The British Epigraphy Society was set up in 1996 with the objective of advancing archaeology and history education. They have a particular interest in the study of Greek, Roman or other texts, inscriptions and historical documents. The Society aims to raise the profile of epigraphy research within the British Isles and to improve communication between researchers. The British Epigraphy Society has connections with the Association Internationale d'Epigraphie Greque et Latine.The website of the British Epigraphy Society provides information on the aims, objectives and constitution of the society. Details are given of how to join the society. The strongest feature of the website is the news and future events sections. The newsletter of the Society, BES News, is available in PDF format, but contains no papers or scientific articles. There is also a section with proceedings of past events. The website also maintains a selection of links to other relevant sites.
The Celtic Inscribed Stones Project (CISP) is an AHRB-funded project based at University College London. The aim of the project is to study medieval Celtic inscriptions (Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Brittany, the Isle of Man, and parts of western England) in the period approximately 400-1100 CE. One objective is the creation of a database of all known inscriptions. The first version of the database is available online. The database contains records for each documented stone. Records include information about the site (description and references), stone, and inscription. Information provided about any given stone includes: history of discovery; dimensions, setting and location; form and condition; crosses and decorations; and folklore. Information provided about the inscription includes: readings (with references); date, incision, language (with linguistic notes); notes on palaeography and legibility; and references discussing names on the stone. The database can be browsed by an alphabetical index, site location, common name, and CISP code.
The Center for Epigraphical and Palaeological Studies site includes information about forthcoming events and courses (some of which are open to the general public) and offers several short-term post-doctoral fellowships in Greek and Latin epigraphy. The site (which is part of the Department of Greek and Latin at the Ohio State University) contains links to other related web-sites as well as images of inscriptions and manuscripts (ranging from Attic inscriptions to mediaeval Latin manuscripts). Unfortunately, as the site is still under construction most of these images are as yet unavailable, and so when one clicks on the images for Greek or Roman 'squeezes' (a plaster cast representation of an inscription) one is simply presented with a list of reference numbers. The dated Attic inscriptions do have pictures, but the images come without even the most basic commentary of what this inscription is, a reproduction of the text or translation, or the context in which it was found (all of which are essential). Reference numbers are provided so that one can look these inscriptions up in the relevant books which have all this pertinent information (but this defies the point of putting it on the web-site in the first place).
The Claros website is a computerised concordance of the editions of ancient Greek inscriptions aimed at making it easier for specialist epigraphers and more general linguists, archaeologists and classicists to locate new editions of epigraphic texts published in the last 100 years. The database, published by the Diccionario Griego-Espanõl at the Instituto de Filologia in Madrid, assembles all the concordances found at the end of epigraphical publications as well as providing some new concordances for volumes of the Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum and other corpora which were originally published without them. While not exhaustive, the selection of material in the database is impressive and, along with the large bibliography which is also included, will be a major resource for researchers in classics, archaeologists and related. The website is available in Spanish, English and French.
Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI) is an online collection of resources on cuneiform, the international writing system of the ancient Near East for thousands of years, in which were recorded historical, religious and administrative documents in a wide variety of languages including Sumerian, Akkadian (or Babylonian) and Hittite. The (CDLI) is an collaborative project led by the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin and the University of California at Los Angeles to create a digital record of the earliest horizon of cuneiform texts ca. 3300-2000 B.C. to facilitate research and cast further light on the origins of writing and of urban civilisation. The resource, published as two mirrored websites hosted by the project partners, consists of a series of inter-related databases of fourth and third millennia B.C. cuneiform texts, including proto-cuneiform, from a variety of institutions including the University of Leiden, the Hilprecht Collection and the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin. The databases include extensive glossaries of words and sign types and high resolution photographs of many of the writing tablets. Navigating the databases is sometimes confusing and the limited introductory material indicates that this a website for specialist in ancient Near Eastern languages and scripts. Bibliographic resources include the Gelb Library of over 10,000 references to scholarly works on the origins of writing and a special section on proto-cuneiform. The full-texts of several scholarly articles is also available, including one on the undeciphered script Proto-Elamite. Technical information on the digitisation process is also provided as is news about the on-going CDLI programme. This is a specialist resource will interest students of the Sumerian and Akkadian languages and archaeologists and cultural historians working on the origins of writing and administration in the Near East.
Cuneiform Digital Palaeography Project is the website of an interdisciplinary project which seeks to establish a detailed palaeography for the cuneiform script. Such a project has only recently become viable, thanks to technological advances that have made possible the digitisation of three-dimensional script. The project, based at the University of Birmingham and the British Museum, is centred on a database which consists of high-resolution images of each of the many cuneiform signs as they appear on clay tablets and other artefacts. The website explains the aims, objectives, and methodology of the project, and provides access to the database and other related materials. The database may be browsed or searched by: character instance; sign; or text vehicle. Each record specifies: the reigning king at the time of the inscription; the provenance; genre; medium; and vehicle (tablet, cone, or other artefact). The site also explains the related research being enabled by the construction of the database. This includes: the identification of particular scribal hands; the issue of wedge order (cuneiform being impressed by means of pyramidal wedges); and three-dimensional imaging techniques. The site explains the terminology of cuneiform and the components of cuneiform signs. There is also a publications list and a set of links to related web resources. This website provides an excellent example of the application of new technology to research and the dissemination of knowledge.
An attractively presented and illustrated online edition of some 19 Sumerian cuneiform documents from the collection of the Special Collections and Rare Books division of the Library of the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities. The resource consists of excellent, multi-scale photographs and concise but full descriptions of the inscriptions in addition to modern editions of the documents providing transliterations and translations of the Sumerian texts, as well as a short bibliography and a guide to the epigraphic conventions used by the editor. Most of the objects presented are clay tablets but the collection also features 2 clay foundation cones and a sealing. 16 are from the UR III period (late 3rd Millennium BC) and the remainder are royal decrees from the Old Babylonian phase of the Sumerian cities of Isin and Uruk in southern Iraq. Also provided is some background information on the nature and use of cuneiform and a small section of weblinks. This resource will benefit undergraduates and researchers in the archaeology and ancient history of the Near East and those interested in the development of writing systems.
This specialist resource is an online edition of Dr Nicolle Hirschfeld's 1996 book The PASP database for the uses of scripts on Cyprus (Minos Supplement 13) which aims in the long-term to provide a comprehensive account of all the ancient inscriptions and glyphs from Cyprus, whether on stone, clay or metal and coin. The people of the island of Cyprus employed a variety of writing systems to record their spoken languages in the Bronze and Iron Ages, including the syllabic Cypro-Minoan and Cypro-Classical scripts as well as alphabetic Greek and Phoenician letters. The current database includes Cypro-Minoan writings from the Late Bronze Age circa 1700-1000 BCE which record an undeciphered language (or languages) and the closely related Cypro-Classical script of the succeeding Iron Age which lasted down to the 3rd century BC when it was displaced by the Greek alphabet. Cypro-Classical was used to record both the local Greek dialect and an undeciphered tongue called Eteo-Cypriot. Phoenician and Roman inscriptions will be added in future editions of the database, in addition to the inscriptions in cuneiform, Egyptian and Ugaritic which have also been found in the island. The database is searchable by inscription number, object type, geographical context, nature and material and is prefaced by various instructions on how to use the data. This resource will benefit researchers in the ancient writings and scripts of the Mediterranean world, particularly those interested in the transmission of the alphabet to the Greek world and the interaction of cultures in the region in the Bronze and Iron Age, as well as more general students of Cypriot and Near Eastern archaeology.
The archaeological site of Deir el-Medina near the ancient city of Thebes in Egypt was home to the community of workers who constructed the royal tombs of the New Kingdom. This impressively organised and comprehensive resource, published by researchers at the Department of Near Eastern Studies of Leiden University, is a database of the extraordinary corpus of texts and artefacts which the site has yielded to archaeologists together with an exhaustive bibliography of relevant publications. The database, which at present comprises almost 3000 entries, is part of a larger Leiden University research project which intends to publish all the non-literary texts discovered at Deir el-Medina. Each inscription is catalogued according to its physical appearance, provenance (where known) and present location, contents (including useful keywords), dates and official Egyptian terminology, publication records, and scholarly commentary. Particularly useful is the introductory guide to the using the database which helps you navigate your way through the enormous corpus of papyri and ostraca from the settlement which have been scattered around dozens of worldwide institutions. Also included is an index to Cerny's seminal work 'A Community of workmen at Thebes in the Ramesside Period' (Cairo 1973) and a separate index of the inscribed objects from the site. This database will be an indispensable resource for specialist researchers and advanced students in Egyptology and related subjects.
The archaeological site of Ras Shamra is situated a few kilometres east of the Mediterranean coast of Syria, and constitutes the remains of the ancient city of Ugarit. This website documents the discovery of Ras Shamra and the early excavations. Ras Shamra produced a large number of artefacts some of which are displayed in a virtual museum on the website. The site also produced a number of texts inscribed on clay tablets. These are currently being examined and presented as high resolution images with transliterations and translations of the inscriptions.
EpiDoc : Epigraphic Documents in TEI XML is the website of an initiative which aims to develop rigorous standards and tools for the digital encoding and interchange of epigraphic documents by using the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and the conventions of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). This resource contains the home page and resources of the community of developers as well as the guidelines to produce structured markup of epigraphic texts in TEI encoding language (an "open source" digital format). The current guidelines (marked as "stable") and drafts of proposed ones ("snapshot") are available as an online document. This is a specialist resource which will benefit anyone planning or participating in digital epigraphic projects in addition to those interested in humanities computing.
Epidoc Aphrodisias Project (EPAPP) is the website which reports on a pilot collaborative scheme to develop and apply tools for publishing ancient Greek and Latin inscriptions on the Internet based on the principles of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). The Aphrodisias pilot scheme is concentrating on the digital publication of some 1000 inscriptions from the archaeologically rich site of Aphrodisias in Caria (south-western Turkey). The website includes a brief project description and four sample inscriptions and full critical apparatus based on the text of Charlotte Roueché's book Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity (1989). Background information and an extensive bibliography on the city and a history of past excavations are also provided within an efficient hypertext medium. In addition this website provides a searchable guide and links to the 93 projects currently using the TEI.
The project, funded by the Leverhulme Trust, is led by King's College London and includes the participation of: the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University; and the Institute of Classical Studies, University of London. While the substantive content of this website will chiefly be of value to specialist researchers in classical archaeology and epigraphy, this project has important implications for electronic publication in general and thus will interest a much wider audience in the humanities.
The Etruscan Texts Project (ETP) is a searchable online database of Etruscan inscriptions (of central Italy pre-200 BC) made public since 1990. The texts are divided into categories such as: Abecedaria; Boundary Markers; Construction Texts; Dedications; Didaskalia; Funerary Texts; Legal Texts; Other/Unclear Texts; Prohibitions; Proprietary Texts; Religious Text; and Signatures. Each category can be accessed from a menu or it is possible to browse all the inscriptions contained in the database. It is possible to search by keywords, location or historical date. The material on which inscriptions are written is recorded and therefore material types can be used as keyword. It is possible to email a copy of each inscription and a feature to help in printing the inscriptions is planned. The site provides for each inscription the name of the cataloguer and the possibility to email this person. However, cataloguers use nicknames and these appear in the pages displaying the records. By clicking on them, it is possible to reveal the real name and send an email. This unusual procedure may confuse part of the specialist readership intended for this website. The pages are neatly designed and access to the texts is very simple. The ETP corpus excludes inscriptions where only a few letters are readable and it is not possible to reconstruct any word. Also excluded are letters used as marks on ceramics.
The free and full-text online edition of the "Études épigraphiques" journal is published by the French School of Athens. At the time of review there were four issues available: "Inscriptions de Thessalie I. Les cités de la vallée de l’Enipeus"; "Corpus des inscriptions grecques d’Illyrie méridionale et d’Épire. I. Inscriptions d’Épidamne-Dyrrhachion et d’Apollonia"; and "Retour à la liberté. Libération et sauvetage des prisonniers en Grèce ancienne. Recueil d’inscriptions honorant des sauveteurs et analyse critique". These studies focus on Greek sites in Thessaly, Illyria and Epirus excavated by the French School of Athens and are final publications. More issues should appear online. The available issues may be useful to anyone interested in Greek epigraphy.
Ogham is a writing system used in the Celtic-speaking areas of the British Isles (Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, the Isle of Man and Devon) from the 5th to the 7th century AD. This resource, part of a commercial typographic website, provides a portal to a fascinating range of online pages concerned with the script, from research bibliographies, online texts and fonts to pagan and commercial links. The script consists of tally-like vertical or diagonal strokes arranged along an fixed axis and was mostly used for tomb inscriptions. Its origin has been ascribed to Greek and Germanic (runic) influence, but it most probably originated as a result of contact with Latin writing, which in British contexts often occurs alongside Ogham on inscriptions. So-called scholarly Ogham is also found in Irish mediaeval manuscripts and was apparently studied as late as the 17th century AD. As with other mysterious ancient scripts like Runic, it has been discovered in North America, and connections with Berber and Egyptian have been made by exponents of weirdo archaeology, as one of the links from this site observes. A sizeable number of the links are to commercial, New Age or Celtic-fringe sites which, while of limited or dubious academic value, are nonetheless of interest for their insights on the interest of archaeology and ancient scripts in the modern world. The editor, Michael Everson, is a commercial writing expert interested in developing high quality IT typographic tools and the parent site provides a much wider set of useful resources in this area.
Mount Testaccio, to the south of Rome, is an artificial hill located on the left bank of the river Tiber. Originally the site was used as a rubbish dump where amphorae coming from the provinces of the Roman Empire were deposited. Many of the amphorae still bear their stamps and painted inscriptions which reveal place of manufacture and the amphora tare and content. The personal names of traders and transporters can often also be deduced. This data makes Mount Testaccio the largest economic archive in the Roman Empire. A joint team from the Universities of Madrid and Barcelona collaborating with the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra of the University of Rome have carried out excavations on Mount Testaccio and this website presents the results arising from their finds. The website was established in conjunction with an exhibition mounted in Rome in January 1997. Photographs of the exhibits on show are present. A section of the site is dedicated to the history and changes Mount Testaccio has seen over the centuries. Some of the English translations available appear to be a little patchy but are comprehensible.
This website publishes the free and full text version of the final reports of the archaeological excavations at Delphi carried out by members of the French School of Athens. Delphi was considered by the ancient Greeks to be the centre of the world. Delphi was once the site of an oracle of the earth goddess Gaea. Later, Apollo substituted Gaea, after the Greek god defeated the monstrous serpent Python, which guarded Gaea, and expelled her from the sanctuary. Apollo was the main divinity worshipped at Delphi, but the sanctuary also honoured Dionysus. The sanctuary became famous for the oracle: it was believed that the word of the local sacerdotess, referred as Pythia, were the words of the god. The Pythia was very influential in the Greek world and because of this several wars were fought to control the town and the oracle. Recently scientists discovered in the area of the sanctuary a source of natural ethylene gas, which could have been responsible for the trance-like state of the sacerdotess and the vapours noted by ancient authors. A sacred way connected the sanctuary to the proper temple of Apollo and it was lined with treasuries that several Greek cities had offered to Apollo (those offered by Athens and Thebes are the subject of specific volumes). The Athens treasury contained a wall covered with inscriptions, including musically annotated hymns to Apollo, which are the subject of one of the available volumes. Several volumes focus also on Greek art and especially sculptures. Of particular importance is the "Charioteer of Delphi" (about 470 BC), a bronze cast of "Severe" style, which represents the passage from Archaic to Classical art (an entire monograph focus on this statue, and several more describe art works of Archaic period). Delphi was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.
Since Delphi is a fundamental archaeological site for the study of ancient Greece, this website may be useful to a broad range of scholars and students, from those seeking the picture of a particular monument or art work to anybody carrying out research on any subject (archaeology, classics and art history primarily) related to ancient Greece.
The web pages of The Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI) offers what is likely the most comprehensive collection of images, photographs and reproductions from Mesoamerican sites and artefacts available on the Internet. In an easy to use format, material is divided up into a series of major sections: The Linda Schele Drawings contains a catalogue of detailed drawings of glyphs and architectural features made by Linda Schele during her lifetime with accompanying descriptions and notations. Justin Kerr's "Maya Vase Database & Precolumbian Portfolio" brings together some of the most beautiful and rich photographs from the region using sophisticated photographing techniques to turn three-dimensional vessels into two-dimensional images. All of the image databases are accompanied by extensive documentation and complimented by excellent search utilities that aid the retrieval of photographs and reproductions. The results of research done in Mesoamerica financial backed by the foundation arm of FAMSI is disseminated through their website and include reports on a variety of archaeological and cultural features. They have also established the "Bibliografia Mesoamerica" which currently contains over 50,000 searchable bibliographic references. There are individual sections on the ancient American writings and several maps. While directed at the advanced student or scholar, the array of material contained within this site makes it an essential resource for anyone undertaking advanced research on Mesoamerican culture.
This website presents research on the geography of Roman Gaul, in particular on the south-west of the region, by Ralph Mathisen of the University of South Carolina. Locations are listed alphabetically, by ancient Roman province and modern Department, and by site type (such as settlements, sanctuaries, cemeteries, mines and quarries, bridges, aqueducts and roads etc), stages on ancient route maps such as the Antonine Itinerary, the Bordeaux Pilgrim and the Peutinger Table. Full bibliographic citations of each site are also provided. The site was last updated in 2002 and lacks a map of the region which reduces its utility to less experienced learners such as undergraduates, though this resource will benefit more knowledgeable researchers in the field of ancient history and classical archaeology.
"Hispania Epigraphica" is an online database publishing Roman inscriptions from Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal). For each inscription there is a picture; the transcription of the Latin text and the translation in Spanish. The database is searchable. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The Oriental Institute of Chicago has sponsored the preparation of the Chicago Hittite Dictionary since 1975, under the direction of Harry A. Hoffner, Hans G. Güterbock and, more recently, of Theo van den Hout. This website provides a brief introduction to the Hittite language together with annual reports of the Chicago Hittite Dictionary Project from 1992 to the present as well as technical information on the online version of the dictionary and the curriculum vitae (and publications) of the editors. The project was originally conceived to fill the need for a Hittite-English lexical tool and a concordance for lexicographical research for all parts of the corpus of Hittite texts. Even though the Hittite language has been a major subject of study since the first large scale excavations at Boghazköy in 1906 began to reveal the first examples of a corpus of texts which now numbers some 10,000 in total, scholars of this important language (the first Indo-European language to survive in written form) still have no comprehensive lexicon for research purposes. This website is a specialist research tool documenting the progress of an important project relevant to scholars of ancient IE languages and Near Eastern archaeology and ancient history.
This is the website of the Imagines Italicae Project, which is based at the Institute of Classical Studies in London, and which aims to produce a scholarly, contextual database of texts and inscriptions in Italic languages from central Italy with regard to both their epigraphic and their archaeological properties. This website provides an online guide to the aims and methods of the project and a sample of material from the database as well as information about the participants. Apart from chronicling the progress of the project, readers are encouraged to submit material for inclusion in the database or offer advice and suggestions regarding any aspect of the work, including problems raised by the editors. There is also a discussion group devoted to the languages and scripts of Central Italy other than Latin or Greek and a guide to references and conventions used by the editors. The final database will be an indispensable tool for ancient historians, archaeologists, epigraphists and linguists interested in the questions of literacy and social identity in the non-Latin speaking peoples of Italy. The project has received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council.
The Inscriptions of Israel/Palestine website aims to publish an electronic version of all inscriptions found in Israel dating from the Hellenistic period (ca. 330 BCE) to the Islamic Conquest (640 CE). A search engine allows users to access some 15,000 inscriptions, with searches possible for individual inscriptions or words, including proper names, occurring in one or more inscriptions. There is, however, no browse function, which makes general access to the site difficult without prior knowledge of sources. Ultimately users should be able to access detailed maps of every single archaeological site that contains inscriptions of the period concerned, as well as photographs of every inscription with a translation. The site also provides a bibliographic database and lists related links; links to some scholarly essays on epigraphy were broken at the time of last review.
The website 'Institut für Altegeschichte und Altertumskunde, Papyrologie und Epigraphik' is the homepage of the Department of Ancient History and Civilisations, Papyrology and Epigraphy at the University of Vienna. It is one of five departments and one institute which offer courses and special studies in history at this university. Founded in 1876, but with roots running back to 1850, the department lists affiliated faculty and researchers, along with their publications. Past, current and upcoming courses are posted, as well as online discussion forums and special talks and seminars. Some syllabi are available as downloads. The department lists the grants and funding bodies that support its students. There is a link to the department's special library collection, which features an online catalogue with a search function that will interest researchers. Catalogues for papyri and epigraphy can be downloaded directly. There is a good links list with bibliographical information.
The Internet Ancient History Resource Guide is produced by the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History of Europe at Ghent University (Belgium). Acting as starting point for searches on Ancient Greek or Roman topics, the Internet Ancient History Resource Guide is especially useful for novice web-surfers thanks to an introductory 'Getting Started' section. Pages listing annotated links to Internet resources for a range of topics including: epigraphy; papyrology; numismatics; cartography; and art and architecture; and archaeological/material sources are provided. Online reference works and tools, research fora and discussion groups, and teaching resources are also listed, together with listings of literature sources, including publishers' catalogues and library catalogues.
"L'aventure des écritures" is a French-language site that provides a detailed, multi-layered and richly illustrated introduction to the history of writing. There are three section: one dealing with the origin and diffusion of some 25 world writing systems from ca. 3300 B.C. to ca. 1200 A.D (Naissances); one introducing the various supports for writing (Matters and forms - Matière et formes); and the third introducing "the page" (La page) namely presenting the history of the printed paper and the book. The website reflects an exhibition at the BNF in 1999. Using a hypertext medium, the reader is guided through the history, mythology and cultural context of the world major writing systems: Cuneiform, Egyptian, Chinese, African and Pre-Columbian and related scripts. These are complemented by sections outlining theoretical and cultural aspects of writing systems such as signs and cryptography, the relationship between writing and speech, and the symbolic and religious associations of letters and scripts. In addition to the wide-ranging bibliography and glossary of terms, there is extensive citation of academic and literary reflections on writing. The related, and equally splendidly presented 'dossiers pédagogiques' deal with the physical aspects of writing, book making and printing from inscribed clay tablets to illuminated manuscripts to the CD-rom. The excellent education section provides a very useful resource for teachers at all levels of education though it will be particularly useful for schools. This website has a wide potential audience from the general public to students, teachers and researchers of archaeology, classics and ancient languages or else to those interested in e-publication and education.
The Mayan Epigraphic Database Project is an invaluable resource for anyone working on the linguistic aspects of Maya or Mesoamerican culture. Owned and co-ordinated by Rafael C. Alvardo at Princeton University, the site is described as an "experiment in network scholarship", and is especially directed towards academics or postgraduate students with a good familiarity with Mayan linguistics. The database catalogues and cross-references a wide range of classical Mayan writing (c. 300 CE - 900 CE), including glyphs, and phonetic and semantic characters based on the consensus agreements between Maya scholars. Material is easily and rapidly searchable by selecting the associated glyph-number or its equivalent phonetic value, and can display not only complete glyph forms but also list all known words containing a given phoneme. An exciting related programme is the development of a digital-text archive that recreates texts and inscriptions by substituting alphanumeric values for glyphs. This allows for much easier processing and analysing Mayan writings, but also aids decipherment by identifying patterns in the construction of the writings.
This website presents the work of the Canadian epigraphic mission at Xanthos and the nearby sanctuary of Letoon. The main goal of the mission is to find, photograph and report all epigraphic inscriptions of Hellenistic and Roman time in the region. A few short articles present the project; the final reports of each survey carried out since 2000 are available in sections "survey seasons" and "reports and publications" in PDF format; the reports are scans of the original papers published in "Anatolia Antiqua" and are available only in French. An extensive and updated bibliography is available in section "reports and publications". The "documentary data base" section contains the photographs of most of the inscriptions found; it is a work in progress with new data added as new inscriptions are found and studied. For each inscription there are a low resolution and a medium resolution picture; a short description of the stone and its context; dimensions; and publications. The inscriptions themselves are not available on this website, but most photographs are clear enough to be read by experienced epigraphists. The website publishes photographs of the original inscriptions as well as of "squeezes", impressions on paper of the inscriptions. There are also some simple colour maps of ancient Lycia and Xanthos, with all the excavated sectors emphasised. This website is an updated and useful complement to the publications on paper by the team and interested researchers should not overlook it.
The Nineveh Tablet Collection consists of two databases, one of joins of all cuneiform tablets from Nineveh, the other one of the Babylonian written tablets from the same site. It is a publication of the initial part of the British Museum's Ashurbanipal Library Project, which was focused on the Babylonian texts from Nineveh (Kouyunjik). It includes a clear introduction and updated bibliographies. The two databases open in new windows as popups. This is a very focused and spaecialist website that will be useful to researchers in Assyriology.
Nytt om runer: Meldingsblad om runeforskning (News about Runes: Bulletin of Runic Research) is an international journal on runic studies which is published annually by the Runic Archives at the University Museum of Cultural Heritage, University of Oslo and edited by James E. Knirk. The periodical contains articles and information about Norwegian runic inscriptions. The journal's website publishes news about scholarly research into runes prior to publication in the periodical. At the time of review included online versions of four issues (16-19, published 2003-2006). One of the strengths of the site is the publication of annual runic bibliographies (both forthcoming in the journal and as published). A separate bibliography concerning the esoteric use of runes in the modern world is also included. The remainder of the site includes: details of new finds of runic inscriptions, by year and by place; announcements of interest to runologists (including conference reports and runic fonts and databases); a short listing of centres for runic research; and contact details for a selection of runic scholars. The site is mainly in English with some articles and reports in Norwegian, Swedish, German and Danish.
'The Origins and Emergence of West-Semitic Alphabet Scripts' is dedicated to the ground-breaking work of two scholars, James Harris and Dann Hone, in deciphering a number of inscriptions found in the desert between the borders of Egypt, Israel and the Jordan. This resource traces earlier theories on and interpretations of this particular alphabet and provides images of a number of inscriptions with their transliteration in Hebrew. A third section of this site deals with the religious and cultural background of the texts, focusing on the rendering of the divine name in this script. Unfortunately, a bibliography on the subject is lacking in this resource.
This detailed website is devoted to the study of Ostia, the principal harbour of Imperial Rome. Detailed plans and descriptions are given for 52 of the buildings of Ostia Antica, and there are many photographs of the sites as they look now. Another section describes the history of the excavations, with links to other excavation reports available on the Internet. An extensive section on current research provides up-to-date scholarly reports, and there are also summaries of recent colloquia. Reference materials include an extensive but non-annotated bibliography, maps, plans, topographical indexes, and 3D models available only as pictures. A further section provides ancient textual sources of information on Ostia. Texts include passages from classical historians, inscriptions, and graffiti found on the buildings. Another section provides information on the relationship between Rome and Ostia and the significance of the town on the Tiber. This includes more general material on Mediterranean harbours and maritime history. The website also provides links to various other sites connected with the Soprintendenza of Ostia, Rome and Roman archaeology.
The Perseus Project is a large digital library of online texts and images for the study of ancient Greece and Rome. The resources available via Perseus are extensive, including the following: primary texts (in the original ancient Greek and Latin languages as well as English translation); secondary texts relating to various aspects of the ancient world; a set of linguistic tools; and a number of large databases relating to the study of ancient archaeological sites and artefacts. The art and archaeology section of the website offers a searchable collection of art objects, sites and buildings, with descriptions and images drawn from museums worldwide. It includes architecture, sculpture, coins and vases, and provides access to supporting tools such as atlases and encyclopaedias. The study of the classical world via Perseus is further enhanced by: an interactive atlas; an extensive encyclopaedia with embedded cross-references; and a series of overview articles. The site also offers several further collections of primary and secondary texts: papyri (from the Ptolematic and Roman periods); English Renaissance texts (including all of Marlowe's works, a facsimile of the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays and other resources); London (atlas from 1780 to the present, texts about London, photographs and other materials); books on California and the Upper Midwest from the Library of Congress American Memory Collection; and documents on the history of Tufts University. Mirror sites are available in Berlin and Chicago.
Based on the life's work and surviving archive of renowned Oxford epigrapher Lilian ('Anne') Jeffery (1915-1986), this online resource provides a major database and scholarly tool for the study of early Greek writing and literacy from circa 800-500 BC. Published by the University of Oxford's Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), the website provides information on thousands of inscriptions and their archaeological context as well as a biography of Jeffery by David Lewis reproduced from the Proceedings of the British Academy. The inscriptions can be searched by publication sequence, script types, letter form, site context, object type, region and sub region, and date range. Each entry is given an individual data sheet which includes detailed information about the inscriptions, as well as images, transcriptions and translations. There is also a series of maps showing the distribution of the inscriptions. Jeffery's book 'The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece' (first published in 1961) remains a seminal text for early Greek epigraphy but her archive contains a far larger collection of drawings, notes and supplementary material not included in the original publication or in the revised second edition edited by Alan Johnston in 1990. The archival material provided here is of considerable interest in expanding and elucidating the original publication.
This Italian website focusing on the Latin and Greek inscription known as "Res gestae Divi Augusti" (part of the "Monumentum Ancyranum") publishes a full catalogue of high definition pictures with some tools to improve readability. As part of the project, two sets of pictures separated by a decade will be published in an attempt to determine the degrade of the monumental inscription. Although entirely in Italian, the website is mainly a collection of pictures that can be easily browsed. The "Res gestae Divi Augusti" (Achievements of the Divine Augustus") is a funerary text written by the first Roman Emperor, Augustus and describing his life and achievements in triumphalistic tone. The surviving inscription is a later copy from Ancyra and it also has a Greek version. It is an essential text providing information on a key moment of Roman history. Most people will have heard of Augustus at school, at the cinema, or just visiting a Roman site: the source of what they heard is likely to be this inscription. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.
This small but neatly presented website relates to an important Roman military diploma found on a river bed in Croatia in 1997. Military diplomata, bronze documents testifying to the honourable discharge of a Roman soldier, survive in large numbers; few, however, are as well preserved as this, which dates from 71 AD. The text is beautifully preserved on both the inner and outer faces of the diploma, and the witnesses' seals survive beneath a removable wooden cover. The text provides interesting evidence for Roman activity in the then province of Pannonia, and constitutes the first written evidence of a town in the modern Slavonski Brod region. The English section of the website offers a series of good-quality photographs of the artefact with transcriptions of the text and some notes on its provenance and significance. The quality of both the diploma itself and of the Museum's presentation of it make this site worth a visit for anyone with an interest in Roman military history or this type of epigraphy.
This site, hosted by the National Library of Norway, provides a database and catalogue of the runic inscriptions found during excavations at Bryggen, the medieval wharf of Bergen. The intention of the project is to develop a schema for rune graphology. Each entry in the database is accompanied by an image of the item inscribed and a both a literal and normalised transcription while the catalogue is divided by inscription type. The images provided are of medium resolution but are clear. The catalogue and the database are linked, thus providing an integrated tool for the researcher. There is also a link to a useful online reprint of a 1998 which published the results of the project. This paper was first presented in Glasgow and provides a comprehensive overview of the project's development.
A useful educational and research website based around the small collection of cuneiform tablets held by the University of Minnesota Science Museum which provides a short guide to the history and culture of cuneiform script and political and economic administration in ancient Sumer (southern Iraq) over four thousand years ago. The core of the resource is a description of the physical form, provenance, date and context, and content of each of the dozen tablets owned by the museum accompanied by high quality photographs, viewable at a number of scales, of each object. The actual texts are published in transliteration and translation and mostly deal with administrative and religious matters. Most of the texts belong to the so-called Sumerian Renaissance of the UR III period circa 21st century BC and come from cities in southern Iraq but several others date from the Neo-Babylonian period of the 6th century BC and feature famous kings such as Nebuchadnezzar and Nabonidus. In addition there is a fascinating account of the formation of the collection by archaeologist and adventurer Edgar James Banks ('The forgotten Indiana Jones') who worked in the Middle East in the twilight years of the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the 20th century. This modest resource will particularly interest students and researchers of ancient Near Eastern studies but also forms an attractive introduction to cuneiform texts for the more general reader.
Sumerian is the name given to the agglutinative language spoken in southern Iraq in ancient times and written down in cuneiform script from the end of the 4th millennium BC onwards when it was used initially to record economic transactions and later literary and religious texts. This excellent website provides a substantial online guide to many aspects of Sumerian language, culture, history and archaeology including : a lexicon of logograms and compound words with an accompanying bibliography of works on Sumerian language and linguistics; a guide to the origin of the Sumerian proto-language; a note on the development of the cuneiform writing system from counters and tally stones used in early administrative systems; a useful series of FAQs pertaining to Sumerian language and culture; a map of Neolithic and Chalolithic sites in southern Iraq; a very extensive page of weblinks to online resources in Near Eastern studies. There is also a set of Sumerian proverbs providing the original cuneiform text, a transliteration and a translation into English. The lexicon can be downloaded in a variety of formats including Adobe Acrobat and Word 6 and much of the relevant software can be downloaded from the website. The resource also features a catalogue of books on Sumerian topics from Undena Publications which can be ordered from the site. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Near Eastern studies from the specialist linguist and epigraphist to undergraduates studying the history and archaeology of ancient Iraq.
Texas Notes provides access to full online texts of a fascinating collection of articles concerning Pre-Columbian art, architecture, and history. Begun in 1990 by epigrapher Linda Schele, the Texas Notes were a ground-breaking method of disseminating the continual advancements in the decipherment of Pre-Columbian material, coming from the Mesoamerica Center at the University of Texas in the early 1990s. Although some of these articles have now been made obsolete by further discoveries and greater understanding of the languages, these articles provide an intriguing record of the development of epigraphy and understanding in this field. Dealing primarily with Mayan inscriptions and glyphs, the Texas Notes also contain material relating to other Mesoamerican cultures of Central and South America. Hosted by the University of Texas at Austin, a prominent centre for the study of Latin America, and a product of their Center for the History of Ancient American Art and Culture, this is an accessible, although sometimes slow, site, which relies on the download of PDF files.
The page also links to other online publications from the Mesoamerica Center, and is part of the Center's larger online resource, giving information about its activities, staff, and a collection of gateways.
Tom Malzbender is an online collection of materials on the work of the scientist who has developed image-based relighting technology to enable scholars to decipher ancient texts. Malzbender's process captures images of three-dimensional objects - such as tablets - thereby helping scholars to read inscriptions that were previously invisible to the human eye. The site contains a short article about the technology, explaining in lay terms how it works and what it can do. There are also Quicktime films demonstrating how the process 'reads' a text. Some technical research data is also available.
Trismegistos is an online 'platform' or service which enables the cross-searching of a variety of projects dealing with metadata of published documents relating to the study of late period Egypt (roughly 800 BCE - 800 CE). The aim of this developing service is to overcome any barriers of language and discipline in the study of documents written not only in Greek, Latin, and Egyptian in its various scripts, but also in Aramaic, Carian, and other languages. In total it contains nearly 100,000 records. The basis of the online resource is a searchable database, of collections of papyrological and epigraphic texts by the Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections and the project Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in Graeco-Roman Egypt. The 'Leuven home page of papyrus collections' is a comprehensive and invaluable database of information on collections of papyrus and ostraca from the ancient Mediterranean world (circa 2000 B.C.- circa 500 A.D.) scattered in almost 30 countries and 350 institutions. It includes contact details and URLs of many of the scholars and institutions active in papyrological research. The database appears to be an on-going project and the level of detail and number of links listed for individual collections vary considerably. There is a straightforward keyword search but the collection can also be browsed by country of origin, by institution and, where known, by archive provenance. References to literary papyri are cross-linked with the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB), though this is not immediately apparent. Several useful sections describe and contextualise public and private archives in antiquity and describe how they have survived and come down to us in the modern world. Many of the entries on individual institutions also provide brief accounts of their collection history in addition to summaries of past and present research projects. This is a valuable resource, particularly as a gateway site, for researchers in archaeology and Egyptology, ancient history, classics and biblical studies who are interested in papyri and related materials.
This is the website of the US Epigraphy Project, which is based at Brown University and is devoted to information about Greek and Latin inscriptions which are preserved in the USA. The digital catalogue is based on the contents of the book Greek and Latin Inscriptions in the USA : A Checklist, written by J Bodel and S Tracy. The key feature of the online resource is a searchable database of these inscriptions. The user may browse by collection or publication, or by using a search form which has a range of fields including: language; place of origin; date; type of inscription; type of object; and type of material. Searches then produce an image of the inscription along with essential information (provenance, date, material and object type) and bibliographic details, along with the inscription's US epigraphy number. There is also a list of links to other epigraphy websites and relevant search engines.
The West Semitic Research Project at the University of Southern California's School of Religion, directed by Bruce Zuckerman, aims to facilitate the study of ancient texts by developing a database system using advanced photographic and computer imaging techniques. The project's website is intended for students, teachers and researchers and features both educational and scholarly sections. The educational section provides images and notes relating to non-biblical inscriptions and documents which assist in understanding the Bible; biblical manuscripts, represented by the Leningrad Codex; the Dead Sea Scrolls; and photographs and images from other collections and historic sites. The scholarly site is intended to make available high resolution images from the West Semitic Research project, particularly in the languages and scripts of Northwest Semitic. At the time of writing the database did not contain images, though catalogue records describing the language, script, type of object were available (and images may be obtained by application to the project). A related project, InscriptiFact, is building a database of high resolution images. Information (mainly lists) about other holdings is also available, with subjects including: Assyriological texts; Elephantine papyri; Syrus Siniaticus. Of particular interest to scholars working with digital images will be the Adobe Photoshop Scholar's Manual for working with digital inscriptions. Users must register with the site in order gain access to some of its resources.
This website outlines a series of three AHRC-funded research workshops which will bring together medieval studies scholars from a wide range of perspectives to discuss the inscriptions painted on Islamic and Christian medieval monuments in the Mediterranean world. Although the texts are, on occasion, well known and studied, this has been as reading matter, not as art - whereas the location, size and scripts use point to a variety of other non-literary uses. The first workshop ‘The Limits of Text - Ornament, Aesthetics, Legibility’ will approach texts as a decorative ornaments; the second ‘Memory and Performativity’ will consider their impact on the space and uses of the buildings; the third workshop will deal with multi-lingual and informal inscriptions.
The website "Vindolanda Tablets Online" is an excellent site which provides an online database of the Vindolanda Tablets found at the Vindolanda fortress near Hadrian's Wall dating from the first century of the common era. The site is extremely easy to navigate and features a help section. The database is intended to be used as a learning tool for teaching Latin and Classics at all levels; primary school (there is a link to the Latin course for primary schools, Minimus), A and AS levels, undergraduate, postgraduate and for research purposes. The website is based on the publication of three volumes of materials on the tablets, but obviously offers many more facilities than the printed form. There is a section on the background history to the fort of Vindolanda, where the tablets were found. The tablets provide information on the social, cultural, and military history of the fortress. There is an online exhibition of the tablets, which features sections on people, places, documents, reading the tablets, and forts and military life. An excellent reference section provides information about Roman systems of dates, measures, currencies, military units and ranks, and Roman nomenclature. The tablets themselves can be viewed individually, and through an image zooming viewer. The tablets are arranged as a fully searchable set of digital materials with information included that is related to the tablets. The texts of the tablets can be searched by document type, people, places, military terms, archaeology, and other terms. A comprehensive links page provides information on over 70 websites and a bibliography of printed material. The project is based within the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University and is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The initial capture of the digital images was supported by an Arts and Humanities Research Board grant.
Vindolanda is a Roman fort and civilian settlement lying just to the south of Hadrian's Wall. The Roman Army Museum, adjacent to the Roman site of Carvoran, 8 miles to the west, (one of the best preserved sections of the Wall), offers an insight into the garrisons of Hadrian's Wall. Roman Vindolanda and The Roman Army Museum are both part of the Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site. Presented in this website is essential visitor information and background to the museum and the Vindolanda Trust (that provides research, education and the public display of the monument and finds from the Vindolanda excavations) and the Trust's base in the country house of Chesterholm. There are also preliminary reports (news) of all the archaeological excavations carried out since 1997 (the most interesting section), a bookshop, tourist information and a growing Roman and general history links page.
This is the website of the Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, an international journal of Greek and Roman antiquity focusing on research into epigraphic and papyrological material. This resource provides a guide to the contents of the journal from 1967 to the present together with the digitised texts of articles from 2001-2004 which are available free of charge for private study (free volumes made available might vary from year to year). The indexes of most volumes can be browsed in PDF format. The reproduced articles are in German, English, French and Italian.Information on the print version of the journal is also provided, such as editorial advice for authors and subscription details.This website provides useful a bibliographic guide to publications in an important classics and ancient history journal for university students and researchers, particularly for those competent in European languages.