAT website.
An extensive website, "The Abbey of Saint-Germain of Auxerre" covers the history and archaeology of the Abbey, thought to date originally to the 5th century when it was a simple oratory for the housing of relics. St. Germanus, the Bishop of Auxerre noted for his miracles and suppression of the Pelagian heresy in Britain, is held responsible for this original building and was buried there after his death in 448 AD. The website gives information on the Saint himself and the various stages of building that were erected over and around his burial place in honour of his cult - resulting in the transition from oratory to basilica to abbey. In addition to the history and archaeology of the Saint and Abbey, a discussion of the intellectual influence, liturgy and architecture that were associated with the site. A virtual tour of the abbey is also available through photographic and 3D computer reconstructions.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Hili (Abu Dhabi), Arabia. The site is a Bronze Age oasis on the shores of the Persian Gulf; several illustrated articles describe the recent discoveries. In particular, the possible trade contacts with Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley are analysed. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
This website focuses on Abu Hureyra, which is a site located in the Euphrates River Valley and was inhabited from ca. 11,500 to 7,000 years ago. It offers some of the data that was used to write the book 'Village on the Euphrates' by A.M.T. Moore, G.C. Hillman and A.J. Legge. It also provides an extensive bibliography. The founders of Abu Hureyra were hunters and gatherers, who began farming regularly around 11,000 years ago. The importance of this site cannot be overstated, as this is the first known place on Earth where farming was practised. In addition, Abu Hureyra was continuously inhabited for about 4,500 years. During this long period the climatic period of Pleistocene gave way to Holocene, very much changing the environment. Abu Hureyra is a fundamental site for social studies addressing the change from a nomadic to settled community and for long term studies of ancient economics, an invaluable source of information for further understanding of human adaptation to environmental change, and crucial to any study on the origins and early development of farming. This resource barely introduces the site, but does contains many tables of data, available in Word, RTF and Excel format. The tables include the levels taken, which can be plotted on a map; burials; and a list of stone tools. Since the interpretation of Abu Hureyra relies heavily on scientific analyses, especially of organic remains, only a specialist audience can understand most of the findings, which are available in print only. However, the list of burials and stone tools can be of great value to research into the society and economy of Abu Hureyra, and will complement the printed publications. The raw data published on this website are aimed at experienced researchers.
Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis is a full-text journal focusing on the archaeology of Romania. Individual papers or entire volumes in PDF format are available; papers are published in either English, French, German and Romanian. There are papers focusing on the Eneolithic Cucuteni culture; Bronze Age Transylvania; Iron Age Thracians and Scythians; Roman Dacia; and Romanian Middle Ages. Special volume V, 1 concentrates on funerary archaeology and includes also papers on iconography; symbolism and Byzantine Antikythira, Greece.
"Aegaeum," or Annales d'Archéologie égéenne de l'Université de Liège are a series of printed monographs on Aegean themes. Only one number is freely available in downloadable PDF format and this is the recent (2001) "POTNIA. Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age" edited by Robert Laffineur and Robin Hägg. This book is an updated reference text on the subject of religion in the Aegean Bronze Age, but it is already out of print. Its complete and free publication on the Internet is most welcome for anybody interested in Minoan or Mycenaean religion. The key subjects featured in the book are Minoan peak sanctuaries, shrines in Minoan buildings, the Minoan "Snake Goddess", Mycenaean sanctuaries, cultic figurines and, of course, Potnia. The Web page lists and provides access to a separate PDF file for each contribution to the edited volume, for a grand total of 54 papers in 491 pages. These papers were originally presented at the eighth international Aegean conference. The page also links to a complete list of all volumes published in the series Aegaeum, some of which can be purchased online.
This website publishes the preliminary reports of the excavations of the sanctuary of Apollo at Soros (ancient Amphanai or Pagasai) near Vólos, in Thessaly, Greece, by the University of Thessaly. This simple website contains short illustrated reports of the activities of each year. The temple was used from the Late Archaic to the Late Classical period and probably four silver coins of the Thessalian League (2nd or 1st century BC) were hidden after the abandonment of the temple. The excavators have found on the south-eastern corner a rock cut channel, which has been compared with one found on the island of Delos at the "Oikos of the Naxians" building, dated to the Archaic period. Some architectural structures found during the excavation may belong to a previous building. The excavation is yielding numerous artefacts from a fill layer; among the finds are: ceramics (including storage vessels, miniature vases and lamps), large female clay figurines; bronze jewels; and glass artefacts.
This website acts as portal for resources on Egyptian archaeology published by the Frank H. McClung Museum of the University of Tennessee. The website lists the special exhibitions held by the museum and archives the resources written in those occasions; it also publishes occasional papers. At the time of review, there were two exhibitions available: "Ancient Egypt, the eternal voice" and "Scholars, scoundrels, and the sphinx"; both are educational in their scope and aimed at an audience up to undergraduate level but can be also used in teaching. The former exhibition summarises some key concepts on history; daily life; religion; and writing in ancient Egypt by examining a few artefacts, reproduced in colour. There are some illustrated introductory texts on the culture of Naqada and its characteristic "wavy-handled" jars; jar sealings; the concept of ba and cats in Egyptian religion; funerary practices and scarabs. The latter exhibition uses old black and white photographs and is an unusual introduction to early excavations. The referenced paper entitled "Papyrus: a blessing upon pharaoh" is an overview of the production and consumption of papyrus in ancient Egypt and it mentions some particular uses such as its use in boat building, cooking and medicine. Students up to the undergraduate level and teachers may find in this website a useful introduction to some aspects of ancient Egypt.
Merv is an ancient town founded ca. 500 BC on a oasis in the desert by the rulers of the Achaemenian Empire to improve trades between India and Europe on the route that would be later known as Silk Road. The town has changed many rulers and names throughout its history and was known as Antiochia Margiana during the Hellenistic period. Since the 7th century AD the town became a major Islamic centre important for the Arab expansion; in the 740s the Abbasid revolution started here with the conquest of the town by Abu Muslim. This website summarises the history of the town and the ongoing archaeological excavations, with particular care in presenting the conservation activities of the town built on mud bricks. An updated list of publications and theses on Merv is available. There are also colour pictures and QuickTime panoramas available in section "Rotating Imagery of Ancient Merv". The AHRC funded ceramic database appears promising, but at the time of review was not working.
This website publishes the online version of the exhibition "Ancient Treasures and the Dead Sea Scrolls" held at the Canadian Museum of Civilization between 2003 and 2004. Through a series of short and illustrated articles, on all main topics related to the material culture in Israel during the First and Second Temple periods (ca. 1000 to 500 BC), the website presents the cultural context of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and not just the scrolls themselves. The menu activates itself by hovering the mouse over the table of contents, but the actual menu may appear anywhere in the page. The index appears a more practical way of navigating this website. Some audio commentaries and even entire lectures (for example check out "Women in the Dead Sea Scrolls" by Dr Eileen Schuller) are available in Real Media format. A useful bibliography is also available. This website may be useful especially to undergraduate students.
This website published by the Archaeology Data Service publishes the "Anglo-Saxon Kent Electronic Database" (ASKED) by Sue Harrington and Stuart Brookes. It contains a complete listing of all burials and artefacts from 52 early Anglo-Saxon Kentish cemeteries, with photos of object types. It was produced as part of two PhD theses. The database can be queried online or downloaded as a series of CSV tables. "The resource at the heart of ASKED is the archaeological evidence for the Anglo-Saxon populations of east and west Kent AD 400-750. The evidence consists of the human skeletal remains, the grave goods and the burial structures from inhumation cemeteries". Both researchers and advanced students may find this resource useful.
This website publishes the results of the research project entitled "Illness, health and socioeconomic conditions in the ancient Egypt. A multidisciplinary project" and coordinated by Prof. Edda Bresciani of the University of Pisa. The simple website is an online database containing data about all known Egyptian mummies conserved in Italy. As part of the project, several palaeopathological and genetics tests were carried out and these are available by clicking on the top menu in each record. The data available for each mummy are sometimes scanty, as it was impossible to perform a robust set of tests on all mummies, but at least the cause of disease and some essential information are given for every mummy. Unfortunately, at the time of review parts of the database did not work properly, leaving some data inaccessible.
This is the official website of the "Archaeology in the Levant" research project at the University of California at San Diego. The website provides information on the activities of the Levantine Archaeology Lab, and particularly of the research on GIS applied to Levantine archaeological sites. The website also publishes preliminary reports of field excavations and studies, among which are "the Edom Lowlands Project: Iron Age State Formation in Southern Jordan, ca. 1200 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 500 BC"; " the Chalcolithic Sanctuary at Gilat, Negev Desert, Israel"; and "Ethnoarchaeology in India: Traditional Bronze Casters in Tamil Nadu".
This is the illustrated report of the excavations by the York Archaeological Trust at Driffield Terrace, York. The archaeological site is a Roman cemetery; post-Medieval houses have also been unearthed. Grave 1150 is of particular interest because the deposed individual was decapitated and inserted in a coffin, possibly along with horse bones. At least three other individuals were decapitated and collectively buried in grave 1103; they were found in a single coffin used for four inhumations. Grave 1130 also contained three decapitated individuals, buried in a coffin along with a large quantity of animal bone. At least another grave contained a decapitated individual and several others are suspected to have contained decapitated individuals, but the state of preservation does not allow a secure identification. The date of this phase of the cemetery is 3rd century AD. Decapitations are not uncommon in Roman cemeteries, but they are usually a tiny minority. Instead, in the section of the cemetery excavated they constitute the majority of burials. The deposition of horses is also uncommon. There is no final interpretation yet, but several possible explanations are presented in this engaging report. The report contains an extensive bibliography.
This website publishes a collection of illustrated articles, each focusing on individual archaeological sites in Israel. Among the topics are Akko during the Crusader Kingdom; the Canaanite sites of Arad, Gezer, Hatzor and Nahal Refa'im; the Chalcolithic sites of Be'er Sheva , Golan, and Cave of the Treasure (metal hoard); Bethsaida (of Biblical fame); the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Carmel Caves; the Philistine settlements of Ekron and Tel Qasile; the Herodium; Jericho; Jerusalem; Masada; Megiddo; the Islamic Nimrod fortress; Qumran (settlement and Dead Sea Scrolls); a Roman boat from the Sea of Galilee; Shaar HaGolan (Neolithic figurines); Tiberias; Timna (copper mines and Hathor Temple); Zippori (Sepphoris); and several articles on recent discoveries and underwater archaeology. Many articles focus on Biblical archaeology, but there are also some on prehistoric, Roman, Islamic and Medieval archaeology. This website maybe useful especially to students considering the introductory character of the articles.
This website publishes the video recordings (with slides) of the conference "Archéologie du judaïsme en France et en Europe" held in January 2010. There is a full program of the conference in PDF and each presentation including introductions and discussions can be watched online. Most presentations are in French and aimed at scholars. The conference focused on the Middle Age, but there are also some presentations relevant to Classical antiquity (i.e. Roman catacombs; Saranda in Albania and Syracuse in Italy). Researchers may find this website very useful.
These Web pages contain photographs of archaeological remains (architectural features and sculpture) from Athens and the surrounding region of Attica. The following sites are featured: the Akropolis (Acropolis); the agora; the Kerameikos; the Pnyx; the Olympieion; the region of Attica; Sounion; and Thorikos. Each has its own section of the website where the user may access images of buildings (in their present state), sculptures and some inscriptions. Brief descriptions are provided for each photograph, along with relevant bibliography. The photographs are clear, and the site is easy to navigate; this is therefore a useful visual resource for archaeologists and classicists.
This website brings to life the social world of ancient Greek and Roman associations, Christian congregations and Jewish synagogues using inscriptions, monuments, archaeological finds, and literary texts from the Roman empire, especially Asia Minor (Turkey) in an interactive context. The site's author is Philip Harland of York University, Toronto, and it accompanies his 2003 book 'Associations, synagogues and congregations: claiming a place in Ancient Mediterranean Society' (reviews and a table of contents for the book can be found here). Several of the author's other published articles are available to view on the website. As well as this the site provides information about courses taught by the author on topics including: religion in ancient Asia Minor; early Christianity; early Jewish and Christian apocalypticism; personified evil in early Judaism and Christianity. Course outlines, discussion notes and detailed handouts can be accessed here. The site is clear and easy to navigate and will be useful for those teaching, studying or researching these aspects of ancient religion.
The "Associazione culturale Osimo sotterranea" is a non-profit organisation that promotes the conservation and study of the hypogea (subterranean tunnels and chambers) running under the Italian town of Osimo. The presence of a subterranean network of passages and chambers is frequent in ancient towns of Central Italy (e.g. Orvieto, Chiusi, etc.) partly because of the relatively soft arenaceous rock in the region. Its website (in Italian only) publishes the illustrated newsletter "Meridiana" (accessible from "i nostri articoli"), which contains short articles and many photographs on the conservation, exploration and documentation efforts of the team of amateur archaeologists; a gallery of pictures; and an interactive virtual tour of some chambers. The subterranean network has not been fully explored and its phases of construction and its function remain unknown. A few test pits suggest have yielded pre-Roman pottery (culture of the Piceni) as well as Roman and later artefacts. Of particular importance are the traces of an ancient aqueduct that replenished some wells within the subterranean network. Several reliefs and frescoes have been discovered and document the ritual use of some subterranean chambers at least from Roman to Mediaeval times. The simple Italian texts should not deter an international audience to visit this website that serves well its purpose of spreading awareness of this extraordinary network. There are some extraordinary photographs, including some of chambers that can only be accessed with speleological equipment. Researchers in art and archaeology should be the primary audience for the need of interpreting the evidence, but students should at least be aware of what lies beneath many Italian towns.
In 1989 archaeologists from the Iraqi Department of Antiquities and Heritage excavated three intact royal tombs in the North-West Palace on the citadel of the Assyrian city of Kalkhu or Nimrud (biblical Calah) in northern Iraq. This website provides a brief but attractive illustrated guide to this extraordinary discovery of the tombs of three Assyrian queens : Yaba (wife of Tiglathpileser III, reigned 744-727 B.C.), Banitu (wife of Shalmanasser V, 726-722 B.C.) and Atalia (wife of Sargon II, 721-705 B.C.). Kalkhu was the capital of the mighty Assyrian Empire for more than 150 years before Sargon II built a new city at Khorsabad in 717 B.C. Excavations in the 19th century A.D. uncovered a number of extraordinary palaces and temples decorated with vast quantities of stone sculpture and which yielded many inscribed cuneiform documents revealing administrative and historical records of the Assyrian Empire. The brick and stone vaulted tombs discovered in 1989, which yielded many splendid gold vessels and costly personal ornaments inscribed with the names of the deceased, are rare examples of Assyrian royal burials, most of were looted in antiquity or in more recent times. A selection of the objects is illustrated alongside numerous maps and architectural plans, including a map of Iraq and the surrounding region, which usefully contextualise the tombs within the wider urban topography. This resource, part of Assyria Online, a substantial online resource on Assyrian culture, both ancient and modern, will benefit anyone studying the archaeology and ancient history of the Near East, particularly at a more basic level but is also a useful aide-memoire and image source for the more experience teacher or researcher.
The website of the Athienou Archaeological Project (AAP), a multi-disciplinary excavation and survey project focusing on the sanctuary site of Athienou-Malloura in south-central Cyprus whose aim is to examine the changing settlement patterns and life-ways of an area which been occupied continuously for over 2500 years from the Cypro-Archaic period, circa 700 BC, down to late Ottoman times. Apart from the important Cypro-Archaic to Roman period sanctuary itself, the project has examined a nearby settlement site in addition to tombs, ancient water management systems, and a series of Venetian burials from the 15th-16th centuries AD, while survey and geophysical work has been carried out in the surrounding valley to put the excavated parts of the site into its wider landscape context.The resource consists of a pictorial guide to the main discoveries by the project since 1990, a bibliography of publications from 1991 which includes the online abstracts of annual reports originally appearing in the American Journal of Archaeology, and details of the Davidson College Field School for undergraduates. This wesbite is a modest addition to the growing corpus of online resources focusing on archaeological sites and their hinterlands in the Mediterranean region. It will benefit undergraduates and researchers studying archaeology in this region as well as a wider general audience interested in Mediterranean and Near Eastern archaeology and ancient society.
The Ban Chiang Project website provides some essential information about the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Ban Chiang, Thailand, which has been excavated by a team of the University of Pennsylvania. Archaeologists have found a settlement and cemetery at Ban Chiang as well as evidence of metallurgy dated between 2100 BC to AD 300. Archaeometallurgical analyses have demonstrated that the ancient smiths preferred bronze to pure copper already from the Early period. Short articles are available on metallurgy and crucibles. An article shows some examples of "rollers", a small artefact frequently found with different decorations in tombs; its function is still uncertain. There is a large and updated bibliography as well as several galleries of pictures (slideshows). This website may be useful to both students and researchers. A separate website by the same research group provides further information for researchers.
This web page is a simple description of an AHRC-funded research project into the origins of the Beaker people in prehistoric Britain. The project will study mobility, diet and health, through systematically sampling surviving well-preserved skeletal remains from the period. In particular, the project will study isotopes relating to diet and mobility, as well as examining dentition and skeletal remains for evidence of “diet, health, trauma, physical stress and funerary manipulation” alongside evidence from individuals’ burial contexts, discovery and chronology.
This website is the home page of Bede's World, Jarrow. Bede's World consists of a museum, an Anglo-Saxon farm, and some archaeological reconstructions, and is open to tourists and school groups. Their website includes biographies of the Venerable Bede, the eighth-century British chronicler and monk best known for his 'Ecclesiastical History of the English People', as well as for several of Bede's Northumbrian near-contemporaries such as King Oswald, Aethelfrith, and Cuthbert of Lindisfarne. The website also offers details of the experimental building project being carried out at the centre, and some other experimental archaeological projects being conducted in Northumberland. Publications relating to these projects are listed at the site. The website also gives news on special events and temporary collections at the centre. This website will primarily be of interest to historians and archaeologists interested in the local history of Jarrow and Northumberland, and in Bede and his background.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Ywa Htin, Myanmar (Burma). A few illustrated articles summarise the recent discoveries by a French team of archaeologists in a cemetery dating to the Bronze and Iron Ages. Many artefacts are presented in detail. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
Borobudur, the great Buddhist stupa on Java (Indonesia), was built and decorated possibly before 800 AD. This page, hosted by the Australian National University, provides an extensive resource on the site, including background and contextual information, VRML (virtual reality) models, and photographs. In addition, many sections, plans and maps have been made available for more detailed analysis. A comprehensive bibliography supports the main content, whilst a links page provides access to further information regarding Borobudur itself, Java, and Indonesia as a whole.
This is the free and full-text online version of the Bulletin d'histoire et d'archéologie religieuses ["puis" d'histoire, de littérature et d'art religieux] du Diocèse de Dijon, a French journal that published several notices and reports of early archaeological excavations. The past issues have been scanned for electronic publication. As is the case for all older publications, readers need to watch out for outdated information. The records and reports of old excavations, however, are irreplaceable and may be useful to both advanced students and researchers. The interface of the website makes easy searching through the journal, and it is possible with a free registration to add this and many other similar journal and older monographs to a private virtual space for easy retrieval. It is an excellent resource since the printed publication is now available only at a few libraries.
This is the free and full-text online version of the Bulletin de la Commission diocésaine d'architecture & d'archéologie, a French journal that published several notices and reports of early archaeological excavations. The past issues have been scanned for electronic publication. As is the case for all older publications, readers need to watch out for outdated information. The records and reports of old excavations, however, are irreplaceable and may be useful to both advanced students and researchers. The interface of the website makes easy searching through the journal, and it is possible with a free registration to add this and many other similar journal and older monographs to a private virtual space for easy retrieval. It is an excellent resource since the printed publication is now available only at a few libraries.
This is the free and full-text online version of the Bulletin de la Conférence d'histoire et d'archéologie du diocèse de Meaux, a French journal that published several notices and reports of early archaeological excavations. The past issues have been scanned for electronic publication. As is the case for all older publications, readers need to watch out for outdated information. The records and reports of old excavations, however, are irreplaceable and may be useful to both advanced students and researchers. The interface of the website makes easy searching through the journal, and it is possible with a free registration to add this and many other similar journal and older monographs to a private virtual space for easy retrieval. It is an excellent resource since the printed publication is now available only at a few libraries.
This is the free and full-text online version of the Bulletin diocésain d'histoire et d'archéologie, a French journal that published several notices and reports of early archaeological excavations. The past issues have been scanned for electronic publication. As is the case for all older publications, readers need to watch out for outdated information. The records and reports of old excavations, however, are irreplaceable and may be useful to both advanced students and researchers. The interface of the website makes easy searching through the journal, and it is possible with a free registration to add this and many other similar journal and older monographs to a private virtual space for easy retrieval. It is an excellent resource since the printed publication is now available only at a few libraries.
This website publishes a research project by Pearce Paul Creasman on two boats from the funeray complex of pharaoh Senwosret III of the XII Dynasty, also known as Khakaure. The pharaoh reigned around 1850 BC and was buried with five (or six) boats at Dahshur; of these four are known and the study focuses on the two boats preserved at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The boats were discovered by Jean-Jacques de Morgan during excavations in 1894-1895; the website summarises their history and contains some background information on pharaoh Senwosret III. Section "Current Research" of the website also publishes a poster (2008 Poster Award winner at the 2008 Archaeological Institute of America annual meeting) and the pamphlet exhibited in the museum, both are available in different sizes in PDF format. In addition, there is a gallery of images and a bibliography (focusing on ships, boats and seafaring in Egypt). The two boats presented in this website were symbolic funerary boats; boats appear frequently in Egyptian funerary contexts. This website may be useful to researchers and advanced students interested in Egyptian funerary boats.
The Caracol Archaeological Project website presents information from excavations at Caracol, the largest Maya archaeological site in Belize, Central America. The archaeological site was populated between c. 900 BC to 1050 AD and covered an area with a radius of 10km. The website contains several useful sections, such as "about Caracol" with a short summary of the history of this archaeological site, maps and a timeline; "about the dig" with colour pictures and a site journal from the 1999 season; and illustrated "season reports" publishing preliminary excavation reports. Most of the illustrations are drawings or plans. There are also sections specifically aimed at "students" and "kids" that provide some general information on archaeological fieldwork.
Recent excavations at the site have focussed on the apparent end of egalitarianism in the last phases of the settlement (post-Classic Maya period): two distinct archaeological assemblages can be recognised, one produced by people in the urban area and one produced by people in surrounding rural areas. Also of interest is the attention for architectural structures: both residential and public structures have been unearthed and some burials have been found within the perimeter of residential buildings. Early fieldwork seasons concentrated on funerary contexts.
The Centre Franco-Égyptien d'Étude des Temples de Karnak (CFEETK) website publishes a summary of the archaeological research being carried out at Karnak, Egypt. The website contains three main sections: an illustrated presentation of recent and current research; the excavation of the temples with several historical photographs; and a bibliographic list of publications related to Karnak, including a list of films. The latter section also contains an Adobe Illustrator plan of the site and 3D samples of virtual reconstructions. Further pages of interest are a photographic plan of the reliefs found in the hypostyle hall in the temple of Amon; two videos on the making of the photoplan and how granite was drilled in antiquity; and a list of temples with photographs. In addition, there are indexes of periodical publications such as ASAE; BIFAO; BSFE; and Kêmi; as well as other publications. There are also lists of the labels used in the inventories. This website offers little to the casual visitor or the undergraduate student, but it can be precious for researchers.
Modern Karnak occupies the northern half of the site of ancient Thebes. Thebes became important when a group of temples was built during the 11th dynasty and it reached the maximum splendour during the New Kingdom. The greatest of the temples is that of the god Amon, which was begun by Senusret I and completed by Ramses II. The hypostyle hall is found inside this temple; it is decorated with reliefs and inscriptions and its roof rests on 122 columns that are more than 21 metres high and built in nine rows.
The crypt of Christ Church with All Saints, Spitalfields, East London, was the first post-medieval burial vault to have been comprehensively investigated by archaeological methods. Excavated between October 1984 and April 1986, the crypt provided the opportunity to examine the process of burial between 1729 and 1853 - with particular focus upon the types of coffins, furnishings and clothing involved. No excavations of this type had been previously undertaken and a custom excavation and recording methodology was devised based on the single-context system. This incorporated design taxonomies for the funeral furniture. The post-excavation analyses were completed in 1993, and in the same year two Council for British Archaeology (CBA) reports were published detailing the findings of the excavation. In 1996 a further CBA publication was released. These publications are available for download via these webpages (in HTML and PDF formats). A number of databases, including the burials and marriages registers, are available as comma-delimited files. There are over 100 photographs and line drawings resulting from the excavations.
Designed as both an educational tool for students and an online guide for those unable to make the journey to Rome, the brief but engaging "Christian Catacombs of Rome" written by the Istituto Salesiano S. Callisto describes the series of catacombs bordering the consular roads of the Appian Way and constructed between the second and fifth centuries AD. The site begins with a general introduction to the social importance and archaeological history of the catacombs while describing some of the more prominent symbols and structural features of the tombs in light of the Church's early spiritual role and status at the time. This history is accompanied by a series of studies that detail the often-difficult life of these early worshippers and a solid bibliography on the Catacombs of Saint Callixtus. Though overall somewhat basic in its presentation, the site will serve as a helpful introduction to students undertaking preliminary research in early Christian funerary rights and rituals, or those simply interested in Christian life during the decline of the Roman Empire. Th website also publishes a useful and updated bibliography.
This is the website for The Churches Conservation Trust. It provides details about the trust (which was set up to protect Church of England churches no longer in parish use), a gazetteer called Visit Churches (descriptions and photographs of more than 300 churches in the trust's care organised geographically and chronologically), a list of events taking place at the churches, information on the trust's education work and publications and how to give donations. The website is available in a text only version and easy to navigate. PDFs of publications are available to download. You can browse through churches using geographical and chronological choices (Norman; Mediaeval; 16th and 17th Century; 18th Century; Victorian) but also other criteria such as urban, rural, carvings; monuments; stained glass; wall paintings. This facility enables researchers and the general public to identify local churches owned by the trust and find out more about them and how to visit them, but also allows academic researchers to identify features of interest to them. Hyperlinks within the text links through to a glossary of church-related terminology. Additional articles on wall painting and coats of arms are provided and the site also boasts an educational section containing teaching units on Sacred Art and on linking 50 of the trust's churches with the study of Art and Design, Religious Education and History (for school teachers, mainly). A recent introduction is a few podcasts of audio tours for some of their most visited churches.
This webpage outlines Harold Mytum’s AHRC-funded research project into the funerary monuments associated with Scots settlers in Ulster, North America and Australia. Through examining graveyard memorials, texts and symbols the shifting patterns of cultural and political affiliations can be traced over time and place and the dynamic relation between coloniser and colonised can be illuminated. The website describes work to date, as well as providing links to Mytum’s other work, including graveyard research.
The temple site at Phimai, a World Heritage Site, consists of a walled complex of reconstructed temples, libraries, and ancillary structures. It is one of the most important Khmer monuments in Thailand. The digital reconstruction of the temple site in Phimai serves as a case study highlighting the potential of computer visualization as a tool in heritage resource management. Besides offering archaeologists, historians and museum curators a non-invasive environment for testing reconstruction scenarios, virtual worlds offer the public access to important historic monuments without the wear of excessive visitation. This smartly presented website provides an introduction detailing the history of the site and the role of digital technologies as an important part of heritage management. Access to the computer models themselves is provided, along with a discussion regarding their development.
This website focused on the history, art, music and culture of Coptic Cairo and is published by the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities. It provides substantial information on the Coptic Museum, including practical information and a good dataset presenting a selection of the collections in the museum. High quality pictures and concise but detailed texts make it very easy to access, and the beauty of the collections makes easy to be absorbed in wonder. Two further sections complete the website: one looks at the Coptic culture in general, with illustrated articles on topics such as art; traditions; monasticism; music; language (with audio sample) and characteristic script; while the other section presents "Old Cairo", including the churches, the Jewish synagogue (just a few pictures with captions) and the Roman fortress in Cairo, the "Babylon Fortress". This is a very useful website for all archaeologists (and art historians) interested in Coptic Egypt.
The Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland is an online project attempting to build a comprehensive database of the twelfth-century sculpture of the isles. At the time of cataloguing this site, the database covered England and Ireland; sites in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales are currently unavailable. Each building's database entry is split into nine sections: location; general description; exterior features; interior features; furnishings; loose sculpture; history; comments and opinions; and bibliography. Most entries also provide a number of photographic images of Romanesque architectural details. The database may be searched by site or by checklist item, thus providing a useful means of comparing particular features from different sites. There is also a useful glossary of the descriptive terms used. Given the amount of information provided for each building, it is likely to be a number of years before this project approaches its conclusion, but the site is already an exceptional resource for those studying Romanesque architecture and Anglo-Saxon churches. Two glossaries defining some specialist terms are available. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) within the Resource Enhancement scheme. Additionally, the data from the project has been deposited with the Visual Arts Data Service (VADS).
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the monastery of Velika Gospa, Croatia. An article summarises the discoveries and history of the site, which the evidence suggests was first in use over a thousand years ago. Numerous chapels and objects portraying Christian subjects have been unearthed. The excavators seem to have located and understood the plan of the first church in that location. The site also offers a 'diaporama' (gallery of pictures), a brief bibliography, and contact details of the excavators.
CyArk 3D Heritage Archive Network is a project funded by the Kacyra Family Foundation that is producing digital models of several archaeological and historical sites using laser scanners and other equipment in partnership with several institutions. The models are published on this website with basic data accessible to everyone and a 'professional edition' is available to researchers after registering for free (an agreement must be signed and faxed to the foundation). Several models are already available and these include Salvador da Bahia (Brazil); Angkor featuring Angkor Wat, Western Causeway and Banteay Kdei (Cambodia); Thebes featuring main temple, kitchens and storeroom's precinct, and Bab al-Barqiyya (Egypt); Cathedral of Beauvais (France); Tikal featuring the central acropolis, great plaza and north acropolis (Guatemala); Pompeii featuring the Basilica and Pisa (Italy); Chavin de Huantar featuring the plaza mayor and several buildings (Peru); Tambo Colorado featuring Northern Palace and plaza (Peru); Fort Winfield Scott, Deadwood and Mesa Verde (United States). After signing in, the 'archive' section provides a menu of all available sites. After selecting one, a list of monuments is on the left and at the centre there is an interactive architectural plan that provides access to the multimedia features via icons. Only a few of the monuments of any site are usually accessible for any site. On the lower section, introductory videos; essential information as well as galleries of thumbnail-sized pictures are available for each archaeological site. The multimedia features consist of colour photographs; QuickTime panoramas; CAD (2D) drawings. The 3D Point Cloud Viewer allows to simulate a virtual world experience using precise 3D point cloud data. This website is an exceptional tool for researchers to study and compare the architecture of ancient sites and each project is an exceptional case study of digital recording techniques applied to archaeology. This review refers to the professional edition of CyArk.
This is a site detailing the AHRB funded project Dance and the Architecture of the Hindu temple, a collaboration betweeen the Centre for Dance Research at Roehampton University and the PRASADA architectural research unit of De Montfort University and now located at Stanford University whose website hosts the relevant information about the research. The original project had three main aims, namely: to study the relationship between dance and architectural space, with a case study based on the form of the Hindu temple and with classical Indian dance; to combine theoretical issues with insights gained from dance experience and to redefine the traditional notion of architecture as fixed space; to extend the results of this research to the overseas South Asia community. The project has now ended but there are plans to continue the research, focussing it more specifically on Odissi dance and Orissan temple architecture. The resource features some video clips of the dancer participants.
This website publishes the preliminary results of the excavations of the tomb of the high priest Neb-wenenef at Dra' Abu el-Naga carried out by a joint team of the universities of Heidelberg, Leipzig and the Pennsylvania Museum of Philadelphia. Neb-wenenef served under the rule of pharaoh Ramses II (ca. 1280-1215 BC) and his tomb is located near ancient Thebes; the tomb has been numbered "TT 157". The website is a referenced and illustrated short article. There are also pictures of nearby tombs, but overall the written contents are very succinct. The website may be useful primarily to researchers.
This website is dedicated to the Celtic barrow grave in Eberdingen-Hochdorf which was excavated in 1978-9. The site provides a series of reconstructive drawings and a photograph of the barrow and burial chamber. There are also photographs of the finds, which included a drinking horn, fibulae and a bronze cauldron adorned with lions. There is also a brief essay on a laboratory test for determining the origins of pottery finds, co-authored by U. Wagner (Faculty of Physics, Munich Technical University) and R. Gebhard (Museum for Prehistory, Munich). The site is linked to German-language pages dedicated to the Hallstatt settlement and museum at Hochdorf.
This website publishes a short history of the restoration of the monastery of St. Julian of the East (Syria) and a collection of photographs taken during these investigations that began in 2001. Dayr Mar Elian esh Sharqi (the monastery of St. Julian of the East) is located to the west of the village of Qaryatayn in the Syrian desert between Homs and Palmyra. As an oasis settlement Qaryatayn has been inhabited for many millennia, as illustrated by the substantial tell south of the modern village. It is on the Damascus-Palmyra trade route on a Roman limes and so housed a garrison of soldiers to safely escort visitors across the desert - a practice that was continued until the end of the nineteenth century. Local legend attributes the foundation of the monastery to late antiquity.
'Death in ancient Egypt' is a useful corpus of web links to images illustrating various aspects of the burial practices and beliefs about the dead and the afterlife in ancient Egypt with brief explanatory narratives by Dr Alexandra O'Brien. Part of the online Research Archives of the Oriental Institute of Chicago, the project aims to develop new ways of disseminating information about ancient Egypt by making use of existing resources on the WWW in a hypertext medium. The visual material is arranged into thematic sections such as tomb scenes, provision for the dead in the afterlife, ushabti figurines and religious or eschatological beliefs about the human personality. The sources are drawn from a wide variety of museums, institutions and personal home pages whose web addresses are listed separately providing a useful series of online resources in Egyptology. The editors invite feedback from the users of the site, though the resource does not appear to have been updated since 1999. Nonetheless, 'Death in ancient Egypt' is useful source of images, particularly for school and undergraduate teaching.
The website of the Friends of Neferhotep publishes information on and collects donations for the tomb of Neferhotep (TT 49) in the Valley of the Nobles at Thebes. Neferhotep was accountant of grain of Amun and lived during the eighteenth Dinasty. The website publishes a description of the tomb and several photographs, as well as information on the recent restorations taking place in the tomb, including some measurements with laser technology. Researchers may find this website useful.
The Digital Karnak Project website is an educational website that uses GIS and 3D virtual reality techniques as well as other interactive means. The virtual reality model of the temple allows to view the temple by reign, following the complex patterns of construction, modification and destruction that are now obscured by the latest building phases at the archaeological site. Videos, PDF guides and short articles complement the virtual visit to the temple. A simplified version of the Virtual Reality model of the temple is also made available in Google Earth, for a completely interactive experience. The central part of the website (accessible through "browse archive") uses videos and illustrated and referenced articles by Egyptologists to provide essential contents. Pharaohs; architectural techniques; religion; and rituals are prominently featured. This website targets primarily undergraduate students, but it is a good introduction to the important Egyptian site of Karnak, one of the largest temple complexes in the world, for anyone.
This website publishes an etymological dictionary of Greek myths initiated by Carla Zufferli, then an undergraduate student, and now carried forward by an international team. The dictionary can be accessed by clicking on "dizionario etimologico" and then "consulta" on the top menu and then "consulta" on the page (or using the direct hyperlink on this page); it can only be browsed by word ("voce"; in each record the part of the title in capital letters, e.g. "ACHILLE"); ancient name ("indice"; in each record the first part of the title, e.g. "Achillèus"); category ("categoria") or theme ("tema") accessing the menu on the top and then the required word on the menu on the right looking towards the screen. For each word in the dictionary there are short definitions; references to ancient texts; the etymology of each name starting where possible from Linear B words; category and theme where available; pictures of archaeological artefacts in which relevant characters are depicted (not always available and there are some broken links). The dictionary is in Italian, but Spanish and French translations are being completed. It is necessary to have installed a special font for Greek words, which can be downloaded from the website. Another important part of this website is labelled "materiali": here there are short articles ("saggi") on miscellaneous aspects of Greek religion and mythology; original texts ("testi") from both ancient and modern poets (e.g. the "snake women" from "Mythos Libykí²s" by Dionis Chrysostomi; "Narciso al fonte" by Umberto Saba) and reviews ("recensioni e notizie") of recent publications. Some pages also provide more details on the project and the team writing the dictionary. This advanced dictionary is a useful research tool for researchers and postgraduate students of Greek religion and possibly Mycenaean Linear B.
The e book "Dunhuang art" (ISBN 8170173132), by Prof. Duan Wenjie and translated into English by Tan Chung, focuses on the approximately 500 caves containing 45,000 square metres of frescoes and 2,415 stucco colour statues of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas located at Mogao, on the oasis of Dunhuang, Gansu Province. The author is a leading authority on the topic and this is the only book available in English that presents a Chinese perspective on the caves. Dunhuang is the largest Buddhist centre in China and the art found there dates from the 4th to the 14th century AD. This website contains the entire text of the book, including images, the glossary and the bibliography. A few additional articles have been added to the online version, and chapters cover: the style of art at Dunhuang; Dunhuang Art during different phases of the Tang Dynasty; and conservation of relics at Dunhuang. It is possible to download a font to display diacritical marks. This website is an essential resource about the early artistic heritage of China as well as Indian and Buddhist culture in China.
This website describes the archaeological investigations carried out by the University of Manchester at Dunragit, Wigtownshire. Dunragit has a complex set of monuments, the principal element of which is a large enclosure, composed of three concentric settings of posts or pits, intersected by a double avenue of features which appear to represent an entrance structure. This extensive set of web pages introduces and gives a detailed account of the progress of the excavations. A brief report describes the cremations. A more detailed report describes the ceramics found and presents tables of data. An informal description of the excavations is presented as a site diary.There are also pages dealing with other excavations carried out by Manchester University in Scotland, particularly those at Picts Knowe.
Early monumental architecture on the Peruvian coast is a Web page by anthropologist/archaeologist James Q. Jacobs describing and interpreting these ruins. The page is organised like a thesis paper, with contents listing at the beginning that can be selected to get to the relevant parts of the site, and the resources used are fully cited at the end. The information is extremely thorough, and the images are very clear and useful, including maps, photographs and axonometric drawings. The chapter about the chronology and patterns in monument types talks about typical plans and site use, while the section about how the monuments are evidence of social and political organisation goes into more detail about ornamentation. This website goes into a lot of depth, and people new to the subject might wish to read an overview elsewhere before looking at this thesis. However, for cited, factual information, this site is particularly good.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of El Adaima, Egypt. It was the site of a late Predynastic cemetery; several illustrated articles report on the funerary evidence. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
A site as wonderful in its detail as it is frustrating in its navigation, Egyptian Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom is a website providing information about and diagrams of major Egyptian burial sites constructed between the 16th and 11th centuries B.C. (Dynasties XVIII-XX). With extensive descriptions, Kelley Ross (of Los Angeles Valley College) takes us through the tombs and various chambers of pyramids and the Valley of the Kings, highlighting their major features and offering brief inventories of their contents, along with scholarly theories from some of the more recent secondary sources. The majority of material is directed towards an undergraduate or general interest user who is specifically interested in the physical construction and setting of Egyptian funerary rituals, both of whom will appreciate the number of diagrams and their level of detail.
This is the official website of the Emperor Qin's terra-cotta warriors and horses museum at Xian. The tomb, only partly explored, is a UNESCO world heritage site. The website is available in Chinese and English and is divided between a highly interactive section aimed at the general public ("public edition") and a scientific section aimed at scholars ("learning edition"). The Chinese public edition contains several texts missing in the English version; an extensive interactive section aimed at children; historic photographs of the discovery and news of recent research ("discovery" section); and other contents. Section 1 ("history") in the Chinese version corresponds to section 3 ("terracotta army") in the English version. The English public edition contains an interactive map (section 2, "guide") of the mausoleum with schematic views of the mausoleum and the several pits; there are many images of the most famous and important artefacts. At the time of review small parts of the English website were not functioning properly. The learning edition is available in Chinese only and it contains information on research activities; publications; and the administration of the museum. This website is an essential source of information on this most extraordinary monument.
This website publishes a single referenced article on the Christian Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt. It contains links to several colour images and a few additional texts focusing on the Coptic alphabet (which ends the hieroglyphic tradition); the art (frescoes and icons); music (with audio samples); and the architecture (churches and monasteries). It is a useful and concise introduction for students of arts, archaeology and religious studies to a subject often overlooked.
The history of the Coptic Church dates back to origins of Christianity and still maintains traditions lost by other currents of Christianity. The Coptic culture originated by the religious tradition has blown into a full and original culture that has manifested itself in a variety of forms. This website only allows for a taste of this culture since it is concerned on all its aspects and not just the strictly religious ones. A Polish version is available as Word document.
This is the Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut website relating to excavations at the ancient city of Ephesos in Turkey. With occupation evidence dating from the Neolithic through to the late 15th Century AD, Ephesos reached its heyday during the Greco-Roman period when it was home to the Artemision temple complex, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The website provides a contextual background of the settlement's history and its previous excavation since 1895, but is mainly concerned with recent excavation and archaeological research - in particular the 1999 and 2000 excavations undertaken by the Austrian Archaeological Institute (Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut). Excavation reports are available for both years, but more detailed information is provided on certain parts of the city such as the theatre, Tetragonos Agora (marketplace) and the upper city. Also available is information on the inscriptions and sculpture recovered from Ephesos.
Erétria on the island of Euboea was an important settlement during the Mycenaean, Greek and Roman period. This website summarises the results of the ongoing excavations by the Swiss Archaeological School in Greece. There is a gallery of pictures including both monumental remains and artefacts (such as mosaics); the large high definition pictures are in JPEG CMYK format suitable for press printing and should be downloaded and opened with a specialist program, most browsers will return an error when attempting to open them. Section "theater" by Elisa Ferroni is in German only and publishes the results of a test pit in the area of the theatre, it includes a map; a report on the stratigraphy of the theatre; a detailed report that summarises with drawings and pictures all typical shapes of pottery encountered in the stratigraphy; and a short article suggesting a date for the strata based upon all other studies. There is a timeline (chronology) and a short illustrated article on the landscape. Section "history" publishes a set of illustrated articles each focussing on a period of the settlement of Erétria. Of particular interest are the Early Helladic potter's kiln and the 8th century BC tomb called "Heroon", where a funerary bronze cauldron was found. The town flourished since the Archaic period, and was sacked by the Persians of King Darius in 490 BC, just before the battle of Marathon, and then in 411 BC the town switched side from the Athenians to the Spartans and in the eponymous battle of Eretria the Athenian fleet was destroyed. Philosopher Menedemos was born at Eretria. There articles on the literary sources mentioning the town and epigraphic studies. A large section focuses on numismatics with an article by Monica Brunner and a gallery of pictures in "coins of Eretria"; a separate Euboean coins database which contains information on over 600 Euboean coins recently sold at an auction; it is still possible to access the pages of the auction and access the prices of sale that may be useful in studies of the trade of antiquities. The database contains all inscriptions on coins. There is an extensive bibliography on Euboean coins. On the website of the Swiss Archaeological School in Greece there is also a bibliographic database specialising on Eretria. If a hyperlink appears broken, it might be worth retrying a few times to click on the original link; there were problems with the server at the time of review.
This website consists of an article re-examining the prehistoric Adena mound-building culture of North America. Adena culture flourished during the early part of the Woodland Period, in the first millennium BC. Adena mounds and other ritual sites are concentrated in the region around the Ohio River. This essay identifies two principal weaknesses in prior research into Adena culture, and attempts to redress the situation. The first is the lack of a domestic context in which to situate the Adena; the second is the amount of unchecked speculation that has been produced to explain the complex ritual aspects of their society. The author describes the various Adena site types, and builds on the pioneering work of William S. Webb. He concludes that Adena burial sites were placed to the edge of group territories, rather than forming a centre point. A bibliography is included.
This website presents the preliminary reports of the archaeological excavations at Aksum, Ethiopia, by the University of Naples and Boston University. A general introduction to the archaeological site is available and can be accessed using the menu at the top of the page ("presentazione", etc.); the reports can be accessed by clicking on "rapporti di scavo" on the menu on the left. The short introduction and menus are written in Italian and the reports are written in English. The preliminary reports summarise the research carried out each year. The area excavated is called Ona Enda Aboi Zewgè and it is a large stelae field and cemetery. By clicking on "archaeology" it is possible to have a summary of all the excavated archaeological strata. Of great interest is the annexe in the 1995 report, which summarises all scientific analyses carried out at the site, including radiocarbon, archaeobotanical and osteological ones. Pollen analyses have determined that barley and wheat were the most important cultivation in the Early Aksumite period; teff, lentils, and grapes were introduced during the Middle Aksumite period. The website also contains reports on specific categories of finds, such as ceramics, glass and lithics. Among the most important finds, a platform on which rituals may have been performed has been unearthed in the cemetery.
This website publishes the free and full-text collection of final reports of the French excavations at Amathonte, Cyprus. Amathonte is a Classical site that was inhabited between the 8th century BC and 7th century AD; the reports focus on both the settlement and necropolis. A few volumes in the series focus on particular classes of objects such as scarabs and figurines. The volumes are a reference collection about the important site of Amathonte.
The French School of Athens is publishing the final reports of its excavations in the Greek island of Thásos in a series of volumes that is available free and full-text in this website. At the time of review, most volumes since 1944 were available, and further volumes should be published some time after their printed version. Thasos was an important settlement with two harbours; it is famous for the cult of Herakles (Hercules for the Romans) that predates the formation of the Greek culture in the island. The first volume of the series indeed focuses on the sanctuary of Herakles.
Thásos was settled by the Parians and successively held by Persia, Athens, Sparta, Macedonia, Rome (after 197 BC); it became part of the Byzantine Empire in the 4th century AD. This long and rich history is mirrored in the volumes, which focus on several topics including the agora; Greek and Byzantine ceramics; the history of administration and cults; the terracotta from the Thesmophorion; and the seals on amphorae useful to determine the exchange network in which Thásos was inserted. This is a reference series in French and may be useful to many researchers and students specialising in the archaeology of Greece.
Construction and Re-use of Bargrennan chambered cairns, South-West Scotland documents the initial construction and use of "Bargrennan" style chambered cairns in Dumfries and Galloway. Excavations were conducted at Cairnderry from 2002-2004 and interim reports have been published as UCLan Studies in Archaeology. These reports have been remodelled to separate the excavation reports from the specialist reports and saved as PDF files which may be downloaded from AHDS Archaeology. A collection of photographs of the excavations and finds and some of the site drawings are also available.
An online summary report on the excavations carried out at the site of the Lanark Friary by the Lanark and District Archaeological Society (LADAS) in 1999. Two trenches were opened. The excavations revealed a stretch on medieval wall which may have been associated with the monastery, and an 18th century well. Large numbers of artefacts were found including medieval pottery and architectural fragments. Photographs illustrate the excavations and some of the finds. There is also a brief history of the monastery.
The website "Excavations at the Deserted Medieval Village of Vöhingen" relates to this vilage that lay in what is now the commune of Schwieberdingen in the administrative district of Ludwigsburg, Germany. Excavations by the Department of Medieval Archaeology, Landesdenkmalamt Baden-W¨rttemberg have been in progress since 1990. The first certain mention of the village is in the 13th century but there is evidence to suggest that it was first established in the 6th century. This simply and cleanly presented website consists of a number of pages in German and English versions, each with small illustrations, describing the major findings of the excavations.
This digital archive, hosted by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS), presents information regarding the 1989-92 excavations at Eynsham Abbey undertaken by Oxford Archaeology (then Oxford Archaeology Unit or OAU). This archive has been made available as part of the 'Digital Archiving Pilot Project: Excavation Records' (DAPPER) project funded by English Heritage. Eynsham Abbey, founded in 1005 AD, replaced an existing Minster church dating from the 8th or 9th centuries. Briefly abandoned between 1066 and 1109 AD, the abbey was re-founded and became the third richest religious house in the county, although economic mismanagement lead to its eventual dissolution in the mid-16th century. By the mid-17th century the inner precinct buildings were demolished.The 1989-92 excavations, funded by English Heritage, were designed to assess the abbey and the various predecessor structures in the area. Significant focus was given to the economic aspects of the Saxon, Medieval and Post-Medieval site, studied through the recovery of artefacts and "ecofacts". Available through the digital archive are: text files detailing the site (in HTML, .doc and plain text formats); comma-delimited files suitable for importing into databases; .dwg, .dxf and .dwf files for use with AutoCAD and GIS packages; and a dozen .jpg images depicting various stages of the excavation. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This website publishes the preliminary results of the ongoing excavations at Lefkandi Xeropolis by a joint team of the University of Oxford and the British School at Athens. The first section, "New Excavations" provides short illustrated accounts of the work carried out year by year. Several structures and tombs have been unearthed, and a fragment of centaur as well as a set of figurines (including one of a boat, perhaps an early version of a galley) have been found. This section also illustrates the multidisciplinary approach of the current excavations. Section "History of Research" instead contains short illustrated reports of past excavations in the island (directed by Mervyn Popham and Hugh Sackett), focusing on both settlement and cemeteries. There is an updated bibliography. This website may be useful to both researchers and students.
Xeropolis is a plateau facing the sea that was occupied from the Early Bronze Age until the end of the Geometric period. It is one of the most important Greek sites to study the transition from Mycenaean to Greek culture. The recent excavations directed by Irene S. Lemos have been made possible thanks to a grant by the Packard Humanities Institute.
This website is a report on excavations carried out in 1998 at Silgenach, South Uist by the School of History and Archaeology, Cardiff University. The website includes a number of mounds that are under the threat of erosion, particularly from cultivation and burrowing by rabbits. The excavations revealed occupation from the Beaker period through to the Early Iron Age. The extensive presence of Early Bronze Age cultivation horizons indicate the presence of a buried landscape of considerable importance.The report follows the standard format of a printed report with images and references launched in separate windows from links within the text.
This website presents an overview of the excavations undertaken by the University of Sydney, Australia at the ancient theatre of Paphos on Cyprus since 1995. A clickable map of the site itself allows the user to view images and text relating to finds in each of the trenches which have been excavated. A section on finds, divided into pages on coins, sculpture and other finds (including pottery), provides images and explanatory descriptions of objects uncovered at the site. Part of the website is also devoted to describing the architecture, design and orientation of the ancient theatre, again accompanied by images of the site at Paphos. Details are also given of the team of archaeologists involved in the project.
The cemetery at Heath Wood, Ingleby, Derbyshire is the only known Scandinavian cremation cemetery in the British Isles. It comprises 59 barrows, of which about one-third have been excavated on previous occasions, although earlier excavators concluded that some were empty cenotaph mounds. From 1998-2000 three barrows were examined. These investigations suggested that each of the barrows contained a burial, although not all contained evidence of a pyre. This digital archive consists of a small number of digital data sets, primarily osteoarchaeological and archaeozoological reports and databases on human and animal (dog and horse) bones.
Researches at Fetternear, Aberdeenshire, have revealed that what was apparently a modest-sized late medieval towerhouse was in fact the remnants of a pre-Reformation palace at least as large, if not larger, than the archbishop's castle at St Andrews and the royal castle of Fyvie. What began as a small-scale training excavation has since become a major multi-disciplinary investigation, forming part of the Scottish Episcopal Palaces Project. This extensive website presents a large amount of varied information centred on Fetternear. A series of yearly preliminary reports on the researches is available (the most recent reports are in PDF format); a list of monuments in what was the Fetternear estate; an extensive historical review; information on some of the inhabitants of Fetternear; notes on the archaeology and architectural history; and links to other websites with related information.
This German website publishes a bibliographic database of occurrences in ancient Coptic hagiographic texts of female representations. Field "Kommentar" contains short descriptions of the actual figures, but there are no pictures. Access to the database is free and all contents are full-text; a printable version can be selected. The database can be browsed or searched. Specialist researchers intrerested in Byzantine and early Arab Egypt; early Christianity and Coptic religion and culture may find this database useful.
The Fillingham project was set up to investigate a late Anglo-Saxon cemetery first discovered in 1953. Geophysical surveys and an excavation were carried out by Sheffield University in 2000. The excavations revealed that the cemetery was adjacent to an earlier Anglo-Saxon settlement. These web pages present an illustrated report of these investigations, including a geophysical survey.
The "First Farmers project" website publishes the research work carried out at six locations in eastern Scotland (Ballendrick, Claish Farm, Duncrub, Mountstewart, Nethermuir and Upper Gothenscarried) by the University of Stirling. The website provides an overview of the project. The research team led by Dr Barclay and Dr Wickham-Jones explored the settlements of the first farmers in lowland Scotland, an area which was apparently home to a great concentration of religious sites. The project interpreted how farming began and the challenges facing a Neolithic settlement. All final reports can be accessed through a series of files (mostly PDF) and pages. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board within the Research Grants scheme.
This website publishes the free and full text version of the final reports of the archaeological excavations at Delphi carried out by members of the French School of Athens. Delphi was considered by the ancient Greeks to be the centre of the world. Delphi was once the site of an oracle of the earth goddess Gaea. Later, Apollo substituted Gaea, after the Greek god defeated the monstrous serpent Python, which guarded Gaea, and expelled her from the sanctuary. Apollo was the main divinity worshipped at Delphi, but the sanctuary also honoured Dionysus. The sanctuary became famous for the oracle: it was believed that the word of the local sacerdotess, referred as Pythia, were the words of the god. The Pythia was very influential in the Greek world and because of this several wars were fought to control the town and the oracle. Recently scientists discovered in the area of the sanctuary a source of natural ethylene gas, which could have been responsible for the trance-like state of the sacerdotess and the vapours noted by ancient authors. A sacred way connected the sanctuary to the proper temple of Apollo and it was lined with treasuries that several Greek cities had offered to Apollo (those offered by Athens and Thebes are the subject of specific volumes). The Athens treasury contained a wall covered with inscriptions, including musically annotated hymns to Apollo, which are the subject of one of the available volumes. Several volumes focus also on Greek art and especially sculptures. Of particular importance is the "Charioteer of Delphi" (about 470 BC), a bronze cast of "Severe" style, which represents the passage from Archaic to Classical art (an entire monograph focus on this statue, and several more describe art works of Archaic period). Delphi was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.
Since Delphi is a fundamental archaeological site for the study of ancient Greece, this website may be useful to a broad range of scholars and students, from those seeking the picture of a particular monument or art work to anybody carrying out research on any subject (archaeology, classics and art history primarily) related to ancient Greece.
This website by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is archiving scholarly publications on the excavations at Giza, a World Heritage site. Excavation diaries; historic glass plate expedition photographic negatives; object register books; maps; plans; sketches; unpublished notes; and academic papers are being converted to electronic form to create an integrated archive which is being made available over the Internet. Quicktime and other multimedia panoramas and online video walkthroughs give illustrations of Giza today. A new library section contains several ebooks in PDF format as well as many papers from the Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and newsletters. All publications by George Reisner on Giza are already available. The editors of the website aim to expand their library and are appealing for contributions. This website may be useful to any student, researcher or simple amateur of Egyptology.
Giza is a vast necropolis that housed hundreds of individual tombs of Egypt's governing elite during the Old Kingdom (Dynasties 4-6, about 2630-2250 BCE) as well as some of the most famous pyramids (those of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure) and the Great Sphinx.
The complex of ancient monuments near Giza in Egypt, including the Sphinx, the Great Pyramids and numerous mortuary temples, forms one of the most famous archaeology sites in the world. This is the website of the Giza Plateau mapping project, sponsored by the Oriental Institute of Chicago, which aims to combine traditional archaeological surveying with modern computer imaging in order to understand the original landscape context, both cultural and geomorphological, of these great monuments and their many ancillary facilities such as the worker's settlement and the harbour area.The resource consists of a series of illustrated annual reports between 1992-2001 and other articles outlining the survey work and excavation on the plateau of Giza. This work provides a fascinating insight on the day to day workings of the monumental complex and the relationship between the worker's areas and the religious institutions who employed them. The reports are accompanied by maps, architectural plans and photographs of the area under study. These can be viewed as thumb-nails or at full-screen size. The Gaza Plateau Computer Model section of the resource offers an impressive series of AutoCAD virtual reality images of the main monuments together with articles explaining the underlying methodology of the computer graphics database. At present only the final images, and not the underlying data, is in the public domain. This resource will appeal for the most part to specialist researchers and students interested in ancient Egypt but also to those who are interested in the use computer graphic packages, particularly AutoCAD, in archaeology.
"Grand" is a website about the Gallo-Roman Sanctuary site at Grand, located in the North-West of France in the Vosges Department, which was first excavated in the early 19th century, when the substantial amphitheatre attracted scholarly interests. Later excavations, during the late 19th and 20th centuries, helped uncover and record the amphitheatre, the sanctuary's ramparts and several large, very well-preserved mosaics. The sanctuary's lack of water supply, in a region where drought was common, was puzzling until the discovery of over 300 wells, connected by a 15km long complex of underground galleries for running water, sometimes at a depth of over 12 metres. The website provides a description of the archaeological site itself, rather than the separate excavations undertaken. Photographic images coupled with hand-drawn reconstructions provide support to the text.
This website publishes a preliminary multimedia-rich report on the burials found at Gobero, Niger by paleontologist Paul Sereno when looking for dinosaurs. The approximately 200 Neolithic tombs, many are multiple tombs, mostly date from 8000 BC to 5000 BC. The website should be considered a multimedia addition to the paper published in 2008 and entitled "Lakeside Cemeteries in the Sahara": there are nice videos and pictures on the website, but all scientific information is summarised in that freely accessible paper.
Archaeologists have concluded that the archaeological site was a lakeside site, and there were two distinct phases of use: 7700-6200 BC (sedentary hunter-fisher-gatherers and oldest Sahara cemetery found yet), and 5200-2500 BC (clams, fish, and savannah vertebrates eaters, some cattle husbandry also evident). Interestingly, the people of the second phase appears to have been anatomically different: they were "more gracile" than the earlier buried. Climate change (it is a frequently pointed cause these days) would have been responsible for the hiatus, though more research on this will be needed.
Both students and researchers may find this website and the paper useful.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of La Joyanca, Guatemala. La Joyanca is a Classic Maya town located in the forest of the peninsula of Yucatan. This website contains a few illustrated articles presenting an overview of the town; its environment and architecture. Among the architectural findings there is a staircase; a pyramidal structure (given the label 6E-12) with a temple underneath it; and a main square. There is a plan of the town featuring all architectural structures unearthed. A bibliography and contact details of the excavator are available. Larger versions of the pictures illustrating the texts are accessible in the 'diaporama' (picture gallery) section.
The website "Holy Wells in Devon" is a useful site for those interested in local history or the history of local and popular religion. As well as a location map and a list of the holy wells, there is a brief history of holy wells and their importance. The traditional association of wells, or water-sources with magical and religious practices has a long history and is instrumental in understanding settlement locations and the origins of place names. The site explains the importance of wells to Celtic, Celto-Christian, and Christian beliefs. As Christianity spread and became more standardized, opposition was raised to these local sites of veneration, rarely sanctioned by the Church. But some wells were acculturated into mainstream Roman Catholicism and dedicated to Our Lady, the Virgin Mary for example.The site contains photos of wells (intended to encourage more visitors to the locations) and is not intended as an academic study. However, the culmination of a year-long project to rediscover the holy and ancient wells around Exmoor and Dartmoor, has resulted in this rather informative website. The website was also well-received by researchers on the WELLS-AND-SPAS@JISCMAIL.AC.UK email list community.
The voluntary organisation "Honouring the Ancient Dead (HAD)" based in Britain, works to promote respect for ancient human remains. Their web site provides news updates on current campaigns, including the "Your local museum" project, which encourages the public to liaise with local museums and contribute reports to HAD. Articles on the web site provide Pagan perspectives on the archaeology of burial sites and critical discussions of museum displays which include human remains. There are also discussions of specific cases of excavated human remains (such as Lindow Man, Brymbo Man in Wales, the Boy in the Well at Chester, and the Glen Parva Lady). Representing Pagan groups across the UK, HAD has developed their own working relationships with many museums, archaeologists, landowners and heritage bodies, to ensure they are included in decisions made relating to the excavation, study, storage and display of prehistoric human remains. Resulting from this work, HAD have produced their own guidelines and policies, which can be read on the web site, along with reports from HAD events and conferences.
This website is the online version of a wide ranging, lavishly illustrated and extensively referenced online art history course by Dr. Chris Witcombe of Sweet Briar College, Virginia. The course focuses on the social, political and religious interpretations of artistic representation of women in six broad areas or periods: Egypt; the Aegean basin; Palestine; Greece; the early prehistoric period; and barbarian Europe. Each section is organised around a series of case studies or essays which are accompanied by discussion topics and questions, extensive bibliographic lists, and collections of relevant Web links. Particular pieces of art from each culture or period are examined: the site describes each art piece, looks at how they have been interpreted, and examines the role of women in ancient cultures. Essays and online lectures by other academics and students are also featured. Textual sources from the relevant Greek, Hebrew and Egyptian contexts are extensively used throughout. A hypertext medium with frames is employed which sometimes can be clumsy to use, though it allows you to have several parts of the course on screen at once. Some of the in-text links are inaccessible to off-campus browsers. This resource will be valuable both to college students taking courses in ancient art, archaeology, ancient history, and gender studies, and also for those interested in cross-cultural and multi-period approaches to art and gender and in comparative religion.
This website presents a collaborative research project on Indian temples, including its research objectives. Site survey notes and the epigraphic database can be accessed in PDF format. The project was started by the Vidisha Research Group, and is funded by the AHRC.
The key site being researched is the temple at Bhojpur, near Bhopal in central India. The unfinished temple dating to the mid-eleventh century is associated with King Bhoja. The project will investigate medieval life in India. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This is the website of the Institute of Egyptology, Waseda University, the leading research institution for Egyptology in Japan. The website provides richly illustrated reports on excavations. The Waseda University research project in Egypt began in 1966 and since then fieldwork has been undertaken at the private tombs on the West Bank of Luxor; the palace of Malqata; the pyramids in Abusir; the Khufu Boat Project; and the Western Valley of the Kings. Among the recent projects are the expedition to Dahshur North and the quarries at Qurna, Gebel Silsilah, and Aswan. There is some interactive content including VRML (virtual reality modelling language) models (e.g. the tomb-chapel of Ipay and Dahshur), and QuickTime panoramas. The website is also available in Japanese. Both researchers and students in Egyptology may find this website useful.
The Hellenistic sanctuary and royal burial ground of Nemrud Dag in south-eastern Turkey, a UNESCO World heritage Site, is one of the most spectacular archaeological sites in the Near East, built to glorify the local Kommagenian dynasty with a unique fusion of Parthian, Persian and Greek iconography and architecture. This website provides an introduction to the history, topography and art of this impressive site and promotes the work of the International Nemrud Foundation, based in the Netherlands, which aims to preserve and restore the monument. The Kingdom of Kommagene appeared in the 9th century BC as a wealthy vassal of the Assyrian kings, paying tribute in precious metals and cedar wood from the local hillsides. The strategically located region became particularly significant when Mithradates I Kallinikos broke away from Seleucid rule around 130 BC., marking his accession by constructing a series sanctuaries around his realm to bolster his authority and which deliberately conflated Greek and Persian divinities. His son Antiochus I Theos constructed the extraordinary dynastic memorial at Nemrud Dag which required the excavation of 200,000 cubic metres of stone and the erection of ten statues, each weighing six tonnes and more than ten metres high, to form a gigantic horoscope. The 500m of inscriptions proclaim the religious glory of the king and the fabulous wealth of his (as yet) unexcavated tomb. The resource provides a concise guide to the site with a photo gallery, video clips, animations of the horoscope, drawings and texts of key epigraphic documents and a research bibliography in addition to an outline of the historical and religious significance of the site. This resource, available in English, Dutch, German and Turkish versions, will interest students and researchers of Hellenistic, Roman and Near Eastern art and archaeology.
Internet-Beiträge zur Ägyptologie und Sudanarchäologie (IBAES) is an online free and full text series of thematic edited volumes on Egyptology; all contents are in German with a few contents available also in English. Several volumes are available (abstracts and full contents in PDF format) from the simple interface of the website. Among the topics are: the mummy as cultural phenomenon; gender studies in Egyptology (especially differences between king/queen and male/female divinities); "Statue and Cult. A study of funerary practice in non-royal tombs of the residence during the Old Kingdom"; animal cults; genealogy; "Tomb decoration in the Old Kingdom"; economy and religion; and the site of Musawwarat al-Sufrah in Sudan. Several monographs focus on Egyptian religion and related issues. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
This section of the official website of the city of Trinitapoli focuses on the peculiar monuments known as the "hypogea of Trinitapoli" (ipogei in Italian). The website publishes a few short articles, short videos and several galleries of images picturing both the contexts and several artefacts. It is possible to book visits to the archaeological park and museum by visiting the home page of this website. Both students and researchers may find the images useful.
The hypogea are important underground monuments (and tombs) of the ancient Italics. Sometimes they were used as communal tombs. Several hypogea have been found, including one with ivory artefacts including statuines (ipogeo degli Avori) and one with bronze artefacts (ipegeo dei Bronzi). Inside a few hypogea Aegean-type (Mycenaean-type) pottery has been found.
This website details the architectural history of the city of Isfahan (or Esfahan) in Iran. Isfahan is a designated UNESCO world heritage site, with an architectural history dating back to the eleventh century CE. This site describes, and provides photographs of, all the minarets, bridges, palaces, mosques, and shrines in the city that were built before the twentieth century. There is a section on the fundamental concepts of Persian architecture, which explains the religious significance of the design and colouring of the several parts of the Persian mosque. The site also provides basic introductions to: Shi'ism; the influence of Sufism in the development of Iranian culture; and the historic events that have affected Persia/Iran. The site includes an extensive bibliography and links section, which references: publishers that produce works on Iranian/Persian history; other websites that refer to Isfahan; sites concerned with Iranian religion, culture, and literature; and Iranian newspapers.
The Jerablus Tahtani Project, located in northern Syria, is an archaeological research programme designed to investigate four key themes: the expansion of the Uruk civilisation in the 4th millennium BC; secondary state formation in Early Bronze Age Syria; urban recession in the Near East during the late 3rd millennium BC; and the early history of archaeologically inaccessible Carchemish. Fieldwork, conducted as the British contribution to the Syrian government's International Tishreen Dam Rescue Programme, focused upon the excavation of Tell Jerablus Tahtani and was undertaken between 1991 and 2000, with the University of Edinburgh. Excavation Reports from 1998, 1999 and 2000 are available online via the website, as are several of the major databases from the site (downloadable in Excel, Access and Word formats). A bibliography is also provided.
The Jewish community of Nevis archaeology project aims to record the history of the seventeenth and eighteenth century Jewish community of the Caribbean island of Nevis through ongoing documentary research and archaeological investigations. This research is supported by the Nevis Historical and Conservation Society, the Nevis Field Research Centre and a grant from The Commonwealth Jewish Council. The small five by seven mile island of Nevis is located in the leeward portion of the Caribbean's Lesser Antilles. During the period - from the mid-17th through late 18th centuries - Nevis was a bustling centre of economic activity in the Lesser Antilles. It is within this context that a vibrant Jewish community clustered in the capital Charlestown existed on the island. The website presents information on four different aspects of the projects' research and a general introduction to the early colonial history of Nevis. The Nevis Synagogue page provides information on the ongoing archaeological search for the location of the synagogue of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis. The Nevis Jewish Cemetery contains general information about the cemetery and the recorded burials and The Cemetery Resistivity Survey presents the results of a resistivity survey carried out on the cemetery site. The final research area is genealogy, and several pages provide information on Nevis and St. Kitts families.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Neolithic site of Abu Hamid, Jordan. An overview of the site and some preliminary results of the excavation and associated research work are discussed in a few illustrated articles. Particularly interesting is the section concentrating on rituals: some fourth millennium BC figurines have been found, including some violin-shaped ones. These figurines, dated ca. 3800 BC, are found across the entire Levantine coast. Similar figurines were manufactured about five hundred years later in the Cyclades, and have spawned the tradition of Cycladic figurines. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) contains many colour photos and drawings. There is also a map, an extensive bibliography, and the contact details of the excavators.
This website publishes the preliminary reports of the excavations at the sanctuary to Poseidon at Kalaureia, which is one of two Greek islands forming what is called the island of Poros. The website introduces the reader to the archaeological site with a geographical article. There are the reports of the initial excavations in 1894, those in 1930s and finally the most recent ones carried out between 1997 and 2004. The earliest archaeological evidence date to the end of the Late Bronze Age or even Early Iron Age (11th century BC) and there are traces of a building dated to the 6th century BC, but the main building is dated 4th century BC. Section "the research program", accessible only from the homepage, provides a few additional illustrated articles. One focuses on the fact that the sanctuary was an important asylum sanctuary (Demosthenes sought refuge here) and the associated rite of hiketeía (or hikesía). Further articles focus on the inscriptions and the amphictiony (a religious federation of cities) that met at the sanctuary. There is an extensive bibliography.
The Kampuchea Country of Legend website contains an image database of temples in Cambodia compiled by enthusiast David MacCartney. There are also some descriptions of the temples but they are often only in French. By clicking on the temple thumbnails, a site visitor can access maps, photographs, and sometimes the relevant Google satellite aerial photograph. Also on this website, history of Cambodia, current cultural information, and descriptions of the Angkor religion can be found in French and English. Angkor Wat, probably the most famous Cambodian temple complex, built in the early 12th century, is a unique combination of two common Khmer architecture temple styles: the temple mountain and the galleried temple. The temple has many levels: the higher the level, the more exclusive.
The great tumulus excavated at Eberdingen-Hochdorf is one of the largest and most lavishly furnished burial mound of the late Hallstatt period (c540 BC) and contained the remains of a rich chieftain now housed at the Keltenmuseum in Hochdorf, Baden-Württemburg. While burial mounds of this kind are well known from the West Hallstatt area in Eastern France and Southern Germany, many were excavated prior to the development of modern techniques so this intact example is particularly notable. This website, in German with some English translation, provides an attractive guide to the main discoveries at the Eberdingen-Hochdoch mound with numerous plans, photographs and images (viewable at different scales) and links to outside sources of information. In addition there is information about the museum itself, illustrated descriptions of its previous exhibitions on various barbarian societies, and pages of bibliography and weblinks on Celtic sites. The burial mound, 60m in diameter and over 6 metres high when originally built, consists of some 7000 cubic metres of soil and 280 metric tons of stone. At its centre was a 7.5m square wooden chamber containing the remains of a man laid on a ceremonial couch used for drinking rituals accompanied by a lavishly decorated dismantled wagon, an enormous bronze cauldron imported from Southern Italy or Sicily, nine drinking horns, gilded daggers and costly jewellery. The Greek cauldron and imported Attic Black Figure pottery at nearby settlement sites provides important data on the controversial relationship between the Mediterranean world and Barbarian Europe. The surrounding settlement areas, some of whose houses have been reconstructed in the museum, and the so-called Fürstensitz ('princely seat') on the nearby Hohenasperg are also discussed. This resource will particularly benefit undergraduate students of European and Mediterranean archaeology but is also a useful didactic tool for school and university teachers .
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Islamic medieval sites along the Kenyan coast and especially the site of Gedi. The website contains a few articles concentrating on religious, funerary and trade contexts; a map and a bibliography. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles.
The wiki-style webpage presenting the "Kfar HaHoresh Neolithic Excavations" includes a simple table of contents and a small gallery of pictures. Kfar HaHoresh is a Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (ca. 8,500-6,750 BC) site in use for about 1,500 years. "Six distinct architectural levels have been recognised; the main architectural features at Kfar HaHoresh include several terrace walls, as well as a series of mostly quadrilateral lime plaster-surfaces. Numerous human burials have been documented at Kfar HaHoresh". Among the artefacts are lithic tools; exotica from Mesopotamia; and several figurines of both human and animal depictions (including a phallus), made on stone and clay. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
This is the free and full-text online version of the La France franciscaine, a French journal that published several notices and reports of early archaeological excavations. The past issues have been scanned for electronic publication. As is the case for all older publications, readers need to watch out for outdated information. The records and reports of old excavations, however, are irreplaceable and may be useful to both advanced students and researchers. The interface of the website makes easy searching through the journal, and it is possible with a free registration to add this and many other similar journal and older monographs to a private virtual space for easy retrieval. It is an excellent resource since the printed publication is now available only at a few libraries.
This lavishly presented website provides an introductory guide to the mortuary temple (the so-called 'Ramesseum)' and tomb (KV.7) of Ramsses II in Egyptian Thebes and outlines the results of the work of the Institute d'Egyptologie Thébaine of the Louvre carried out there since 1991. The interactive resource, available in French and Arabic, places the monuments within their topographic and historical context in the religious and funerary complexes of Thebes and takes the reader on a virtual reality tour of the monuments as well as providing an analysis of the significance of the mural decorations. One of the official titles of the temple complex is the 'House of millions of years of Usermaat-Setepen-Re that unites with Thebes-the-city in the domain of Amon', hence the 'monument to eternity' in the title of the website. Despite the fact that these monuments have been known and studied for several centuries, many aspects of their design and function remain obscure and recent excavations have revealed new insights about their construction, history and symbolic or social meaning. Both the attractive interactive plans of the temple and tomb and numerous colour illustrations of the monuments and the key bibliography of recent printed sources will interest amateur and professional alike.
The website of the free and full-text Liber Annuus journal publishes papers on Biblical archaeology and theology and other Biblical studies, including linguistic ones. The papers are available in PDF format and are published in English, Italian, French or German. The journal is published by the Franciscan Printing Press of Jerusalem (Studium Biblicum Franciscanum) and therefore the papers follow the theology of the Roman Catholic Church. The website published at the time of the review all volumes dated between 1991 and 2006. The excavations reports include sites in Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria and Egypt. The excavated sites reported in the papers are often ecclesiastical properties and religious buildings and therefore there is a strong focus on the archaeology of Christian religious areas. Researchers in particular may find this journal useful.
Martin King's Living with the Dead database documents the treatment, patterning and deposition of human skeletal material in Britain and Ireland from approximately 10000 to 4000 BP. The database began as a project to document all human skeletal material outside 'tomb' and 'barrow' contexts. However, with the danger of dating human skeletal material by association and stratigraphy only, it was decided to document all contexts with radiocarbon dated human skeletal material in Britain and Ireland from approximately 10000 to 4000 BP. The database also contains a sample of stone, timber and earthen constructions in Britain and Ireland interpreted as 'tombs' or 'barrows' but containing no human skeletal material. The database contains over 630 locations/sites that have been grouped alphabetically. Alternatively searches can be made for specific locations/sites (for example "Stonehenge") or features/finds (for example "Grooved Ware"). In addition all searches can be limited to those locations/sites with radiocarbon dated human skeletal material (excluding loose teeth). Those radiocarbon dates obtained from samples identified as human skeletal material (excluding loose teeth) are marked with an @ symbol to illustrate the distribution of human skeletal material. The database has been deposited and archived with the ADS and a 'live' version of the database containing the most up-to-date additions and alterations is available from Martin King's website. The site is easily navigable through the standard ADS interface and users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions prior to accessing the resource. The database tables are downloadable as comma separated value (.csv) files and the accompanying maps as jpeg images. An entity relationship diagram, for recreating the database structure, is also present on the downloads page. All files are below 505kb in size, allowing for easy download.
The Llandough Cemetery Archive is an online resource based on excavation data recovered by Cotswold Archaeology at a site adjacent to the church of St. Dochdwy at Llandough near Cardiff. The 0.22 ha excavation revealed a major cemetery containing 1026 burials which is thought to relate to the site of one of the major early-medieval monasteries of Glamorgan over which the present church is built. The core component of this resource consists of a detailed database of over 800 burials which can be queried online. The database is also linked to an interactive site plan or GIS interface and the results of searches can be plotted from query results to see different distributions of grave types. Alternatively, the online GIS can itself be used to query, view and explore the burials data directly or the GIS files (in ESRI shapefile format) can be downloaded and used in an independent GIS package. The Llandough Cemetery Archive resource also contains an extensive introduction to the history of the excavation and associated publications as well as an overview of the database structure and fields. The Llandough Cemetery Archive provides a number of flexible and powerful methods to query an interesting and detailed dataset. Both the database and GIS interfaces are well documented and easy to use and the latter, using ArcIMS, will be familiar to users of ArcView or ArcGIS. The website is easily navigable through the standard ADS interface and users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions prior to accessing the resource.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Roman colonies of Volubilis, Thamusida, Banasa, and Lixus, in the province of Mauretania Tingitana. It includes illustrated articles on: the temple quarter of Lixus; Volubilis and its Carthaginian influences such as the tophet (place for depositing human remains) and the stelae (engraved stones); Banasa and its Roman forum; and Thamusida and its religious buildings. There is also a bibliography, and a gallery of pictures and plans. This website provides a useful overview of the province and its Mediterranean influences, aimed primarily at students.
This is the website of The Mausolea and Monuments Trust (MMT) a registered charity for the protection and preservation for the public of Mausolea and Sepulchral Monuments situated within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The website provides information about the trust, its history and its work. The website splits into several different areas. The history link provides information on mausolea under the Trusts care, and current appeals to raise funds to preserve other monuments. There is also information on current events, how to join the trust and an archive of newsletter articles on mausolea. An illustrated gazetteer of mausolea is planned for the future. The link page provided is especially useful providing lists of websites on architectural heritage, cemetery friends, funerary architecture and customs and individual mausolea.
The Medieval Wall Painting in the English Parish Church website provides an online catalogue of churches in England that are decorated with medieval wall paintings, dating from the twelfth to the fifteenth century. The catalogue can be browsed by geographical location using a county map of England, or by subject via a page of thumbnail images. Photographs of all the paintings are provided. The images are accompanied by useful descriptions and notes on their importance and context. The paintings have been separated into categories which include, among others: pre-1200 paintings; Genesis scenes and the Tree of Jesse; the early life of Christ; the Virgin; the Saints; the Doom and the weighing of souls; the Passion cycle; and devotional scenes. In addition to the main catalogue there is also: a general introduction to medieval wall paintings; a bibliography; and a selection of pertinent links. This website would be invaluable to anyone studying medieval art and religious iconography, although it should be noted that this is an ongoing project and coverage is not complete.
A commercial website providing useful practical information on the megalithic monuments of the British Isles and Europe with some additional coverage of world material. The British Isles can be searched via an interactive map and A-Z gazetteer which is based on the published work of Aubrey Burl, the leading expert in this field. Each megalithic site is provided with a basic data sheet, images and practical details on finding and visiting the monument, and advice on good practice in dealing with landowners and ensuring the on-going conservation of the site. There is also a news service for stories of archaeological interest and a forum for discussion. The 'Ancient Sites' section is a series of stories, reflections and links to articles elsewhere submitted by website readers and provides useful material for discussion. The prehistoric web index provides a comprehensive but uncritical guide to the many other sites of megalith interest and, given the potential for lunatic fringe archaeology in this area, the potential reader will have to exercise their academic judgement. Nonetheless, these further links will particularly interest those who require a wide range of images and maps or those concerned with the popular impact of archaeology and with 'New Age' and related interpretations of the past.
The megalithic temples of Malta, dating from 5500 years ago, are the oldest free standing stone structures of the world. This website contains more than 400 web pages of information about the prehistoric sites on the islands of Malta and Gozo. Seven megalithic temples are to be found on the islands of Malta and Gozo, each a result of an individual development. This website is based mostly on photographs and images (including Quicktime virtual panoramas) of the temples and therefore will have limited use for undergraduate assignments and greater use in teaching. The intention of the author is to give as much visual information as possible - using photographs, illustrations, and virtual reality tours and movies; many pictures are however too small to be really useful. All aspects of Maltese archaeology are included in what is a virtual archaeological tour of the islands.
The district of Morbihan in western Brittany is home to an important concentration of Neolithic megalithic standing stones, passage tombs and rock art which includes the World Heritage Site of Carnac. This beautifully presented website provides a detailed and colourful guide to the archaeology, architecture and landscape context of these fascinating monuments dating from the fifth and fourth millennia BC within their French and European context. In addition to detailed discussions of major megalithic clusters such as Carnac, Gavrinis, Locmariaquer and Le Petit Mont, this resource provides a series of illustrated essays which put these monuments into their historical and environmental contexts. At the time of writing, the resource is in French but English and Breton editions are promised. The authors provide a cultural history of megalithic monuments and related parietal art, both in terms of how and why megalithic tombs and standing stone complexes were built but also how they reflect the social and religious values of the communities who constructed them. Other sections describes how the development of sedentary Neolithic society gradually transformed the social psychology of the inhabitants which gave rise to this megalithic culture. Issues such as changes in the coastline, sea levels and the natural environment in the area over the past 7000 years are also discussed. The section 'Réalité et imaginaire' charts the popular and scholarly appreciation of the monuments over the centuries in myth, historical speculation, 'modern' science and conservation, and contemporary art. The resource also includes an extensive bibliography and a practical guide to archaeological sites, museums and organisations devoted to their preservation and study and panoramic video shots of some of the major sites. The "help and site map" section is a particularly useful index of the website and is a better access route than the home page.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Loma Alta, Mexico, an ancient funerary island and ritual centre of Tarascan (Michoacan) culture. A series of illustrated articles summarises the evidence found during several archaeological campaigns. Cremation was the typical funerary practice at Loma Alta, which is uncommon anywhere else in Mesoamerica. At Loma Alta, the bones surviving cremation are reduced to powder. The ashes are placed on urns, most of which were deposed in a circular area twenty-seven metres in diameter. The only other culture that practised cremation near Central America was the Hohokam one, located in the south-west of the United States. The excavators suggest that Loma Alta represents an intermediate culture, between the earlier Olmec culture that was represented in most of America and the later phase, when several cultures separated and spread across the continent. The Hohokam culture may have inherited parts of the Loma Alta culture. A separate cemetery at Loma Alta contained depositions with offerings, among which are decorated pottery typical of Tarascan culture. The site of Loma Alta was used from ca. 150 BC to ca. 1500 AD. Another interesting finding are the figurines, among which the phallus was represented: these underline the ritual importance of the site. Maps, several pictures, a bibliography and contact details of the excavators are available in various section of this website. It is a very interesting source of information for both students and researchers.
A personal website focusing on Minoan archaeological sites. The aim of this site is to provide basic information about all the major and some of the minor archaeological sites of the Bronze Age civilisation in Crete. This website is primarily aimed at those who have little knowledge of Minoan society or those who have visited Crete and would like to learn more or to look at pictures of the sites they may have visited. Teachers and students of archaeology may be interested in some of the photos. The website is divided into palaces; settlements; tombs; and other sites. Caution should be exercised in the accepting the presentation of some of the Cretan sites: Galatas, Petras and Ayia Triada are listed among the "other sites" in spite of their palatial architecture. Pages describe the sites and their archaeological history and are liberally illustrated with photographs. Photographs act as thumbnails to larger images. The author permits downloading of images for personal use, though requires permission to be sought for other uses. The entire website is also available in Polish. This website is still a mighty useful website for those in need of a picture of some Cretan site; the available pictures were taken at times when overgrown plants did not hide the architectural remains.
At the time of review the website author was publishing higher resolution versions of many images; there is also a link to a Google Earth application that maps the archaeological sites and allows to access some pages through a GIS interface.
Despite the name "Minoan Peak Sanctuaries" may lead to think that this is an introductory website on that particular category of sites, the website is an advanced resource publishing a map with Java VR panoramas from the top of the sites, and a highly specialised bibliography (updated to 2002) consisting of a few full-text papers freely available in PDF format. Researchers and advanced students may find this website useful.
The Mochlos Excavation Project involves the excavation of a number of related sites on the island of Mochlos and its adjacent coastal plain, located just east of the Bay of Mirabello in eastern Crete. There was extensive occupation from the Bronze Age through the Hellenistic era and into the Byzantine era. This website has pages on the Bronze Age on the island with the Early Minoan cemetery (very famous for the gold finds) as well as the Late Minoan III chamber tombs, the artisans quarters and the settlement at Chalinomouri on the mainland. There is also an updated list of publications. Students in particular may find this website useful; it is also good for teaching purposes.
This is the website of the Monumental Brass Society: a Society for those interested in any aspect of monumental brasses and incised slabs of all dates in all countries. Formed in 1887 by a group of Cambridge undergraduates it now boasts a membership of over 500. For those not in the know, an incised slab is a flat memorial with an effigy of the deceased, an epitaph and maybe a religious symbol cut into the stone. These originated before the Norman conquest. A monumental brass is engraved on sheets of metal inlaid in matrices and cut into the stone. Their origin is a little later: the thirteenth century. There are many pages on this website outlining meetings and activities of the Society. Also, a history of brasses and incised slabs is included along with a selected 'Brass of the Month'. The Society produces books and journals: The 'MBS Transactions' comes out annually and its contents is included on this site. It also produces a 'County Series' of books listing brasses in individual English counties. A good deal of conservation work is carried out by the Society and guidelines for the conservation of monumental brasses is provided.
Mycenae: Research and Publication is a website detailing excavations undertaken at this important ancient Greek site. The resource features both short texts and images (plans as well as photographs of the archaeological excavations and finds) to guide the user around the archaeological site. The resource is divided into the following key sections: the west slope; the prehistoric cemetery; the south house and annex; the cult centre; the temple complex; the room with the fresco complex. Details of relevant publications are also given. The website is a simple and rigorous introduction to the archaeological site of Mycenae for students, with several colour images.
This website, written by amateur archaeologists, focuses on a single monument of Ireland, Newgrange, which is a passage-grave or passage-tomb. It provides information on all aspects of the monument with short illustrated articles. The website includes sections about general information; myths and folklore; construction of Newgrange; passage and chamber; the great circle; kerbstones; satellite sites; finds and artefacts; megalithic art; and the astronomy of Newgrange. In addition, there is a gallery of pictures, a few series of photographs taken by contributing photographers and a short video. The general public and students may find this website useful.
This is the website of the National Churches Trust (previously the Historic Churches Preservation Trust and the Incorporated Church Building Society), an independent charitable enterprise founded in 1953. Its purpose is to raise funds, provide practical assistance and help finance structural repairs to churches, chapels and other places of worship, in England and Wales, that are over one hundred years old. Twenty-seven million pounds in grants have been allocated to date. The Gallery provides pictures and information about nearly 150 projects. Further pages outline the research and future strategy of the Trust; provide case studies and a news section with job advertisements. The Trust produces an annual report which can be downloaded in PDF format.
This website describes a programme of research to further the understanding of the monuments in the Avebury region being carried out in collaboration between the Universities of Southampton, Leicester, Newcastle and Wales at Newport. This research includes excavations, fieldwalking, surveying and computer-aided 3D modelling. The research programme is described. There is an illustrated description of the prehistoric landscape of the Avebury region. There are interim reports (in PDF format) for excavations at Lonstones Field, Beckhampton. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The Thornborough Complex is a set of three equally spaced and almost identical henge monuments, the central one being superimposed on an earlier cursus, a double pit alignment and a number of round barrows. Investigations have been carried out on the complex by the Department of Archaeology, University of Newcastle. Fieldwalking has shown that distribution of lithics from the later Neolithic onwards is strikingly lower in the immediate vicinity of the henge monuments than in the surrounding areas. Excavations have been carried out on two of the henges and an oval shaped enclosure. The results of the excavations are described and the construction sequences of the monuments discussed. The descriptions are complemented with plans and sections of the excavations. Area plans and aerial photographs help to give context to the monuments.
The Newgrange Web page, which is part of the Mythical Ireland website, contains information, images and links about this famous passage tomb constructed around 3200 BC. There are many web resources about Newgrange, but this one is interesting because of the variety of information available, and there are a huge number of photographs and some films. The Newgrange monument is famous because its passageway is aligned with the Winter Solstice sunrise on the 21st December. At this moment in the year, a roof box allows the sunlight to illuminate the tunnel. There is a good plan diagram and explanation of this on the website, which can be accessed from the "Solstice Light" link at the right hand side of the homepage under the heading "Astronomy at Newgrange". Visitors to the site can access a list of historical, geographical and architectural factual information about Newgrange by clicking on the "101 facts about Newgrange" link in the central column of the home page.
Newgrange, Knowth, Dowth, Fourknocks, Loughcrew and Tara are Neolithic passage tombs located in the County of Meath on the east coast of Ireland. The large stones surrounding and inside the tombs are decorated with Megalithic Art. This independent website has short descriptions of each of the monuments along with photographs. Other sections include links to other websites, local information for visiting the monuments, artwork, articles and links to publications. This website may be useful to students.
The city of Nippur near Baghdad in modern Iraq was the most important religious centre of ancient Mesopotamian culture and the site has produced considerable quantities of archaeological artefacts from ca. 5000 BC until 800 AD, including many thousands of cuneiform writing tablets with Sumerian and Akkadian texts. This website describes the activities of the Oriental Institute of Chicago at Nippur and the nearby settlement of Umm al-Hafriyat since 1972, when excavations were resumed, in addition to outlining the wider research programme associated with these excavations. The resource consists of a series of annual reports produced between 1991 and 2003 as well as a number of articles reproduced from academic journals. These are accompanied by numerous high quality site plans and photographs which can be viewed at a number of scales. In addition to archaeological information, which will interest undergraduates and researchers alike, this website provides important insights into archaeological practice in the contemporary Middle East and the problems of excavation and research in a politically troubled area.
The "NordArk Project" is a comprehensive online resource bank of materials complemented by "The Knowledge Archive", a directory of web sites relating to archaeology in Europe, and particularly Scandinavia. Maintained by the Royal Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities in Sweden, the project aims to coordinate knowledge on Nordic archaeology for students and the public. Available in both English and Swedish languages, the web site offers two forms of on-screen navigation - either via the "Information Guide" which arranges the directory of web sites according to types of information (for example, internet publications, search tools and Information carriers - such as books, journals, maps), or alternatively, through The "Knowledge Archive", an interactive "map" of the branches of knowledge in the field of archaeological studies (this map is in Swedish only, but links to pages which are available in English). Many of the articles and texts, written especially for the NordArk project, are available in both languages, although others are in either Swedish or English only.
This is a gallery of photographs about the 10th century Norse burials discovered at Cumwhitton, south-east of Carlisle in Cumbria in 2004 and excavated by Oxford Archaeology whose website hosts the report. Despite their widespread presence in north-west Europe, Viking burials are extremely rare, especially in places outside their normal sphere or settlement or cultural influence. The six Cumwhitton graves are significant not merely on account of their rich furnishings, which included numerous brooches, swords and horse equipment but also because the east-west orientation of the burials suggest that the interred were Christian, or at least influenced by Christian belief. Equally, no more than a dozen Viking burials in Lancashire and Cumbria have been identified, mostly from antiquarian reports and none in the past hundred years. This resource will benefit students and researchers of mediaeval British and European archaeology and history.
The Northeast Church Project, part of the Sussita/Hippos Excavations, aims to further explore a sixth century Byzantine structure (the Northeast church) located in the city of Sussita (Hippos), Israel. During the Roman period, the Decapolis city of Hippos was a centre for Greek culture and later became a significant Christian centre in the Byzantine period. It is located 2km east of the Sea of Galilee at the top of a flat diamond-shaped mountain, 350m above sea level. This resource details the work carried out as part of both previous and current excavation seasons together with brief details on the project's background as well as information on joining the project. The website contains the full-text reports of previous seasons fieldwork including figures, plates, loci sheets, excavation blog, slideshows and photos. There is a linked website (excavations main website) published by the University of Haifa with full reports of recent excavations; opportunities for volunteers to dig; additional photo galleries; and more updated information on the state of the project.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Seddenga, Sudan (ancient Nubia). Seddenga is located between the second and third cataract of the Nile, north of Kerma (land of Kush), in a territory scarcely explored. Several illustrated articles focus on various topics, a Neolithic cemetery; an Egyptian temple of Queen Tiy; a cemetery used by people of Napata and Meroë culture; a medieval church (tenth century) and other topics. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a topographic map of the site and an extensive bibliography.
The official website of the Oxford Expedition to Egypt (OEE) publishes information on the project, information to purchase books and the "Linacre College Oxford Expedition: Scene-details Database". The database contains drawings of scenes depicted in Egyptian art (funerary contexts) from Dynasty III to the end of Dynasty VI (First Intermediate Period) as well as basic information on their location. Chronologically the database includes the Old Kingdom. Some PDF files, a map and an index facilitate access to the information. There is also a bibliography and a glossary. The database is organised hierarchically (or pyramid-like as the authors suggest) and is easy to use. For instance, boat scenes may be found selecting "themes" and then "commerce"; similarly several dance and music scenes can be accessed accessing "themes" and then dance and then "Dance, music and games". Although the database was born out of a project published in the printed series "Egypt in Miniature", it can be used without accessing the books. Researchers in particular may find the database useful.
Perperikon is an important archaeological site in Bulgaria, in the eastern Rhodope range (Rodopi Planina); it was used as religious centre since the end of the 5th millennium BC (Chalcolithic figurines). This website written by Nikolay Ovcharov, the archaeologist who discovered and excavated it, summarises the research carried out so far. The website is available in Bulgarian or English and there is a Flash multimedia version and an HTML version; the HTML is the most complete version. The website contains several sections: "news"; "general Info and road map" where archaeological drawings of the architectural structures are available; "legend and history", which focuses on the main subjects of cult at Perperikon (Orpheus, Dionysus, and the Christian Holy Cross); the archaeological excavations ("Perperikon unearthed"); the surrounding monuments ("Perperikon and the eastern Rhodope"); a gallery of pictures ("virtual tour"); and others.
The long history of Perperikon is summarised in a chronological table in section "legend and history"; it spans from the 6th millennium BC (first traces of human occupation of the area) to its destruction in the 14th century AD. The Thracians worshipped the sun and extracted gold and silver from mines in the area. The cult of Dionysus became particularly important and an impressive temple dedicated to this divinity was built on the acropolis; historical sources report of an oracle. The Byzantines established an important ecclesiastical centre at Perperikon and a 9th or 10th century reliquary in the shape of a cross containing wood (one of three found in Bulgaria) may contain parts of the cross carried by Jesus. Among the monuments outside the settlement are a cave shaped as a womb (Rock Womb at Nenkovo); Thracian megaliths; the tomb of a 13th or 14th century bishop; and others.
The city of Petra in Jordan was one of the wealthiest caravan cities of the ancient Near East which particularly flourished in Hellenistic and Roman times (c.300 BC-c.100 AD) and is famous for its beautiful 'rose red' architecture and dramatic topography. This is the web publication of the excavations by Brown University, Rhode island at the Great Temple, one of the major public buildings located in the centre of the city, between 1992 and 2001. A concise introductory history of the town is followed by a guide to the architecture of the Great Temple itself and a series of detailed reports on the excavation, reconstruction and conservation work of the Brown University project. Plans and photographs are numerous and can be viewed as thumbnails or at large scale. An extensive bibliography back to 1993 and details of the paper publication are also provided. This is an attractively presented and informative site which will appear to students and researchers of Near Eastern, Hellenistic and Roman art and archaeology and provide up to date information on this important archaeological site.
Photogrammetric Reconstruction of the Geoglyphs of Nasca and Palpa is the website of a project to measure and map the geoglyphs in the area north of the Peruvian town of Nasca, in the Nasca pampa and in the Palpa area. The geoglyphs are large-scale landscape markings made of lines several kilometres long, depicting rectangles and trapezoids; human figures on hillsides; and animals and plants. This unique monument was declared World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO in 1994. In order to make a geoglyph, darkly oxidized stones of the natural desert pavement were removed and heaped along the border of the cleared areas, thereby revealing a bright layer of sand and silt standing out in strong constrast to the surrounding undisturbed surface. The carvings date from around 3800 BC (earliest date), and cover about 450 sq. km of the desert surface.
This website publishes some 3D views resulting by the GIS investigations in the "Results" section. The "links" section is not to be missed: unusually it contains academic papers in PDF format in addition to active links to websites of related projects. Although the pages of this website may be useful primarily to students interested in GIS applications, section "links" will please mostly researchers.
This website is a "virtual guidebook" to Poverty Point, an impressive complex of mounds and enclosure earthworks on the banks of the Mississippi River in north-eastern Louisiana dating from the middle of the second millennium BC and one of only three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the region. The site, which is among the largest and oldest set of earthworks in the western hemisphere, has given its name to the prehistoric culture which flourished in the Lower Mississippi between circa 1730 and 1350 BC and which, in its day, was the most sophisticated and socially complex culture in North America. Poverty Point was at the centre of a highly organised trade network which extended some 1400 miles from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes. While many features of the material culture and earthwork building tradition can be traced back the preceding 3rd millennium, many aspects of the site and its culture remain unexplained, especially the function of the earthwork complexes themselves. The resource, an online version of a guidebook published by the Louisiana Department of Culture, Recreation and Tourism, Division of Archaeology, provides a succinct illustrated introduction to the site and its material culture in addition to useful background information on the period in general and a bibliography for further research and study for students of North American prehistory or comparative World archaeology. The parent site provides additional resources on education and information on issues relating to heritage management and the law and will interest heritage professionals.
A short series of web pages reporting on the University of Sheffield's excavations at Cladh Hallan, South Uist since 1989. Two Bronze Age settlement mounds were excavated in advance of destruction by quarrying. Roundhouses and evidence of cultivation were found and more famously, possible evidence of prehistoric mummification. The website consists of three separate pages, Part I, II and III. These pages describe some of the findings of the excavations and include a small number of site photographs to illustrate the text. Topics include a discussion of the settlement evidence, the bodies buried under the houses, diet, daily life and the abandonment of the settlement. The resource is simple but informative. Navigation between the three different sections is only available through a menu on the left hand side which isn't immediately intuitive. The resource may be useful especially for students; it should be noted however that these pages are preliminary reports and further evidence has been published in Antiquity.
This website details a field survey and excavation carried out the Bournemouth University School of Conservation Sciences on a henge monument at Knowleton Circles, Dorset. The site lies close to Cranbourne Chase. Knowleton circles is a series of large earthworks, one with the ruins of a 12th-16th century church in its centre. This is well illustrated by an aerial photograph. Four of the monuments have been investigated. The website describes the geophysical and topographical surveys and the excavations and presents the resulting interpretations. There are plans of the general area and of specific monuments in the complex. Plots from the geophysical surveys are given and in one case there is a surface model and a topographical model of the monument. This website has been last updated in 1996, but it may be still useful to students.
In 2006 a conference was held at Manchester Museum on "Respect for ancient British Human remains". The web site associated with the conference has been maintained, as an archive for papers (downloadable as PDF files) presented at the conference, dealing with the ethical issues surrounding the excavation, examination, storage and display of human remains from archaeological sites in the UK. Issues discussed include dealing with bog bodies, remains held in museums, pagan views, and reburial.
This is the free and full-text online version of the Revue de l'art chrétien, a French journal that published several notices and reports of early archaeological excavations. The past issues have been scanned for electronic publication. As is the case for all older publications, readers need to watch out for outdated information. The records and reports of old excavations, however, are irreplaceable and may be useful to both advanced students and researchers. The interface of the website makes easy searching through the journal, and it is possible with a free registration to add this and many other similar journal and older monographs to a private virtual space for easy retrieval. It is an excellent resource since the printed publication is now available only at a few libraries.
This website gives the user access to images and descriptions of a large collection of rock carvings and inscriptions which were uncovered in 1978 during the building of a road connecting Pakistan and China through the Himalayan and Karakorum mountains. The site has a small gallery showing seven examples of rock art, as well as another collection of images from the highway itself. There is also a list of publications about the collection, along with tables of contents for each of the works. Given that the website refers to approximately 35,000 inscriptions being catalogued by the project, the small number of images on this site is somewhat disappointing, but the introduction and description of the texts and drawings is nonetheless useful.
This website publishes the aims, methodology and preliminary results of an international team researching the ritual sites of Thrace and surrounding regions. The project focuses on ritual centres from the fifth millennium BC to the seventh century AD and is supported by UNESCO. The website includes short biographies and contact details of the participants. The most useful section is entitled "sites" and summarises the research at the archaeological sites of Harman Kaya; Tangardak Kaya; Bajlovo; Cabyle; and Mishkova Niva. The list of sites is repeated twice under "monuments", which allows to access archaeoastronomical reports illustrated with photographs, drawings and diagrams; and "gallery", which allows to access galleries of pictures. Some information on contextual information such as ceramics and architectural structures is also given in each referenced report. Among the monuments are caves; dolmens and circles of stones.
Notable is the site of Bajlovo, where 240 rock art images have been found. Among them, the sun and moons at different phases are carved on the rock. The monument is dated to ca. 3500 BC and is one of the earliest monuments where the symbols of the sun and the moon, popular in Central European religion from the Late Bronze Age (e.g. Nebra disk), are associated to a secure ritual context. Of interest is also the report on the royal town of Cabyle, conquered by Philip II during 342-341 BC and then destroyed by Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus in 72 BC. The origins and importance of the town can be traced back to the Bronze Age, when the place became an important religious centre in which the sun played an important role.
The Ministry of Public Buildings and Works carried out excavations at the Roman cemetery east of the fort and vicus of Brougham, Cumbria in 1966 and 1967 in advance of road building work. A third century cremation burial cemetery was uncovered which remains the largest area of a cemetery ever to have been dug in the Roman North and yielded a range of finds considered to be a resource of national importance. During 2000 to 2002 English Heritage funded Barbican Research Associates to analyse the archive. The database resulting from this analysis may be downloaded from AHDS Archaeology. In addition to the database, there is a short description of the project.
"Roman Forum Excavation" is the website of a collaborative archaeological excavation between the American Institute for Roman Culture and the Universities of Oxford (UK) and Stanford (USA). This is an almost unique opportunity to excavate part of the great forum of the capital of the Roman empire as permission to dig is rarely conceded by the Italian Ministry of Culture (Italian Ministero per i Beni ed Attività Culturali) to non-Italian projects. The aim of the dig is to investigate the part of the edge of the Forum, between the Oratory of the Forty Martyrs, the so-called 'Domitianic aula' and the Temple of Castor, an important commercial zone on the edge of the Roman Forum in the Republican, Imperial, and late Roman periods, known as the area post aedem Castoris (the area behind the Temple of Castor and Pollux), as well as the related area on the adjacent Vicus Tuscus. Among the results of the first season (1 July - 7 August 2003) was the discovery (sensationally reported in the press as evidence of insane power-hunger) that Caligula appears to have suppressed the street to the south of the Temple of Castor in order to extend his palace right up to the temple podium, probably to make the temple a monumental entrance to the palace as described by Suetonius and Dio Cassius. Subsequently the street was restored and the palace facade apparently remodelled, probably by Claudius later in the the first century CE. The report of the 2004 season is also available. The project was led in the field by Dr Andrew Wilson, Oxford University Institute of Archaeology, and co-directed with Wilson by Dr Jennifer Trimble, Stanford University Department of Classics, and Dr Darius Arya, the American Institute for Roman Culture, Inc. (IRC). The IRC hosts the website.
This website publishes 29 black and white illustrations of baptismal fonts taken from C.S. Drake's book, "The Romanesque Fonts of Northern Europe and Scandinavia" to give a taste of the wide variety of fonts which survive from the Middle Ages in all parts of The British Isles, Belgium, France, Germany, Denmark, Norway and Sweden.
The "Rome in Egypt" website publishes "an updated repertory of the temples built in Egypt by Roman emperors for autochthonous cults" and is the result of a research project directed by Prof. Edda Bresciani at the University of Pisa, Italy. The website consists of a database of Egyptian archaeological sites that can be browsed by site name, temple, Roman emperor or virtual map. There is also an extensive bibliography, divided by site. The virtual map requires Internet Explorer to work and the XVR plug-in and is an interactive map with a nice animation, and no additional contents; it is not necessary to use it. For each record some data are available and these often include an interactive map; photographs; short texts describing the temple and its state of conservation; and an essential bibliography. This website is a very useful reference tool for both students and researchers.
The “Rushen Abbey” website provides details about the history of the abbey and its modern day use as a heritage centre in Ballasalla on the Isle of Man. This online resource contains useful but brief information about the history of the abbey and previous excavations over the course of the last two centuries dating from 1913 to the twenty-first century. The resource focuses on the 2003 excavations and include newsletters from 2003, a brief dig-diary and an illustrated preliminary report. In addition, there are contact details and links to external websites concerned with the abbey.
The Sacred Sites, Contested Rights/Rites project web site is dedicated to promoting the concerns of Pagans in the UK in relation to archaeological sites, artefacts and human remains. Established with funding from the Human Rights Research Centre at Sheffield Hallam University and from the Economic and Social Research Council, the project pulls together news, updates, events information, conference and seminar proceedings, reports and articles on pagan interests in access to, and the preservation of, archaeological monuments and sites.
This is the highly dynamic and colourful website on the Saitobaru Burial Mounds, situated in south-eastern Kyushu in Japan. It is best accessed with Internet Explorer or using the access pages for new browsers, which are compatible with any browser supporting Adobe Flash. The archaeological site includes 311 burial mounds built during the Kofun period (3rd-7th century AD). The group includes various types of burial mounds amongst which are the unique key-hole shaped tumuli and lateral-entry underground tombs. The tumuli are believed to be related to the Imperial family. Although excavations were undertaken from 1912 to 1917 as one of the first systematic scientific excavations in Japan, the site has not been fully investigated; new excavations and projects have however started recently. The archaeological site was designated as a Special Historical Site in 1952, and is now a historical park. The website offers a Virtual Tour of the area as a set of annotated interactive panoramas along with information about the site and the ability to search a database of information and images of the tumuli. A children's corner offers a basic course in Tumuli. The website can be accessed in parallel English and Japanese versions, and has been created by the Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs as a model for a multimedia strategy for the conservation of cultural properties.
This website describes a project to analyse and document the Salt Range Temples of Pakistan, important monuments in the history of South Asian temple architecture dating from the 6th to the 11th century. It is a joint venture between the University of Pennsylvania, the Department of Archaeology at the University of Peshawar, and the Pakistan Heritage Society. This resource studies the architecture and architectural sculpture of the temples. It features many images of the temples of Upper Pakistan including photographs, plans and drawings. The site includes a typescript of an article, "Temples Along the Indus" by Michael Meister, from the University of Pennsylvania Museum's journal, "Expedition". There is also a link to the Pakistan Heritage Society's home page.
Samnites and Samnium publishes a collection of illustrated articles by Davide Monaco, an amateur archaeologist. There are preliminary reports on the 2004 excavations of Vastogirardi; a paper on the sanctuary of Pietrabbondante by Filippo Coarelli and Adriano La Regina; and John Patterson's paper "Una cittí chiamata Sannio" (A city named Samnium). There are articles on Samnite coins; the army; religion; and the Oscan language (including the bronze tablet of Agnone), which are adequate for use in undergraduate essays. There are also an extensive bibliography, a list of ancient sources mentioning the Samnites and a public forum. Readers should be aware that some articles are available only in Italian and that some English articles are abbreviated versions of the original versions in Italian. The Samnites were a fierce Italic people that fought three wars against Rome for the control of the Italian peninsula; they also sided with Hannibal during his incursion in the Italian peninsula and caused trouble to Rome in the following centuries until Sulla defeated them one last time in 82 BC. This website is a good introduction to the Samnites for the general public and undergraduate students.
Akhethetep, a Fifth Dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh reigning sometime around the middle of the 3rd Millennium BC, was buried in a magnificent mastaba tomb in the necropolis in Saqqara, the royal burial ground of Memphis, the capital of the Old Kingdom. This equally magnificent interactive website provides a lavishly illustrated account of the tomb and attempts to 'restore' its mortuary chapel, which has been in the Louvre since 1903, to its original context by means of a virtual reality reconstruction. This combines the results of research by French Egyptologists from 1991 onwards on its architecture, layout and artistic decoration with modern virtual reality animations, using Flash and Quicktime. Although the chapel was removed from Saqqara by Maspero and Bénédite to protect it from looters, the work itself was never documented and many aspects of the original monument remain obscure. The resource provides an interactive guide to various aspects of the tomb layout within its historical and physical context, with maps of major Egyptian sites, plans of Saqqara and a highly visual chronological chart of ancient Egyptian chronology. Particular emphasis is placed on the carved reliefs of the mortuary chapel, which are interpreted in terms of their iconographic and artistic properties, and the underlying significance of the hierogylphs, key examples of which are translated into French. The resource also features reports of research and excavation at the mastaba itself and a host of other architectural, artefactual and scientific results. 'De Saqqara de Louvre' will interest students and researchers in Egyptian archaeology as well as the general public who can read French.
Evolving out of his own doctoral dissertation, Donald Binder's Second Temple Synagogues website offers a high-quality introduction to synagogues and their function within Jewish society before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 A.D. The author has brought together a wide variety of textual material for the general reader, beginning with a literary archive offering quotations and references about the synagogues from ancient sources. There is a brief but helpful FAQ, clarifying some of the more basic issues pertaining to social function, and a dozen detailed overviews of ancient synagogues are available, each discussing its history and prominent features, and usually including detailed archaeological cross-sections and beautiful colour photographs. The site also offers a substantial collection of links to other Judeo-Christian resources online, although this section does not appear to have been updated for some time.
This website presents a wealth of information on over 300 churches and 100 churches primarily in Nottinghamshire. The site's aims are to: 'establish a database of information on the 300+ churches and 100+ former churches/sites and to provide internet web pages for wider circulation; help parishes appreciate their church buildings and provide booklets and information for visitors and tourists; provide historic information to Church Architects, Archaeologists and Conservators to enable them to make proposals on maintenance and improvement of our churches in a more informed way; promote church buildings as resources for schools and colleges; and to enable family historians to seek out information by ensuring that records are properly protected and preserved'. The website itself is very easy to navigate: each of the churches is listed alphabetically and clicking on any of the names takes the user to a separate page which details the information available. The information varies from church to church, with some including plans and drawings of the inside of the church, and others simply describing the church. This website is a huge undertaking and provides users with an excellent amount of information on Britain's churches.
The Mesoamerican Ballgame is a visually stimulating, award-winning website that requires a Flash plug-in before it can be opened. Amongst other Web awards, this won the Museums and the Web Best Overall Site in 2002, a competition in which museum professionals recognized excellence in heritage website design from around the world nominated by the community.The Sport of Life and Death was an organised game using a rubber ball and teams that was developed by the Olmecs living in Mesoamerica (which includes modern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador) around 1500 BCE. The game was played in one form or another until the Europeans colonized the Americas, and forms of the game are still played today. This, the first team sport, is described in the context of the history of sport from bowling, wrestling, and the Olympic games through Medieval times to current sports.This site boasts a completely interactive and interconnected clickable map of the Mesoamerican world with a timeline (1500 BCE-1519 CE) and and with a left-nav menu showing historic and archaeological sites, evidence of the ballgame and artwork of the cultures of Mesoamerica: Olmec; Western Mexico; Teotihuacan; Maya; Veracruz; Toltec; Huastec; Aztec; and the Spanish Conquest. This immense resource is presented graphically with Flash, music, video footage (such as a Quicktime movie of a Ballgame reenactment), model VR footage, VR panoramas, stunning photography, artwork and animated icons and mouse cursors. Where appropriate the memory size of files and anticipated download times for varying connections to the Internet are provided. The exploration of the Mesoamerican World and the Ballgame, and the virtual presentation of the touring museum exhibition that this site accompanies, is facilitated by a huge Site Map accessible from the bottom-nav bar on all pages. This map is incredibly colourful and an invaluable and comprehensive navigation aid. Although not revolutionary, the website design uses Flash to its full potential enhancing the educational, informative, navigational, and fun content that is presented.Each page provides links to further information about the objects in each section, and the institutions and agencies that have contributed to the exhibition which include academics from US and central American universities, as well as institutions such as Yale University Art Gallery and the National Geographic.
This website publishes information about St. Laurence's Chapel, Bradford-upon-Avon. Due to relatively few alterations and additions during its life, this is one of the best-preserved early ecclesiastical buildings in Britain. Given by Bradford to Shaftesbury Abbey in 1001 to mark the millennium, the structure is typically Anglo-Saxon in style. The website divides its information into several categories, including history; architecture; conversion; excavation; interpretations; and reconstructions, which are then expanded in a series of illustrated articles, several with bibliographic information. The final section attempts to reconstruct the chapel using computer-based 3D modelling, incorporating some of the findings discussed in the "interpretations" section. Photographic and computer generated images accompany the textual information. The navigation of the website is at times difficult due to the squeezing of the titles with links of all articles in each section on a red bar using a small font. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
This is the website for St Peter's Project Barton-upon-Humber. St Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire, lies on the south bank of the Humber Estuary close to the Humber Bridge. Held as one of the most architecturally important churches in Britain, containing examples of Anglo-Saxon and Saxo-Norman overlap architecture, it has been subject to several archaeological excavations from the late 19th Century to the most recent between 1978 and 1984. Details of the excavations are presented with illustrations, and their results have enabled the construction of a full chronology of the structural developments of the church between c.970 AD and 1897 AD. Much of the text included is from "The Parish Church and its Community" written by Caroline Atkins, Hilary Cool and Warwick Rodwell. At the time of review some links were not working and some pages were missing.
Coptic is the name given to the latest stage of the ancient Egyptian language from the first century BC and written in an alphabet deriving from Greek and Demotic. The term is applied more generally to the distinct culture of Egyptian Christianity and its diaspora which still uses the Coptic language in its religious rituals. This website, produced by the St Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society of Los Angeles, is part of an on-going project to preserve and promote Coptic culture by providing digital resources for Coptic language, literary, archaeological and artistic study. Projects include the Coptic Microfilm Library (CML) which aims to put all relevant Coptic and Arabic texts online and the Mapping of Coptic Monuments project, which will record all Egyptian Christian architectural and archaeological sites. The Manual of Coptic Studies (at the time of review almost completely empty and not updated since 1996) includes: the liturgy and texts of Coptic Christianity; a history of the language; a guide to Coptic writing; a directory of Coptic scholars. Other features include a useful slide show of frescoes from Coptic churches and monasteries. There is also a run of newsletters from the mid-1990s and downloadable software. The links page provides further information on websites of Coptic interest.
This is the personal homepage of Christine Kleibscheidel. It contains information about her research and some of her full-text papers as well as her MA thesis. All texts are in German with English abstracts. There is a section on her research about water supply at Rostock, Germany, in Medieval and early modern times (13th to 18th centuries). She particularly focuses her attention on wells, shafts and wooden pipes found at excavations in Kröpeliner StraÃƒÅ¸e 34-36 and 55-56; Kleiner Katthagen 4, and KuhstraÃƒÅ¸e. Her MA thesis instead focuses on "basic methods used by traditional archaeology to determine gender in Hallstatt period graves", where she criticises traditional archaeological methods to identify gender as unreliable and suggests that only data obtained through skeletal analysis can be trusted. The texts in PDF and Word format are hosted on a free website with plenty of ads and popups.
This website presents a report on the Colchester Archaeological Trust's excavations at Stanway, a funerary site located just outside the earthworks of Iron Age Colchester. The site is pre-Roman in origin, but was still used for about twenty years after the Roman conquest, and it is from this period that the most elaborate burials date. The site is notable especially for the burials of a warrior and a 'doctor', both containing assorted pottery and metalwork but also two gaming boards, complete with glass pieces. The doctor's grave contains surgical instruments; the warrior's a boss from a wooden shield. The presence of an ink pot in one of the chambers indicates that a 'literate person' was also buried at the site. Regional and site plans are included, both of which are clickable, providing information about surrounding sites or specific features within the Stanway excavation. The website is nicely presented and provides an excellent overview of the excavations and the challenges presented by the various artefacts uncovered.
This is the official website of the Stonehenge Riverside Project, which is focusing on Durrington Walls, in the World Heritage site including Stonehenge. The project aims at testing Parker and Ramilisonina's hypothesis suggesting that Stonehenge, a circle of stones, was a monument built to practise rituals for the dead, while Woodhenge, a circle of timbers found not far from Stonehenge in 1967 near Durrington Walls, was instead built to practise rituals for the living people. According to this view, stone was the preferred material to be used in rituals involving the ancestors because it was considered to be eternal as the ancestors while wood was the preferred material for rituals limited to the world of the living because wood is a perishable material like humans.
This website publishes a summary of the fieldwork carried out so far as well as yearly interim reports in PDF format containing several drawings and photographs. The 2006 field campaign has unearthed 8 dwellings and identified many more through a geophysical survey. The settlement has yielded pig and cattle bones; pottery; flint arrowheads and lithic debris. Prof. Mike Parker Pearson has interpreted the evidence unearthed so far as part of a seasonal settlement, where feasting within religious rituals and other ceremonies took place. This website is an essential resource to be informed on the latest discoveries concerning Britain's most famous Neolithic monument because it contains the preliminary reports of the past fieldwork and is aimed primarily at archaeologists (students and researchers). The 2006 season of the project was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the National Geographic Society and the McDonald Institute.
English Heritage and their partners are promoting and executing the 'Stonehenge Master Plan' and propose to develop and publish a Research Framework for Stonehenge and its surroundings. This website introduces the Project and the idea of a Research Framework, and provides up to date news on events connected with the Project. There is a collection of draft documents that may be read on line or downloaded as PDF files. The website also provides links to other web pages concerned with Stonehenge or stone circles. Please note that the website was last updated in 2001 and research at Stonehenge can move fast.
This is a website published by a local history enthusiast, Simon Knott, which aims to catalogue all of the Anglican and Catholic churches in Suffolk, with descriptions and accompanying photographs. Currently there are around six hundred churches featured on the site, and these can be searched or browsed by place name. Each entry contains: a short history of the church; details of architectural changes made to the buildings; and location and access details, as well as Simon's personal view of the building and its features. In addition to the main catalogue, there are also: suggestions for further reading; a glossary of unfamiliar terms; and audio files of programmes and interviews the author has participated in for BBC Radio Suffolk. This site would be of interest to those studying church architecture (particularly medieval) and archaeologists.
This website provides a description of the geophysical survey conducted in five sites around the Cranborne Chase by Bournemouth University School of Conservation Sciences. The sites were identified by aerial photography. The five sites are close to a cursus and in an area rich in Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments. Four of the sites proved to have monuments and for each there is a photograph of the location with the outline of the monument superimposed; an aerial photograph showing the monument as a crop mark; and the results of the geophysical surveys. The Handley Down enclosure and the Manor Farm sites were further investigated with contour surveys and limited excavation. Digital terrain models and excavation plans and sections are given for these sites. Students in particular may find this website useful.
The Sutton Hoo Society website has been produced to give an introduction to the work of the association and to present the story behind the Anglo Saxon Royal Cemetery at Sutton Hoo, where the ship-burial of King Raedwald was discovered. There is a brief archaeological history of the site with a click-on-map highlighting individual parts of the barrow complex. The contents pages and abstracts of the Society's newsletter, 'Saxon', with the full-text of a few articles, are available at the website. For those interested in the history of the burial site there is also a short bibliography. Directions to Sutton Hoo, and information on entrance fees are provided for those intending to visit. A virtual interactive tour of the archaeological site is available. This website may be useful to students and the general public.
The Tarbat Discovery Programme is a study of the church of St Colman at Portmahomack and the Pictish, Norse and Medieval site in which the church stands and its context in the Moray Firth area. This study is being carried out in order to mount an exhibition in the restored church displaying the discoveries made by the research programme. The project is a collaboration between Tarbat Historic Trust, Highland Council and the University of York. The website presents the project description and discoveries to date in a concise format suitable for the general public. Full reports illustrated with plans (included as AutoDesk WHIP images in some cases), sections, finds drawings and site photographs are given as Annual Bulletins for the five seasons of work so far carried out. Bulletins also contain detailed artefactual and environmental reports and assessments. There is an illustrated catalogue of architectural fragments.
This website details the results of excavations at Tell Nimrin, Jordan (also known as Tell esh-Shouneh ej-Junubiyyeh). The project has examined the paleoenvironment of the southern Jordan Valley region of the Royal Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, looking to record and preserve data threatened by regional development. Significant finds have included iron-age ostraca, a hoard of Byzantine coins, and large Middle Bronze Age architectural structures. The website details the excavations that have taken place and the findings of the research. There are images and description of the important artefacts unearthed, and a section of other primary data. A section of 'integrative studies' provides bibliographic details of publications relating to the project. This detailed web resource should prove useful for archaeologists working on the ancient Near East.
India is a country rich in temples ranging over 2000 years and exhibiting a great variety of regional variations. Kanniks Kannikeswaran has compiled information on and images of hundreds of temples from the Indian sub-continent. Access to this archive is either by deity or geographically. The temples have detailed descriptions of the architecture, decoration, iconography and history and also information on legends and festivals associated with them. Further background information is available on the various deities, beliefs and legends and regional variations in architectural styles. A glossary explains various terms pertaining to Indian Temples that may be encountered in the website. This is a very extensive website with substantial cross linking, positively encouraging exploration. Most pages have a navigation bar on the left but it is possible to leave the site and get lost.
The website of the Templo Mayor Museum in Mexico City preserves, exhibits and publicises information on archaeological materials excavated over the course of several seasons of work conducted by the Templo Mayor Project, from 1978 to the present. Long presumed to be lost, the precinct of the Aztec Temple Mayor (or Great Temple) of Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City) was discovered during routine maintenance work in the old colonial urban centre. An unparalleled archaeological source, the Templo Mayor is a vital and unique key to understanding Aztec society. An accessible resource, this website not only discusses the archaeological excavations conducted to date on the site of the Great Temple, but also provides a clear and detailed explication of Mexican culture and history. With useful links providing cross-referencing to explanations and images and a helpful glossary, this is an extremely well-designed site of use to Mesoamerican scholars of all levels, from the academic seeking archaeological images to the school student wanting an accurate and comprehensible synopsis of the pre-colonial Nahua culture of the Valley of Mexico.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Ban Wang Hi, Thailand. A few illustrated articles summarise the archaeological evidence, including discoveries at the necropolis. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There are maps and a bibliography.
The antiquarian Thomas Bateman excavated more than 200 barrows in the Derbyshire and Staffordshire Peak District during the 19th century. This website presents Bateman's own account of his excavations of some of the 7th-century barrow burials. The material is extracted from his two books 'Vestiges of the Antiquities of Derbyshire' (1848) and 'Ten Years' Diggings' (1861). The website is an archived copy of an old website; all links are broken. To follow them from the index page, it is necessary to type in the address bar of the browser the last part of the link (e.g. "bintro.html").
The tomb of Senneferi is one of the 'Tombs of the Nobles' on the West Bank at Luxor in Egypt. This website aims to provide up-to-date information on a University of Cambridge archaeological fieldwork project in progress. It professes to be an experiment in the online presentation of information and is wide ranging in its coverage. The site is made up of a large collection of well illustrated pages, some aimed at specialists, some not. Topics covered include Senneferi and his family; a brief history of Tomb TT99; later re-use of the tomb; the architecture, wall paintings, conservation, excavation, and finds. There are dig diaries for 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001, a list of related publications, and reports on each season's excavations from 1992 onwards. Quick time videos illustrate the area and archaeological activities, while a slide show presents many examples of finds and wall paintings. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
"Tomba" is a project that focuses on the development of early European elites from the study of funerary rites. Pictures and descriptions of Bronze and Iron Age monumental graves and grave goods associated to high rank people are contained in a searchable database at the core of this website. A few short descriptions of archaeological sites and cultures important for the study of Bronze and Iron Age aristocracies provide the essential background reading. Seven European institutions have taken part in this project supported by the European Commission and a brief summary of each institution constitutes the first section of the site. The searchable database is particularly useful because there are many records available but the reader is warned before trying this functionality that pages resulting from a search can be media rich. The search can be refined by date, finds, localities, types of object and combinations of these parameters, enhancing its usability and value. The "Information" section contains articles on several themes and a long bibliography. A useful chronological table (2400/2300-480/450 B.C.) concludes the site. A Java-enabled browser is required for the user to access the whole site.
The website "Tombs, Landscape and Society in Southern Madagascar" describes fieldwork carried out in many sites in Madagascar. The website provides a five-page description by Mike Parker-Pearson of the University of Sheffield, of a project which aimed to identify some of the earliest stone tombs on the island, to establish the landscape and investigate the social and genealogical contexts. The project also excavated the remains of ancient Ambaro, probably visited by Robert Drury in 1703. The project brought together the disciplines of botany, archaeology, anthropology and geomorphology to trace the history of Madagascan settlements from as early as the 11th century.The website describes the excavations undertaken, and provides information about Drury's travels in the eighteenth century. There are also images of the sites. Particular attention is paid to royal Tandroy centres, and the political geography of the early Tandroy Kingdom. This project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
Following the disturbance of a burial pit during building work, excavation was undertaken by the Department of Archaeological Sciences at Bradford University. This revealed a mass grave of 43 individuals near Tadcaster, North Yorkshire. Analysis of the remains suggested that the individuals were more robust than average for that time. Most of the individuals had sustained multiple injuries far in excess of those necessary to cause disability and death. The injuries were apparently specifically aimed at mutilating the bodies to render them unidentifiable.
Created by the University of Michigan Library, Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity offers a good visual and descriptive introduction to magical practices, devices and ornamentation from the pre-Christian period. Developed around the University's own extensive collection of papyri texts, each section begins with the description of a specific type of magical object, ranging from a early magic recipe books to a protective amulet. This description is followed by a series of related images that detail the features, significance and functionality of these apparatuses. The objects described come predominantly from the Mesopotamian and Egyptian regions, between the first and fifth centuries C.E. The site will be of appeal to anyone who has an interest in early magical rituals and practices during the height and decline of the Roman Empire. Those new to the subject may also wish to explore the brief, but helpful, bibliography at the end of the exhibit.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Sidi Jdidi, near the town of Hammamet, Tunisia. A series of illustrated articles summarise the archaeological evidence, focusing on two churches unearthed by French archaeologists. The churches demonstrate the importance of the site in fifth century Africa. Additionally, there is a bibliography, and the names and institutional affiliations of the members of the team working on the project.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on Xanthos, which is a World Heritage site. Xanthos was the largest town of ancient Lycia. The town and the Lycian culture are the subject of a few illustrated articles. The history of the Letoon, a surviving temple of Leto, is remarkable. Built on an area previously sacred to Lycian deity Elyanas, it has yielded the only information of pre-Greek religion in Lycia. The Greeks reused the area and built three sanctuaries: the Letoon for Leto, and two others dedicated to Artemis and Apollo. The area of the two Greek temples that have not survived was reused by Christians, who built a church there. This website only presents an overview of the many subjects and therefore is most suitable for use by undergraduate students. There is also a bibliography; contact details of the French archaeological project; a few maps and plans; and a 'diaporama' - a gallery of pictures.
This website describes the University of Chicago's excavations, since 1989, of the sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia near Corinth; this was one of the most important religious centres of the ancient Greek world and the location of the pan-Hellenic games. In addition to reports for the 1989-2007 field seasons, the resource includes a number of articles on various aspects of ancient Isthmia as well as a bibliography of publications by the project team. The resource offers numerous useful maps, plans and photographs of the sanctuary. Particularly attractive is a series of 3D views and contour plans illustrating the architectural development of the sanctuary of Poseidon from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BCE. Ability to view large images (using Adobe Acrobat) is required. This site will be of value both to undergraduates and to those initiating research into the archaeology of Greek religion and social life.
The Wairau Bar blog publishes news and informative articles (with plenty of pictures) on one of the most important archaeological sites of New Zealand. The blog is written by a University of Otago student who partecipates in the fieldwork at the site. Updates about excavations appear here when fieldwork is being carried out at the site.
Wairau Bar was used by some of the earliest settlers of New Zealand, between the end of the 13th and the first decades of the 14th centuries AD according to radiocarbon dating. The Moa-Hunter oeriod of Maori culture has been defined after excavations at the site. It is a burial site of Rangitane (a local ethnic group) and is still being used to bury repatriated remains of that people.
'Where Rivers Meet: Landscape, Ritual, Settlement and the Archaeology of River Gravels' is the substantial online record of a major British research project examining the religious and landscape archaeology of... "the confluence of the Trent and Tame Rivers, Staffordshire" in the Midlands of England - the confluence of three or more rivers and streams in one location being thought places of special sacred meaning by the pre-Roman peoples of the British Isles. The project was "funded by the Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund and administered by English Heritage" and covered an area 3.5 miles by 7 miles. At August 2008 the site contains pages detailing: the project aims; the archaeology of the study area; the impact of quarrying in the area; the project team; and the survey and analytical techniques.
This is the home page for the Whitby Abbey Headland Project which centres on the recently discovered Anglian enclosure of the 7th-8th century. This is a well illustrated website with location and excavation plans, photographs of the site, methods and archaeological features and line drawings of finds. There are at least 200 graves in the area of excavation from at least two phases of burials. The few datable finds recovered so far suggest a period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD for the burials.
Wolstonbury Hill is a series of earthworks on the chalkland downs of West Sussex. The site was investigated by the School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University. The investigation consisted of opening three trenches across the earthworks in order to establish the original extent and form taken by the three recorded enclosures, as well as defining a stratigraphic, environmental and chronological sequence for all phases of activity. These web pages present the archaeological history of the site, the interpretational problems associated with it, and a description of the excavations and their preliminary results. The pages are illustrated with photographs and with plans of the monuments and the excavations.