This is the web page of the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (which builds on the earlier work of the AHRC Centre for the Evolutionary Analysis of Cultural Behaviour) a multi-disciplinary collaborative venture based at University College London, which aims to explore the nature, range and dynamics of human cultural evolution by bridging the traditional arts-science divide within archaeology and anthropology. Some 27 projects by a wide range of international experts are described in varying detail with extensive citation and abstracts of work published so far. There is an emphasis on biological methods and theories and how they relate to human subsistence and artefact usage. In addition there are profiles and contact details of the project members which a useful guide to the current field of evolutionary studies. News and details of conferences, seminars and workshops is also provided while the archive section provides an impressive bibliography and series of web-links on evolutionary theory. This resource is designed for students and researchers of world archaeology and anthropology, particularly those interested in overarching and generalising theories of evolutionary and cultural development. The project receives funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
This site, developed by Minnesota State University anthropology students, provides over 845 biographies of anthropologists and other scientists that have directly influenced the discipline in the past with new additions being added with time. Coverage is international in scope, not exclusively limited to any particular national tradition of anthropology.
This website contains about 850 biographical sketches of leading individuals who have worked within the fields of anthropology, archaeology, Egyptology and of ancient historians from the 17th century A.D. to the present. The resource is part of the University of Minnesota E Museum which has won numerous awards for website excellence from academic sources. Many of the biographies are accompanied by photographs of the subject together with short bibliographies of their major works. Also provided are suggestions for further reading and links to relevant institutional sites and Web resources. The site offers translations of the biographies in Spanish, German, French, Italian, Russian, Portuguese and Japanese. The main drawback is that the biographies appear to be written by many individuals and the overall editorial control is difficult to ascertain. However the resource contains a substantial volume of largely factual information and readers are able to offers commentary and criticism on the entries.Anthropology Biography Web will interest undergraduates and scholars studying the history of archaeology, anthropology and related disciplines, particularly, but not exclusively, those studying the Americas.
'Archaeology and Performance' is a forum for all those interested in exploring the archaeology and performance interface ('Can one study performance in all its manifestations - dance, music, theatre, feasting, processions, spectacle and ritual - archaeologically?'). Information is published here concerning events and articles that investigate the relationship between performance and archaeology in its broadest sense. Several conference papers addressing this relationship may be read at the site in PDF format. Archaeology and Performance began as a sub-site of the ESTATE website (Performance, Architecture & Location), an Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) funded Web project looking at urbanism, architecture, location and performance. It then moved to the Stanford University, Archaeology Center. The site is maintained by Dr. Alessandra Lopez y Royo, formerly Senior Visiting Fellow at the Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford, currently with the AHRB Research Centre for Cross-cultural Music and Dance Performance (SOAS, Roehampton, UniS).
A useful collection of illustrated academic papers on various aspects of Mesoamerican topics authored or assembled by archaeologist Lawrence Desmond, a Senior Research Fellow at the Peabody Museum of Harvard University. The papers, a number of which are multi-authored research reports, fall into two main areas of interest, namely, the use of ground penetrating radar and close-range photogrammetry at Mesoamerican archaeological sites, and early archaeological exploration in Mesoamerica from the Spanish conquest to the 19th century, particularly focusing on the work of 19th Augustus Le Plongeon and Alice Dixon who pioneered early archaeological, ethnographic and photographic work in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. There is also an excellent and judiciously chosen series of external links to websites on world archaeology, heritage and preservation, and archaeology and technology. Many of the papers are reproduced from academic journals and collected volumes but the resource also includes the full-text of the monograph 'A dream of Maya. Augustus and Alice Le Plongeon in nineteenth century Yucatan' (University of New Mexico Press, 1988) by Lawrence Desmond and Phyllis Messenger. While the immediate subject matter of this resource will appeal to students and researchers working in Mesoamerican archaeology, there is much here to interest a wider audience, both in the technical matters dealt with by the first group of papers and the historical content of the latter.
'AREA : Archives of European Archaeology' is a research network that aims to stimulate the study of the history of archaeology, as well as creating, preserving, and promoting archives of archaeological history. The organisation particularly seeks to understand the interrelations between the development of archaeology as a discipline and the development of national, cultural, and political identities. The website includes: descriptions of the major archives held at partner institutions across Europe; lists of the network's own publications, current and forthcoming; information on upcoming conferences; and an online database of archival fonds. The database follows the ISAD(G) norms set out by the International Council of Archives (ICA) for the description of archival fonds. The information recorded thus includes: the identity statement; the context area; the content and structure; the conditions of access and use area; along with information on allied materials and any extra notes. This interesting project should continue to grow, and the site will prove an essential resource for scholars working in this field.
The Arthur Evans archive website is part of the Oxford Digital Library and publishes the papers and drawings that Sir Arthur Evans, keeper of the Ashmolean Museum (1884-1908) left to the museum at his death. Many plans and other drawings of architectural structures are of great archaeological importance because they document the findings and contexts with greater detail than in the published plans. Several drawings of frescoes also document the original state of preservation and intermediate states of restoration of many frescoes that are otherwise known only in their restored state. Many drawings were authored by collaborators of Sir Arthur Evans. In addition to the palace of Knossos, they depict structures and artefacts found at Isopata; Zafer Papoura; Aghia Triadha; and Mycenae. The database can be browsed or searched and for each record it is given the original author, dimensions, eventual publication and other essential information. The quality of pictures is adequate for screen view and the handwritten texts can usually be read with ease; an interactive version that facilitates printing is available by clicking the "zoom" button. This is an essential website for any researcher studying Minoan Crete.
Assemblage is an ejournal of Archaeology published by graduate students. One aim of the journal is to give graduate students experience of publishing academic work; another aim is to present readers with stimulating articles relating to broad range of archaeological subjects. The journal carries articles from graduate students, established scholars and professional archaeologists. The first issue has been published in October 1996 and subsequent issues have appeared irregularly. Topics include prehistoric and Roman Britain; ancient Greece; theoretical archaeology; landscape archaeology; lithics; GIS; computerised 3D facial reconstruction; osteoarchaeology; Anglo-Saxon burials. Each issue, compiled by a different group of editors (and thus each has a different 'look and feel'), also includes reviews, information pages, and a selection of more light-hearted writings.
This website about the early excavations at Assos, Turkey, is part of the American magazine "Archaeology" and contains two illustrated articles: "The Assos Journals of Francis H. Bacon" and "Assos and Early AIA Excavations". The former article contains extracts from the journal of Francis H. Bacon dated from 1881 to 1883 and published in the issue of April 1974, while the latter article had already been published in the printed edition of Archaeology in April 1968. The articles also reference the excavations of Cyrene, Libya, by the Archaeological Institute of America (AIA); a few articles on modern and historical excavations at Cyrene can also be accessed from this website. Both articles are relevant to the history of archaeology and present a well documented case study for students.
This website outlines past and present German research projects and excavations in Assyria, particularly at Assur. There excavations began in 1903 with work sponsored by the Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft. A series of illustrated essays provides a guide to the excavations and an account of the history and archaeology of the archaeological site, including of the most recent work undertaken there by German archaeologists. The essays include "1903-1914: Assur - Das Herz eines Weltreiches" (1903-1914: Ashur, the heart of a world kingdom); "Wer baute die babylonische Arche?" (who built the Babylonian arch?); "Assur - eine altorientalische Großstadt" (Ashur, a town in the ancient Near East); and "Auf den Spuren assyrischer Gelehrsamkeit" (tracing back Assyrian sources). A separate website also publishes the preliminary reports of the recent excavations; most are available in both English and German, but the German version has more contents. This is largely a specialist, German language resource, which will interest researchers and teachers of Assyriology and related topics in the history and archaeology of the ancient Near East.
Since in foundation in 1932, the British School of Archaeology in Iraq (BSAI) has been the main institution in the United Kingdom responsible for organising archaeological fieldwork in Iraq, Mesopotamia, Syria and the Persian Gulf. The official website provides a concise guide to the activities and chief officers of the school as well as providing online version of its biannual newsletter from 1998 onwards and links to websites providing information on the impact of the 2003 war on the archaeological heritage of Iraq. The newsletter features summary accounts of excavations and research projects carried out by associates of the school, many accompanied by bibliographic references and hypertext links to contact addresses of individuals and institutions, as well as providing details of new publications and conferences. There is also a brief history of the school, a guide to the monographs and journals it publishes and a section outlining the research and excavation projects supported by BSAI grants. This resource is a very useful overview of the work of an important scholarly institution as well as providing an insight into the relationship between archaeology and politics in the contemporary Middle East.
This website publishes the free and full-text book "Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien" by Carl Richard Lepsius (1810-1884), which was published between 1849 and 1859 after an expedition to Egypt in the years 1842-1845 that had been funded by the King of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm IV. The book is published as a series of colour pictures of each page by the library of the Martin-Luther-Universität of Halle-Wittenberg in occasion of the 150th anniversary of its publication. In addition to the complete digital version of the 12 volumes of the actual book, there is also a short biography of Carl Richard Lepsius and technical information (in PDF format) about how the book has been digitised. The magnificently illustrated book may be of great interest to researchers in the history of archaeology and Egyptology and parts of it (especially the illustrations) are still valuable for archaeological research. This website is part of a larger project on Carl Richard Lepsius and has been partly funded by the Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft.
The Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük was first discovered in the late 1950s. It became famous due to the large size and dense occupation of the settlement, and the spectacular wall paintings and other art that was uncovered inside the houses. This website presents the results of investigations at Çatalhöyük since 1993. There is a wide variety of material in the website including detailed archive reports, newsletters, excavation diaries, an excavation database (searchable by unit number, feature number or by keyword from the discussion element of the database record), a forum, a searchable gallery of pictures, information on the project and practical information. The gallery of pictures includes photographs and illustrations of artefacts and architectural structures as well as photographs taken during the excavations. The site is well illustrated with photographs and line drawings. Various reconstructions are presented as images, VRML models and Quicktime panoramas.
Archaeoastronomy is the study of the astronomical practices, celestial lore, mythologies, religions and world-views of ancient cultures. Many monuments from early civilisations were astronomically aligned and this formed the basis of the discipline. However astronomy was also a fundamental factor in formulating calendar systems, in concepts of time and space, mathematics, counting systems and geometry, surveying and navigation. The Center for Archaeoastronomy is based at University of Maryland aims to advance research, education and public awareness of archaeoastronomy. It publishes the journal Archaeoastronomy and also an online quarterly newsletter called Archaeoastronomy & Ethnoastronomy News available through this website. The website provides a large number of links to other online sites concerned with archaeoastronomy as well as general archaeology, astronomy, the history of science and museums. There is also a substantial collection of books available for sale from the Centre. The website may interest primarily researchers.
The publication of 'Centuries of Darkness' by Peter James et al in 1991 provoked a stormy scholarly debate about the nature of the chronological frameworks used by archaeologists to study the Mediterranean and Near Eastern world in the second and first millennia BC. The discussion of the so-called Dark Ages between 1200 and 700 BC was especially controversial as it advocated a drastic downdating of many major historical events and archaeological horizons by several centuries. This website, published by several of the original authors in 2000, provides an interesting angle on the debate in the form of 100 reviews of the book and a sample of the responses made to the critics derived from a wide range of academic and popular publications. Also included is a series of frequently asked questions about the 'Centuries of darkness' debate in which the authors address many of the specific criticisms of their argument. A very useful page listing websites devoted to ancient chronological studies and details of other books by the authors complete the resource.
This resource is by no means an exhaustive guide to the debate about Bronze and Iron Age chronology in the Mediterranean and Near East and the authors' partisan position, which is rejected by the majority of contemporary archaeologists and historians working in the field, is clear throughout. Nonetheless, the website is a valuable source of bibliographic reference to publications on ancient chronology. It also provides important insights into the politics and polemics of scholarly discourse and the nature of academic authority. It will benefit in particular third-level students and researchers in archaeology and the Bronze Age history of the Near East.
The Champollion and Rosellini Egyptian Expeditions website published as part of the Oxford Digital Library is an important source of archival material on the early archaeological explorations of Egypt. The website contains several issues of Rosellini's "Monumenti dell'Egitto e della Nubia : disegnati dalla spedizione scientifico-letteraria toscana in Egitto : distribuiti in ordine di materie" (1832-1844) and Champollion's "Monuments de l'Egypte et de la Nubie" (1844-1899). The database can be browsed or searched and for each record it is given the original author, dimensions, eventual publication and other essential information. The quality of pictures is adequate for screen view and the printed texts can be read with ease; an interactive version that facilitates printing is available by clicking the "zoom" button. This is an important website for any researcher studying Egyptian and Nubian antiquities and especially the history of archaeological explorations.
"Chaos in Prehistory" is a speculative paper on the potential of Complexity Theory for the conceptual study of Palaeolithic Archaeology, authored by Roger Grace of the University of Essex. The paper was given at a conference at the University of Oslo in late 1991, but continues to be updated with recent text and graphics. The paper is divided into ten sections (plus a bibliography) and deals with the study of "nonlinear" (i.e. irregular) systems. Instead of reducing such complex systems to a regular cause-and-effect model, Grace argues we should attempt to deal with their irregular, chaotic and unpredictable behaviour. He states that rather than being random processes and dynamics, as is implied by the word 'chaos', such systems are based on regular patterns lying beneath the apparent disorder. The paper itself is mainly text, but is supported by several diagrams and illustrations. There is a separate chapter on Fractal Geometry offers full colour fractal images.
Comparative Archaeology is an online inter-regional approach to prehistoric culture change and communication. This website is dedicated to furthering the quick publication of archaeological information across continents, so that detailed comparisons can be made between large cultural regions. The website hosts a collection of reports, bulletins, abstracts and databases. Researchers are encouraged to test their work against the work reported on in this site. They are also asked to report their own findings for comparative purposes.
Complutum is an academic journal published by the University of Madrid. The journal has been published since 1991 and specialises in the archaeology of Iberia, Latin America and the Phoenicians. Some papers focus on theoretical issues or archaeological sciences (e.g. cave pollen). The journal publishes papers on Mediterranean societies dating from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age and pre-Columbian societies of America. Among the topics of several recent papers are archaeobotany (pollen analyses); long distance trade (e.g. askoi and Cypriot tripod in Iberia; Phoenician exchanges with Nubia); oldest writings from Iberia; the arrival of the first people in Latin America; and the Blue Nile survey (including pollen and archaeozoological analyses). The website contains indexes of all volumes and publishes online full text papers in PDF format after two years have been passed from their publication. Abstracts are available for all papers published since 2002. Most papers are in Spanish, only a few are in English or French.
'Cultures of Contact' is the website of a conference held at the Stanford Humanities Center, USA, in February 2006. It focussed on issues concerning ethics and globalization in archaeology. Details of the participants and abstracts of papers read are available on the website, and the full-text of most of the papers can be downloaded. (Users should note that the works are in a variety of digital formats: HTML, Word, Excel, PDF, etc.) The subjects of available papers include: the fourth millennium BC 'Uruk expansion' in Mesopotamian architecture; identity creation in Botswana; heritage management in the Portland Basin, where federal government and the Cowlitz and Chinook Nation tribes each assert some control of the territory; the destruction of cultural identity in the former Yugoslavia ('cultural genocide'); contacts between Phoenician colonisers and indigenous populations in the West Mediterranean; the colonial perception of Mesoamerica; interactions at the borders of the Roman Empire; the ethnoarchaeological museum at Benishangul-Gumuz (Ethiopia); Iceland; Northern Ireland; and the perception of Inca antiquity among the Saraguro people of Ecuador. There are also several papers on heritage management. The papers are of scholarly value, but this does not appear to be a homogenous collection: papers are clustered around a few separate topics. Several case studies present recent research across the world, but do not build into a unified discussion. Undergraduate students should exercise some caution in accessing this website as several papers are preliminary versions. Researchers (including postgraduate students), however, will find many interesting papers on a variety of topics.
The Description de l'Egypte digital collection is a fully digitised version of the 11 plate volumes and nine text volumes that make up the Description de l'Egypte, originally published between 1809 and 1822. This work was produced by the scholars and scientists accompanying Napoleon on his invasion of Egypt in 1798. Their task was to study the Egyptian civilisation in all its aspects. Over 150 scholars, together with 2000 professional artists and technicians, eventually collaborated to produce the Description de l'Egypte, a massive work of both text and illustrations that attempted to inventory Egyptian topography, flora and fauna, ancient and modern monuments, and peoples and customs.
The website provides access to scanned images of the first edition ("Imperial edition"), which is divided into three main themes: antiquities; the modern state; and natural history. Users can browse through the volumes as thumbnails or in page-turning format, and zoom features allow for a closer look at the text or any of the over 3000 impressively detailed illustrations. In addition, search tools allow users to search by keyword or by browsing an index of terms. The website is accessible in both English and French, though the text of the volumes is entirely in French. This is an excellent resource for those interested in Egyptian history and civilisation, as well as for students and researchers concerned with European colonial history.
This is the official website of the Egypt Exploration Society, which was founded in 1882 as the "Egypt Exploration Fund" by Amelia Edwards. Several famous Egyptologists have worked for the Fund and Society since its inception, including Edouard Naville (first director of funded excavation); William Matthew Flinders Petrie; Howard Carter; Frances Llewellyn Griffith; Norman de Garis Davies; and many others. Excavated sites include Abydos; Tell el-Amarna; Nubia; Saqqara and Memphis. There is a fascinating article on the history of the society, which is a chapter of history of Egyptology by itself and basic illustrated articles on several projects carried out by the Society. It is possible to join the Society through the website, obtain information about its publications and browse events and conferences of interest to the members. The newsletter of the Society is available freely in PDF format.
The Ricardo A Caminos Memorial Library is reserved to members, but other scholars are welcome to apply for access. The full catalogue is online and is searchable. The website also provides contact details, information on the Society's archive (for materials from field projects) and updated information on the activities of the society. This website is an essential reference for many Egyptologists considering the importance of the Egypt Exploration Society.
Electronic Open Stacks is an online repository of old archaeological books provided by the University of Chicago Library. The Web page contains links to several full-text volumes in digital format. Most of the collection focuses on excavations and studies of Egyptian, Near East and Classical sites, but there are also some miscellaneous texts. Among the most important books are: the "Grammaire Egyptienne" by Champollion in its posthumous 1836 edition; the topographical dictionary of Rome by Platner; catalogues of mummies in the museum of Cairo; catalogues of Egyptian papyri conserved in Berlin; and a book on Hadrian's villa at Tivoli. All books have been scanned and are available as images preserving any illustration and the original layout. Apart from their historical value, the books publish fundamental archaeological excavations by pioneers and some are fundamental texts at the basis of our present knowledge. Experienced researchers only should use these books as they are outdated in some conclusions.
A handsomely planned and produced educational website to accompany the seven part PBS television series on evolution first broadcast in 2001 and based around Karl Zimmer's highly acclaimed book 'Evolution : The triumph of an ideal'. In addition to offering a guide to individual episodes of the television series, based around key themes such as Darwin and the history of the debate about evolution, evolutionary change, survival and extinction of animals, sex, human origins and religion (including video clip previews), there is an extensive library of hundreds of additional essays, images and weblinks to complement the contents of the broadcast series and an impressive glossary. Hypertext links are used throughout, though in a way which does not distract the reader from following a linear course through the text, though the website will make demands on your browser in the form of QuickTime or RealPlayer video plug-ins. The website is multi-layered and richly textured to appeal to a wide audience from the general public to college undergraduate level in a broad spectrum of studies from biology, biological anthropology, archaeology and the history of science and religion. It is also aimed at teachers in the form of an extensive series of FAQs and excellent educational and professional resources such as online lessons (with video clips from classroom situations) addressing issues raised by each programme. The fact that some of the educational aids address directly the on-going debate in the US between evolutionists and creationists adds an extra interest for readers from Europe interested in the relationship between science, religion and politics.
The website 'Gertrude Bell Archives' is the homepage of this special collection in the Newcastle University Library. Gertrude Bell (1868-1926) was an extraordinary traveller, diplomat, archaeologist and photographer in the Middle East in the late 19th and early 20th century and was instrumental in establishing both the modern state of Iraq and the Iraq Museum in Baghdad. This fascinating resource is an online edition of her letters, diaries and many photographs which provides a vivid insight both into her powerful personality and keen eye for surrounding details and into the world in which in which she lived. It illustrates in particular the formative period of the modern Middle East and the perception of the East by Victorian and Edwardian travellers. The resource includes her complete diaries from 1877 to 1919, letters from 1874 to 1926 and a large album of photographs from Bell's many travels around the world in the first quarter of the 20th century. The photographs, many of which have great archaeological and ethnographic interest, mainly reflect Bell's long association with the Middle East but also feature the Mediterranean and the Far East and for all contexts complement the diary entries and letters. Photographs have good description with precise information on their date taken, location, condition, or size. The books that beloged to Gertrude Bell's library are also at Newcastle but they are integrated in the library catalogue. There is much to interest those researching the political and cultural history of this period and for archaeologists interested in the early years of their discipline and the close relationship between archaeology, military intelligence and imperial politics.
This website by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is archiving scholarly publications on the excavations at Giza, a World Heritage site. Excavation diaries; historic glass plate expedition photographic negatives; object register books; maps; plans; sketches; unpublished notes; and academic papers are being converted to electronic form to create an integrated archive which is being made available over the Internet. Quicktime and other multimedia panoramas and online video walkthroughs give illustrations of Giza today. A new library section contains several ebooks in PDF format as well as many papers from the Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and newsletters. All publications by George Reisner on Giza are already available. The editors of the website aim to expand their library and are appealing for contributions. This website may be useful to any student, researcher or simple amateur of Egyptology.
Giza is a vast necropolis that housed hundreds of individual tombs of Egypt's governing elite during the Old Kingdom (Dynasties 4-6, about 2630-2250 BCE) as well as some of the most famous pyramids (those of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure) and the Great Sphinx.
This website is intended to provide an international focal point for information and discussion on the 'Harris Matrix' in archaeological studies. The website presents the history of the Harris Matrix and a section about Dr Edward Harris, its creator. There is a list of publications related to the use of the Harris Matrix, including commercial computer programs to draw Harris matrices. The website publishes also a valuable bibliography and some publications by Dr Harris. Although the website hypes the importance of the Harris Matrix field technique in contemporary excavations, it is rarely used nowadays, the method has historical importance. Undergraduate students may find this website useful.
This website published by the library of the University of Heidelberg contains a significant number of free and full-text e-books on archaeology; Egyptology; and modern languages literature. It is possible to access digitised manuscripts (Bibliotheca Palatina; Codices Salemitani; and Heidelberger Handschriften) as well as documents and books on the region of Heidelberg; incunabula; documents about the university of Heidelberg; geological writings; art history books (especially nineteenth century European art); archaeology (Minoan, Mycenaeans, Greeks, Romans, Etruscans, iconography, pottery) and Egyptology books; literature of South Asia; World War I archival documents; and other special documents preserved at the university. It is possible to search or browse through the documents and books, mostly written in German. Among the texts are the full-text edition of Arthur J. Evans' "The Palace of Minos" and other works by Evans; works by Adolf Furtwängler, Bernard de Montfaucon, Heinrich Schliemann, William M. Flinders Petrie, and John Ward; and Matthew A. Sherring's "The sacred city of the Hindus: an account of Benares in ancient and modern times". The list of available books is increasing. Since fundamental works of archaeology in the public domain can be accessed through this website, archaeologists at all stages may find this website useful.
The HMJ Underhill Archive, hosted by the Institute of Archaeology at Oxford University and archived by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS), consists of a digital collection of hand-painted glass (lantern) slides that depicted the "Megalithic Monuments of Great Britain," dating to 1897-5 and attributed to Henry Michael John Underhill. The Institute of Archaeology have digitised an important selection of Underhill's images and the online collection represents 78 hand-painted glass slides and 17 photographic glass lantern slides concerned with three topics: The Stone Circles of Britain (Stonehenge, Avebury, Stanton Drew and the Rollright Stones); The Roman Cities of Britain (Bath, Colchester, Silchester and Wroxeter); and Windmills.
A hypertext online tutorial by Brian Schwimmer of the University of Manitoba providing a detailed introduction to kinship, descent systems and social structure which will be useful to archaeologists who want to introduce anthropological theory and ethnographic data into their work. The hypertext medium also functions as an intellectual exercise in itself as the author argues that this method of presentation allows multi-layered and multi-structures approaches not possible in linear texts. In addition to the theoretical aspects of kinship and social structure, including discussions of marriage, residency systems and settlement patterns, Schwimmer provides six illustrated ethnographic case studies to illustrate the principles of kinship: the Akan of West Africa, the Igbo of Nigeria, Turkish peasant villagers, the Yanomamo of the Amazon, the Dani of New Guinea and the ancient Hebrews. The latter analyses the patriarchal narratives in the Old Testament and applies kinship terminology to relationships within ancient Israelite society. This tutorial is aimed at college level anthropology and social studies students but will also form a useful part of a archaeology undergraduate's toolbox of electronic study resources.
This is the website of "The Leakey Foundation", named after Dr. Louis Leakey, was established in 1968 to increase scientific knowledge and public understanding of human origins and evolution. The Foundation promotes a multidisciplinary approach to exploring human origins and awards grants totalling more than $600,000 annually for research exploring human evolution including research into the environments, archaeology and human palaeontology of the Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene; into the behaviour, morphology and ecology of the great apes and other primate species; and into the behavioural ecology of contemporary hunter-gatherers. The website offers information for grant applicants and a downloadable application form in PDF format. The website contains brief information about past and current projects funded by the Leakey Foundation, an audio archive of downloadable excerpts of interviews and lectures by pioneers of paleoanthropology, and a selection of educational resources. A timeline of important anthropological discoveries and projects gives a brief history of the science of anthropology. A visual glossary acts an illustrated dictionary of technical terminology. A reading list and collection of links point those interested in the field of paleoanthropology to other material of interest. The contribution of the Leakey family to the discovery and study of fossils of early humans cannot be understated and students will find here some essential historical information as well as interesting interactive and multimedia features. Grants and activities of the foundation will interest instead primarily researchers, who may also want to subscribe to the newsletter "DigDeeper".
The Microarchaeological Homepage is a website that presents an archaeological theory developed by a research group based at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Microarchaeology is based on Sartres' theory of serial action, Foucaults' "archaeology" and the structuration theory of Giddens. It is built upon poststructuralist theory and contains elements from constructionism. Microarchaeology aims to analyse structurating practices within small spatial and chronological boundaries. It examines material evidence for evidence of social activity, which is then interconnected to reconstruct past social realities set at a determined space and time (local). Microarchaeology is an alternative for analogical processes that reveal complex processes (global) by expanding the sociohistorical setting of the archaeological materials in a process known as "generalisation". There are four sections that are most interesting. These are a collection (publications) of free papers, doctoral dissertations, articles and ebooks, many of which are online versions of printed publications and in English. They are downloadable in PDF format. The "presentations" are mostly PowerPoint slides available in PDF format. The extensive bibliography (literature) may be helpful to find publications on themes such as microarchaeology, social theory, the body and social structuration of space. Finally, a section entitled "podcasting" permits to be kept updated of new developments via RSS files and receive voice recordings of seminars in MP3 format via podcasting. This website is a fundamental resource for researchers (and postgraduate students) of theoretical archaeology and social sciences, who can be informed of and eventually be involved in microarchaeology studies.
Population migration in the first century CE is a contentious, yet under-studied subject and this PDF document describes a series of AHRC-funded research workshops which brought scholars from across Europe together to “generate a much more sophisticated level of debate and a deeper level of understanding within this crucially important topic area of early European history”. Embracing both historical and archaeological approaches the workshops stressed - and embraced - the lack of academic consensus in the subject, “to encourage the airing and discussion of disagreement”. The document includes the programmes of each workshop.
The city of Nippur near Baghdad in modern Iraq was the most important religious centre of ancient Mesopotamian culture and the site has produced considerable quantities of archaeological artefacts from ca. 5000 BC until 800 AD, including many thousands of cuneiform writing tablets with Sumerian and Akkadian texts. This website describes the activities of the Oriental Institute of Chicago at Nippur and the nearby settlement of Umm al-Hafriyat since 1972, when excavations were resumed, in addition to outlining the wider research programme associated with these excavations. The resource consists of a series of annual reports produced between 1991 and 2003 as well as a number of articles reproduced from academic journals. These are accompanied by numerous high quality site plans and photographs which can be viewed at a number of scales. In addition to archaeological information, which will interest undergraduates and researchers alike, this website provides important insights into archaeological practice in the contemporary Middle East and the problems of excavation and research in a politically troubled area.
The Palestine Exploration Fund (PEQ) was established in 1865 to promote research into the archaeology, history, culture, topography, geology and natural sciences of the Holy Land and has been at the forefront of archaeological research in the modern Levant in recent times. It also published an academic journal, Palestine Exploration Quarterly. The official website offers a succinct guide to the society's various activities, facilities and publications, past and present, and provides details of its annual programme of lectures, grants for research and excavations in addition to supplying information on its executive committee and staff and on joining the PEQ. The brief guide to the history of the society provides a useful introduction to archaeological research in Israel and Palestine with concise, illustrated biographies of its numerous eminent associates, such as T.E. Lawrence, Leonard Woolley, Chales Warren, Flinders Petrie, John Garstang, Kathleen Kenyon and Olga Tufnell, in addition to short accounts of past archaeological campaigns. The PEQ's extensive archives, collections and library holdings are described together with information on how to contact curatorial staff. There is also a useful page of links to the webpages of relevant journals and archaeological institutions in the United Kingdom, United States and Middle East while the 'Features' section provides useful insights into various aspects of the archaeology and history of the Levant. This website, in addition to providing useful practical information on the PEQ, will benefit students and researchers interested in the history of early scientific research and travel in the Middle East and in the origins of contemporary attitudes to the culture and politics of this region.
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology (PIA), published by the University College London (UCL), is a full-text online journal publishing papers and articles on archaeology, museum studies, cultural heritage and conservation. Postgraduate students and early researchers are welcome to publish. The journal publishes several short articles on recent issues as well as short reports and a few reviews. Each issue also contains a few research papers on diverse topics. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
Pamela Jane Smith has organised at the University of Cambridge an annual seminar bringing together archaeologists that have contributed to the development of theoretical archaeology. Their memories are the basis for the "Personal histories in archaeology" seminar. The first seminar (2006) has brought together Colin Renfrew; Mike Schiffer; Ezra Zubrow; Graeme Barker; Robin Dennell; Rob Foley; Paul Mellars; and Marek Zvelebil discussing, or better, remembering "Processualism and the New Archaeology in the 1960s". The 2007 seminar (separate pages) has instead brought together Meg Conkey; Henrietta Moore; Ruth Tringham; and Alison Wylie discussing the beginnings of gendered analyses and postprocessual approaches. These seminars are an excellent occasion to hear some key thinkers in archaeological theory talk about the origins of theory and why it is still relevant to us. Both students and lecturers may find these seminars useful.
The 2006 seminar can be accessed as an MP4 or Real Media video only. The 2007 seminar is instead available as an audio recording (MP3) or a video (MP4 split in three files). All files are very large and require a modern player supporting the formats; interested people should preferably download the files before attempting to play them.
The Personal-Histories Project website publishes a few video recordings of scientific meetings at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research at Cambridge University. Senior scientists have been invited as part of the project to share their memories and life stories. Through their recollections it is possible to better understand twentieth-century science and the development of anthropology and archaeology. Among the archaeologists and anthropologists interviewed in the available videos are: Colin Renfrew, Mike Schiffer, Paul Mellars, Meg Conkey, Henrietta Moore, Alison Wylie, Richard Bradley, Chris Stringer, Meave Leakey and David Attenborough. Videos can be streamed online, downloaded, or accessed as audio only files. One video focuses on the history of human evolution research. Files are very large and require an updated browser to be accessed. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
The Piltdown Plot Project website provides a complete introduction to the famous Piltdown Man hoax. The website is almost wholly based on reproduced original texts that were published at the time of the hoax or subsequent investigations and analysis of the events. Navigation through the texts is based on eleven key headings. The first two sections of the site present an introduction together with a general historical survey dealing with the context and events surrounding the Piltdown hoax. The user can then move on to examine documents dealing with initial reports of the 'find' together with articles highlighting how the discovery of a 'missing link' was received. The remaining sections of the site then move on to deal with the exposure of the find as a hoax and to a detailed examination of the primary, secondary and tertiary suspects (using documents in terms of 'prosecution' and 'defence'). Despite a very basic layout and navigations system, the Piltdown Plot Project is notable for its extensive use of original material to tell the story of the Piltdown plot. The website begins with a series of pages that automatically refresh (cinematographic effect), leading eventually to the home page. Considering the amount of original texts available, this website is great for students, perhaps as readings for a seminar.
Sir Flinders Petrie's 1880/82 survey of the Giza plateau which included the Great Pyramid of Khufu and the relatively unknown Trial Site is probably the most detailed Egyptian study ever undertaken by a surveyor. This website presents the original 1883 edition of 'The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh' which is complete with all measurements and accounts of technical work, much of which was dropped in the later 1885 edition. The chapters of the book are available from the opening index as separate web pages and the associated illustrations may be accessed either from the index or from hyperlinks in the text. Links are provided to pages dealing with metrology and ancient Egyptian measuring systems and also to other sites devoted to metrology and ancient Egypt. Some measures have been updated with more recent data. This is a specialist resource for Egyptologists.
This website publishes a multimedia book entitled "ReConstructing and RePresenting dance: Exploring the dance/archaeology conjunction" by Alessandra Lopez y Royo. The book approaches dance from an archaeological perspective, combining case studies from Asian (especially Indian) performance practices with theoretical models developed for archaeology, semiotics and phenomenology. Lopez y Royo presents the cases of the text based bharatanrithyam dance devised by Padma Subrahmanyam and the odissi dance. It then introduces the choreographic effect of an artificial setting such as the built Central Javanese temple complex of Prambanan. The author makes a lengthy study of the importance of photography of dance for archaeology. In particular, the author notes that, "for dancers/choreographers, the act of becoming involved in the process of photographing their own dance, not as passive models, but as active subjects, becomes an extension of their choreography". Although Lopez y Royo concentrates on photography as a material medium of representation for dance, the website is thoroughly illustrated with both MP4 videos and still photographs. In the conclusive chapter of this book, there are some comments from readers, and the author invites readers to submit more comments, but no real conclusions of an admittedly difficult book. This is certainly not a descriptive book of dances or a comprehensive theoretical model applicable to dance by archaeologists. Rather, it is a series of intelligent chained thoughts on how archaeologists may approach dance, and especially how reconstructing and representing dance can be done in the contemporary world. In the words of the author, the key achievements of the book so far (there are regular updates) are that it "uncovers the political in accepted notions of dance heritage and questions the rhetoric of preservation of many dance heritage bodies". Archaeologists interested in theoretical models or semiotics may find this "interactive book" that is still being written useful.
"The Search for Tutankhamun" is a digital archive of the five seasons of excavation undertaken by Howard Carter between 1915 and 1922 in the Valley of the Kings, Egypt. The excavations were funded by the fifth Earl of Carnarvon (1866-1923) and resulted in the discovery of perhaps the most celebrated archaeological find of the past century: the tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun. The digital archive is derived from three main sources - Carter's excavation notebooks, photographs and maps. The original notebooks (held within the Griffith Institute and catalogued as Notebooks 'D' and 'E') are available here as scanned images for direct comparison with the transcribed text. The original excavation photographs are similarly available, whilst maps of the excavation area and surrounding tombs provide a geographical context. The archive is arranged in chronological order, from the first excavation season in 1915 through to the sixth in 1922. The notebook pages, containing observations and details of finds, are arranged in order corresponding to the excavation season to which they belong. The photographs and maps are similarly arranged, but are also provided separately in a complete gallery.
This website is the online publication of a Stanford University conference entitled "Seeing the past". Many of the papers presented at the conference can be accessed through this website. Topics of the papers include general papers on human sight, Neolithic Catalhoyuk, Mycenaean art, Neolithic Italy, Bulgaria, Mesoamerica and Classical archaeology. There are thematic papers focusing on the Lupanar at Pompeii, the Greek symposium and visual problems with the imagery used in virtual reconstructions and aerial archaeology. This website can be useful especially to researchers.
Signs - International Journal of Semiotics is an international peer-reviewed electronic journal based at the Royal School of Library and Information Service, Denmark. Interdisciplinary in orientation, its coverage spans all processes of cognition, communication, meaning and information interchange in which signs feature. This website contains information on its editorial board, submission guidelines, an essay on what Semiotics is, and links to relevant websites. The journal has published papers on the origins and meaning of sign-based forms of communication, looking both at biological organisms in general and specifically at the role of symbolism in humans. As a result, some papers may be useful to both students and researchers focusing on cognitive archaeology and symbolism during the Palaeolithic. Several published articles have been influenced by works by Charles Sanders Peirce. It publishes papers on an ongoing rather than a periodical basis, and viewers can access the full-text versions for free.
The Society for Historical Archaeology is the largest scholarly group concerned with the archaeology of the modern world (AD 1400 to present). Geographically the society emphasizes the New World, but also includes European exploration and settlement in Africa, Asia, and Oceania, which are also the focus of this website. The website provides: information on the Society and Society membership; publications by the society, including the contents and abstracts of their journal 'Historical Archaeology'; and a selection of bibliographies.
This is the official website of the Society of Antiquaries of London. The Society celebrates its 300th anniversary in 2009. The website contains information on the history of the Society (of importance for the history of archaeological research); it lists forthcoming events; and contains the online catalogue of the library. The website also lists publications by the Society and grants. Fellows of the Society can access a special area reserved to them.
The Stanford Journal of Archaeology (SJA) is an online periodical which aims to combine traditional peer reviewed paper publication with the potentialities of a Web-based medium and, according to its mission statement, is particularly aimed at encouraging publications by younger academics. The intellectual remit of the journal is broad and encompasses the theory, method and practice of archaeology and its related disciplines at a world scale, with particular emphasis on the intellectual and theoretical foundations of the subject and the relationship between ideology, politics and archaeological narratives. As in traditional printed journals, each article features an abstract, full-text and bibliography, which can be viewed as a web page or downloaded in PDF format. It is also possible to download a version of each issue published as single PDF file. Also included are submission guidelines for those wishing to send articles for consideration by the editors, who encourage the use of film and hypermedia as well as traditional linear text. At the time of review access it was possible only to access volume 1, 2 and 5. Some issues may not be accessible with a browser other than Microsoft Internet Explorer.
The Post Hole is a student-run journal edited at the Department of Archaeology, University of York. It is available as website or in PDF format. Contributions focus on local projects or research projects run by staff in the department; current news of interest related to the archaeology of the British Isles; and interviews with British archaeologists. There is an archive of past issues. The editors welcome contributions from students.
The antiquarian Thomas Bateman excavated more than 200 barrows in the Derbyshire and Staffordshire Peak District during the 19th century. This website presents Bateman's own account of his excavations of some of the 7th-century barrow burials. The material is extracted from his two books 'Vestiges of the Antiquities of Derbyshire' (1848) and 'Ten Years' Diggings' (1861). The website is an archived copy of an old website; all links are broken. To follow them from the index page, it is necessary to type in the address bar of the browser the last part of the link (e.g. "bintro.html").
This website describes the history of the Roman town of Caistor. Surviving Roman remains in Caistor St. Edmund show the development of the town during the period of the Roman occupation. Details of the town defences, as revealed by excavation, are given. The economic relationships of the town are discussed and its industries described. The website is illustrated with a map showing the location of Roman remains, plans of the Roman town at various phases in its history and reconstructed views of the Roman Town. The history of the current parish church is also briefly described. A bibliographic note (further information) concludes the short series of pages. The website may interest both students and researchers interested in the area or old excavations.
"Tutankhamun: anatomy of an excavation" is an attempt to bring together the vast amount of material that was generated by Howard Carter's excavations in the Valley of the Kings, between 1915 and 1922. It is hoped that the finds documentation, both photographs and records, can be presented in its original form via a searchable, online database. Currently available within the database is a considerable proportion of the 600 individual finds recovered from the excavations, the majority of which have accompanying photographs of the find itself and its associated record card (with digital transcript). A good idea of the richness and variety of the finds can be gained from the photographic corpus. In addition to the finds database, a separate image search facility allows the retrieval of photographic information only. Further information about the excavation is provided in the form of diaries from the various participants, including A.C. Mace, A.H. Gardiner and Howard Carter himself. Amongst the entries are accounts of the actual opening of the tomb. A full inventory of the material regarding the excavations is available in list form, and more material is likely to be added to the online archive as it becomes digitally available.
The War and Society from an Archaeological and Social Anthropological Perspective website describes a project centring on the following questions: what is war and how does it arise? How does war vary with social context? Is war an original feature of social practice or is it contact-governed due to the presence and interference of the state? Does warfare change character with the formation of the state? This project is being carried out by the departments of Prehistoric Archaeology, Ethnography and Social Anthropology at Aarhus University and concentrates on war and society in social anthropology and in European prehistory. The website establishes a theoretical framework within which these questions can be addressed. There is a collection of papers arising from the project and information on relevant conferences and publications. The website is currently accessible only via the Internet Archive and therefore some images and contents may not appear as intended.