This website focuses on Abu Hureyra, which is a site located in the Euphrates River Valley and was inhabited from ca. 11,500 to 7,000 years ago. It offers some of the data that was used to write the book 'Village on the Euphrates' by A.M.T. Moore, G.C. Hillman and A.J. Legge. It also provides an extensive bibliography. The founders of Abu Hureyra were hunters and gatherers, who began farming regularly around 11,000 years ago. The importance of this site cannot be overstated, as this is the first known place on Earth where farming was practised. In addition, Abu Hureyra was continuously inhabited for about 4,500 years. During this long period the climatic period of Pleistocene gave way to Holocene, very much changing the environment. Abu Hureyra is a fundamental site for social studies addressing the change from a nomadic to settled community and for long term studies of ancient economics, an invaluable source of information for further understanding of human adaptation to environmental change, and crucial to any study on the origins and early development of farming. This resource barely introduces the site, but does contains many tables of data, available in Word, RTF and Excel format. The tables include the levels taken, which can be plotted on a map; burials; and a list of stone tools. Since the interpretation of Abu Hureyra relies heavily on scientific analyses, especially of organic remains, only a specialist audience can understand most of the findings, which are available in print only. However, the list of burials and stone tools can be of great value to research into the society and economy of Abu Hureyra, and will complement the printed publications. The raw data published on this website are aimed at experienced researchers.
This website publishes a series of articles on Pre-Hispanic fisheries; pre-Hispanic earthworks and raised field agriculture in Bolivia by Clark Erickson. All articles have a few pictures and a bibliography. The most useful page for an academic audience is the one containing the full-text digital editions in PDF format of most papers (most in English and only a few in Spanish) published by the author, focusing on the ancient landscape of Bolivia; raised field agriculture; fisheries; and pre-Columbian roads. Students should note that this website presents the work of a single scholar rather than a broader investigation of a specific topic. This website may be useful for both students and researchers.
This is the website of the ArchAtlas project which aims to provide a visual chronological and spatial atlas of major socio-economic processes in early antiquity such as the origins of farming, trade routes, and the growth of urbanism. The project was founded by Prof. Andrew Sherratt to test World Systems theory models. The website uses GIS techniques to integrate georeferenced information on archaeological sites and exchange routes with environmental data and satellite imagery. The website publishes a series of illustrated case studies; several low resolution 3D (VRML) virtual worlds; a few QuickTime panoramas; and some illustrated articles on the use of GIS in archaeology. It is possible to export to Google Earth and NASA WorldWind some datasets. This website may be useful primarily to researchers interested on world systems theory and can be used by lecturers in teaching.
This is the website of the exhibition "Céréales en Égypte ancienne" (cereals in ancient Egypt) organised by the Agropolis Museum of Montpellier, the Ancient Egyptian Agriculture Museum of Cairo and the the University Paul Valéry Montpellier III. It is written in French, but an English version was being prepared at the time of review. The website publishes several illustrated articles on all uses and archaeological evidence of cereals in Egypt. All stages of the preparation of bread are presented, from plantation of seeds to the production and consumption of bread. Many ancient Egyptian social ranks, from pharaoh to farmer, are investigated to determine their role in the production and storage of bread, which were controlled by the pharaoh. In addition, the website explores the role of bread in religion and its use during rituals and ceremonies. The many pictures can also facilitate an iconographic study of bread in ancient culture. The website also integrates another section, originally prepared for a separate exhibition focusing on traditional methods of bread-making in Egypt. To some extent, bread-making has been a ritual unchanged throughout the millennia and the anthropological perspective offers a very good comparison. The preparation of bread in the Nile Delta and Upper Egypt is also presented in some detail, with an interesting page detailing bread-making at Mârî Girgis. This website may be useful especially to students.
The 'Dumbarton Oaks' website is the home page of the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, a respected institution based in Washington, which possesses significant research collections in Byzantine Studies, Pre-Columbian art and the history of landscape architecture. Containing guidance to the building, collections, research, and publications of the institution, this useful website also aims to improve access to the publications of the Dumbarton Oaks institution by providing free online versions of many works in its specialist fields. Not only a useful guide to the institution itself, this website is also an extremely useful source of many full-text articles previously published concerning the history of Byzantium and the history and archaeology of pre-hispanic, particularly Maya, Central America. Information about fellowships, grants and stipends is offered on the site.
This is the official website of Eugenia Salza Prina Ricotti, an Italian architect who has published several popular articles and books on Roman archaeology. The website is easy to navigate and available both in Italian and English, but the Italian version includes more material. There is a short biography and several articles that may be of particular interest to students. The articles focus on: toys; fish (including the garum sauce) and pools; the Goths; the women of Mark Anthony (Marcus Antonius), Julius Caesar, and Octavian Augustus; Leptis Magna and Roman north Africa; Roman food and banquets; Villa Adriana (Hadrian's Villa); Egyptian, Greek, Persian and Roman gardens; the villa at Laurentinum of Pliny the Younger; architects in the classical world and Egypt. Some articles also contain a few illustrations. The most interesting articles are those on Villa Adriana, Leptis Magna and the gardens, where the field research carried out by the author is most evident. This website would be valuable to students of ancient Rome.
The website "Garden History Society" introduces this society which aims to promote the study of the history of gardening, landscape gardening and horticulture, promote the protection and conservation of historic parks, gardens and designed landscapes, and to advise on their restoration and encourage the creation of new parks, gardens and designed landscapes. The website provides many resources suitable for academics researching the history of gardens, but also interested members of the public. There are online indexes for the journal Garden History (some only available in the cumulative index in PDF format), with plans for digitisation of major articles. Newsletter contents are also available and the conservation reports for England and Wales, and Scotland contained within them available in html format. The Society publishes or has published on it behalf, a number of informative books, leaflets and reports. A list of these is available in a cumulative index and annual bibliographies of titles relating to garden history are available. Both are in PDF format. The links page provides a list of websites relevant to Garden History. Useful for academics is the register of research (again a PDF file) that is intended as a guide to the research activities and interests of Members of the Society. It can be also printed off as a A5 booklet and contains useful information
The Gardens Archaeology Project Leverhulme research project between May 1989 and May 1992 resulted in a number of articles related to garden archaeology. These have been made available by the project director, Christopher Currie. The articles are largely concerned with the post-Medieval garden site at Castle Bromwich in the West Midlands.
'Jardins et Sites Historiques' (Gardens at Historic Sites) is a full-text ebook edited by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), selecting from papers presented at their conferences from 1971 to 1989. The 370-page illustrated volume is freely available online as a 25Mb PDF file. Not all papers in the book are in English, but many are. Among the English articles are: 'Special problems connected with the conservation of gardens of historical interest in Japan'; 'Ornamental plants in 16th and 17th century gardens'; 'The Aleksandrovsky garden in Moscow, a masterpiece of the 19th century'; 'Eclecticism in American gardens, 1870-1930'; 'Economics of the eighteenth-century landscape park'; and 'The influence of freemasonry on the layout and design of gardens in the eighteenth century', among others. The PDF is a "hard scan" of a printed book and contains no OCR text to copy and paste. This will be a worthwhile ebook for those interested in garden history.
This extensive Latin American prehistory web page is part of the eMuseum at the Minnesota State University. It describes the peoples and events of Mesoamerican prehistory from the first settlers to the Spanish conquest, covering the Aztecs, Incas, Maya, and other significant cultures. The main page links to short articles on themes such as: the peopling of Central and South America; big game hunting; the transition to domestication; the history of Latin American archaeology; and the arrival of the Spanish. There are menu pages for Mesoamerican and South American sites and cultures. These contain pages for each major group and for important archaeological sites associated with them. The pages are organised according to the traditional time periods of the region: preclassical, classical, and postclassical. Each page offers a brief overview of the history of its subject, accompanied by illustrations and a short bibliography. A 'technology and society' section contains information about calendars, sports and games, religion, farming, social structures, and other aspects of everyday life in Mesoamerican societies. The site provides a straightforward overview of Latin American history before the arrival of the Europeans, and is suited to school use or as a reference guide for those with no specialist knowledge of the field.
The Peatlands website has been produced by the Northern Irish Environmental and Heritage Service and focuses on a characteristic type of wetland in Northern Ireland. The website covers several themes encompassing both sciences and humanities. In addition to information about the formation of peatlands and the biodiversity living in such environment, the website also concentrates on archaeology; and the history of use of peatlands. The excellent preservation of organic materials in such environments makes peatlands an important source of archaeological data. In section "Archaeology" there are illustrated articles on studies and discoveries of pollen; pre-bog farming; timbers trackways; logboats; tombs; stone circles; bog bodies (e.g. Lindow man); and containers for bog butter. There are interactive maps with some information on several sites for field walls, trackways, logboats, tombs, stone circles and bog bodies.Section "Cultural" instead publishes a series of inspired references to the peatland environment in paintings, literature, sculpture, and songs. Section "History and uses of peat" focuses instead on the uses of peat since the Stone Age, including its use as fuel and for construction purposes.
This educational website targets the general public, schools, and undergraduate students and can be an excellent introduction to peatlands.
The website 'Centre for Environmental History and Policy' is the homepage of this multi-disciplinary, project focusing on the varied relationship between human society and environmental history, led by the Department of History at Stirling University and the School of History at St Andrews University. The current Centre is based upon the Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded Centre for Environmental History and the Centre or Environmental History and Policy funded by the Scottish Higher Education Council. In line with recent trends in the social and natural sciences, the Centre in Environmental History is pursuing interdisciplinary historical research in collaboration with disciplines already engaged in analysing past environmental change and human development to inform our current understanding of environmental issues. The Centre offers undergraduate and graduate courses. The site provides a list of research projects and details of the staff, researchers and associate members of the centre together with information on seminars, conferences and workshops organised by the research group. Current research projects include: 'Welcome to the Sahel'; 'A corpus of Scottish medieval parish churches'; and 'Hunting Forrests, Parks and Parkland in Scotland'. The section 'History Tomorrow' is created to ease commercial access to the expertise of University of Stirling scholarship. A useful page of links provides a guide to other institutions concerned with the history of environmental change, including the journal 'Environment and History'.
This webpage is an extensive illustrated summary report of the excavations at Tell Halula, Syria, by a Spanish archaeological mission. The settlement of Tell Halula has been founded during the Pre Pottery Neolithic B period (ca. 8700 years ago) and has been in use also during the Pre-Halaf and Halaf periods (until ca. 6700 years ago). The research carried out at the site has addressed issues of early monumental building; the construction of the first canals for irrigation; evidence of social stratification; emergence of cattle farming, agriculture and pottery. The version in Catalan should be preferred; a high resolution of the pictures is available by clicking on them. The 2006 preliminary report is available in Spanish only from the home page of the website as a PDF file.