Ambleside Roman fort, located in Cumbria in the north-west of England, was thought to have been occupied between the first and fourth centuries AD by a garrison of up to 500 men. Extensively excavated between 1913 and 1920 by R.G. Collingwood and Prof. Haverfield, the site yielded many finds that were temporarily held in Ambleside's Armitt Library. In 1929, legal ownership of the artefacts passed to the Armitt Trust who to this day retain responsibility for the collection. However, due to the excavation's focus upon the identification of the fort's plan, the finds received relatively little attention in terms of recording. The collection remained in a reasonably undocumented state until 1983, when the Manpower Services Commission provided funding for the Armitt Trust to employ an archaeologist to undertake cataloguing. The card record produced from this undertaking was transferred to digital record in 2000. Provided on this website is the digital finds database from Ambleside Roman fort, available as eight downloadable, comma-delimited files (or one .ZIP file). These can be imported into a database or spreadsheet program. Also provided is an extensive bibliography (in HTML and RTF formats) on local Roman archaeology, available at the Armitt Library.
The monument known as the Long Walls of Thrace or the Anastasian Wall lies 65 km west of Istanbul and stretched from the Black Sea coast across the peninsula to the coast of the sea of Marmara to the west of Silivri. The Wall is part of the additional defences for Constantinople constructed during the fifth century AD, which continued in use until the seventh century. The aims of the project are to study and record the surviving structure of the Wall; investigate the remains of aqueducts and water channels, examine associated remains of forts and other structures, study the settlement archaeology of the Wall and its environs. The website presents an interim report of the 1998 investigations. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The Archeology of the Battle of the Little Bighorn website from the Midwest Archeological Center provides a brief overview of the recent archaeological examination of the site of the battle, where General George Armstrong Custer fell while fighting a coalition of Plains Indian tribes (Sioux and Cheyenne), on 25th June 1876. Brief passages of text providing the context of this investigation into one of the most enigmatic military history events are organised on pages that relate to: History; Methods; Excavations; Artefacts; and Firearms. Unfortunately the interesting images that accompany the text cannot be enlarged. The analysis of the Battle of the Little Bighorn by metal detector is discussed, and the combination of archaeological field practice (such as archaeological formulae of spatial patterning and individual artefact analysis) with forensic techniques (such as studies of firing pin marks on cartridge cases and rifling marks on bullets, as well as studies on the human skeletal remains such as forensic anthropology). A comprehensive, briefly annotated bibliography is provided.
The Association for World War Archaeology (AWA) website publishes information and news on recent archaeological discoveries of World War I and II trenches and other military structures and artefacts used during the world wars. Most of the activities of the association concentrate on the Western Flanders in Belgium, especially along World War I trenches along the Ypres Salient. The association aims at informing the public about the importance of World War Heritage, as well as spreading awareness of such heritage among archaeologists working in the area.
The Barholm Castle website is a resource describing the history and current state of Barholm Castle in the southwest of Scotland. Aside from the introductory home page, the website consists primarily of three main textual sections which look at the castle from it's origins and history through to its current state. The first section gives a brief history of Barholm Castle and contains a number of in-text links to photographs of features of the castle and old maps of its location. In addition to this section the ruin plan and architecture sections provide more detailed information on the structure and architecture of the castle together with descriptions of its current physical state. The last and final section examines the castle in terms of 'Now and the Future' and describes the castle's present condition as a Grade A listed building as well as a brief account of restoration work. The website is simple, small and easy to navigate around.
The "Castles of Britain" website, set up and run by the organisation "Castles Unlimited", aims to promote the study of British castles through a number of services. Around half of the website is devoted to the commercial services that Castles Unlimited offer, including castle research, travel planning (from the US) and an online bookshop. Of these, the 'Travel and Castle venues' section is useful in its own right as it provides detailed information on travelling to and around Britain as well as places to stay and visit. The remaining sections of the website provide a useful resource for those interested in British Castles and Medieval life in general. They include a Castle Learning Centre featuring a number of short articles on various aspects of Medieval and castle life, a 'Castle of the Month' section which focuses in detail on a single castle and a 'Castle Photo Gallery' which includes images for a large number of British castles together with brief descriptions and details of location, type and date. More detailed sections include the Castle Preservation Section which features a number of articles on castle preservation and heritage issues. This section also contains two large 'links' sub-sections on archaeology and heritage organizations and websites. The website also features 'castle trivia' and 'castle ghosts' sections. The Castles of Britain website is well designed and easy to use. Navigation is provided via a non-framed side bar (although this proves inconsistent on certain pages) or via links at the bottom of each page.
The Castles of Wales website provides photographs and comprehensive accounts of the medieval castles of Wales. Information is presented on a wide range of topics related to Welsh castles and Welsh medieval history, resulting in an extremely informative and easily navigable website with lots of interesting content. The website is written in English with most pages translated into Welsh. Over four hundred Welsh castles are described, as well as the important Marcher castles found on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. The amount of information displayed for each castle can vary from a few sentences to several pages, with accompanying high quality photographs or videos. The main content of the site can be accessed in a number of ways: an alphabetical index; a database which includes information for over five hundred known castles and castle sites, and provides links to individual pages for over a hundred of them; and interactive clickable maps. The information in all parts of the website is cross-referenced and hyperlinked. The website also includes: a bibliography and glossary; essays, including a detailed biography of William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke; a section on Welsh abbeys and other religious sites; a section on Welsh castles in art; and links to further networked resources. As of 2007, the website is no longer being updated.
The website for the Centre for Battlefield Archaeology provides information about the research centre along with a range of related resources, including information on conflict archaeology projects being carried out by the Centre. Long term projects include research into Culloden and other historic Scottish battle sites. Other concerns discussed on the website include management and conservation policies on behalf of Historic Scotland, and work in partnership with the Battlefields Trust. Set within the Department of Archaeology at Glasgow University and Guard (Glasgow University Archaeological Research Division), the Centre operates under founder director, Dr Tony Pollard. Access to articles published by Dr Pollard in the Journal of Conflict Archaeology are also provided (available in PDF format) on the website, along with press releases relating to the Centre and its work.
This website consists of two parts: the "Elliptical Building" and "The Defences of Chester". Section "Elliptical Building" relates to research into a Roman architectural structure situated in the central insula of the legionary fortress of Deva - modern-day Chester. The building's purpose is as yet unknown, although the high-quality construction and superior materials suggest it was of high-status. The page also contains a section on the 3D digital reconstruction of the building, supported by many images taken from the 3D models. The "Defences of Chester" section relies on 3D reconstructions to visualise the Roman defences of the town. Students in particular may find this website useful, especially for the illustrations.
The Defence of Britain Project database, hosted by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS), was compiled from field and documentary work carried out between April 1995 and December 2001. The Project was designed to document the 20th century militarised landscape of the United Kingdom, and to inform the various local and national heritage agencies with a view to the future preservation of any surviving structures. The Defence of Britain Project was administered by the Council for British Archaeology and drew upon a volunteer force of roughly 600 individuals who carried out the fieldwork with some 17,000 field visits to sites throughout the British Isles. Structures were categorised as 'Anti-Invasion' (implying structures built primarily between 1940-41 as a response to the threat of German invasion) and 'Non Anti-Invasion' (all other defensive military structures built during the 20th century). In total, nearly 20,000 records are held with the database. The paper record of the Defence of Britain Project, including the individual site records, have been deposited with the National Monuments Records of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Full text descriptions of the various sites are invariably present, although in many cases collected plans, photographs and drawings are not present in the digital archive. However, a gallery of over 800 photographs is available for browsing. The database is searchable via place (e.g. Country, County, Grid Reference), period, or type and condition of structure.
The website of the Defence of Britain Project, which ran from April 1995 to March 2002 under the auspices of the Council for British Archaeology, is now completed and archived project which aimed to map the military landscape of Britain. The project was run by the Council for British Archaeology (CBA). Nearly 20,000 twentieth century military sites in the United Kingdom were recorded by an army of some 600 volunteers. Two databases which were developed by the project can be viewed online via the Archaeology Data Service (a link is provided). A link also opens the old site of the project, where users can find: a selection of some of the images contained in these databases; a record count of how many sites are in each county and unitary authority, a map of anti-invasion defences; information about research into pillboxes and other anti-invasion defences; previous issues of the newsletter, links to other sites and details of the organisations linked with the development of the database. On the current site of the project and of the CBA a list of publications on 20th century military history can be consulted.
"The Defences of Chester" is the website of a reconstruction project to support a recently published report on the defences of Chester. Although currently detailing only the early and middle Roman defences, the research will ultimately encompass all major periods as regards the defences of Chester. Many illustrations are provided, mainly 3D computer reconstructions, although future work aims to make animations and QTVR (QuickTime Virtual Reality) movies available.
This website on the Roman limes in Germany has been produced by the Deutsche Limeskommission. The limes is a line of Roman fortifications that has been inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List. It was built by the Romans to protect and delineate the borders of their empire. The highlight of this website is the section presenting the locations of the limes (Orte am Limes) on a clickable map. Short articles describe what is known for each site and colour pictures either show the excavations and remaining architectural structures or, if nothing is visible, show aerial photographs with the added path of the wall. Towers and other fortifications also appear drawn on aerial photographs. By clicking on the pictures, a larger version of the image appears in a new window. There is also a bibliography of recent titles and a page with news. This website is a great reference tool for students.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on "Saladin's wall", an early Islamic (Ayyubid Sultanate) series of architectural structures at Cairo, Egypt. There are a few short articles on the subject, with plans and colour pictures. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. The website includes a bibliography and a map.
Following the American Revolution, the Native American peoples of the Midwest were increasingly pushed from their homelands by white settlement. On Aug. 20, 1794, a group of confederated tribes were defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. This loss opened the lands of the Northwest Territory to white settlement and initiated the closing of them to Native Americans. The Fallen Timbers archaeological project run by Heidelberg College is an attempt to accurately locate and preserve the field of battle and to more fully understand the motives and movements of the combatants and their people before, during and after the battle. The website of the project provides press releases, senate bills and the report of the field survey in html format. There is an archive of photographs related to the field survey and media related activities. There is a list of officers serving during the battle, with additional biographical details if known. This resource would be very useful for those researching family history. There is also a biographical sketch of the director, G. Michael Pratt and a varied links list. The site will be most useful for those interested in early American history, battlefield archaeology and the politics of cultural resource management in America.
This is the website for the Great North Museum: Hancock in Newcastle upon Tyne, opening in 2009. This museum, part of the Great North Museum project brings together world class collections from the Hancock Museum, the Museum of Antiquities, and the Shefton Museum. The Museum’s collections encompass natural history, palaeontology, archaeology, Egyptology, Ancient Greek and Etruscan art, a large-scale, interactive model of Hadrian's Wall, ‘World Cultures’ - ethnographic objects from the last 250 years and a planetarium. The website includes information about the project as well as basic information about the museums’ collections and location as well as a link to the Hatton Gallery, the other component of the Great North Museum Project. The Museum's funders include the AHRC and MLA.
This is the homepage of the Great War Archaeology Group (GWAG), which carries out archaeological field research of sites associated with World War I. Based on the work of independent and academically-based archaeologists, this group's mission statement notes that members "share broad anti-war and anti-imperialist views, and ... aim to develop projects that are international and non-partisan." The group intends to be relevant both to the public at large and to scholars. Mission statements and research reports are downloadable, with the former available in several languages. At the time of review, GWAG stated it was involved in three main projects: the First Blitz project; the Great Arab Revolt project; and the First Tank project. First Blitz focusses on the defences of the London, 1914-1916 Zeppelin raids and Zeppelin crash sites. The First Tank Project examines the conception, development and building of tanks in Lincoln. GWAG organises an open day in February inviting people from the surrounding community to bring in their memorabilia and photos connected with the tank and the factory where it was built. Finally, the Great Arab Revolt project is investigating sites in Jordan along the Hijaz Railway, which was part of T. E. Lawrence's campaign in 1917-1918. Photographs from recent work associated with this project are posted. Regular bulletins summarize the most recent public presentations of research findings by GWAG members. Current active members are listed with contact details.
This online resource, produced by a student from the University of Glasgow's Department of Archaeology, provides an insight into the political and constructional history of Hadrian's Wall, which was completed in 136 CE. The website details the different plans and stages involved during the wall's construction. Sections giving information on the the wall's purpose, modifications and political environment are presented, accompanied by extensive photo libraries of today's visible remains; these include images of the forts and milecastles as well as the wall itself. Pages on the Raetian Limes, the Antonine Wall and the Gask Ridge are also provided; these give further information on Roman military defences and frontiers both in Britain and throughout Europe.
'The Holy Land of the Crusaders' is based on a calendar published in 1999 by the Massolini Group to commemorate the ninth centenary of the First Crusade. This online resource consists mainly of a series of high quality, enlargeable photographs of buildings and artefacts left by crusaders. It includes pictures of a number of castles such as Kerak, Montfort, Belvoir, which were built as strongholds, administrative centres and refuges for pilgrims to the Holy Land (Palestine in modern Israel and part of Jordan). Other pages show the remnants of sanctuaries and churches and a collection of art and artefacts such as sculptures, seals and coins produced by pilgrims. The text, in an Italian and English version, is quite basic as this site's emphasis lies on the photographs, but on the whole this resource serves a good complement to picture-less historical works on the Crusades from the ninth century to the setting up of the Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land in 1342.
This website describes the expedition launched in July 2001 by the Channel 4 and ITV television stations to find and film the wreck of the H.M.S. Hood, the pride of the Royal Navy's fleet, that was sunk in 1941 after engaging the German battleship Bismarck, during World War II. The site describes the history of the Hood's final conflict, and details the underwater investigative methods used to locate and film the wreck. In particular, the expedition sought to answer questions relating to why the Hood sunk so quickly, suspecting that the official inquiry's explanation that the Hood's magazines had been hit was flawed. The wreck was located in July 2001, and the website offers a regularly updated news section, reporting the latest finds from the search. Images and video clips filmed by the search team are available from the site. This well-presented site is primarily aimed at the general public, but a more academic audience may nevertheless be interested in the history provided, and the techniques being used to investigate the wreck. The results of the investigation will of course be of great interest to students of twentieth-century naval history, and of the Second World War.
The Jerablus Tahtani Project, located in northern Syria, is an archaeological research programme designed to investigate four key themes: the expansion of the Uruk civilisation in the 4th millennium BC; secondary state formation in Early Bronze Age Syria; urban recession in the Near East during the late 3rd millennium BC; and the early history of archaeologically inaccessible Carchemish. Fieldwork, conducted as the British contribution to the Syrian government's International Tishreen Dam Rescue Programme, focused upon the excavation of Tell Jerablus Tahtani and was undertaken between 1991 and 2000, with the University of Edinburgh. Excavation Reports from 1998, 1999 and 2000 are available online via the website, as are several of the major databases from the site (downloadable in Excel, Access and Word formats). A bibliography is also provided.
The Limesmuseum in Aalen is located on the site of the principal fort of the Upper German frontier in Baden-Würrtenburg, Germany and was home of the Ala II Flavia militaria cavalry unit. This online resource (in German) offers practical information on the museum and its programme of public activities together with an introduction to the history and culture of a major Roman frontier zone between the first and the fourth centuries A.D. Highlights of the website include a series of short articles on aspects of the Roman frontier by Phillip Filzinger and a short illustrated dissertation on Roman tools and instruments by Wolfgang Gaitzsch. The article on Roman cavalry officers and their equipment is accompanied by an animated reconstruction of a cavalry procession. In addition there are numerous close-up photographs of the scale models on display in the museum itself together and of objects to be seen in the museum. The resource also offers a guide to the publications of the museum since 1967 (the series Schriften des Limesmuseums Aaalen) including abstracts and further details of more recent books. This website will largely interest the more dedicated (and German-reading) student of the Roman army and of frontier studies in general but the attractive visuals may have a wider audience, for example, as resource material for school teachers.
This website provides aerial photographs of some of the Maori earthwork fortifications scattered across New Zealand. The Maori word for such a fortification is 'pa', and there are about 6,000 in all, mostly the product of widespread warfare in the pre-European period from about A.D. 1500 to A.D. 1800.The website explains the characteristic features of a pa, and supplies oblique or low oblique (near vertical) images of some of those that the author has photographed. Site navigation is via a clickable map.
This is the website of No Man's Land : The European Group for Great War Archaeology. The group is involved in a number of archaeological digs relating to battlefields of the the First World War. Indeed as the 'Trench Team' (precursors of No Man's Land) the group were involved in the dig at Auchonvillers ('Ocean Villas'). The group is also leading an archaeological excavation around the Battle of Messines in 1917 (the project is called Plugstreet) with the Comines-Warneton Historical Society, in collaboration with the UK Ministry of Defence and academic departments including the Universities of Bradford, Cranfield (Shrivenham), Bristol, Cambridge, Northumbria, Birmingham and London Metropolitan, as well as Ghent in Belgium. The website provides information on the group's projects, aims and a list if publications, as well as details of the staff members involved.
The Ocean Villas project website reports on efforts to interpret the archaeology of the First World War at Auchonvillers, France. The Ocean Villas Project has been running since 1997. The project is looking at behind the front lines activity at Auchonvillers, on the Somme, and is excavating and (re)constructing communication trenches and dugouts in the village. The study included here concentrates on the way that Auchonvillers was integrated into the complex system that was the Western Front, the facilities and fortifications that were constructed in the village and what now remains of them. The project team is led by Andrew Robertshaw of the National Army Museum, London, archaeological direction is by Jon Price of the Time Travellers (creators of live interpretive performance for museums and education), and historical research is by Alastair Fraser. This website uses frames to create a clean and clear view of the historical texts - all of which are under construction, and the brief reports and small photographs of the excavations since 1997.
The Palmerston Forts Society is devoted to the fortifications of the Victorian period. Their website gives full information about the society as well as membership details. The society publishes a tri-annual journal 'REDAN' the contents of which is published on the site, with the full-texts of some articles also available online. There is a bibliography of booklets published by the society, which includes abstracts in some cases. The society has produced over 130 'fortlogs' on Victorian fortifications in the UK, many of which are available online or may be freely downloaded in PDF format. A tour of Fort Nelson, Portsmouth, is presented as a set of notes and photographs explaining the design and workings of the fort. A picture gallery includes photographs of a number of Victorian forts. A further section of the site includes maps and plans of fortified coastal regions.This is a well-maintained website run by dedicated enthusiasts. It should prove useful to anyone interested in Victorian military history.
Per Lineam Valli is an illustrated atlas that uses the possibilities opened up by digital globes based on satellite photography such as WorldWind and Google Earth. Created by archaeologist Mike Bishop, this website publishes several ground-level pictures depicting sections of Hadrian's Wall and makes them available through the interface of Google Earth. The author has added some interactive capabilities, namely it provides access to MAGIC (Ordnance Survey) maps; English Heritage's PastScape database; and Durham University's Hadrian's Wall Research Framework files relevant to each section of or monument within Hadrian's Wall.
Hadrian's Wall is a massive defence system still visible today and built by Roman Emperor Hadrian in AD122, when he visited Britain. In the following years, the wall was completed with the forts. Today the monument is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
This simple website can be used as an interactive teaching tool. Students of all ages will also find this interactive website useful.
This is a personal blog by Peter Chasseaud, an expert on Trench Maps from the First World War, who has written a number of works on the Great War. He is also the 'Artist in Residence' for the Plugstreet project, (the excavation of the battlefield around Messines, Belgium). The blog is an interesting result of the application of aerial photography and landscape archaeology maintaining artistic awareness. The poignant networks of WWI trenches become examples of modern art. Although the idea has its merits, the blog is infrequently updated, and sadly at the time of review it appeared abandoned. Old posts and pictures remain. Students in particular may find this website useful, especially as a stimulus to combine disciplines in their approaches to any field.
The PSG focuses on the role of UK World War Two Anti-Invasion Structures known as pillboxes, believing these defences to be as important as those of the past. The site includes information on the Pillbox Study Group and the Historical Aspects of Anti-Invasion Structures, such as Invasion History, Defence Locations (with a map of proposed Stop-Lines in the UK), and Defence Structures. There are also photographs and articles about Basic Pillbox Designs and pillboxes found in the UK and Europe; Advanced Designs of pill boxes; contact and membership information; instructions for joining the mailing list, and links to sites of further interest. Information is also included on anti-invasion defences of World War Two, that were built inland and along the coastline of the West Country of England.
This is the blog of the Plug Street Project - an archaeological project in Belgium. The project is based around excavations on the First World War Battlefield in the area around the village of Ploegsteert, in Wallonia (Comines-Warneton and Messines). The project builds on investigations in the UK, and this online resource consists of blog postings from team members about the fieldwork - a sort of dig diary with reports and photographs from the excavations. Reports also include press stories and excavation notes about the site of the Battle of Messines (1917) as well as wider issues to do with the material culture of the war, drawing together themes from social and landscape contexts. Finds are tracked from their discovery and recording, through their conservation and their analysis. These have included the remains of at least one soldier (an Australian). The project directors are two archaeologists from the UK Ministry of Defence but the project is actually led by No Man's Land - The European Group for Great War Archaeology and the Comines-Warneton Historical Society. Other academic departments involved include the Universities of Bradford, Cranfield (Shrivenham), Bristol, Cambridge, Northumbria, Birmingham and London Metroploitan, as well as Ghent in Belgium.
Roman Britain, an exceptionally well-thought-out website compiled by an interested amateur, contains a wealth of useful pages and links to information on Roman Britain. The website offers an extensive variety of material relating to the Roman occupation of the British Isles, including: information from the Peutinger Table and the Ravenna Cosmography, and other ancient texts; a section on Hadrian's Wall with maps, guides and information; useful lists of governors, emperors, and Roman military units in Britain; transcriptions of military diplomata and inscriptions; a timeline; numerous little detours into explanations of Roman coinage and calendars, etc.; and gazetteers of notable Britons, British tribes and deities of the period. The website contains only limited amounts of text and instead includes many compiled lists of sites, legions, tribes, etc. and its strength is in these simple, very useful lists. Section "The Romano-British" contains a series of interactive maps, which can display the location of most Roman (and contemporary) sites in Britain. Roman sites can also be mapped using a separate map with simple layers that can selected or de-selected. The maps were working only with Internet Explorer. This material would be of interest to anyone working on Roman Britain, although the sometimes cartoony graphics and dog-Latin scattered around the site might put off more serious scholars. Several pages were missing at the time of review.
This website describes the work of the University of Liverpool's Roman Gask Project sponsored by the Perth & Kinross Heritage Trust. This project is excavating the Roman Frontier works on and around the Gask Ridge in Perthshire, Scotland. This system is the earliest Roman land frontier in Britain, built in the 80's AD, decades before Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall. Also, as relayed on this site "since German archaeologists have now re-dated the start of their frontier (which was once thought also to belong to the 80's) to the Trajanic period 15-20 years later, it now seems that the Gask system is the first Roman land frontier anywhere". The project aims to contribute to the study of the development of the Roman frontier defences (walls, forts and ramparts) by describing the excavations and discoveries of the "prototype" - the Gask Ridge system. There are cross-referenced gazetteer and maps of the area - gazetteer entries can be accessed by clicking on site names on one of the 4 maps. The gazetteer is an index to all the texts (on issues affecting part or all of the Gask Ridge area, the Roman road, and Roman Scotland) and photographs covering sites in the Gask area. Excavation plans and surveys are located within the relevant text and are not accessible separately. There are numerous illustrated and referenced papers in two sections, "papers index" and "background papers". A useful collection of aerial photographs is also available. This website can be browsed or searched by keywords. Students in particular may find this website useful.
This small but neatly presented website relates to an important Roman military diploma found on a river bed in Croatia in 1997. Military diplomata, bronze documents testifying to the honourable discharge of a Roman soldier, survive in large numbers; few, however, are as well preserved as this, which dates from 71 AD. The text is beautifully preserved on both the inner and outer faces of the diploma, and the witnesses' seals survive beneath a removable wooden cover. The text provides interesting evidence for Roman activity in the then province of Pannonia, and constitutes the first written evidence of a town in the modern Slavonski Brod region. The English section of the website offers a series of good-quality photographs of the artefact with transcriptions of the text and some notes on its provenance and significance. The quality of both the diploma itself and of the Museum's presentation of it make this site worth a visit for anyone with an interest in Roman military history or this type of epigraphy.
This website is an overview of the archaeological excavations undertaken by J. Huggett and C. Arnold at Symon's Castle, an English motte and bailey castle situated on the Welsh Borders. Symon's Castle was garrisoned, probably for the first time, by a knight called Symon de Parco in 1231. It was abandoned soon thereafter. In addition to the standard report detailing the excavation's findings, information is provided regarding the GIS-based three-dimensional experimental reconstructions also undertaken as part of the project. Images are provided from the CAD and GIS reconstructions and a VRML models.
This website describes the history of the Roman town of Caistor. Surviving Roman remains in Caistor St. Edmund show the development of the town during the period of the Roman occupation. Details of the town defences, as revealed by excavation, are given. The economic relationships of the town are discussed and its industries described. The website is illustrated with a map showing the location of Roman remains, plans of the Roman town at various phases in its history and reconstructed views of the Roman Town. The history of the current parish church is also briefly described. A bibliographic note (further information) concludes the short series of pages. The website may interest both students and researchers interested in the area or old excavations.
Following the disturbance of a burial pit during building work, excavation was undertaken by the Department of Archaeological Sciences at Bradford University. This revealed a mass grave of 43 individuals near Tadcaster, North Yorkshire. Analysis of the remains suggested that the individuals were more robust than average for that time. Most of the individuals had sustained multiple injuries far in excess of those necessary to cause disability and death. The injuries were apparently specifically aimed at mutilating the bodies to render them unidentifiable.
Traianus is a website which focuses on the identification and study of Roman public infrastructures such as roads, streets, bridges, aqueducts, mines, harbours, mines, topography and walls. The site makes available a collection of research papers on this topic written mostly by civil engineers rather than archaeologists; consequently the site concentrates on technical perspectives of Roman engineering. Users will find papers on each type of Roman structure. Most of these were papers presented at the periodic "Congreso sobre las Obras Publicas Romanas" (Conference on Roman public infrastructures) and have been published in printed form in the proceedings. The papers are mostly in Spanish, but some are in English, French and Italian. It is possible to access English and French versions of the website, but translations are poor and exclude the papers, which are republished online in their original version. Online publication has allowed the authors to include colour pictures, maps and graphics to their work. Users may conduct full-text searches across the papers and subscribe to a European mailing list. This website presents the most recent research on Roman civil engineering and constitutes an invaluable reference tool on this subject. The technical character of the website makes it suitable only for researchers. The technical perspective may be useful also to researchers of any ancient public infrastructure, though all case studies presented in the papers belong to Roman archaeology.
Trajan's Column is an online collection of images and background material on the Roman monument, a 100 foot stone column recording the military victories of the Roman Emperor Trajan (reigned 98-117 CE) over the Dacians and the Germans in the second century CE,which is one of the most remarkable and best preserved survivals of monumental art from classical antiquity. This website provides a searchable database of over 500 images focusing on various aspects of the design and execution of the column's sculptural decoration as well as several introductory essays on the historical background, subject matter and wider physical context of the monument within the Forum of Trajan in Rome, presented throughout within a hypertext medium. This highly user-friendly resource is designed to be accessible to individuals at varying levels of knowledge and experience of the subject. An elaborate search engine allows you to explore highly specific aspects of the monument while Claudio Martini's interactive cartoon of the entire column provides an excellent introduction to the overall design and layout of the monument and contextualises the individual details provided by the database of images. The site can also be explored through the use of indices organised according to: subject; sculptural technique; and scene number or location. The high quality images (slides and drawings) were generated by sculptor Peter Rockwell, over the course of his study of Roman stone-carving practices, and can be viewed at three different resolutions. Technical information on all the imaging and programming details (including the programming code) is also provided. This detailed, stimulating and attractively presented website will interest archaeologists and classicists as well as art and military historians at many levels from the general public and novice undergraduate to the more experienced researcher.
This is the website of The Monitor Center, a facility that is being developed as part of the The Mariners' Museum (the US National maritime history museum). The site currently provides online exhibitions about the discovery and underwater archaeological recovery, conservation, related research and education programmes about the USS Monitor and artifacts from this ironclad battleship of the American Civil War. The Monitor and the Virginia (of the Confederate navy) fought a pounding battle near Newport News on March 9, 1862. It was the first clash of wooden ships armoured with steel plates to repel cannon balls. Most historians consider the four-hour battle a draw. Later that year the Monitor sank 16 miles off the American coast. A joint Navy and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration team (NOAA) has raised the Monitor's turret and other parts. The Mariners' Museum in Newport News has custody of these and other Monitor artifacts. Several parts of the Virginia (which sank in May 1862) survive in museums, including dented armour and the ship's wheel at the Mariners' Museum. There are images and logs from the archaeological excavations by the NOAA.
The website "Vindolanda Tablets Online" is an excellent site which provides an online database of the Vindolanda Tablets found at the Vindolanda fortress near Hadrian's Wall dating from the first century of the common era. The site is extremely easy to navigate and features a help section. The database is intended to be used as a learning tool for teaching Latin and Classics at all levels; primary school (there is a link to the Latin course for primary schools, Minimus), A and AS levels, undergraduate, postgraduate and for research purposes. The website is based on the publication of three volumes of materials on the tablets, but obviously offers many more facilities than the printed form. There is a section on the background history to the fort of Vindolanda, where the tablets were found. The tablets provide information on the social, cultural, and military history of the fortress. There is an online exhibition of the tablets, which features sections on people, places, documents, reading the tablets, and forts and military life. An excellent reference section provides information about Roman systems of dates, measures, currencies, military units and ranks, and Roman nomenclature. The tablets themselves can be viewed individually, and through an image zooming viewer. The tablets are arranged as a fully searchable set of digital materials with information included that is related to the tablets. The texts of the tablets can be searched by document type, people, places, military terms, archaeology, and other terms. A comprehensive links page provides information on over 70 websites and a bibliography of printed material. The project is based within the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University and is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The initial capture of the digital images was supported by an Arts and Humanities Research Board grant.
Vindolanda is a Roman fort and civilian settlement lying just to the south of Hadrian's Wall. The Roman Army Museum, adjacent to the Roman site of Carvoran, 8 miles to the west, (one of the best preserved sections of the Wall), offers an insight into the garrisons of Hadrian's Wall. Roman Vindolanda and The Roman Army Museum are both part of the Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site. Presented in this website is essential visitor information and background to the museum and the Vindolanda Trust (that provides research, education and the public display of the monument and finds from the Vindolanda excavations) and the Trust's base in the country house of Chesterholm. There are also preliminary reports (news) of all the archaeological excavations carried out since 1997 (the most interesting section), a bookshop, tourist information and a growing Roman and general history links page.
This is a single-page website publishing only bibliographic references on the First World War Western Front in France, Belgium, and Germany.