This is the online presence of the Actium Project, an underwater archaeological survey concerned with examining the sea floor at the location where the naval battle of Actium was fought by Octavian against Antony and Cleopatra in 31 BC. The project was formed in 1993 and jointly undertaken by the University of South Florida and the Greek Ministry of Culture. This clear and concise website gives the historical background and details of the battle itself, accompanied by maps and images, as well as providing information on fieldwork undertaken by the Actium Project in the 1990s, including details of the finding of naval catapult missiles at the site.
The Advisory Council on Underwater Archaeology (ACUA) serves as an international advisory body on issues relating to underwater archaeology, conservation, and submerged cultural resources management. This website includes information on underwater archaeology; underwater archaeology around the world; legislative updates; education and organisations; and links to sites of further information.
Located on the island of Alderney, this museum is managed by The Alderney Society, which is dedicated to the historical, environmental, and scientific promotion of the Island of Alderney. The Society's museum collections amount to more than 12000 objects, some of which are presented on this website. This website contains details about the Society and the museum collections, which include artefacts lifted from an Elizabethan wreck and also plans and drawings from the construction of the Alderney Breakwater, which was built between 1847 and 1864.
This Web site catalogues documents, photographs and reports related to the sinking of the the ocean liner T/N Andrea Doria on 25 July 1956. This accident, the result of a collision with another ship, the MV Stockholm, took place near Nantucket, Massachusetts. The site was constructed by one of the survivors, Anthony Grillo; in the wake of his death in 2004, his brother, Vivian Grillo, has assumed administration of this resource. Pages here include: information about both ships; officers, passengers and crew involved in the rescue; a chronology of events, starting with the Andrea Doria's departure on her ill-fated final voyage from Genoa; photographs from diving expeditions and survivor reunions; newspaper accounts; personal recollections; related projects; and links to other sites about ocean liners. Some of this material is historically valuable and poignant enough to serve as a good starting point for research or teaching. Navigation of the site is slightly cumbersome.
Anglo-Danish Maritime Archaeological Team (ADMAT) is a specialist maritime archaeological organisation. Its aims are: to conduct maritime archaeology in the Caribbean and Latin America, assisting governments to survey and protect their underwater cultural heritage; to assist students to take part in maritime archaeological field excavations and surveys; and to protect the European Underwater Maritime Cultural Heritage. ADMAT surveys, records and advises on protecting shipwrecks from European empires of the 18th to the 20th Centuries. In addition, ADMAT is conducting maritime archaeological projects in various Caribbean nations. Information is also given on previous field schools, and there are links to press releases. Contact information is given.
The website "Archaeology comes to the rescue of a 17th century shipwreck" is an attractive guide to the underwater archaeology of a 17th-century shipwreck on the north coast of the St. Lawrence estuary believed to be part of a fleet commanded by Sir William Phips' on his unsuccessful siege of Québec in 1690 during the intercolonial wars between New England and New France. The Anse aux Bouleaux wreck, named after the cove in which it was found in 1994, is the oldest in Québec and provides a wealth of information about 17th century ship-building in North America, as well as casting light on the day-to-day lives of mariners and soldiers in this period. The English and French language resource provides an account of the excavation from 1995 to 1997 together with information on the many artefacts recovered and their scientific conservation, key bibliographic references and a photo album. Some information is only available in French, such as the database of the artifacts.There is also an interactive didactic game for younger visitors which demonstrates the principles of underwater excavation. This website will benefit undergraduates and researchers in historic and maritime archaeology and provides much practical information on underwater techniques as well as the wider interpretative issues. It will also interest historians studying the colonial and military history of North American in the 17th century.
"Archeologia subacquea" is an Italian website concerned with underwater archaeology around Venice and Veneto. It provides news and short articles about the lagoon of Venice, the Adriatic Sea and Veneto. General articles on underwater archaeology and the Italian legislation on underwater archaeology form the most important part of this website. Several pages permit researchers to ask for information or discuss problems and discoveries relating to Italian underwater archaeology. The news and short articles are accessible by clicking on "Archeonotizie", "Last minute" and "Venezia e isole", and many of these are copies of articles published in Italian newspapers, magazines and journals. Some articles discuss islands in the lagoon of Venice such as Ammiana, Costanziaco, Motta S. Lorenzo and San Marco in Boccalama, but further contents are available on other parts of the lagoon. Some articles and papers on underwater and archaeological methodologies of excavation are available by clicking on "Metodologie di studio", while the section "Archeolex" provides information on Italian laws about archaeology. This website may be of interest especially to undergraduate students interested in underwater archaeology, maritime archaeology or the archaeology of Venice and Veneto.
The Archeologia Subacquea Speleologia Organizzazione Network (ASSONET) is an Italian society of underwater archaeology and speleology. This website presents the activities of the association and a series of short articles, many from printed publications, on underwater archaeology (archeologia subacquea), underwater speleology (speleologia subacquea) and artificial caves (cavití artificiali). The site features articles on general topics of underwater archaeology, recent explorations and brief news. Among the topics is the research carried out at: Qana'; Anzio; the lake-dwellings in the Lake of Mezzano (Etruria); and on the shipwrecks of the Mary Rose (England), the Vasa, the Rose Hill (North Carolina), and the lagoon of Venice. There are also several articles on Greek shipwrecks (such as the ship found at Gela), Roman artificial caves (such as those at Baia and Villa Adriana) and Roman shipwrecks (such as those in Ponza and Pisa - San Rossore). One particularly interesting paper here presents the geology of Rome, with pictures of artificial cavities underneath the Urbe and a summary of the efforts to explore them. This website may be useful to both students and researchers. The articles, albeit brief, are generally written by academics or summarise academic publications, and all are illustrated.
The Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology (AIMA) is dedicated to the promotion of maritime archaeology and supports scientific research and publications in the field. Based in Australia, they have sponsored work throughout Australia, Asia and the Pacific. AIMA also organises an annual conference and publish bulletins, newsletters, and special publications. Indexes to the contents of the "Bulletin" are available from 1989 onwards and there are also indexes to newsletters and other publications. The indexes require an Acrobat Reader to view (available to download). AIMA also host the Australian National Shipwreck Database. The website includes information about AIMA courses and links to related sites.
The Australasian Institute of Maritime Archaeology (AIMA) is dedicated to the preservation of underwater heritage and the promotion of maritime archaeology. AIMA hosts the Australian National Shipwreck Database, a database of over 6,500 wrecks. There are details about membership of the organisation and about courses they run internationally. AIMA has an active publication programme and indexes to their Bulletin, Special Publications and Newsletter are available on the website. There is an extensive list of links to sites concerned with maritime archaeology, history, museums and legislation. The website is easy to navigate.
The Australian National Centre of Excellence in Maritime Archaeology is part of the Western Australia Maritime Museum, which was founded for the purpose of promoting Australian Maritime Archaeology and Maritime Archaeological Conservation nationally and internationally. The site includes information on the Centre; publications; current projects; and general information on education and training. This website contains IPIX and QuickTime VR picture galleries. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
This is the website of the Bournemouth University English Channel project. This project aims to examine the formation and subsequent evolution of the English Channel (12000 BC to AD 1500) and its impact upon settlement and society. One main question is whether any areas survive underwater as a result of the Channel's expansion that, being unaffected by more recent land-uses, may preserve evidence of post-glacial settlement. A GIS model of the Channel's basin will be used to visualize the topography of submerged areas, to which a database of archaeological sites will be linked. Extensive bibliographies on coastal and sea-level change, the English Channel and its Islands, GIS topics, wrecks and boats and various archaeological sites are provided.
This website is a useful preliminary report of the Late Bronze Age Uluburun shipwreck excavated by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology's (INA) between 1984 and 1994. The shipwreck contained one of the largest collections of Late Bronze Age items found in the Mediterranean, including significant quantities of raw materials. The shipwreck has become an essential source of information for the study of Late Bronze Age Mediterranean trade and this website provides an overview of the discovery; several pictures of the artefacts that were part of its cargo and an essential (not updated) bibliography. Among the contents were beads; jewellery; ivory; glass; Egyptian scarabs; Egyptian, Mycenaean and Levantine seals; copper oxhide ingots (354 ingots weighing over 10 tonnes); tin ingots; elephant tusks; ebony logs; ostrich eggshells; murex sea shells (the Phoenicians became famous in later times for extracting a red dye from these shells); terebinth resin (also used for dyeing clothes) found inside amphorae; glass ingots; Canaanite, Cypriot and Mycenaean pottery; gold; exotica; weights; and more artefacts. The shipwreck has been dated to 1310 BC thanks to the preservation of parts of the hull. A timely and extensive program of conservation has allowed for several scientific analyses being carried out. There are maps of the excavated site and a layout of the shipwreck as it was found.
This website is an essential resource for the study of Late Bronze Age Mediterranean trade at all levels.
The Centre was established to provide a focus for maritime archaeological research within the University. They promote and practice maritime archaeology, and undertake projects from local to international scale using the skills and resources of university departments and outside organisations. The CMA provides field training for the marine archaeology students and incorporates a Special Branch of the British Sub-Aqua Club. The site lists projects the centre is currently involved with and courses available.
The Centre for Maritime Archaeology (CMA) was formed in 1999, and is jointly funded by the University and by the Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland. The faculty consists of experts in maritime archaeology and marine archaeological geophysics. The Centre is engaged in a variety of research projects and offers a Master of Science course in Maritime Archaeology.
CERES (Centre Européen de Recherches et d'Etudes Sous-marines / European Subaquatic, Research, Enquiries and Investigation Centre) records the position of underwater ship wrecks within European waters. The website includes a Flash-based interactive map of shipwrecks and aircraft wrecks around the coast of Normandy (many of which date from the Second World War). The index of shipwrecks provides a convenient (though at times confusing) access point to the selection of pages provided by CERES. Each page describing a wreck includes technical information, a summary of how the ship (or submarine or aeroplane) met its end, and usually a sample of underwater photographs. Notable wrecks include: the Alabama (with an extensive set of images); Amoco-Cadiz; SS Leopoldville; and Stella. Most text is in French. Many pages are translated into English, Spanish, and German. It is possible to download PDF files in English on subjects such as: Sonar technology and technical informations; Side scan acquisition and processing; Anchor recovery and salvage; Pipe-line survey and tracking; Shipwreck databases; Shipwrecks works; Safety at sea; Commercial and professional diving. The size of document is indicated to help with the downloads.
The website of Charlestown's shipwreck and heritage centre provides an interesting and informative introduction into this privately owned maritime museum, which is described as having the largest collection of shipwreck artefacts in the UK. Based at Charlestown, a Cornish fishing port, this heritage centre owns a diverse range of exhibits from the sixteenth century to the present day, from shipwrecks, fishing, lifeboats and diving equipment, to china clay and scrimshaw. Part of the Centre depicts the trade and exports associated with Charlestown, while the shipwreck section shows in photography, wreckage and salvaged cargo some of the shipwrecks from around Britain's coasts. Artefacts include those recovered from HMS 'Ramillies', which sank in 1763. Further displays tell the history of underwater exploration and the saving of life at sea. Visitor information is included. The website is illustrated with many photos and there are special pages of information which is easy to print.
A description of an archaeological survey of the entire Welsh coastline. Cadw: Welsh Historic Monuments (with the support of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales), funded the four Welsh Archaeological Trusts to complete the survey with the aim of identifying areas under threat from coastal erosion, industrial development, housing and pressure from increasing numbers of visitors. The project also identified a number of sites which were not previously listed. This page describes the area surveyed by the Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust. A range of archaeological features from all archaeological periods found along the Clwyd coast are briefly described and illustrated with photographs.
During the First World War steel was becoming scarce so the government of the United States approved the construction of 24 concrete ships. Of the 24, only 12 were completed. In 1942, the United States Maritime Commission contracted McCloskey and Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to build a new fleet of 24 concrete ships. Three decades of improvements in concrete technology made this new fleet lighter and stronger than its WWI predecessors. Two of the ships saw service as blockships in the Allied invasion of Normandy. This site traces the history of these concrete ships, including photographs and individual vessel histories.
The Conservation Research Laboratory (CRL) is part of the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University. The laboratory deals primarily with the conservation of archaeological material from shipwrecks and other underwater sites. Recent projects include treating all the material recovered from the Belle, a ship lost by the French explorer, La Salle in 1686. The site also includes current CRL project reports.
The Conservation Research Laboratory (CRL) at the Nautical Archaeology at the Texas A&M University specialises in conserving archaeological artefacts and materials remained underwater for some time. This website publishes a series of reports and other data on several research projects carried out by the laboratory. 14 reports discuss issues involved in the conservation of artefacts found underwater. Compiled for a course, they include: silicone and polymer technologies, treatment of waterlogged wood, leather, rope, cork, corn cobs, kelp specimens and tanning of animal hides. There is a useful conservation manual by Dr Donny L. Hamilton and several illustrated papers, some of which are useful case studies for students. Researchers can contact the laboratory should they need some services. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
The Danish National Research Foundation's Centre for Black Sea Studies website contains plenty of information about the centre and its research activities on the Greek Pontos Euxeinos. The centre focuses on studying the period between 400 BC and 100 AD. The centre supports interdisciplinary projects concentrating on cultural, ethnic (especially among Scythians, Persians and Greeks) and economic interactions, including trade, exchange and communication. Researchers at the centre have field projects at many archaeological sites, including Sinop; Olbia; Panskoe I; and Djangul'. Other topics covered by researchers at the centre include coinage; kurgan burials; Romanisation; and (inspired by contemporary news) long term climate changes in the region. Section "publications" contains several full-text e-books including the "Black Sea Studies" series; published papers and papers read at conferences. The interesting "e-resources" section contains a gazetteer of sites and a coin database (separated websites) and a gallery of pictures (there are also some CGI pictures). This website is an exceptional resource for researchers and students alike.
The website of the German Society for the Promotion of Underwater Archaeology provides news and opportunities within the field of underwater archaeology in Europe. Among the past projects are explorations in Corsica and at Ognina, in eastern Sicily. A few pages are available in English. Some volumes of the newsletter "Skyllis" published by the Society are freely available. These present a short abstract of miscellaneous articles and offer the possibility to download the large PDF files, with full-text and usually several colour pictures. The articles report on various activities by members of the Society, and include news, reviews technical information for divers, and a few scholarly papers. Topics include: Egyptian ships; the ancient harbour of Histria (Romania); the transport of plants across the ancient Mediterranean; the reconstruction of an ancient Greek ship; the Dutch centre of nautical history; discoveries at Wismar Bay; ancient seafaring,; ancient artificial ship canals; the Roman ships from Pisa; collection of corals in Sardinia, and more.
This website presents a project by the Dianae Lacus association aiming at reconstructing the Roman ships from Lake Nemi, Italy. Rare documents and photographs taken during the recovery of the ship are available; among these are some photographs by Guido Ucelli. There are also pictures of the work being carried out to reconstruct the first ship and information about the surviving artefacts from the excavations, an historical account of the recovery and various documents detailing the project. The two Roman ships were sunk in occasion of the death of emperor Caligula in year 41 BC and then recovered during the years 1929-1932; the ships were lost in a fire in 1944. Although the contents are not well organised and some pictures are unavailable, this website can be a useful resource to study a discovery that possibly started modern marine archaeology and is important in history of archaeology. The photographs of the original ships are also important in the study of Roman ships, but the website lacks a text explaining the importance of the ships. Only part of the first ships has been rebuilt after several years of work; the efforts in this sense are also well documented, though not up to date.
In December 1916 the Canadian Pacific Railway steamship 'Mount Temple' was sunk by German surface raider SMS 'Moewe'. The vessel was carrying a cargo of dinosaur fossils excavated in Canada to the British Museum of Natural History. This site is dedicated to research, exploration and possible recovery of the fossils.
The DiscoverSea Shipwreck Museum focuses on the maritime history of the ports of Delaware and Chesapeake Bay, and the discovery of ship wrecks and their artifacts. The site also contains histories of locally wrecked ships, such as the HMS 'DeBraak', located in 1984; the 'Juno'; and the 'Faithful Steward'; as well as information on some of the artefacts, early Colonial settlements; and the Museum newsletter.
Indiana University's Underwater Science programme is involved in on-going investigations in the Dominican Republic where they hope to make new discoveries regarding the impact of Columbus' arrival in the New World. Included on the site are research reports - some in Spanish; artefact analysis; Taino Indian cave sites; and 15th Century shipwrecks in La Isabella Bay. There are photographs and a video of the underwater recovery of some artefacts using windows media player software.
Part of Florida's Division of Historical Resources site these pages describe the well-preserved remains of a mid-16th-century Spanish sailing vessel which was discovered in Pensacola Bay, Florida in 1992. It is thought that the ship was part of the expedition of Tristán de Luna who led the first attempt by Europeans to colonise Florida in 1559. Excavations were conducted in conjunction with the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board and the University of West Florida. There is a link to an essay about the discovery, which describes in more detail some of the artefacts found. An image map allows the user to explore the bow, midship and stern. The site also includes updates on the project, and information on the history of the area and the shipwreck, as well as details of the archaeology behind the investigation.
The highly informative website of the European Heritage Network (HEREIN) provides a wealth of information on heritage policies and cultural resource management in Europe and surrounding regions in addition to providing virtual exhibitions, a calendar of heritage conferences and a valuable multilingual thesaurus of heritage terms. There is also an extensive and excellent series of Internet links, grouped by region, theme and website type, allowing the reader to explore the diverse and complex structures of heritage management strategies within the member states of the Council of Europe. HEREIN is a subdivision of the Council of Europe which aims to facilitate cooperation between the 48 member states of the European Cultural Convention on matters relating to the preservation of architectural and archaeological heritage. A public forum, whose past discussions are archived, facilitates inter-regional contact between heritage professionals on the website. The resource also provides useful background information on the history and aims of the heritage policies pursued by the Council of Europe since its foundation in 1949 and in particular the efforts of member states to encourage international cultural cooperation since the 1960s. This website, parts of which were under construction at the time of writing, is a major addition to the corpus of online resources for heritage management and will benefit both professionals in the heritage sector as well as students and researchers interested in the intellectual study of this field while also functioning as a major tool of inter-regional contact for cultural matters across Europe.
The Expedition Pearl Harbor website focuses on a National Geographic expedition led by Robert Ballard in 2000 to discover a Japanese submarine sunk before the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. The site provides information on the attack as well as the expedition, including: background; a map of the attack (with an animated version that requires Flash); an expedition log and photo gallery; and resources and links. The site is would be a useful teaching/study resource.
This site provides information, photographs and links to the seven underwater parks in Florida that feature shipwrecks. They are 'Half Moon', 'Urca de Lima', 'San Pedro', 'City of Hawkinsville', USS 'Massachusetts (BB-2)', SS 'Copenhagen' and the SS 'Tarpon'. The site is part of the State of Florida's Bureau of Archaeological Research.
The Museum is situated at Foteviken, Sweden and focuses on the Viking Age and medieval history of Scania, as well as the maritime history. Close to the museum is a re-creation of a Viking settlement of the late Viking Age and early Middle Ages, where food is prepared in the traditional way, employees wear Viking costumes, and Viking handicrafts are for sale. There is information about the Museum's Association, the Scandinavian Viking Explorer Group (SVEG); and visitor details. The site is available in English and Swedish.
The Franck Goddio society website publishes many reports of the underwater archaeological research carried out by the Society. Among the projects with reports are the discovery of the harbour of Alexandria of Egypt; the Bay of Aboukir; shipwrecks from Napoleon's fleet found in the same Bay; the shipwrecks of the Lena Shoal, Santa Cruz and Royal Captain found off the coasts of the Philippines. All reports are lavishly illustrated and often contain multimedia features.
The Royal Captain was rented by the English East India Company, was wrecked in 1773 when it hit an uncharted shoal of rocks near the Philippines while returning to London from Canton. One report tells the story of the ship's excavation, including the ship's history, a report of the mission and a location map. There are also photographs and a video entitled 'In Search of the Treasures'.
The Galeão Utrecht website details the history of a Dutch galleon in service for the West Indies Company and found off the island of Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil. The galleon sank in 1648. The website is in Portuguese with a few pages badly translated into English. Most of the website focuses on the underwater salvage operation with a series of illustrated articles.
Part of Virtual Museum Canada, "Graveyard of the Pacific" contains information on some of the shipwrecks of the Vancouver Island coast. The site is divided into the following information: Tales of Hope and Courage, containing ten stories of shipwrecks along the Vancouver Island coast; a database of some of the wrecks; details of the hazards, including How to Survive a Shipwreck; information on rescue and salvage and underwater archaeology in the area, and a wrecks game. The site also contains a bibliography and is available in French.
Maintained by an enthusiast, this website contains images from postcards, photographs and ephemera related to ships. The collections are indexed by ships on the site, and Liverpool landing stage views.
This is the official website of the Guernsey Medieval Wrecks Project, published by the Centre for Maritime Archaeology at the Department of Archaeology of the University of Southampton. In 1986 a Romano-Celtic wreck was salvaged from St Peter Port Harbour, Guernsey. The final phase of the project that undertook the recording and excavation of the wreck was to conduct a seabed survey of the surrounding area, ensuring that any detached fragments of the original structure were known and recorded. Many fragments were recovered, included several that did not appear to belong to the Roman wreck, but instead were more akin to a 'clinker' built vessel of Nordic tradition. The website is divided into two main sections, the first covering the background and discovery of the wrecks and the second detailing the recording techniques and analyses that were conducted. A list of maritime archaeology references are provided.
The Guernsey Museums and Galleries website contains information on the harbour fortress Castle Cornet and Fort Grey. Castle Cornet houses the Maritime Museum with displays on Gallo-Roman shipwrecks; the site includes brief information on this Roman cargo ship discovered in 1982. The small martello tower of Fort Grey contains a museum about Guernsey shipwrecks, with many salvaged artefacts. The site includes: visitor information; details of exhibitions and events; publications information, such as the Guernsey Museum Monographs; and details of the museum educational service.
This website combines underwater exploration and the historical archaeology of 19th century Canada by focusing on two merchant ships, the Hamilton and the Scourge, which sank in Lake Ontario in 1813 and which were discovered with the help of innovative sonar techniques in 1973. The resource combines a virtual tour of the wrecks and contemporary sources for the sinking during the War of 1812 with a account of the discovery and investigation of the ships and further information (including a glossary of technical terms and an extensive page of web links) on underwater archaeology. Other themes include the background to the War of 1812, naval life and shipbuilding in the early 19th century, the importance of the Lake Ontario in this period and the heritage legislation protecting the wrecks. The virtual tour introduces useful practical information on the layout and equipment of the ships. There is a marine glossary with some illustrated entries and a forum. This website, though aimed at the interested general public, will also benefit undergraduate students of underwater archaeology and modern history.
The Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology promotes interest, research and knowledge of maritime archaeology and heritage in Great Britain with core activities concentrated in the counties of Hampshire, the Isle of Wight and the adjacent South Coast areas. The site includes: news; information on the Trust; current projects; the Fort Victoria Maritime Heritage Exhibition; lectures and conferences; publications and merchandise; and links to sites of further interest.
Warship Hazardous sank in a storm north east of the Isle of Wight in November 1706. The wreck was discovered in 1977 approximately 800 metres south-east of Bracklesham Bay slipway, West Sussex, and the site has been under archaeological investigation by the 308 Sub-Aqua Association for over twenty years. The Hampshire & Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology have deposited a selection of the digital archive resulting from these investigations with the Archaeological Data Service. This material consists of: data tables detailing the contents of the archive; reports on the archive and of recommendations on the care and stabilisation of the artefacts recovered from Hazardous written by Mary Rose Archaeological Services; and a selection of digitised photographs of the wreck and of recovered artefacts.
The Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology (HIMA) is a private non-profit organisation that carries out research studies in marine archaeology in Greece. The website summarises the activities of the institute and provides contact details as well as news on conferences and publications sponsored by the institute. Section "projects" outlines some of the major projects carried out so far, including those concerned with the 4th century AD shipwreck in the south of the Pagasitic Gulf; the island of Dokos; the Point Iria shipwreck; the Kyrenia shipwreck; and the 4th century BC shipwreck at Antidragonera, Kythera. The short illustrated articles only provide an introduction to these topics. This website may be useful to researchers interested on Greek marine archaeology.
The website of "Heritage Council of Victoria" publishes a wealth of information on the local cultural heritage, including a newsletter; a database of inland sites and information on shipwrecks off the coast (a few shipwreck have been given greater detail). The website also includes much information on local and Australian legislation regarding cultural heritage as well as reports of local relevance. All documents are in PDF format. Most archaeology in the area is historical archaeology (modern period). Both students and researchers interested in the area may find the website (and especially the database) useful.
This website publishes the lecture notes written by John Illsley, retired lecturer from Bangor University, for use by students taking the third year subject `History and Archaeology of the Ship'. Ships from ancient times until early modern times (18th Century) are presented and discussed. Appropriate references are given, but students should note that this website is no longer updated, affecting primarily the bibliography. There are seminar reports, essay questions, and hyperlinks to related websites. These lecture notes are accompanied by several pictures, but some are inaccessible. These pages are published by the Centre for Maritime Studies, Southampton University.
This website describes the expedition launched in July 2001 by the Channel 4 and ITV television stations to find and film the wreck of the H.M.S. Hood, the pride of the Royal Navy's fleet, that was sunk in 1941 after engaging the German battleship Bismarck, during World War II. The site describes the history of the Hood's final conflict, and details the underwater investigative methods used to locate and film the wreck. In particular, the expedition sought to answer questions relating to why the Hood sunk so quickly, suspecting that the official inquiry's explanation that the Hood's magazines had been hit was flawed. The wreck was located in July 2001, and the website offers a regularly updated news section, reporting the latest finds from the search. Images and video clips filmed by the search team are available from the site. This well-presented site is primarily aimed at the general public, but a more academic audience may nevertheless be interested in the history provided, and the techniques being used to investigate the wreck. The results of the investigation will of course be of great interest to students of twentieth-century naval history, and of the Second World War.
The canal connecting Liverpool with Leeds was a major transport system carrying all manner of cargo for businesses and communities during its working life. Although no longer a commercial waterway it still retains many features of historical interest. This includes the remains of three Ice Boats which were drawn by a horse and used to break ice. Information for each Ice Boat includes their name and location, operation and working practice, and design and construction features. A bibliography and references are included.
MAG is a special interest group of the Institute of Field Archaeologists: The group exists to provide a forum for practising maritime archaeologists and to advise IFA council on issues relevant to underwater sites, intertidal and nautical archaeology. The site includes information on MAG's aims and constitution; committee members; links to technical papers; the bi-annual seminar series; the MAG bulletin, which is posted six months after circulation to MAG members; details of membership; and links to sites of further interest.
The website of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, which has been one of the world leaders in underwater research and excavation since the 1970s. Based at the Texas A&M University, members of the INA have been involved in many significant maritime projects such as excavations of shipwrecks as old as those at Ulu Burun (c1400 BC) and Cape Gelidonya (c1200 BC) as well as Classical, Byzantine, Mediaeval and early modern examples, in addition to numerous underwater surveys and conservation projects. A 'vitual museum' provides a guide to underwater excavations and surveys at shipwrecks and submerged sites in the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, the Atlantic, and North America and the Caribbean with site plans, images of discoveries and extensive bibliographies in addition to details of conservation and reconstruction projects. A brief history of the INA is accompanied by a list of publications by Institute staff arranged year-by-year since 1972 and by research project, including an interactive world map of current activities. Tables of contents (as well as some abstracts and articles) of the INA Quarterly, as well as details of INA publications are also featured. The site also provides membership information, details of commercial services offered by the INA (such as reproductions of slides and prints for teaching and illustration) and an extensive page of weblinks to related electronic resources. The outline of the Nautical Archaeology Programme, which the INA co-ordinates with Texas A&M University, will interest potential students of underwater archaeology while the site as a whole is a valuable resource for anyone interested in maritime archaeology as well as historians studying international trade and economic history in the pre-modern period.
Published quarterly by the Nautical Archaeology Society, this journal covers all aspects of nautical archaeological research. Themes include seas, ships, cargoes, and the sailors of the past; and the latest explorations, discoveries, and technical innovations in the field. Research areas include: archaeology of sites in rivers, lakes, and the sea; conservation; legislation for the protection of sites; reports of dives; surveying techniques and underwater excavations. Guest users can search the contents of current, and back issues from August 1993 onwards; full-text access to last edition is usually free. Articles can also be searched for by keyword. Each entry contains an abstract of the article. Subscribers with a user name and password can also view the full-text of the article in PDF format. Information is also provided for authors. Subscription rates are quoted and it is possible to subscribe online.
The International Registry of Sunken Ships is a fee-based database of shipwreck information covering such types as national, state, provincial or county coastal wrecks; deep sea losses; HMS and US Naval vessels; East Indiamen, and other vessels. Some of the database searches are charged, and information is provided on fees. The site also includes some sample reports, and information on the convoy routes of the First World War and the Second World War. The site is maintained by an enthusiast.
Internet Archaeology (ISSN 1363-5387) is an online-only peer reviewed electronic journal available by subscription. It publishes papers of high academic standing which also try to utilise the potential of electronic publication which allows readers to explore the data upon which conclusions are based. Internet Archaeology publishes: the results of archaeological research, including excavation reports (text, photographs, data, drawings, reconstruction diagrams, interpretations); analyses of large data sets along with the data itself; visualisations; programs used to analyse data; and applications of information technology. The Internet Archaeology advisory committee consists of representatives from a range of bodies and universities including: The Council for British Archaeology; the Universities of Aarhus, California (at Santa Barbara), Cambridge, Durham, Glasgow, Leiden, Newcastle, Oxford, and York. The Journal is hosted by the Department of Archaeology at the University of York. Internet Archaeology's contents are archived by the Archaeology Data Service. The journal is predominantly in English but articles are also published in other languages (for example, French and German)as well.Internet Archaeology is available to UK HE/FE institutions under a national license agreement negotiated by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).
This project website is run by the Centre for Maritime Archaeology, part of the Department of Archaeology at the University of Southampton. The 'Kravel Project' undertook the survey and recording of a wreck found in the Nämdö Fjord area of the Baltic, near Stockholm. Known as the 'kravel' (Swedish for carvel), the wreck is thought to be early 16th century in date and was originally identified as the Lybska Svan (Swan of Lubeck) - the flagship of Gustav Eriksson Vasa, King of Sweden (1523-1560). The website is split into small sections, each detailing a different aspect of the project, such as the ship itself, its discovery, the subsequent recording. A list of maritime archaeology references are provided.
This wide-ranging and attractively produced website, 'Underwater archeology', available in French, English and Arabic, provides an illustrated introduction to the history, methods and major discoveries of underwater explorers, particularly those carried out by the research teams of DRASSM, the Départment des recherches archéologiques subaquatics et sous-marines of the French Ministry of Culture. Underwater archaeology has had a long, though sporadic, history, from the time Roman divers salvaged the cargo of amphoras from a shipwreck in the first century BC to the development of the modern aqualung by Cousteau and Gagnan in 1943. The resource features: a historical chronicle of major developments in maritime archaeology particularly since the designs of Leonardo da Vinci followed by the practical attempts to construct artificial breathing apparatus in the 17th century; an outline of the principal methods of underwater prospection and excavation of wrecks together with notes about the conservation of submerged organic materials; a major survey of shipwrecks around the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of France (a sample of some 700 known) in addition to others sites in Malta, Gabon, Martinique and the Indian Ocean; an account of underwater archaeology in Egypt, in particular the spectacular rediscovery of the submerged parts of Alexandria and of the numerous Greek and Roman wrecks off the Egyptian coast. This notable didactic resource will benefit and improve both amateurs and professionals alike, especially undergraduate students of Mediterranean archaeology and history but also anyone interested in wider issues of world archaeology, trade routes, conservation of underwater finds and heritage issues related to shipwreck sites.
This research guide, produced by the National Maritime Museum, is part of a series intended to help people who wish to carry out their own research. It gives a brief outline of the history (from 1696 - 1975) of Lloyd's List, a newspaper reporting shipping movements and casualties, maritime news and other commercial information.
This simple webpage is an article published by the Department of Archaeology, University of Edinburgh, on excavations carried out at Loch Bharabhat. This is a simple text document without illustrations. It describes the results of underwater excavations which have uncovered a sub-circular building which was used for agricultural purposes. Excavations demonstrated three phases of building activity. A variety of bone and antler tools and wooden utensils were recovered. The life and economy of the inhabitants is briefly discussed.
The website for the Lofotr Viking Museum at Borg in the Lofoten Islands, Northern Norway, mainly provides information for visitors but also contains some background notes on the activities and research carried out on the site. Brief descriptions of some of the exhibition material and demonstrations of early medieval handcrafts is given, as well as notes on the excavations carried out between 1983 and 1989 which revealed the largest Viking building found in Europe. The Viking chieftain's longhouse has been reconstructed adjacent to the archaeological site, and the website describes some of the main features of the reconstruction of this and associated buildings, as well as the museum's reconstruction of the Gokstad ship from Oslo which has been tested on sea voyages.
This is the website of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. The website contains a list of lectures and conferences organised by the Society, a list of publications with their contents and abstracts for older volumes, and a printable application form. The society was founded in 1855 'for the purpose of investigating the antiquities and early history of the Cities of London and Westminster and the Metropolitan County of Middlesex'. Currently the Society arranges lectures and conferences, publishes research on the history and archaeology of London and Middlesex, helps to monitor the state of historic buildings and monuments in Greater London and acts as a discussion and news forum for members.
"Lost Treasures of the Seven Seas" is a guide to several resources on marine salvage written by Pascal Kainic. This is a difficult topic to teach because archaeological ethics forbids the sale of archaeological artefacts while marine salvage is often driven by the prospect of selling artefacts. "Treasure hunting", as marine salvage is sometimes labelled, is a reality that archaeologists need to confront as well as a difficult topic to teach; this website may be very helpful to approach the topic with students. Section "underwater archaeology" presents techniques to preserve recovered artefacts and includes one link to an article against treasure hunting, which summarises the position of archaeologists. "Rules in the World" contains excerpts of legislation from several countries or links to depositories of legislative texts. Wrecks/Treasure Stories" contains a wealth of case studies. "Still secret...!" contains excerpts from written sources detailing the history and contents of localised sunken ships awaiting to be researched or salvaged. Teachers may use this section dividing students in two groups, one highlighting sentences on the wealth aboard the ships and one highlighting sentences on historical facts and then prompt a debate between "archaeologists" and "treasure hunters". "The World of Shipwrecks" publishes a list of sunken ships according to the monetary value of their cargoes; a list of questions helps in selecting ships for salvage and has educational value because it exposes the (unethical) reasons for the selection. Of some interest is also the news section containing news from current salvage projects as well as articles of researches bordering myths and legends. Stories centred on the sea are as old as mariners and treasure hunters often pursue what to many could appear as a story or dream.
This website contains a collection of resources that can help in understanding why treasure hunting exists, and how the inflexible opposition of archaeologists coexists with irresolute laws (treasure hunting is lawful but constrained in many countries) and the inexhaustible attraction of economic profit. Teachers may use this website to prompt a debate and some pages (e.g. legislation) can help advanced students in preparing a more informed debate. Unsupervised students should instead steer clear of this website until they have a solid knowledge of archaeological practices because some contents express positions not compatible with archaeological ethics and practice. The website is only recommended to teachers for its educational value in presenting a delicate and actual issue: most contents on their own cannot be endorsed by the academic community.
This association is dedicated to the maritime heritage of New Zealand. With both Polynesian and European maritime traditions, New Zealand has a rich and diverse maritime history. Around the New Zealand coast there are over 2000 shipwrecks, the first one recorded is dated 1795. Of these around 150 wrecks have been relocated. This site provides information about the association, current projects, and details of some of the shipwrecks and maritime history. Information on joining the association is provided.
This section of the Marine Museum of the Great Lakes at Kingston website provides links to a range of collections catalogues and research resources. Information is available on: the Library; artifacts; the Museum Ship; 'Alexander Henry'; the Wallace and Mills Ship Lists (the former covering over 3,000 Canadian sailing ships; the latter, over 6,000 steamships from 1817-1930); and the Ship Register Database (of 13,000 vessels, ranging from about 1760 - 1930). The Snider Index, an index to Schooner Days a series of articles that appeared in the former Toronto Telegram, is also included, as well as access to the Listserve MARHST-L, an email list for those with an interest in maritime history and maritime museums.
This site focuses on the work of the Maritime Archaeological and Historical Society (MAHS), which was organized for the purpose of enhancing public awareness and fostering appreciation for the significance of historic shipwrecks and other submerged cultural resources. Our mission is to preserve American maritime heritage, and members volunteer to participate in underwater archaeology expeditions around the world. The site includes information on MAHS; a log of major projects; links to further maritime information; details of courses available, such as the Basic Underwater Archaeology Course and the Maritime Archaeology Field School. The advocacy section contains details of MAHSNEWS, the MAHS newsletter (a sample issue is available), and there are also diving forms relating to the society (available in PDF format).
This website is maintained by the New South Wales Heritage Office as part of the NSW Maritime Heritage Program. It provides information about various aspects of maritime history in the area. The site can be viewed by region; the maritime coast, the Darling River and the Murray River. It also looks at different features of maritime heritage in the regions, including coastal defences, shipwrecks, lighthouses, ports and harbours, customs houses, pilot stations and museums. There is a research centre, which provides access to a range of material to assist divers, maritime heritage researchers and school projects. There are various search options, which include a keyword search and a shipwreck search. More information about the NSW Maritime Heritage Program is provided along with contact details.
The Maritime Heritage Program was established in 1987 as part of the National Park Service in America. The Program aims to maintain inventories of historic U.S. maritime properties, and provide preservation assistance through publications and consultation. The Maritime Heritage Program provides technical assistance in preservation planning for historic maritime properties and underwater archaeological resources. The site includes links to NPS Maritime Parks, Historic Ships to visit, lighthouses, lifesaving stations, and other related sites of interest.
This website contains a collection of documents focusing on the history of the Great Lakes of Canada and America. The site comprises newspaper transcripts (with a search engine for Great Lakes newspaper collections); ship lists; shipwrecks; historical documents; articles; and research collections of the Great Lakes area.
Established in 1989, Maritime History Publications publish on both the national and international level operating from Memorial University of Newfoundland. The site includes information on the International Maritime Economic History Association (IMEHA) which publishes the semi-annual International Journal of Maritime History (IJMH) and Research in Maritime History (RIMH). Details of past issues of RIMH are available for the years 1991-2002. The IJMH section contains indexes for the years 1989-2000, and contents pages for the period June 1999 to December 2002. Subscription details for these two publications are provided.
This is the official website of the Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Society and Museum focusing on colonial ships travelling to and from America. The website contains information about the museum; its collections; some exhibitions; and the Schimmel library. The "archaeology" section is the most interesting unless a visit to the museum and library is planned; here there are a series of articles on slave trade including the shipwreck of the Henrietta Marie (a slave ship); the 1622 Tierra Firme flota and the two recovered shipwrecks Nuestra Señora de Atocha and Santa Margarita that contained substantial treasures; and a series of articles on the St John's Bahamas shipwreck. This website may be useful to both students and researchers.
This research guide, produced by the National Maritime Museum (NMM), is part of a series intended to help people who wish to carry out their own research. It outlines ways of tracing information about merchant shipping wrecks, losses and casualties in British waters and overseas. It is divided into: Lloyd's sources from 1741; Parliamentary Papers from 1850; official inquiries from 1856; the Mercantile Navy List from 1875; and secondary sources.
This website focuses on Tivoli Bays, a large freshwater tidal wetland along the course of the River Hudson in the state of New York and is published by the Hudson River Maritime Museum. The area has been inhabited by Native Americans since at least 7,000 years ago and has been investigated by members of Bard College. The website hosts a collection of papers, many illustrated with pictures and drawings. Among the papers are "The Tivoli Bays as a Middle-Scale Setting for Cultural-Ecological Research" by Funk; "Grouse Bluff: An Archaeological Introduction" by Lindner; "Archaeological Investigations at the Goat Island Rockshelter: New Light from Old Legacies" by Chilton; "Searching for Clues to Prehistoric Human Interaction" by Waterman; an extensive report by Ritchie on "South Cruger Island Site"; and a paper by Lindner and Folb on "Chert Microdrills from Eastern New York". The latter paper publishes results of experimental archaeology and pictures of stone tools taken at the microscope. The particular ecology of the region is considered in some papers and therefore this website may also interest students and researchers studying wetlands.
The Great Lakes Marine Collection is a website of original maritime materials located at the Milwaukee Public Library, USA. The collection includes log books, vessel plans, and shipwreck reports. The site consists of ship photographs and Ship Files of data on more than 7,000 ships including ships from 1679. There is also a link to Nautical Charts as the Library is an official US government depository library. International maps are included. The site also has links to Great Lakes Marine Magazines and the Wisconsin Marine Historical Society.
The State Historic Preservation Office of the Minnesota Historical Society are responsible for preserving Minnesota's Lake Superior shipwrecks and other underwater archaeological sites in Minnesota's lakes and rivers. The pages of the Minnesota Historical Society include information about the shipwrecks, a history of Minnesota's Lake Superior, history and development of Great Lakes watercraft, details of eight shipwrecks, a shipwreck map and bibliographic references. There is a convenient list of shipwrecks, which includes 47 ships wrecked in Lake Superior (ship name and type, the year the vessel was built and wrecked, wreck cause and the ship's current condition).
The aim of MoSS is to awaken European peoples' interest to our common underwater cultural heritage and to have the general public participate in protecting the heritage. The project acts as an underwater window to four significant European shipwrecks in the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, and Finland. Information is provided on these four wrecks: Darsser Kogge, Vrouw Maria, Eric Nordevall, and BZN-10, and on the organisations of the project, including the Mary Rose Archaeological Services Ltd; a timetable of the project; proposed publications; and links to sites of further interest. The site is available in English, as well as Dutch, Danish, Finnish, German, and Swedish.
The Museum of Ancient Shipping is situated in Mainz, Germany. It aim is to provide an overview of the manifold connections between the Mediterranean and northern Alpine boat-building traditions on the one hand, and the social standing and responsibilities of Roman marines on the other. There is information about the exhibits, which include five military ships of the late 3rd and 4th century, model ships, and an explanation of Roman ship construction. The museum address and opening hours are provided.
The Museum of Underwater Archaeology is a website presenting archaeological research by marine and underwater archaeologists to the public. It is a collection of illustrated articles, many published in series by individual archaeologists who run the series as a "guest blog" or "project journal". The website also imitates a real museum having multimedia "exhibits". Since the website is aimed at presenting to the public rather than to a specialised audience, students in particula rmay find the website useful, and they might even have a chance to participate in it.
The Institute for Exploration (IFE) (part of the Sea Research Foundation) is a non-profit organisation specialising in deep-sea research and ocean exploration. The aim of the Institute is to pioneer the emerging discipline of deep-sea archaeology, which combines archaeological, oceanographic and ocean engineering research and methods. As well as information on IFE, the site includes information on IFE expeditions in deep sea archaeology; in marine archaeology to understand ancient trade patterns and learn about human history by studying ancient ships and their cargoes; marine geoscience, and maritime history. There is also information on the Institutes's Challenge of the Deep exhibition centre which presents interactive displays, artefacts and findings from IFE's most recent expeditions off the continental shelf of the Eastern United States, in the Mediterranean, in the Black Sea... The site also contains press releases and publications, and is part of the commercial venture "Mystic Aquarium".
This website published by the National Geographic reports on the find by scientists of four ancient shipwrecks in the Black Sea, one almost perfectly preserved. Details include a description of the ships and artefacts found, the search vehicles used and organisations the expedition participants came from. The most ancient ship has been dated to the Neolithic. There is a video with a long press interview with Dr Ballard; the stream requires a proprietary codec that may not be installed on all systems. There are further multimedia files containing shorter interviews. There are also updates in the form of blog and some high resolution. The website contains advertising.
The Australian National Shipwrecks Database is a joint project between the Commonwealth, States and Territories, and Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology. The database includes all known shipwrecks in Australian waters. The data has been collected by individual State historic shipwreck agencies, and are subject to ongoing editing and refining as new information is obtained. The database can be searched in various ways, including by position and distance. There are also shipwreck graphs of statistical information, covering such themes as wrecks by construction type, decade, and industry.
Created by the Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation (CMCC), this website looks at a selection of Native watercraft from the Museum's collections which highlights the creativity and skill of Indian and Inuit boat builders. The four main sections of the site look at: kayaks, covering construction, conservation, and kayaks of the Mackenzie Inuit and the Central and Eastern Canadian Inuits; umiaks, covering construction and examples; bark canoes, looking at construction and different types of bark canoe (Algonquian, Dene, Kootenay and war); and dugout canoes, covering construction and styles. The site also contains a photo gallery, conservation in preparation for the Wave Eaters exhibition, a bibliography of more than 40 books and links to related sites. The site is also available in French.
The official website of the Nautical Archaeology Society (NAS), an internationally respected non-governmental charity provides news and information about training and support to everyone interested in the study of ships, shipwrecks and underwater archaeology in general. In addition to providing professional training for divers interested in historical underwater sites, the NAS is the main body in Britain for promoting academic research and education in this area, and the website provides recent and archived news events of maritime interest as well as details of archaeological projects and forthcoming conferences on maritime research. The website includes information on the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology (IJNA), with abstracts of articles from 2003 onward and advice to those submitting articles for consideration by the editors. The entire electronic archive of the journal is available for the members; hard copies of back issues can be purchased fromo NAS. Other NAS publications include the Handbook of Underwater Archaeology and various monographs. There is a section on the Outreach efforts of NAS with information about projects and partners.
"Navis" is the name of a series of online searchable databases containing data of European ancient ships. NAVIS I in particular focuses on shipwrecks. It offers: short presentations of a few museums displaying maritime history and ship-related findings; a catalogue organised by modern country; direct Web links to online excavation reports; the possibility to learn specialist terminology by using 3D views of ships; interactive distribution maps; a research paper on the conservation of ancient woods from shipwrecks; and a few research papers ("themes") on ancient navigation. The papers are richly illustrated, as are most of the other pages, but some are available in German only. Both NAVIS I and II contain data of ships up to the Medieval period. The reader is advised to repeat any search on all the databases for a complete overview of data from all sources. The searching facilities are extensive, effective and self-explanatory. However, there is no access from within each NAVIS database to the others, and no possibility to query the whole NAVIS database at once. The reader must open each part in a different browser window or tab, and repeat the same query in all parts. This NAVIS database has been financed by the European Commission and it is an international cooperation among several institutions. A Java enabled browser is required.
"Navis" is the name of a series of online searchable databases containing data of European ancient ships, NAVIS II in particular focuses on depictions of ships. This website is an analytic catalogue of ships and harbours and most options are useful only to refine any search. The section about harbours contains a research paper in German about ancient boat and ship storage facilities. Both NAVIS I and II contain data of ships up to the Medieval period. The difference is that NAVIS I concentrates on actual ships while NAVIS II focuses on their iconography. The reader is advised to repeat any search on all the databases for a complete overview of data from all sources. For this reason, the reader is advised to repeat any search on all the databases. The searching facilities are extensive and effective. However, there is no access from within each NAVIS database to the others, and no possibility to query the whole NAVIS database at once. The reader must open each part in a different browser window or tab, and repeat the same query in all parts. This NAVIS database has been financed by the European Commission and it is an international cooperation among several institutions. A Java-script enabled browser is required.
This is the website of the Association of Friends of the Newport Ship a not-for-profit organisation. This group were formed in 2002 to disseminate knowledge and information about "the Newport Mediaeval Ship" and to foster understanding and appreciation of Newport's maritime and industrial heritage. The "Ship" is the almost intact hull of a mediaeval ship, discovered on a construction site by the river Usk, South Wales. The site is under threat from development of the construction site and lack of funds/commitment to preserve the remains. This is a fascinating online resource, explaining the background of fifteenth century trade between Wales and Europev (specifically England, Spain and Portugal) in the context of what is acclaimed as an archaeological discovery of international significance - being the only extant example of a merchantman of this period from northern Europe. The excavation work was carried out by Gwent Archaeological Trust. There is a link to information about a course at the University of Wales College, Newport for anyone interested in learning more about the unique vessel, and links to websites about Newport's history.
The Nordic Underwater Archaeology website is a valuable resource for anybody interested in maritime archaeology. It provides an excellent introduction for those who have little knowledge about the subject and also has abundant links and online article for those working in the field. The site includes databases of wrecks, links to worldwide societies, museums, authorities, online journals, international news articles, legislation and conferences; and advice on investigation methods, salvage and recovery, and conservation. A paper describes the difficulties in ascertaining the difference between Portuguese and Spanish ships. This is a good website, not only about for the Nordic area but on a worldwide basis. This website is solely the work of Per Åkesson, and has no official status but has support from The Swedish Underwater Archaeology Society (MAS) for its publication. The value of the site is attested to by the number of contributors who have submitted material. The principal language of the site is English but parts have been translated into a wide range of other languages.
Part of the Nova Online series this website was produced to compliment the television programme `Submarines, Secrets and Spies'. Its aim is to examine clues to two tragedies of the Cold War, the wrecks of the nuclear submarines Thresher and Scorpion. Included is a virtual tour with 360-degree views through the nuclear submarines USS Springfield and the USS Nautilus (requires the Quicktime plug-in software); details of times when the US Navy has lent out submarines to assist with scientific studies; interviews with Navy personnel about life on a submarine; and a quiz for children. There are links to related sites and a transcript of the broadcast.
Part of the Nova Online Adventure series (produced by PBS a private, non-profit US media enterprise that provides educational services), Voyage of Doom is the companion website to the programme which chronicled the discovery and excavation of the French explorer Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle's ship, La Belle, which sank off the coast of Texas in 1686. The site includes information revealed from the hull of La Belle, such as what kind of tools the builders used and why they numbered each of the timbers; an inventory of the ship's well-preserved artefacts with a clickable drawing, which contains the position, a description and conservation of many items recovered during the excavation; details of who owns lost ships; and buoyancy brainteasers. A teacher's guide with suggested activities is available, as are links to related sites and a book list.
The Oceanic Archaeology Laboratory (OAL) is a research laboratory at the Archaeological Research Facility, part of the University of California at Berkeley. The website includes information on OAL; a background to Pacific archaeology and prehistory; details of current research projects (PDF files are available for some projects); and information on courses and publications.
The website of the Florida-based underwater archaeology commercial company "Odyssey Marine Exploration, Inc." provides information on the salvage of a variety of historic shipwreck sites such as the "Black Swan"; Firefly; "Concepcion"; the "Seattle"; the "Blue China"; SS Republic (1860s) and the HMS Sussex (1694). To access most articles it is necessary to register; registration is free and also allows to receive email updates. Each article contains a short description of the project; some pictures; and often a few video clips. There is also a section on the activities of the company, from shipwreck research and salvage to the sale of some artefacts and the risks involved in the activity. A few articles also describe the ROVs (remote operated vehicles) owned by the company.
The company operates legally according to American laws and makes most of its profits from the sale of artefacts found on ships. The sale of such artefacts is limited to those "that are not considered culturally significant". The sale of artefacts is not allowed in many countries regardless of the cultural significance of the artefacts and it is a key ethical problem for archaeologists. Students in archaeology approaching the debate on the ethics of the sale of artefacts will find this website very useful to learn about the activities made possible by current laws and make up their own mind on the ethical issues related to this subject. All readers should not forget that differing legislation in most countries will often determine the legality of such activities. The section "merchandise", the online shop of the company, can also be useful to see what is being sold and therefore would be not "culturally significant" according to the company. The company's definition of "culturally significant" is unclear and accessing the shop is the only way to understand its exact meaning; coins and glass bottles are the archaeological artefacts most frequently traded. The purchase of anything from the shop remains a personal choice. The company is open in recognising that some of its activities are appealing to broad audiences because recalling "treasure hunting" as portrayed in many literary works, but it states that it is committed to guarantee "high archaeological standards" in all its salvage operations. The company is also involved in the production of TV programmes based on its activities, and therefore it will affect the public perception of such activities. This website is an important reading for any balanced debate on modern "treasure hunting"; the commercial exploitation of archaeology; and issues of public perception of archaeology for all students as well as professional and academic archaeologists.
The RMS Republic, a steamer belonging to the White Star Steamship Company, collided with the Florida and sunk on January 24, 1909, 50 miles south of Nantucket Island on the United States Eastern Coast. All passengers and crew survived and were rescued except for those killed in the initial collision. Irrepressible rumours from that date onwards suggest that the ship was carrying a great deal of money including $3,000,000 of American Gold Eagle coins. The site tells the story of the RMS Republic, illustrated with photographs of the original interior, and provides details of the reported riches she was carrying. There is an incomplete passenger and crew list, reports of past salvage efforts, relevant press clippings and legal notices. An interactive section contains a chat room and message boards.
The website 'Onilne Titanic Museum' contains a virtual display of a large private collection of authentic Titanic and White Star Line memorabilia. The Online Titanic Museum is dedicated to preserving the memory of the Titanic, her sister ships, and the White Star Line which operated the 3 'Olympic Class' sisters: Olympic; Titanic; and Britannic. The website includes the following information: Ttitanic items, categorised as either artefacts or memorials; White Star Line items, with explanations of the origin and purpose of the items; contemporary films of the Titanic, including video footage from 1985 (Windows Media or Quick Time is required to view); and a brief history of the vessel.
The Pensacola Maritime Site contains reading and photo galleries, focusing on the maritime history of the Port from the 16th Century and the arrival of Don Tristan De Luna's ships. The site includes links to historic photos; biographies of Pensacola's mariners; sea stories; the Battleship Maine; ecosystems; audio/ video presentation of maritime sights and sounds; and links to other sites.
The University of Indiana Underwater Science Programme has developed this technique for underwater photography. The resulting product is a simple representation of the actual site which enables site plans to be developed with minimal diving and computer time. Some case studies where the technique has been applied are available: Emerald Bay historic barges, Lake Tahoe, California; San Pedro archaeological preserve, Florida Keys; Winch Hole historical site; and Dominican Republic. There are several broken links.
The Polish Maritime Museum's aim is to document and popularise Poland's maritime traditions as well as the evolution of her present-day maritime policies, economics, technology and culture. The Museum's collections contain artefacts, documents and a library. Displays are of the history of port construction, boatyards and ship-building, the history of shipping and maritime trade, fisheries, the history of Polish yachting, and marine art. The Museum publishes several series of publications on maritime history, and guidebooks, information brochures and folders, as well as catalogues of the collections. The website also contains details of the Museum's opening hours. The website contains a useful "research" section, which also includes the full text edition of the proceedings of the first Cultural Heritage Forum in PDF format. There are also sections with contact and opening hours details on the Fisheries Museum; the Vistula River Museum; and the Vistula Lagoon Museum.
This website is a guide to the archaeology of Port Royal in Jamaica, one of the largest English colonies in the Americas in the 17th century and a leading centre for trade and licensed piracy in the West Indies until it was struck by a devastating earthquake in 1692 and a major fire in 1703. The settlement, the only legal port of entry to the Jamaican interior, thrived because of the trade in slaves, sugar and other raw materials but also because it from here than buccaneers pillaged the ships of the Spanish Main with official English approval. Its tolerant multiculturalism and rakish population gave it the reputation in its time for being the 'wickedest city on Earth'. The Institute for Nautical Archaeology of Texas A&M University and Jamaica National heritage Trust have been investigating the submerged portions of Port Royal since 1981, revealing a fascinating slice of the social, architectural and commercial history of the town. The resource provides a detailed analysis of the buildings and their finds. These can be compared with contemporary historical records, such as wills, maps, and inventories, which are also provided online and together provide a unique combination of artefactual and textual history. There is also a select bibliography of published articles on Port Royal along with abstracts of dissertations on material from the excavations. The Port Royal website will benefit students and researchers of historical archaeology and underwater exploration but also will provide useful material for early modern historians of trade and colonialism in the Americas.
The city of Portsmouth, located on the south coast of England, has a long history as a major port and naval base. Referred to by Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD as "Magnus Portus" (Great Port), the harbour became important as a shipbuilding centre after the construction of the world's first dry dock by Richard VII in 1495 AD. Many famous British ships were constructed in Portsmouth, including the Mary Rose and the HMS Dreadnought. The Portsmouth Harbour Project aims to collect together as much information regarding as many aspects of the harbour's history as possible. The data will be displayed on the website via a GIS system, enabling archaeological information to be linked with environmental and historical information. Currently available on the GIS page is a clickable map detailing all recorded wrecks and archaeological sites, supported by video and QTVR panoramas. Certain geographical features of the harbour may be viewed from overhead or as three-dimensional colour-coded models. A page of historical maps of the area is also available. The presentation of the website could do with a bit of tidying up. It may be useful for students.
This website publishes information and preliminary reports on the archaeological excavations of the ancient site of Portus (Fiumicino), one of the harbours of ancient Rome. The Portus Project is a research initiative between the University of Southampton; the British School at Rome; the University of Cambridge; and the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici di Ostia and it has been funded in part by the AHRC. The website details the objectives of the research and the planned surveys. The research will focus on the pre-Trajanic port, the important port constructed under Emperor Trajan and the Late Antique harbour. Some maps, illustrations and 3D reconstructions (just as pictures) are also available, and there is a separate gallery of pictures. An updated bibliography is also available. Students interested on the harbours of ancient Rome as well as researchers may find this website useful.
This Committee report stems from an examination of the proposed export of HMS 'Cavalier', decommissioned in 1972, to Malaysia to become part of a museum of shipping. Although the bid failed, the inquiry highlighted the lack of a coherent national policy for preserving historic ships. This report, which includes images of and background information on HMS 'Cavalier', explores the implications of this case for national policy, and provides a set of recommendations for the government, the Department of Trade and Industry and the Heritage Lottery Fund regarding ship preservation and the funding of historic ship conservation.
The Principe das Astúrias was a passenger ship on the line Spain to Argentina that sank in 1916, near Ilha Bela, São Paulo, Brazil. This website contains a series of illustrated articles detailing the ship, the accident and the underwater salvage operation. It is in Portuguese only.
This website publishes the result of a project of experimental archaeology testing the hypothesis that reed boats were used to transport giant stones across Lake Titicaca to the Inca site of Tiwanaku (Tiahuanacu). To achieve this, a special reed boat, baptised Qala Yampu, was built. The Qala Yampu proved to be faster and more reliable than expected and therefore demonstrated that the hypothesis this might have been the method used to transport stones in antiquity. Several illustrated articles provide some information, and there is a "captain's diary". A documentary has been produced for the Discovery Channel. A few full-text papers about experimental archaeology are available in PDF format. Researchers may find this website useful.
A guide to Queen Anne's Revenge, the flagship of Bluebeard the pirate which sank in Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina in 1718. The resource provides a fascinating illustrated account of the wreck and its thousands of recovered artefacts together with much valuable background material from British and French sources on the politics and economics of slaving and piracy in North America in the early 18th century. The ship had in fact been captured from the French a year before its demise and renamed in honour of the reigning English Queen by pirates who proved themselves as much as a nuisance to the English settlers of Charlston and the coast of New England as they did to the French. The wreck has been investigated since 1997 under the auspices of the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources in collaboration with public, private and academic researchers. The account of the work highlights the problems of underwater excavation but also the wider legal and heritage issues raised by underwater archaeology so will also interest heritage professionals. The website provides preliminary excavation and conservation reports of the work from 1997 onwards, some geological background, in addition to bibliographies and research articles (in PDF format, in the "Researcher Corner") on various aspects of the shipwreck.
The Ramparts website is composed by four illustrated papers: "Survey of fish weirs on the Taf, Towy and Gwendraeth estuaries, Carmarthenshire, South West Wales"; "Fforest yr Esgob - a survey of Deserted Rural Settlements" (an archaeological survey of settlements dating from the Middle Ages to the 19th century in a remote are of south-central Wales); "Carmarthen Bar and its shipwrecks"; and "Carmarthenshire Place-name Survey".
Carmarthen Bar (a sand bar) lies on the north coast of the Bristol Channel in Britain. Three rivers enter the bay here, the main one being the Towy (or Tywi). Many 19th Century ships were wrecked on this bar and some reasons for this are given. Some of these shipwreck remains are now lying at Cefn Sidan Sands - sand dunes to one side of Carmarthen Bar. To improve safety the "Carmarthen Bar Navigation Committee" has been established and they include current information on navigating the bar safely.
This website offers access to reports of contract archaeology excavations carried out by the Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies at the University of Haifa, Israel. Among the reports is the one of Tirat-HaCarmel, where hundreds of glass vessels dating from the Late Roman period have been found. The text uses the hypertextual capabilities of HTML to integrate several pictures and a bibliography within the report. Further reports, including one on a salvage excavation at the village of Beit Zarzir are available in Hebrew only. However, English-speaking readers can benefit from abstracts, pictures and bibliography and may be able to translate the full-text Hebrew pages with some online translation service.
The website 'Centre for Environmental History and Policy' is the homepage of this multi-disciplinary, project focusing on the varied relationship between human society and environmental history, led by the Department of History at Stirling University and the School of History at St Andrews University. The current Centre is based upon the Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded Centre for Environmental History and the Centre or Environmental History and Policy funded by the Scottish Higher Education Council. In line with recent trends in the social and natural sciences, the Centre in Environmental History is pursuing interdisciplinary historical research in collaboration with disciplines already engaged in analysing past environmental change and human development to inform our current understanding of environmental issues. The Centre offers undergraduate and graduate courses. The site provides a list of research projects and details of the staff, researchers and associate members of the centre together with information on seminars, conferences and workshops organised by the research group. Current research projects include: 'Welcome to the Sahel'; 'A corpus of Scottish medieval parish churches'; and 'Hunting Forrests, Parks and Parkland in Scotland'. The section 'History Tomorrow' is created to ease commercial access to the expertise of University of Stirling scholarship. A useful page of links provides a guide to other institutions concerned with the history of environmental change, including the journal 'Environment and History'.
This website concerns the work and objectives of the Rhode Island Marine Archaeology Project, which Since 1991 has performed background research, collected historical information and conducted field work on the vessels beneath Rhode Island waters.
This is the website of RMS Titanic, Inc., the company responsible for salvaging the wreck of the Titanic, which sank on its maiden voyage after colliding with an iceberg in the Atlantic Ocean in 1912. The site is divided into several different sections including: the 6,000 artefacts recovered from the wreck site and their conservation; the past exhibitions; the underwater expeditions to the sunken ship; conservation; the ship and its structure; and the science used in the salvage operation. Highlights include short essays about the Titanic, including historical photographs. Registration on the site allows users and especially researchers access to far more extensive databases of photographs of salvaged artefacts. The site offers an archive of articles about the Titanic wreck. Teachers can register for a Titanic teachers' guide to access lesson materials.
There is also a corporate section that describes the salvage company itself (granted salvor-in-possession rights to the wreck of the Titanic by a United States Federal Court order in 1994), and information about forthcoming exhibitions of recovered artefacts. This is a well presented site that contains a good deal of information on all aspects of the ship and related salvage operations.
This website reports on the 1994-1998 excavations of an Ottoman-period shipwreck near Sadana Island, located just off Egypt's Red Sea coast. The excavations presented new information regarding international contact and trade in the western Indian Ocean. The ship was laden with coffee, spices and Chinese export porcelain, and over 600 objects were raised in the 1995 excavation season alone. The website provides a brief background to the shipwreck and gives access to the field reports and press releases from the surveys, excavations and study seasons. An image gallery of the excavations and finds is available. There are also several web pages on the conservation of raised artefacts, and a number of 'special topics' articles on aspects of the ship's cargo.
The Sea-Site mailing list aims to encourage the multi-disciplinary investigation of submerged archaeological sites. Its homepage includes a search facility for the archives, instructions and a searchable archive of messages from October 1998. The list is hosted by JISCmail, the UK national academic mailing list service. Visitors to the Sea-Site list can join or leave the list and view list archives, dating back to 1998; these archives can be viewed by non-list members.
This website outlines the ongoing Sealinks Project at the University of Oxford. The multidisciplinary research project focuses on the earliest Indian Ocean seafarers. The website contains information on the project; a list of publications (including a few available full-text in PDF format); fieldwork and postgraduate degree opportunities for students and the list of staff, students and volunteers involved in the project. Researchers and postgraduate students in particular may find this website useful.
The Ship Information Database is a heritage management resource providing information on historic ships either registered in Canadian ports or else known to have worked in Canadian waters in the course of their working lives. It is primarily intended to aid the identification and conservation of shipwreck sites but the editors envisage that it will also benefit a wider range of curators, historians and archivists. Originally devised by the Nova Scotia Museum, the project now encompasses the provinces of British Columbia and Ontario and the Marine Museum of the Great Lakes at Kingston. Each ship is provided with a datasheet describing its origins, official details and physical appearance, together with references to archival and other sources in Canadian institutions. In addition to individual vessels, the database usefully permits you browse and fully search the information according to ship owners, builders and voyage histories, in effect documenting the full working history of any one ship where the details are available. This resource is available in English and French language versions.
Ships of Discovery is an underwater archaeology research institute based in Corpus Christi, Texas. Here archaeologists research ships of exploration and discovery that were lost in the New World between 1492 and 1521. The website provides information on these shipwrecks, marine archaeology activities, archival research, experimental archaeology, 16th Century shipbuilding techniques, artefact conservation, and other aspects of ships of discovery research.
The website contains information on the Maritime Museum: the Diver's Corner, with a display of early and modern diving equipment, plus a number of shipwreck artefacts; the Quarterdeck, displaying a collection of ship models; and the discovery of the wreck of HMS 'Swordfish', which disappeared in 1940. Artefacts in the Museum have been salvaged from a number of vessels, including S.S. 'Mendi', S.S. 'Molina', S.S. 'Leon', HMS 'Boxer', HMS 'Acheron', HMS 'Renown', 'UB81', 'Witte Zee' and 'Dizzy Dunlop'. The 1887 vintage "pulling and sailing" ex-RNLI lifeboat "Queen Victoria" is the star of the exhibition and has a separate website.
This website, designed by students from a school in Tasmania in conjunction with the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service, is aimed at school children and teachers. It contains journal stories of shipwrecks and Antarctic exploration, which can be accessed using Adobe Acrobat. There is also information about Macquarie Island, a database of shipwrecks that occurred in the area and a bibliography of texts on the subject of Antarctic exploration and shipwrecks around Macquarie Island. Included on the site are puzzles, games and suggestions for classroom activities.
This is the official website of the "Sinking Coasts" (SINCOS) research project that is exploring the underwater coasts of north-eastern Germany to find and excavate settlements flooded between 6,000 and 8,000 years ago. The project aims at reconstructing the changes in sea level in the area during the last 10,000 years and studies the ancient coastline and any ancient settlements now under the sea, such as the archaeological site of Jäckelberg. The anaerobic conditions of the area have also preserved some wood artefacts that are important for dendrochronological studies of the region. The research project combines geographical, ecological, social and economic approaches in the study of the submerged coasts of northern Germany. In addition to general information and contact details of the project members, there are some galleries of pictures (no artefacts) and a list of publications (papers; videos and other digital data) by team members in sections "Publications" and "Previous work". Most papers are available for free download in PDF format, but there are also videos and other data (some files are very large and most are written in German). Reports and descriptions of the project are also available. This is a very interesting project especially for the state of preservation of some archaeological sites and the interdisciplinary character of the research. A recent article by Curry on Science (8 December 2006; Vol. 314. no. 5805, 1533-1535) and available on this website summarises the research. The website is an essential and updated source of information on the progress and results of the project and will interest researchers studying marine archaeology (especially submerged coasts) and the Neolithic period of northern Germany.
The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog is a useful blog publishing or re-publishing many news about Asia. All contents are tagged and can be easily browsed or accessed. There are announcements of new books and a few papers; the website also publishes some calls for papers and notices of talks and special lectures.
An interesting feature are the podcasts; many have been produced by the author especially for this blog and include transcripts. There are video podcasts of special exhibitions (e.g. the "Treasures of the South China Sea") hosted by YouTube; audio podcasts (e.g. Perak Man at the Lenggong Archaeological Museum in Malaysia); podcasts of lectures (e.g. "Shipwrecks & Their Cargos in the Philippines" by Dr Eusebio Dizon), and radio interviews (e.g. "Archaeology in Singapore", illicit trade of Angkor Wat antiquities on eBay).
This website may be useful to students and he general public interested in the archaeology of Southeast Asia, though the presence of some broader themes may attract a wider audience.
This website describes the wreck of the Saint Michael (or St Mikael), a three-masted 'galliot' sunk in 1747 off the south-west coast of Finland, which was rediscovered in the late 1950s, prompting several archaeological diving expeditions to learn more about the ship and its cargo. To date, over 600 items have been recovered from the wreck and extensive recording has been undertaken to fully document its structure and condition. The most recent fieldwork - two seasons over 1997 and 1998 - was undertaken by the Maritime Museum of Finland. The website provides information on the ship's background and some of the items found among the wreck. Links are provided to the relevant websites at the Maritime Museum of Finland and the Finnish National Board of Antiquities.
Strandingsmuseum St. George is a Danish maritime museum, focussing on life on the west coast of Jutland, and artefacts from shipwrecks, including that of two 19th Century Royal Navy ships, HMS 'St. George' and HMS 'Defence'. The site comprises information on the museum, such as its collections and visitor information; the wreck of HMS 'St. George', including a map, a history of the shipwreck, wreck salvage and exploration, and a bibliography; and the Centre of Marine Archaeology, containing an alphabetical listing of the positions of approximately 1,000 wrecks in the North Sea. The website is available in English, Danish, and German.
This is an e-mail discussion list concerned with underwater archaeology. Information is provided on subscribing to the email discussion list. The site also contains links to the SubArch Archives at Arizona State University, which are grouped by month and sorted by thread. It is possible to search the archives. The site contains advertising.
The single-page website "Submerged Forest and Old Ship Remains in the Solent" addresses the work undertaken on the timbers discovered by Don Bullivant and John Barber near Hayling Island in the Solent, just off the south coast of England. The timbers appear to be shaped artificially, suggesting they were part of a boat or ship, but radiocarbon dating has proved inconclusive regarding their date. However, radiocarbon analyses undertaken on other wood found in the area have yielded dates around 6,300 BC - suggesting these timbers belong to a long-submerged forest (one of the several so far discovered in the Solent). References is provided. Students in particular may find this website useful.
Part of the Nova Online series, this website was produced to compliment the television programme Sultan's Lost Treasure. The programme follows an expedition to recover thousands of porcelain and other artefacts from a centuries-old Chinese shipwreck off the coast of Brunei. Information onsite includes ancient Chinese explorers; Asia's undersea archaeology; Chinese porcelain; and a quiz which involves dating specific porcelain items and requires the Flash plug-in software. There are links to other sites, a transcript of the broadcast and resources for teachers.
This website published by Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service focuses on the marine heritage of Tasmania and includes sections on sealing, whaling and shipwrecks. Altogether around 1,000 vessels of all sizes are known to have been lost on the Tasmanian Coast, Australia, but the locations of less than ten percent of these shipwrecks are known. Ten historic shipwrecks that have been located are described here. The Historic Heritage Section of the Parks and Wildlife Service are responsible for the management of these wrecks and maintain this site. There is a small list of related books.
Published by the Texas Historical Commission (THC), this website contains information on the conservation of the Belle which sunk in Texas' Matagorda Bay in 1686; the Fort St. Louis Archaeological Project; and other excavations. The free newsletter "Current archeology in Texas" is available in PDF format; it contains illustrated and referenced preliminary reports on recent excavations carried out in Texas and news.
The Belle ship was part of an expedition of four ships and approximately 300 crewmen and colonists, which was led by the French explorer La Salle and sponsored by Louis XIV.
The 'Titanic: a special exhibit from Encyclopaedia Britannica' website presents a brief history of the 'Titanic', from its design through to events following the disaster is provided. There is a link to enter the exhibit, which contains information, with accompanying photographs, about the vessel, its construction, and on board facilities (particularly those for first class passengers). The website also has information on the Titanic's passengers; shipowner (J.P. Morgan); the Captain (E.J Smith); Mr Thomas Andrews; and crew members. Some of the artefacts discovered in the wreck, such as the ship's compass and the pedestal for the ship's wheel, and diagrams of the sinking of the vessel are also discussed on the Web pages. The site contains links to related websites and suggestions for further reading.
The Maritime Museum of the Atlantic has what is generally recognized as the world's finest collection of wooden artefacts from the Titanic. Halifax was the closest major port to the sinking. This page, part of the Museum's Research and Enquiries section, contains guides of information on the following subjects: Titanic: the Unsinkable Ship and Halifax; Titanic passenger and crew list; Titanic victims buried in Halifax; Titanic Remembered by Alan Ruffman: References and Credits; Titanic Frequently Asked Questions; and links to sites of further interest.
Traditional Navigation in the Western Pacific is an online adaptation of an article which first appeared in Expedition Magazine vol. 29 no. 3 (1987). The site is part of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology site; and focuses on the traditional navigation techniques developed and perfected by Caroline Islanders. The site includes maps of the Caroline Islands; discussions of the history of ocean voyaging in the Western Pacific; the use of 'star structure' as a compass; the teaching of navigational methods, schematic mapping, weather predictions; and a bibliography.
This is the websit of the Trireme Trust, which was formed in 1982 to investigate the design and performance of triremes, Greek warships of the classical and Hellenistic periods. It has achieved this primarily through sea trials involving the rowing of Olympias, the reconstruction of an ancient trireme built by the Hellenic Navy and Greek Ministry of Tourism. The Trust's website presents both pictures and information relating to Olympias as well as newsletters, details of press coverage, conference reports, texts of relevant academic articles and a bibliography. These pages may be of interest to scholars of ancient maritime history and archaeology.
This site has been compiled by the French Ministry of Culture and Communication and includes information about explorers, diving equipment, and exploration, examining shipwrecks around the French and other coasts. The site describes many aspects of underwater archaeology. From the home page the user can branch off into five subjects: the history of the discipline and its attendant technology; the techniques used; the exploration of current underwater archaeological sites; the organisations engaged in the discipline; and a separate section on La Grotte Cosquer (the Cosquer cave), a marine cave near Marseilles with some marvellous Neolithic paintings (including some charming penguins). Each of these sub-sections is further divided, so that "techniques", for example, offers a wealth of information on exploration, robotic submersibles, diving equipment of various types, conservation, restoration, carbon dating, dendrochronology, radiography, and other topics, while "Research Teams" offers links to research institutes, laboratories and museums.Analyses of a number of underwater sites (predominantly shipwrecks) are provided, organised by geographical region. Clickable maps give access to pages describing the sites and artefacts recovered from them. Each site has a page with photographs of finds and links to more detailed bibliographical information. The site is smartly presented and available in English, French, and Arabic. It is designed to appeal to the general user, although professional archaeologists should also find elements of the site useful.
This website is published by the University of the Balearic Islands and focuses on the prehistoric research in the region. The most important section is the "Publicaciones" one, which lists many recent publications (in Spanish and English primarily) and offers for most publications the option to download a free and full-text PDF version. Several papers are relevant to maritime archaeology and boats as well as ships are often featured. Some papers are relevant to the prehistory of navigation in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Persian Gulf (Egypt). The majority of papers however concentrate on all aspects of material culture in the Balearic Islands. Section "Investigación" publishes very short preliminary reports on some excavations in the islands, mainly a few figures, drawings and bibliography. One section collects doctoral theses (just one available at the time of review), which should mirror the topics of the publications. A special section focuses on the Puig de sa Morisca Archaeological Park and contains a PDF/Powerpoint report. This website may be useful to both students and researchers interested in the archaeology of the Balearic Islands as well as the broader theme of navigation in antiquity.
This German website has been designed by some professional divers involved in underwater archaeology. It offers some introductory texts, both in English and German, about underwater archaeology and shipwrecks. A few illustrated papers, in German only, are available under the section "Publikationen". It is possible to access a list of the papers and abstracts. It is possible then to download the full-text papers in PDF format from each abstract page. Subjects include archaeometric analyses on artefacts found on shipwrecks and concentrate on the Neolithic and Bronze Age of Central Europe. In addition, advice is provided to divers wishing to explore for themselves some of the shipwrecks.
The Submerged Resources Center is a division of the United States National Park Service (NPS). The Unit works to map, assess and preserve underwater cultural resources in the areas they cover. This work has included the USS 'Arizona' and 'Utah' sites at Pearl Harbor, a stabilization plan for the HMS 'Fowey' site in Biscayne National Park, and the surveying of historic shipwrecks in Dry Tortugas National Park. The website explains the importance of preservation and study of submerged cultural resources, with details of current NPS-SCRU projects and operations in National Parks. Shipwrecks in the latter include the Spanish galleon 'San Agustín', the steamship 'Cumberland', the package freighter 'Kamloops' and the clipper ship 'King Philip'. Some parts of the site are still under development.
This is the website of The Monitor Center, a facility that is being developed as part of the The Mariners' Museum (the US National maritime history museum). The site currently provides online exhibitions about the discovery and underwater archaeological recovery, conservation, related research and education programmes about the USS Monitor and artifacts from this ironclad battleship of the American Civil War. The Monitor and the Virginia (of the Confederate navy) fought a pounding battle near Newport News on March 9, 1862. It was the first clash of wooden ships armoured with steel plates to repel cannon balls. Most historians consider the four-hour battle a draw. Later that year the Monitor sank 16 miles off the American coast. A joint Navy and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration team (NOAA) has raised the Monitor's turret and other parts. The Mariners' Museum in Newport News has custody of these and other Monitor artifacts. Several parts of the Virginia (which sank in May 1862) survive in museums, including dented armour and the ship's wheel at the Mariners' Museum. There are images and logs from the archaeological excavations by the NOAA.
Inaugurated in 1990, the Vasa Museum, Stockholm, Sweden is home to the 17th century warship Vasa, lost on her maiden voyage in 1628. The site contains information on the Museum and its permanent exhibitions, as well as information on the Vasa. This includes: the disaster; the salvage operation in 1961; why the Vasa sank; life on board; technical specifications; the Vasa sculptures; and the rig. Visitor information is also included, as are news items, details of exhibitions, staff contact details and links to related sites arranged by themes such as maritime archaeology, shipwrecks and tools. Visitor information is included. The site is available in English and Swedish.
The Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde is Denmark's museum for ships and shipping in prehistoric and medieval times. In collaboration with several other Danish museums, the Viking Ship Museum performs maritime archaeological investigations of ancient and medieval ship finds and maritime constructions along the Danish coasts and in Danish territorial waters. The Museum also houses Five original 11th-century Viking ships, excavated from Roskilde Fjord in 1962. The website includes information on the galleries and the boat collection, which houses Viking and Nordic vessels, including the five Skuldelev ships, with information on their discovery and excavation; information on the present reconstruction of a Viking longship at the museum, and the museum's collections, publications, and newsletter. Visitor information is included. The site is available in English, Danish, French and German; some pages are available in other languages as well.
This site focuses on the history of VOC ships wrecked during the years 1597 to 1800. VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie) was the Dutch East India Company, and the website includes information on approximately 600 shipwrecks. Information is arranged as Outward and Homeward Bound Voyages, and includes ship names and a brief history of each wreck. Some links exist to detailed histories of voyages, crew, and bibliographies. The site also comprises links to sites of further interest, and a list of sources. Some parts of the site are only available in Dutch.
Situated in the port town of Dover, the Museum collections cover the history of Dover from the Bronze Age to the present, covering the Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Medieval and Victorian periods and both World Wars. The museum is also the home of the Dover Bronze Age Boat and there is a section of the site which contains details of the boat's discovery, its history and the preservation and conservation work involved. The site also includes information about the collections and temporary exhibitions, education at the museum, museum news, details of other museums in Dover, and a details of local history books than can be supplied by mail order by the museum. Parts of the site are also available in French.
The maritime division of the Western Australian Museum is based in Fremantle; The Western Australian Maritime Museum provides exhibitions on Shipwrecks discovered off the Western Australian coast and Western Australia's Maritime endeavours. There are three sites: the new Maritime Museum, the Shipwreck Galleries, and the Submarine 'Ovens'. The new Museum has six themed galleries: the Indian Ocean Tin Canoe to Australia II; Fremantle and the Swan River; Hooked on Fishing; Cargoes; and Naval Defence. The Shipwreck Galleries feature: early exploration and shipwrecks as early as the 17th Century, including original timbers from the Dutch VOC ship the 'Batavia', wrecked in 1629.
The website "Western Australian Museum Department of Maritime Archaeology online databases" has made a number of databases available online. There are five databases in total: artefacts; bibliography; strangers on the shore (which contains records of all known European and Asian shipwrecks around Western Australia where survivors have had indigenous social contact); numismatics; and Western Australian shipwrecks. The last includes details of the names of the ships wrecked; date of loss; area in which the ship was wrecked; and whether the wreck has been found. The bibliographic listing gives information about 6,000 primary and secondary sources available in the museum library. Each of the databases is searchable, but they cannot currently be searched as an entire collection. All of the material relates to maritime history in Western Australia.
This website presents all the shipwrecks on the American Great Lakes that have been studied by the University of Wisconsin. The oldest shipwreck is the Niagara, a steamer launched in 1846 and wrecked ten years later. Most of the other shipwrecks date to the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The site provides maps and a catalogue of each ship, with details and numerous pictures. There is also a video gallery suitable for both narrowband and broadband, using Windows Media and Quicktime plug-ins. A search of newspaper articles for the later shipwrecks is available, but the articles themselves are not. A useful educational section on underwater archaeology, information on current research and a guide for divers to visit the shipwrecks complement the site. Readers are invited to ask any questions they may have to staff members. Overall the website is very useful as general introduction to underwater archaeology and many of its techniques. The documented shipwrecks provide much information on the maritime history of North America in the years of the shipwrecks. Since all the shipwrecks date to a period about one century long and have been found in a relatively small space, they also provide much information on that region of America between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It is possible to buy relevant publications from the website.
This website from The National Board of Antiquities Finland focuses on the Dutch ship 'Vrouw Maria' (Lady Mary), one of roughly 1,000 wrecks in the territorial waters of Finland. Sunk off the south-western coast of Finland in the autumn of 1771, the ship was heading from Amsterdam to St Petersburg with a cargo that, amongst other things, included works of art, such a Dutch paintings, which were bought by Empress Catherine the Great and Russian aristocrats. Although the wreck's rediscovery in 1999 by the 'Pro Vrouw Maria' society yielded immediate finds from the upper deck, including clay tobacco pipes and a metal ingot, no other exploration or excavation has been undertaken as yet due to the dangerous nature of the wreck. The website details the background surrounding the ship, the previous interest and research it generated and how the wreck and its cargo are important today for understanding trade and transport from a European perspective. The website explores in detail the finds from the wreck as well as the wreck itself together with its surroundings. The website also contains a small photo and drawing gallery.
This website, focusing on the archaeology of Sri Lanka, is part of Virtual Library Sri Lanka by Rohan Hettiarachchi. It is a collection of news and short articles (with variable quality), some illustrated and some hosted on other websites, on many aspects of ancient Sri Lanka. Topics covered by the articles include: prehistoric settlements; the earliest civilisations of Sri Lanka; the archaeological sites of Pallemalala and Walallawita; the ancient ports of Sri Lanka; the Chinese cultural presence and influence in Sri Lanka (Yapahuwa, ceramics, trade); clay stamp seals; moonstones; marine archaeology (including European shipwrecks); Dutch and Portuguese forts; and historical tsunamis. A separate page on heritage contains in a similar format numerous articles on ancient and historical art and architecture. There are references to myths and these are clearly evidenced. This website can be an excellent introduction to the archaeology of Sri Lanka for undergraduates or scholars unfamiliar with the region; there are some bibliographic references. Some of the articles penned by scholars may also be useful to researchers.
The Zea Harbour Project focuses on the ancient Zea Harbour in the Piraeus, Greece. The harbour with shipsheds at Zea is among the largest Classical architectural complexes; 196 Athenian triremes were based here. The project uses both land and marine excavation techniques and has investigated also another of the three harbours of Athens: Mounychia, which hosted 82 triremes. Section "publications" is only available to team members; section "ancient history" focuses on the trireme and the shipsheds by presenting the information in a timeline format from the naval program of Themistocles to the sack of the Piraeus by Sulla in 86 BC. Annual reports from 2000 are available in section "project"; the 2005 report contains a video of a 3D reconstruction of the triremes, shipsheds and harbour. The most recent information can be found in the "news" section. A page describes the excavation techniques employed by the team, including the enclosure system adopted to survey the waters of the harbour. There is a gallery of pictures; it also includes photographs of column drums from the area. Classical Athens owed much of its power and influence to its navy and this updated website explores the heart of it with its many pictures and texts. It is an important contribution to our understanding of ancient Greece.