The Institute for European and Mediterranean Archaeology (IEMA) has been created in 2006 as a collaborative effort among several departments at the College of Arts and Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. The website provides information on the staff and their research projects as well as events sponsored by the institute. In the "research" page there are hyperlinks to laboratories available to the institute as well as journals published by its members, namely Arethusa; Discourse; and the Journal of World Anthropology. This website also publishes short illustrated summaries of several projects by members of the institute. Among the projects are a survey in the area of Galatas, Crete, which has identified a Neolithic settlement at Profitis Ilias Archalochori; a large Minoan building (60 x 16 m preserved); and 124 archaeological sites. The survey has also recognised an increase in population in the area in the Neopalatial period followed by a decrease and clustering at the end of the Late Minoan period. Another important project featured on the website is the Thy's Iron Age Project (TIA), which focuses on Iron Age and Early Medieval Denmark, for which some preliminary reports are available. Only scanty information is provided for other projects, which include the excavations at çadir Höyük and the Citadel of Nimrud Digital Project.
The Achaemenid or Persian empire dominated much of the modern Middle East and Central Asia from the 6th century BC down to its conquest by Alexander the Great in the 320s BC. It was characterised by vast linguistic and cultural diversity because of the many regions it absorbed. This predominantly French language website (with some German translations), produced by the Collège de France in association with the Ministère de l'Education nationale and the Ministère de la Recherche, is a major electronic resource for the study of the history, literature and archaeology of the Persian Empire and surrounding areas. The online resources include: the Journal of Achaemenid Studies and Researches (JASR); Achaemenid Research on Texts and Archaeology (ARTA); The Bulletin d'Histoire Achéménide, a major source of bibliographic information on recent Achaemenid studies; NABU, a series of scholarly papers; a major corpus of cuneiform Persian texts arranged by editor which will eventually be fully searchable by date, reign, find spot and text type. In addition, the site provides a rich mine of information on archaeological sites (with maps, plans and images and links to external websites), as well as corpora of Egyptian, Anatolian and Aramaic texts and sections on coinage and glyptic. Many of the texts can be easily navigated as Acrobat files and some of the papers require the ability to download large images. This is an indispensable source of information for advanced students and researchers working on the history and archaeology of the ancient Near East in the middle of the first millennium BC.
The Archaeology Data Service Library (ArchSearch) links and archives a wide range of publications relevant to the historic environment, including the full-texts of out of print research reports and occasional papers from the Council for British Archaeology, with a range of journal and individual titles (see the Library section). Many of the resources listed are on external websites. Most of the journals referenced provide full-text articles online, although a few provide only abstracts. Online bibliographies are also provided for several specialist areas of archaeological research. The Archaeology Data Service receives funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). This description is based upon that provided by the JISC Resource Guide for the Arts and Humanities.
This is the official website of the African Diaspora Archaeology Network (ADAN), edited by Chris Fennell of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It is organised as a portal providing access to the most important online resources available for the study of communities of displaced Africans across the globe. The website publishes a regular newsletter which is searchable using an internal search engine. There is an open forum for discussion of any topic relevant to the broad subject, and also used to communicate news of research. The Web Resources section offers a substantial list of annotated links to useful pages. Most of these are external links: however, the reader should note the page on African American archaeology and Caribbean archaeology, written by the editor of this website and hosted on another server of the same university. It contains links to a number of papers, and the graphics suggests it is part of this cross-domain website.
This is the web page of the AHRC Centre for the Evolution of Cultural Diversity (which builds on the earlier work of the AHRC Centre for the Evolutionary Analysis of Cultural Behaviour) a multi-disciplinary collaborative venture based at University College London, which aims to explore the nature, range and dynamics of human cultural evolution by bridging the traditional arts-science divide within archaeology and anthropology. Some 27 projects by a wide range of international experts are described in varying detail with extensive citation and abstracts of work published so far. There is an emphasis on biological methods and theories and how they relate to human subsistence and artefact usage. In addition there are profiles and contact details of the project members which a useful guide to the current field of evolutionary studies. News and details of conferences, seminars and workshops is also provided while the archive section provides an impressive bibliography and series of web-links on evolutionary theory. This resource is designed for students and researchers of world archaeology and anthropology, particularly those interested in overarching and generalising theories of evolutionary and cultural development. The project receives funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
The Anatolian Iron Age Ceramics (AIA) Project focuses on trade and exchange in Anatolia between 1200-200 BC by applying chemical and isotope characterisation analyses (INAA; ICP-MS; TIMS) to ceramics from several archaeological sites. The project runs from 2005 to 2009 and only a few data are available on this website. There are photographs and maps of the archaeological sites investigated, a short explanation of the methodologies employed by the researchers (including the scheme to assemble a "camera bucket" to take photographs in a light controlled environment) and a few posters in PowerPoint and PDF format. Further updates are due to appear as the project progresses. The website provides information about the developments of the project and contact details of the research team. This website may be useful to researchers studying Iron Age Anatolia or interested in the application of scientific analyses to ceramics. The project is funded by the Australian Research Council and the National Science Foundation (USA).
The Ancient Chinese Rice Archaeology Project website present searches for the earliest evidence of the use of rice in China. Several projects have involved archaeologists, geneticists, phytologists, taxonomists and palynologists on this topic. The project website provides an introduction to these studies. Dr Pei Anping has carried out all fieldwork required to find new evidence while Dr Bryan C. Gordon was in charge of collecting and dating important rice samples as well as translating the papers in English. The website includes: a gallery a pictures; a brief introduction with bibliography; and a large collection of papers available as HTML files. Most of the papers are available also in alternative formats, such as RTF. Results from the project suggest that the earliest rice cultivation was localised in areas flooded by the Yangtze River.
The "Ancient Civilization City-State Virtual Trip" website by the Taisei Corporation of Japan publishes a series of virtual reconstructions of major archaeological sites in the form of short movies. There is a short introduction to each movie and a short section on computer graphics. It is possible to watch the movies in chronological order, starting with Mesopotamian Ur, and then proceeding to the temple of Abū Sunbul (Egypt); Dholavira (Indus civilisation); the Athenian Acropolis; the tomb of the first emperor of the Qin Empire in China; the Colosseum in Rome; Venice; the Mongolian town of Karakorum and Aztec Tenochtitlan. All the movies are low quality and yet large downloads (QuickTime version preferable), and the audio commentary is available only in Japanese. However, the movies can be a nice introduction to some of the earliest civilisations for pupils and undergraduates.
This was one of the first attempts of using computer graphics in archaeology and it mixes reconstructions with real actors and Computer Generated Images (CGI). Each movie had been scripted with a storyboard like a cinema movie and there are examples of everyday life (e.g. Ur), architectural reconstructions with natural light effects (e.g. Abū Sunbul), progressive building of monuments (e.g. China); and animations of maps (e.g. Venice) that should prove useful example for students of virtual reality applications in archaeology.
The website 'Ancient economies I' is a series of illustrated essays on various aspects of the economy of the ancient world by Dr Morris Silver of the Economics Department, City College of New York. The essays, written from an explicitly formalist perspective, cover a wide range of topics of economic interest such as landholding, labour, exchange and coinage in ancient Egypt and the Near East, the biblical world and the pre-historic and classical Mediterranean. Archaeological, textual and iconographic evidence are employed throughout including extensive use of mythological material. The texts are based on Silver's 'Economic Structures of Antiquity' (Greenwood Press 1995) and 'Taking ancient mythology economically' (Brill 1992). The author's CV which accompanies the website provides a bibliography of his other works on the ancient economy. All of the textual evidence is translated from the original Sumerian, Akkadian, Ugaritic, Greek, Hebrew and Hittite sources. Extensive bibliographies are provided for a number of the essays and many of the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at full-size. While Silver's approach is fairly explicit throughout, the website is not intended to provide a disinterested account of the source material or of the wider intellectual debate. This resource will interest a wide audience of archaeologists and ancient historians at undergraduate and research level but will also benefit economic historians in search of historical and cross-cultural parallels for their work.
Ancient Egypt is an attractively produced and easy to use online learning resource for upper Key Stage 2 schoolchildren and their teachers produced by the British Museum Education Department. The website provides a thematic overview of ancient Egyptian civilisation in an interactive and hypertext medium with many high quality illustrations, maps and an A-Z glossary of terms. Each thematic section, covering topics such as geography, religion, everyday life, pyramids, temples, writing and trades, provides an overview of the subject together with didactic stories based on ancient Egyptian texts. The Challenge section aims at developing observational and analytical skills within the context of study. Teachers are provided with an excellent set of learning resources running parallel with the student material which include lesson plans, work sheets and suggestions for class discussion. The website is also ideal for home learning. Shockwave is required for some the applications but the software can be downloaded for free. While Ancient Egypt is aimed largely at a school audience, the resource may also benefit those who teach archaeology and Egyptology at other academic levels for its didactic insights.
The Ancient Greek World Web presentation is a virtual exhibition created by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. It deals with aspects of ancient Greek history and society from the sub-Mycenaean period to the Hellenistic period (c. 1100-31 BC). A section entitled 'Land and Time' gives a chronological overview of the history of the periods which are covered. Other sections cover the following broad topics: daily life; religion and death; and the economy. Each section is divided into several sub-sections and is illustrated using images of ancient Greek art (vase paintings, sculpture and coins); accompanying text provides important details about these artefacts. The site is well presented, and the images which are used to depict important aspects of ancient Greek life would be very useful particularly for those studying or presenting a variety of classical courses, who require easy access to the primary sources.
This website publishes the online version of the exhibition "Ancient Treasures and the Dead Sea Scrolls" held at the Canadian Museum of Civilization between 2003 and 2004. Through a series of short and illustrated articles, on all main topics related to the material culture in Israel during the First and Second Temple periods (ca. 1000 to 500 BC), the website presents the cultural context of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and not just the scrolls themselves. The menu activates itself by hovering the mouse over the table of contents, but the actual menu may appear anywhere in the page. The index appears a more practical way of navigating this website. Some audio commentaries and even entire lectures (for example check out "Women in the Dead Sea Scrolls" by Dr Eileen Schuller) are available in Real Media format. A useful bibliography is also available. This website may be useful especially to undergraduate students.
A useful educational resource, ancientmexico.com is an excellently illustrated website concerning Mesoamerican art, culture and archaeology. Originally focused purely on the Precolumbian Aztec culture of Mexico, it also includes sections on ancient Chile and Peru, incorporating information regarding the Inca and Mapuche indians. Beautifully constructed by Patrick Olivares, as an educational resource and a forum to demonstrate the skills of his web design company, ancientmexico.com is a relatively simple site with information primarily relevant to relative newcomers to Central American history. However, the excellent graphics and images make it an interesting, although sometimes slow, resource for anyone interested in this field. Particularly valuable is the map of the cities of Pre-Columbian Mexico which provides links to information regarding the specific locations and, in many cases, maps of the cities themselves. A useful time-line and good, although basic, slideshow of the invasion of Cortés and the conquistadors also feature in this site, whilst Olivares' list of sources, amongst which he particularly commends the National Geographic Magazine, provides a useful bibliography.
The University of Wisconsin-Madison library website has provided this digitised copy of the "Antiquities of Wisconsin", a monograph written by Increase Allen Lapham (1811-1875) in 1855. It is the final report of the archaeological excavations carried out by the Smithsonian Institution in Wisconsin. The monograph is outdated for what concerns the interpretation (the "concluding remarks"), but the chapters detailing several past excavations maintain their significance and value. The plates and wood engravings which illustrate this electronic edition are accessed through the contents page. An option to download this book as a PDF is available under "project notes". A link is provided to the new printed edition, which includes an introduction by Lapham scholar Robert P. Nurre, and a foreword by Wisconsin state archaeologist, Robert A. Birmingham.
This atlas of archaeological sites in the Aegean region is published by the Hellenic Ministry of the Aegean and University of Athens. The atlas includes most sites on or near the Aegean coast. The atlas provides information on many archaeological sites from the Neolithic to the late antiquity; for each site a short summary and a few pictures (click to view enlarged version in new window) are available. However, the atlas does not cover the entire regions of important civilisations such as the Mycenaean or Greek ones. For instance, large parts of the Peloponnesus are missing. Furthermore, at the time of this review the records of some maps (such as the one covering Thera) were unavailable. In spite of these problems, the atlas is a valuable tool for the general public and students up to undergraduate level, especially for culturally homogeneous regions such Crete and the Anatolian coast. The atlas can be accessed via the "overview of maps", which details the included regions. By clicking on any region, a map with clickable sites appears. It is possible to scroll the map and access any adjacent map in this way. The "maps" section just opens a random map. The "index of sites" provides a list of sites. The "archaeological sites" gives direct access to the first site in alphabetical order; it is possible to see all the sites in that order. There is also a glossary of terms and a "time chart".
Based on the research interests of Mesoamericanist Chris Beekman of the University of Colorado at Denver, this resource provides a useful overview to past and current research in the Jalisco province of modern Mexico by a variety of scholars. While the author's interest are presently concentrated on the Tequila valleys in the centre of the region, this site is intended to become a platform of Jalisco studies in general. The subject is usefully introduced by a link to an online essay on recent work in Jalisco from the journal Ancient Mesoamerica while a series of short essays, some illustrated, describes individual projects currently working in the region. These include studies of settlement patterns, burial customs, social complexity, ancient agriculture, and art, while there is also a link to a project attempting to establish a database of C14 dates for western and north-western Mesoamerica. Individual essays include links to the texts of various publications and lectures (or else to bibliographic references) and provide valuable additional material for students and researchers in this area of archaeology and anthropology.
The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) website is an online resource provided by this publicly funded office attached to the of the Indian Ministry of Culture. The ASI is charged with the exploration, excavation, preservation, and protection of monuments and sites in India designated of national or international importance. The website provides information on the activities of the ASI and short articles on the most important archaeological sites of India excavated in the past as well as news of recent discoveries and excavations. The website also includes some practical information for those who wish to visit the main sites. Some ASI publications are available for purchase through the site and users can also request additional information via a Web form. Recent additions to the site include the documentary Shahjahanabad, documenting one hundred years of history from 1850 to 1947 as viewed from the perspective of Delhi's Red Fort.
The website "Archaeology comes to the rescue of a 17th century shipwreck" is an attractive guide to the underwater archaeology of a 17th-century shipwreck on the north coast of the St. Lawrence estuary believed to be part of a fleet commanded by Sir William Phips' on his unsuccessful siege of Québec in 1690 during the intercolonial wars between New England and New France. The Anse aux Bouleaux wreck, named after the cove in which it was found in 1994, is the oldest in Québec and provides a wealth of information about 17th century ship-building in North America, as well as casting light on the day-to-day lives of mariners and soldiers in this period. The English and French language resource provides an account of the excavation from 1995 to 1997 together with information on the many artefacts recovered and their scientific conservation, key bibliographic references and a photo album. Some information is only available in French, such as the database of the artifacts.There is also an interactive didactic game for younger visitors which demonstrates the principles of underwater excavation. This website will benefit undergraduates and researchers in historic and maritime archaeology and provides much practical information on underwater techniques as well as the wider interpretative issues. It will also interest historians studying the colonial and military history of North American in the 17th century.
The "Archaeology in Greece Online" website is the product of a cooperation between the French School at Athens and the British School at Athens that publishes short reports on excavations and fieldwork from the Chronique des fouilles (in French) and Archaeological Reports (in English) series of printed publications. The website also lists recent unpublished conferences; its interface is in French, English and Greek. For each excavation compiled in this online database it is possible to access a map (integrated from Google Maps) showing its location. It is possible to search the database according to a series of parameters; in the "Help" section there is a video tutorial that illustrates the search options and the interface of the website. At the time of review only a limited number of reports was available, but it is expected that the number will grow. Of course, the two archaeological schools producing this website have access to unpublished and verified information that would be very difficult to access otherwise, and this makes this resource extremely valuable to researchers involved in archaeological research in the Aegean region. The reports cover all time periods and are usually produced using information coming from the directors of the reported excavations and covering a single year of work. Sometimes multiple reports are available for the same excavation and year if reports were sent to both publications; it is important also to note that the names of the archaeological sites vary in French and English reports (e.g. Cnossos and Knossos) and therefore searches by pre-defined regions should be preferred to keyword searches of toponyms. This website is a treat for researchers.
As part of the Welsh Heritage Assets Project the Welsh forests owned and managed by Forest Enterprise (Wales) have been mapped, recorded and visited. The forests contain over 7000 archaeological sites. These pages present the results for the areas surveyed by the Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust. There are pages describing the mines and quarries of North Wales, the deserted settlements, and the prehistoric monuments within these afforested areas. Each page is illustrated with maps showing major archaeological sites and with photographs of some of the monuments.
This website provides an introduction to the archaeology of the Yorkshire Wolds. Separate pages describe the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Romano-British, Anglo-Saxon and Viking, Medieval, Early Modern and Modern periods. It may be useful primarily to undergraduate students.
The website "Anglo-Scandinavian, Medieval and Post-Medieval Urban Occupation at 41Ã¢â‚¬â€œ49 Walmgate, York" presents the first publication of The Archaeology of York Web Series by the York Archaeological Trust. It is the final report on the excavations carried out between August and October 2000 in Walmgate, the industrial hub of medieval York. The excavations uncovered a complex sequence of buildings from Anglo-Scandinavian to modern times and much evidence for the daily life of the residents has been found. The excavations yielded many artefacts including: metalworking; food and drink; lamps; personal accessories; music, writing and trading equipment; weapons; pottery; building materials. Environmental evidence has been collected and analysed, and is summarised here. As well as presenting the historical and archaeological background to the site, a full bibliography, and discussions and conclusions arising from the excavations, the website makes available a full catalogue, accessible in the form of a database, which contains descriptions of about 4000 artefacts, 13 phases, over 600 photos and about 3000 context plans. The website uses SVG graphics and contains several illustrations.
This website publishes a collection of illustrated articles, each focusing on individual archaeological sites in Israel. Among the topics are Akko during the Crusader Kingdom; the Canaanite sites of Arad, Gezer, Hatzor and Nahal Refa'im; the Chalcolithic sites of Be'er Sheva , Golan, and Cave of the Treasure (metal hoard); Bethsaida (of Biblical fame); the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Carmel Caves; the Philistine settlements of Ekron and Tel Qasile; the Herodium; Jericho; Jerusalem; Masada; Megiddo; the Islamic Nimrod fortress; Qumran (settlement and Dead Sea Scrolls); a Roman boat from the Sea of Galilee; Shaar HaGolan (Neolithic figurines); Tiberias; Timna (copper mines and Hathor Temple); Zippori (Sepphoris); and several articles on recent discoveries and underwater archaeology. Many articles focus on Biblical archaeology, but there are also some on prehistoric, Roman, Islamic and Medieval archaeology. This website maybe useful especially to students considering the introductory character of the articles.
This website by amateur archaeologist Wolfgang M. Werner focuses on the archaeology of Baden-Württemberg, Germany and contains illustrated short reports written by experts (referenced at the bottom of texts) on recent excavations in the region. Many texts are available in both German and English, but the reader is cautioned that some English pages may be outdated. Among the many topics presented are the green house (Grüne Hof) found at Ulm; the settlement of Vaihingen - Enz with Linearbandkeramik (LBK); the Middle Age urban centre of Brandstatt; the Francs in the region; the Middle Age site of Offenburg; the Middle Age settlement of Vöhingen (a CD-ROM on this can be requested); the Alamannen in the region; the excavations in the Carmelite cloister of Esslingen; the Roman villa at Oberndorf-Bochingen; the Iron Age La Tène culture in the region; the Mesolithic sites of Rottenburg and Siebenlinden; underwater archaeology in the Bodensee; Bronze Age findings at Heilbronn-Klingenberg. Many of these short introductions are snippets copied from archaeological publications, but the site provides the benefit of aggregating unpublished information about recent discoveries. Often information about the excavators or hyperlinks to sources of further information are provided and make this website particularly useful to researchers, who may wish to remain updated on recent discoveries. Some of the hyperlinks contained in this Web page point to resources published in other websites (Heidengraben; Iron Age in Oberschwaben; the Roman villa at Mühlacker-Enzberg; Lauchheim; St. Jodocus at Konstanz); some are no longer available.
This is the official website of the Arctic Studies Center at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. The website publishes original research carried out by the centre on the anthropology, ethnography, history, and archaeology of Arctic people. The fascinating topic presented is the current life and past of the many Arctic populations. There are sections on the Ainu, who are probable descendants of the Jomon people of Japan (some artefacts presented date to about 3,000 years ago); the Alutiiq of northern Alaska, whose material culture dates back about 10,000 years, and for whom 3,000 sites have been identified; the Saami of northern Sweden, with their 7,000 year history; the Yamal of Russia; the Vikings and their seafaring expertise; the St. Lawrence gateways Project in Québec; and Mongolia and the Hovsgol Deer Stone project. All of these people, with exception of the Vikings, still exist today, and their cultures have preserved in contemporary times many aspects recognisable from ancient times. For this reason, the study of Arctic people is important not only to improve understanding of the cultures of this region, but also to provide ethnographic comparisons usable by archaeologists. The website also contains the newsletter published by the centre, and field reports. The reports are freely available in PDF format and are richly illustrated: readers should be aware that the files are very large. The website contains several multimedia features and needs popups not to be blocked. A search engine facilitates finding information across the site.
The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world's first great urban civilizations. The earliest cities became integrated into an extensive urban culture around 4,600 years ago and continued to dominate the region for at least 700 years. The slide collection is part of the larger Harappa website, whose goal is to make the archaeology of the Ancient Harappa culture more well known. There are also sections on the later Raj period in Pakistan and India, explored through modern media. The slide show was created by Dr Jonathan Mark Kenoyer from the University of Wisconsin. This website illustrates the sophistication of the civilisation with a collection of photographs of monuments, art works, jewellery and pottery. Each photograph has a paragraph of descriptive text and there is also an accompanying overarching essay which describes the growth and economy civilisation using thumbnails of the photographs as illustrations. The photographs can also be accessed from an index and can be emailed as postcards.
Archaeological excavations at the ancient Indus city of Harappa in Punjab, Pakistan, have been going on since 1986. The results of these excavations are rewriting our understanding of the ancient Indus Valley civilization. Harappa is the first ancient Indus city where it has been possible to document the transformation from a small village (founded ca. 3500 B.C.) to a great urban centre and to follow that transformation through a continuous sequence of archaeological deposits. This website presents a comprehensive general introduction to the ancient Indus Valley and a collection of 90 slides focussing particularly on the latest discoveries. The slides consist of maps and plans of Harappa, images from reconstruction models and photographs of artefacts.
This website focuses on the ancient site of Arslantepe, which was inhabited from the Chalcolithic period (fifth millennium BC) to the Roman period. The most important monuments date from the fourth millennium BC, when a Hittite palatial complex with painted walls, bronze weapons, seals, and written tablets had been built. A royal tomb and a temple are from the same period, when Arslantepe was capital of a small Hittite kingdom. Also important is the discovery of the third millennium BC fortified citadel. The sections of this website outline the geographic, historical (chronology) and cultural contexts. A few pictures document some findings now preserved at the local museum. Of particular interest is the section about research, which contains short articles on metalworking; formation of administrative systems; ceramics; bone tools; stone tools; and surveys carried out in the region. This website is thoroughly illustrated, but the content is not as extensive as one might wish: most texts are short introductions or overviews. Hence this site is likely to be of most use to students. The English version is updated after the Italian version and therefore readers are advised to check the Italian version first for contents.
Asianart.com is an online journal published by respected art historian Ian Alsop. It was among the first ejournals to harness the ability of web browsers to display images alongside analytical text. With over 50 online exhibitions, the website surpasses many traditional gallery spaces in sheer number of pieces on view. The holdings are especially good for Himalayan art, both by traditional artists and Western observers. Robert Powell's exquisite ink drawings of high Himalayan structures are well represented. The site is a known scholarly resource and has been the venue for important papers on Newar and Tibetan topics, which are published along with critical responses where these are appropriate. Of the site's various areas, the Articles, Exhibitions and Associations will be the most rewarding for scholars, though as with almost all art historical journals, the commercial element is also present in a listing of galleries.
This website presents an overview of archaeological finds from the Isle of Portland, a peninsula of the Dorset coast. The focus of the site is on the Mesolithic occupation of Portland. The particular significance of the Culverwell habitation site is described. The authors attempt to draw some conclusions as to the lifestyles of the settlers based on knowledge of the landscape, natural resources, climate, and artefacts uncovered. There are sections on Mesolithic buildings, food, clothing, economy, and population. A further section presents evidence of ritual practices and makes an attempt to explain the spiritual lives of early inhabitants. There is also a short bibliography, a list of links, and a page of forthcoming events (which was rather empty when checked).Despite its name, the Association for Portland Archaeology does not appear to be a membership organisation. Contact details are provided however, should anyone wish to find out more.
The BBC History website "Romans" examines the enduring traces of Roman rule (43-410 CE) to be found in Britain - the language, culture and the landscape. Aimed at students of all ages, this website complements recent BBC broadcasts and includes considerable contributions from presenters and producers for example: Roman military historian and associate producer of "Simon Schama's History of Britain", Dr Mike Ibeji asks what the careers of Roman soldiers reveal about life in Roman Britain; Lindsay Allason-Jones (University of Newcastle Upon Tyne) explores the lives of Romano-British women; Adam Hart Davis, presenter of "Local Heroes" asks "What did the Romans do for us?" Other topics include: Roman Empire (Andrew Wallace-Hadrill); Roman Amphitheatre (Kathleen Coleman); Pompeii: Its Discovery and Preservation (Salvatore Ciro Nappo). As well as numerous interpretative texts there are multimedia resources taking advantage of the Internet's versatility as a teaching/learning medium. These include: galleries of images of Hadrian's Wall and Roman mosaics; five FAQs about Roman Britain answered; audio dramas (with script) of the Boudiccan Rebellion in 60 CE; and an interactive 3D reconstruction of Housesteads fort on Hadrian's Wall circa 3rd Century CE. For earlier Internet browsers a text-only version is available for much of the content. The "Romans" site maintains the design of BBCi History - such as the links to History content from the left and top navigation bars (which also identifies which area of the site you are currently in). The search box allows you to search History and the rest of the BBCi website. The bottom navigation bar offers access to: the "reading room" (feature articles authored by prominent historians); the "multimedia zone" (interactive content - games, 3D reconstructions, animations, audio and video); "For kids" (content designed for both primary and secondary school ages); the "how to" section (that offers advice on local and family history, house history, and amateur archaeology).
The "Bible walks" website contains a series of illustrated articles outlining major places to visit at several Levantine archaeological sites that are mentioned in the Bible. Most articles focus on visiting the sites and contain Biblical references; there are numerous photographs shot by the author accompanying the texts and these may prove useful to students. The website also contains several articles on general topics related to the Old and New Testament; a mailing list; a blog (with a section focusing on archaeology); and forums (user registration required). The blog is updated and publishes interesting news. There is also a small shop that sells mainly books and photographs. This website, written by an amateur archaeologist, may be useful primarily to students as source of simple articles and pictures.
These web pages are an online feature of 'Archaeology' Magazine (published by the Archaeological Institute of America) concerned with Northern European 'bog bodies', human remains that have been discovered preserved in peat bogs. The bodies here presented date from between around 8000 B.C. and the early medieval period. The conditions of the remains are quite varied. The people who were killed or dumped in these bogs often died violent deaths, and the site details a good many instances of men, women, and children, who were executed or murdered, describing the precise manner in which they met their deaths. Images are provided of each set of remains. The site also presents the pathologies of the bodies, giving some indication of the medical conditions of the victims and the surgery they had. A separate section gives brief details of ancient bog-person fashions in terms of clothes and hairstyles. There are also examples of modern facial reconstructions of some of the bog people. The site discusses the provenance of 'The Haraldskaer Woman', for a while considered to be the remains of the Norwegian Queen Gunhild drowned in a bog at the instigation of the Danish King Harald Blatand (Blue Tooth).
Supplementing the book by K. Buxton and C. Howard-Davis, the Bremetenacum Excavations CD-ROM pages at the Archaeology Data Service provide the digital data files - the excavations' finds catalogue - that were originally included on a CD-ROM attached to the the print volume. A summary of the excavations and the contents of the published volume are also included. Ribchester (Bremetenacum), on the northern edge of the Ribble flood plain, has been known as a major Roman establishment since the time of Leland, and was also noted by Camden and Stukley. It is famous for the discovery of a fine Roman cavalry parade helmet, now in the British Museum, and frequent excavations have taken place during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The excavations which are reported in this volume were undertaken in 1980 and 1989-90, prior to the use of an extensive area to the north of the fort as an extension to the cemetery of St Wilfred's church and the redevelopment of the Ribblesdale Mill site at the northern edge of the town. The report synthesises this and previous work in an integrated format in order to present the current state of knowledge on the archaeological site.
This is the website of the Nairobi-based British Institute in Eastern Africa, which promotes research into the archaeology, history, linguistics and anthropology of Eastern Africa. Founded in 1959 to challenge the Euro-centric view of the region, the Institute supports researchers and recent graduates, holds conferences and seminars, maintains a library, undertakes research projects, and publishes books and the peer-reviewed journal ‘Azania’ (some limited content available online). The website contains short descriptions of current research projects, including the AHRC-funded project ‘Belief and belonging: religion and identity in northern Kenya’ which explores the dramatic shifts which have taken place in the last fifty years in relationships between religion, ethnic identity and landscape in northern Kenya.
Explore Highlights is an online database of exhibits from the collections of the British Museum. The site describes thousands of objects, sorted under headings of 'culture,' 'people,' 'place,' and 'material,' all of which are described in some detail and accompanied by good quality images. Descriptions of artifacts from across the world are designed for the general public rather than archaeologists, and technical terms are explained. Each description does however conclude with suggested further reading that may be of use to a more scholarly browser. The website also offers virtual tours, and an excellent search engine. The presentation of the site is impeccable, and, although it is targeted toward the general public rather than an academic audience, the site will doubtless be of interest to the scholar wishing to find what exhibits the British Museum holds in specific fields.
Byzantium 1200 is a project aimed at creating computer reconstructions of the Byzantine Monuments located in Istanbul, Turkey as of the year 1200 AD. This website has over fifty computer-generated images of Byzantine architecture. The structures are those which stood in Istanbul at the time of the Crusader invasion of 1204, and include gates, defensive walls, viaducts, palaces, churches and monasteries. Not all the buildings still exist and some reconstructions are therefore based on drawings and ruins. Photographs and pictures of virtual models of a few of the buildings are available. This website may be useful to researchers in virtual modelling.
The Canada's First Nations resource provides a multimedia tutorial focussed on the histories of the First Nations peoples up until the nineteenth century. The tutorial covers a number of thematic elements from the ancient past, such as creation myths and migrations theories, up to the social, political and economic impact of European contact and the reasons the First Nations and the Government of Canada negotiated and signed treaties. The tutorial also aims to outline the cultures and languages of the various Native groups inhabiting the northern lands of this continent. The resource is easy to use and consists primarily of simple text and images. It is logically divided into four main sections (Antiquity, Native Civilisations, European Contact, Treaty Evolution) and is easily navigated through a sidebar menu. The resource is also structured so that native civilisations are examined through three approaches: regionally, culturally and linguistically. The Site Map also provides a useful detailed overview of the entire tutorial and allows the resource to be accessed easily at any point. In terms of actual multimedia content, the resource contains some useful animated maps (in the form of GIF files) together with a number of 19th century photographs (though it is disappointing that these cannot be enlarged).
Canmore is a database of Scotland's buildings, archaeology and industry produced by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS). It contains information and pictures of archaeological sites dating from the Palaeolithic onwards. The website allows to access data on over 275,000 buildings, archaeological and maritime sites across Scotland; the records contain over 100,000 digital images and it is possible to add pictures to the records.
The splendid Celtic Art and Cultures website was originally designed as a teaching aid for an art history course taught at the University of North Carolina. This attractively illustrated resource provides a rich visual introduction to many aspects of the Celtic world from 800 BC to 1000 AD, and will complement conventional printed study materials. The database of images can be searched by period, country, object type, and material, while a hypertext vocabulary provides illustrated explanations of key terms. In addition, there are maps and timelines, plus interpretative essays on Celtic design, Hallstatt burials, Celtic high crosses and Irish monasteries. Bibliographic references and links to other Celtic websites are also included. Much of the archaeological and historical background information on the Celts themselves is provided in the form of a virtual exhibition, created by UNC students who took the original course. The site will be of particular benefit to undergraduates, but also to teachers at a variety of levels.
The Centre for Archaeological Fieldwork Homepage is the official site of the centre, which is part of the School for Archaeology and Palaeoecology at the University of Belfast, Northern Ireland. The 'reports' section includes several full reports in PDF format. These reports can be quite large and therefore it is advised to check the size before starting any download. There are four types of reports: data structure reports, which publish full excavations; monitoring reports, which publish surveys and trial excavations; high definition building surveys, which publish the results of laser scanner studies; geophysical survey reports. Perhaps the most interesting report to a non-specialist audience is that of Tamlaght, Co. Armagh, where a Late Bronze Age hoard has been excavated. The hoard consisted of four separate copper alloy artefacts: an Eogan's class 3 sword; a Fuchsstadt-Type vessel; a Jenišovice-Type vessel; and a ring. These artefacts are probably of continental provenance and therefore important for those studying long distance trade in Late Bronze Age Europe. In the 'downloads' section, the website publishes some information on two techniques employed during archaeological research: EDM (topographical) surveys and 3D (laser scanner) surveys. The survey of Devenish Island graveyard is used as a case study. The reports on Irish archaeological sites can be useful to anybody interested in that region. The educational section on fieldwork techniques is a pleasant addition and can be very useful to students.
The Centre for Medieval Studies at the University of York website is the online home of one of the UK's largest interdisciplinary centres for research into the medieval period. The website introduces the centre and its courses, as well as providing information about the various medieval research projects hosted at the University. There is also: an online directory of staff and students at the Centre; a diary of forthcoming lectures and events; and links to other relevant websites. This site would be of use to students studying or contemplating the study of the medieval period.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Keriya (Yutian), China. A few illustrated articles survey the archaeological evidence from Keriya; Karadong; Djoumboulak Koum and the surrounding areas. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
This is a website detailing the collection of coins from the ancient Greek city of Ephesus in the Museum of Ancient Cultures in Macquarie University; it is presented as a study aid for students of ancient history and related subjects but also for the interest of the general public. Ephesus was famous throughout classical antiquity for its great temple of Artemis, which no doubt contributed to the prosperity of the city, but the site is also important for producing the earliest finds of coinage in the ancient world and from the 6th century BC was producing distinctive issues recognisible by the use of the deer and the bee as symbols of the polis. The website consists of a series of 10 illustrated chapters outlining the history, iconography and cultural and religious symbolism of the coinage of Ephesus. There are also chapters on women from the ruling class in Ephesus, the relationship between the city and its neighbours (and ultimately with the expanding Roman republic), and on the temple and cult of Ephesian Artemis, together with a succinct bibliography. Finally, there is also an interactive gallery of the coins themselves. The result is a fascinating social, economic and political history as reflected in its monetary issues.
This is the repository of digital recordings of lectures held at the Collège de France and École normale supérieure, Paris, and contains a growing list of recorded lectures on a variety of topics. The audio and video recordings of the lectures are available in compressed MP4 format and are often accompanied by additional material in PDF format, usually handouts and PowerPoint presentations; lectures can be accessed from a list of speakers or topics as well as from a calendar. Most files are very large and should be downloaded before attempting to open them. All lectures include both the presentation and following discussion; many lectures are part of a series given by one author; most published lectures are in French.
Topics include archaeology (e.g. Chris Scarre on the megalithic monuments of the British Isles; Colin Renfrew on the Indo-Europeans; Carlo Zaccagnini on economy and society in the ancient Near East); history; art; philosophy of science (e.g. Marc Hauser on the evolution of aesthetics, mathematics, language and morality); language studies, epigraphy and linguistics (e.g. Harry Falk on the epigraphical evidence on the history of the Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian dynasties; Albert de Jong on the Zoroastrian text Avesta during the Sassanian period; Sheldon Pollock on Sanskrit before colonialism; Richie S. Kayne on comparative syntax; Francisco Jarauta on Cervantes' Don Quixote); music (e.g. Guerino Mazzola on musical logic); philosophy and cognitive studies (e.g. Patrick Suppes on the neuropsychological foundations of philosophy; Ian Maclean on defining nature; Richard Andersen on the evolution of brain-machine interfaces). There are also a few lectures on biology; earth sciences; mathematics; and physics.
This is the website for the Corinth Computer Project, which is based at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States. The project was founded in 1988 with the aim of developing a computerized architectural and topographical survey of the Roman colony of Corinth. The project is particularly concerned with uncovering information about the different stages of the city's development and the impact of non-Roman influences, including Hellenistic, Byzantine and Venetian. There is also an emphasis on research into Roman strategies of city planning. The site offers a detailed methodological essay about the project as well as information about Corinth in Greek, Roman and modern times. The text in each section is accompanied by city plans and photographs, including a number of photographs of the process of excavation, and of the regional landscape. The 'reference' section of the site also provides a glossary of archaeological terms used, a bibliography and links to selected resources for classicists on the Internet. The Corinth Computer Project is a well thought-out scholarly website which has won a number of awards.
This comprehensive "Coriosolite Expert System" website is the index page for John Hooker's research into the Celtic coinage of the Coriosolites. Indeed, the Coriosolites were one of several tribes in Iron Age Brittany, France, who issued a large number of coins at the time of the Roman campaigns in Gaul under Julius Caesar. Despite the complicated structure of the resource, it is divided into several sections. The introduction provides brief information on the Coriosolites, and a background to the art historical analysis that is presented on the rest of the pages. Topic pages then introduce different areas of research. One of the links provides an account of the discovery of the "La Marquanderie Hoard" of Coriosolite coins in 1935. The symbols and myths section explains the meaning of common symbols on the coins including the boar, lyre, and banner. Included in this resource is an online link to the chapter index page of John Hooker's book "Celtic Improvisations", which presents a detailed art-historical analysis of Coriosolite coins. In addition, there is also a quick link to the introduction of this book in the section called "The scope of the study". Moreover, the science section provides information and activities on the theoretical and practical application of science to numismatics (the study of coins) and the link to the expert system enables browsers to help identify Coriosolite coins by using the art-historical system researched by the author.
The 'Current Archaeology in Turkey' website is a useful database of all ongoing archaeological excavations, surveys and field research projects in Turkey written by the Anatolian Iron Age research project team at the University of New England, Armidale, Australia. The archaeological sites can be browsed by name; period; and region. For each archaeological site, survey or research project there is a short article summarising recent results from presentations given at the 'International Symposium of Excavations, Surveys and Archaeometry, Turkey' and preliminary reports provided by individual excavators. A few records have a short bibliography, but for most archaeological sites this website provides the only published source of information available. The text is in English and Turkish and it is possible to switch between the two languages clicking on the lateral columns. This is a precious resource for researchers.
This website published by the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum of Mainz, Germany, is a gateway to several archaeological databases. Among the databases are TOMBA (EU funded database of European burials dating to the Bronze and early Iron Age, ca. 2400/2300 - 480/450 BC); CalPal (palaeoclimatic data correlated to radiocarbon dates); Transformation, NAVIS, jobs, ceramics and terra sigillata (focusing on Roman antiquity); Fremde im Frühmittelalter in Europa (focusing on migration, integration and cultural change by looking at Middle Age burials, ca. 400 - 800 AD); and Tang-Mausoleen (focusing on mausoleums in Xi'an, China, dating to the Tang dynasty, 618-907 AD). Researchers may find here plenty of data.
This website has been developed by UCL for the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology as a learning and teaching resource for higher education. The website provides much information about ancient Egyptian culture especially useful to Egyptology students. Guidelines for teachers are given in the "Learning" section and sometimes at the bottom of pages. A simple map of ancient Egypt shows the locations of major towns and important sites in various epochs. Clicking on the names of the sites brings up bibliographic information for published reports on the site in question. A timeline summarises the political history and cultural background of Egypt through the ages. This lists the various ruling dynasties and the individuals within them. Most of the names of the kings link to pages of images, biographical, or bibliographical information. Other sections include: archaeological records; art and architecture; communications technologies; ideology and beliefs; technologies and industries; foreign contacts; social history; and the exact sciences. Each section is then subdivided, leading the use to increasingly specific information. Multimedia aspects include a wealth of digitised photographs of artefacts, as well as several 3D reconstructions (VRML, AVI, MPEG and JPEG files available; AVI files are very large) of tombs and settlements. On of the most useful parts of the site is the A-Z index, which enables researchers to quickly access information on a given topic. This gives the site the functionality of a reference guide to ancient Egypt. About 3000 pages have been written by Wolfram Grajetzki, an expert in funerary archaeology; hundreds more have been written by Stephen Quirke and invited contributors. Digital Egypt for Universities receives funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).
The website Diotima: materials for the study of women and gender in the ancient world has been constructed by the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities. The resource is called Diotima after a woman praised for her wisdom by Socrates in Plato's Symposium. Resources are concentrated in the field of women in classical antiquity, especially in ancient Greece. There is also information relating to women in the context of Biblical studies, including New Testament Christianity, early Church history and the medieval period. The site offers links to online texts, essays and criticism, bibliographical material and links to image-based resources, including paintings, archaeological images and costume sketches.
The Electronic Repository for Dutch Archaeology (eDNA) aims to make research results and research datasets available to other researchers. 34 archived archaeological projects and about 200 registered (current) archaeological projects provide a wealth of research data on current or recent archaeological research in the Netherlands and Italy, including preliminary archaeological reports; scientific (archaeozoological and palinological) analyses; and regional studies. Each entry is accompanied by descriptive metadata that refer to the project, researchers, publisher, subject keywords, temporal and spatial coverage. Most datasets are available in Dutch, but so far only a few have been made available in English.
Also available on the site is a list of publications about archaeological projects in the Netherlands, including full-text archaeological reports, monographs and theses and information about recent archaeological findings and theories. The list is searchable and browsable by author, title, organisation. Organisations include the councils of Groningen, Den Haag, Vlaardingen, the Rijksdienst voor Archeologie, Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten (State Service for Archaeology, Landscape and Monuments formerly Rijksdienst voor Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek), RAAP (Archaeological Consultancy) and the HSL-Zuid (High Speed Line).
This website gives a fairly complete overview of current archaeological research and recent literature in the Netherlands and is an excellent resource for archeologists and historians.
This webpage summarises recent research on the most ancient evidence of human beings in Gobustan, a World Heritage site famous for its rock art dating from the Upper Palaeolithic to Roman times. The illustrated article is an excellent introduction for students to an archaeological site only recently (2007) recognised by UNESCO. It was printed in the "Azerbaijan International Magazine" and there is a previous article on the same magazine and by the same authors linked. Featured in the two articles are "cart ruts", prehistoric tracks (roads); petroglyphs (rock art); cupmarks; water channels; sacrificial sites; wine presses; and megalithic monuments. Despite their simple structure, the two articles summarise a lot of archaeological evidence at a very important site. Students in particular may find this website useful.
The East Midlands Archaeological Research Framework Project website presents the results of the first phase in the construction of an 'Archaeological Research Framework for the East Midlands'. The results are published as a set of downloadable PDF files comprising period-by-period archaeological resource assessments covering the Palaeolithic to Modern periods in Derbyshire, Leicestershire and Rutland, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire and Nottinghamshire.
A free online version of the Encyclopaedia Iranica published by the Center for Iranian Studies at Columbia University. The entries range in date from c1250 BC to the 20th century AD and cover a wide variety of articles on the history, archaeology, geography, literature, science, religion and philosophy of the Iranian plateau and related areas. The website also provides information on the editorial board and contributors, a series of reviews, some FAQs and details of how to order the printed edition or support the project through scholarly or financial contributions. Volumes 1-6 are available in PDF format while a special Iranweb2 font, downloadable for free in Mac and PC formats, is required for the later volumes. This substantial and wide-ranging resource will benefit students and researchers of oriental studies and the archaeology and history of the ancient and modern Middle East.
The Eternal Egypt project is an online database of Egyptian historical and cultural resources, and is available in English, French and Arabic. In partnership with the Egyptian Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage and the Supreme Council of Antiquities and with the financial and technical backing of IBM, the resource features the following: high resolution images of key artefacts; panoramic webcam views of live sites of historical importance in Egypt; and reconstructions of lost or damaged sites. The library section provides a series of essays on key aspects of ancient Egyptian civilisation, accompanied by a useful glossary, while an interactive map of the country provides a selection of objects, with commentary, from the most important archaeological sites. There is also a detailed timeline. The resource can be browsed by topic, artefact, character or location. Topics covered include: arts and crafts; science; agriculture; commerce; culture and society; and government. A QuickTime plugin is necessary to view some of the features of the site. Eternal Egypt was winner of Museums and the Web 2005 Best of the Web: Best Innovative or Experimental Application.
This is the official website of a Spanish research project, promoted by the Fundación de Estudios Romanos, aiming to create a network of European museums of Roman antiquities. The website presents articles about the Roman Empire, focussing particularly on its origins and territories. There are also a series of illustrated articles about several European Roman towns, each written by staff of the respective museum. There are also illustrated articles on the museums themselves, and descriptions of their most important displayed artefacts. Among the towns included in the project and website are: Toulouse (Tolosa); Arles (Arelate); Bath (Aquae Sulis); Köln (Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium); Constanza (Tomis); Roma; Coimbra (Conimbriga); Córdoba (Colonia Patricia Corduba); Tarragona (Colonia Urbs Triumphalis Tarraconensis) and Mérida (Colonia Augusta Emerita). This site can be a useful introduction for students to what were the vast and diverse territories of the Roman Empire.
Europeana is a European Commission funded web portal which is building a virtual European library offering free access to Europe's cultural resources. Multiple languages are available. It is organised as a giant database of cultural artefacts, typically presenting a (low quality) picture and some metadata for each record and redirecting to other websites to access digital resources. It searches millions of texts (manuscripts, papers, ebooks), images (photographs, maps), films (moving images, videos, film clips, television broadcasts) and sounds from Europe's main research libraries, archives and galleries. Among the institutions involved in supplying data are the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the British Library in London and the Louvre in Paris. It is possible to search the website by subject keyword, or browse by date, language and theme. Europeana is growing and despite the impressive number of records at the time of review, it could multiply several times that number in the near future given the size of the European heritage. Some areas (e.g. British archaeology) are better represented in the database than others. After registering for free it is possible to tag records and save searches and records on a personal page. Given the scope of the project, anyone may find useful resources searching Europeana, even if only a tiny minority of European heritage is represented.
The web pages of The Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI) offers what is likely the most comprehensive collection of images, photographs and reproductions from Mesoamerican sites and artefacts available on the Internet. In an easy to use format, material is divided up into a series of major sections: The Linda Schele Drawings contains a catalogue of detailed drawings of glyphs and architectural features made by Linda Schele during her lifetime with accompanying descriptions and notations. Justin Kerr's "Maya Vase Database & Precolumbian Portfolio" brings together some of the most beautiful and rich photographs from the region using sophisticated photographing techniques to turn three-dimensional vessels into two-dimensional images. All of the image databases are accompanied by extensive documentation and complimented by excellent search utilities that aid the retrieval of photographs and reproductions. The results of research done in Mesoamerica financial backed by the foundation arm of FAMSI is disseminated through their website and include reports on a variety of archaeological and cultural features. They have also established the "Bibliografia Mesoamerica" which currently contains over 50,000 searchable bibliographic references. There are individual sections on the ancient American writings and several maps. While directed at the advanced student or scholar, the array of material contained within this site makes it an essential resource for anyone undertaking advanced research on Mesoamerican culture.
Website of the Gardom's Edge Landscape Project which explores the ways of life of people who lived and laboured in the Derbyshire Peak District from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. The project is run jointly by the Archaeology Service of Peak District National Park Authority and the Department of Archaeology and Prehistory at Sheffield University. A set of pages explore the findings of the project thematically. These can be accessed from the contents page or via clickable maps. Two seasons of fieldwork (1998 & 1999) are presented as diaries. A collection of QTVR panoramas illustrate the landscape.
The website "Great Buildings collection" is an impressive online encyclopaedia of important world buildings and their architects edited by Kevin Matthews and published for free on the Internet by Artifice Inc., a 3D modelling software company based in Oregon with a focus on architecture. The database, which will interest a range audience of students and researchers in architecture and social history as well as the general public, features over 800 buildings which can be searched by a variety of categories such as period style, building type, date, climate, country, locational context (such as urban, rural, mountainside or coastal) or architectural feature (for example all buildings with domes or courtyard) in addition to personnel choices by the editor such as Millennium buildings. Each building is displayed as a series of data fields (the information for which is supplied by a range of contributors) and illustrated with photographic images and/or 3D digital models. The entries are fully hypertexted and are interlinked with the main RIBA website to facilitate use of their online architectural resources. Timelines of architects and of buildings are also created on the site. Bibliographic references to linked to commercial bookselling websites though other non-related advertising fliers also proliferate. The images can be freely used for non profit-making and educational activities but there are also details of a licensing scheme for commercial usage. The website also features news links to the Architecture Week site for up-to-date stories on buildings and planning.
This online resource is designed to introduce undergraduate students to science and technology in ancient Greece and Rome. The resource features: an alphabetical 'Who's who' giving brief biographical details for key individuals; information about important inventions and technical innovations; and a chronological table putting scientific developments into their wider historical context. There is also a section which deals with specifice scientific subjects. This covers the following: astronomy; biology and medicine; engineering; geography; mathematics; physics; mechanics; and engineering. An article on each topic gives an overview, with hyperlinks to other pages on the relevant personalities and inventions. The site is being developed by Dr Tracey Rihll as part of her undergraduate teaching and research programme at the University of Swansea and includes some student papers containing text and photos of some of the practical projects submitted by level 2 students on her technology and engineering module. There are also links to external sites which provide online versions of relevant ancient texts.
Gwynedd Archaeological Trust has presented the website "Historic Landscape Characterisation". This is an extensive historical and archaeological survey of Wales.
Currently available is information on the North-West of the country, although other areas are being added as data becomes available. The information is divided up into areas/regions of interest within the country, which are then further sub-divided into specific landscapes and locations. Reports on the locations take the form of an introductory 'Historical Background' section followed by 'Key Historic Landscape Characteristics', and are often accompanied by an OS (Ordnance Survey) map of the surrounding area.
This website combines underwater exploration and the historical archaeology of 19th century Canada by focusing on two merchant ships, the Hamilton and the Scourge, which sank in Lake Ontario in 1813 and which were discovered with the help of innovative sonar techniques in 1973. The resource combines a virtual tour of the wrecks and contemporary sources for the sinking during the War of 1812 with a account of the discovery and investigation of the ships and further information (including a glossary of technical terms and an extensive page of web links) on underwater archaeology. Other themes include the background to the War of 1812, naval life and shipbuilding in the early 19th century, the importance of the Lake Ontario in this period and the heritage legislation protecting the wrecks. The virtual tour introduces useful practical information on the layout and equipment of the ships. There is a marine glossary with some illustrated entries and a forum. This website, though aimed at the interested general public, will also benefit undergraduate students of underwater archaeology and modern history.
Harappa.com is a resource focussed upon South Asia's past (mainly India and Pakistan) and is largely devoted to early modern media from the Raj period. The site can be divided into two main sections with one half focussing on the ancient city of Harappa and the other dealing with the Raj period of India and Pakistan. The half of the website that deals with the Raj does so largely through the use of early media. The largest section by far is the image section which contains a huge number of photographs, lithographs, postcards and engravings. The photograph section is in itself huge and contains large detailed sections on "Hawkshaw's India" (a 19th century album of India and Pakistan detailing in photographs the life of Major Edward Crichton Hawkshaw), 'Magic Lantern India 1895' (hand-coloured images by William Henry Jackson), "Bremner's India 1883-1923" (Fred Bremners images of Baluchistan, Sindh and Punjab accompanied by a number of essays) along with an 130 image photomap of India and Pakistan, biographies of the photographers and a bibliography of books on Indian Raj photography. The lithograph section contains 8 lithographs, mostly from the Illustrated London News, with accompanying articles and the Postcards and Engravings sections contain a large number of coloured and black and white postcards organised by subject. Aside from still images the website also contains a large selection of black and white and colour newsreels and archival movies in QuickTime format together with clips and interviews with significant figures including Gandhi, Jinnah and Attia Hosain (Real Audio format). The Harappa website also contains a 'Bazaar' link to an online store selling Indus Valley Replicas ceramics, 35mm Slides, books, archival film, teaching resources and image rights. There are also pictures of the important archaeological site of Mohenjo-Daro. The website is easy to use and is structured thematically.
This online paper reviews progress in Atlantic Scottish Iron Age studies over the past twenty years, with particular reference to a long-term programme of fieldwork in west Lewis undertaken by the University of Edinburgh. Studies of a number of roundhouses are described with plans and photographs of many. Pottery finds are discussed and there are a number of line drawings illustrating a variety of vessels. The economy and environment are discussed. An extensive bibliography is also provided.
Herefordshire Through Time is a web resource providing access to the Herefordshire Council Sites and Monuments Record (SMR). The SMR database itself is searchable via site name, parish, OS grid reference, period, and site type. Specific records can be accessed through individual SMR numbers (if known). The records provide location and descriptive data regarding the sites, while also listing relevant documentary sources. Also present on the website is a guide to Herefordshire's many castles, which provides an introduction to the subject, glossary, and gazetteer. In addition, educational material for Key Stages 3 and 4 will soon be available, and information for metal-detecting working the county is provided.
A collaborative venture between the Webgestütze Forschungs-kommunikation of the University of Würzburg and the Hethitische Forschungen department, Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, University of Mainz and a number of institutional partners from Europe and North America, this site aims to develop the potential of the WWW as a study tool in addition to providing a gateway to existing online resources for the study of the archaeology, language and history of the Hittites and related Anatolian and Near eastern cultures. The project itself features resources such as a concordance of Hittite texts, the Mainz archive of photographs of cuneiform texts, a Hittite onomasticon, and an address list of scholars working in this field (for which you need to register).The large selection of weblinks provides access to a judiciously chosen series of resources in German, English, French and Turkish, including the Catalogue of Hittite texts (CHT), the Chicago Hittite Dictionary, H. Craig Melchert's Anatolian Databases, various bibliographies and guides to current Hittite researcher and academic institutions, together with a list of links to excavations and surveys in Turkey and surrounding areas with Hittite remains. This is a specialist resource which will mostly interest university level students and researchers in Hittite and Near Eastern studies.
'The Historical and Archeological Association of Mauriac and its Area' is the English language website of the 'Comité d'Histoire et d'Archéologie de Mauriac et sa Région'; a local historical society in the Cantal department of the Auvergne, France. This resource provides a concise and attractively presented guide to the archaeology and history of the region around Mauriac from the Upper Palaeolithic (ca. 35,000 BP) to the 18th century A.D. with impressive visual elements and interactive maps and architectural plans. The website describes the principle archaeological monuments of the area period by period and includes a detailed timeline and gazetteers of sites from each historical phase mentioned in the text. The mediaeval section is particularly impressive with dioramas, virtual reality images and interactive architectural plans of the Monastery of St. Pierre and of the Basilica of Notre-Dame des Miracles. In addition, all of the illustrations in the main text are available as thumb-nail images which can be browsed in a separate frame.The translation is generally good but the resource can also be read in a more fluent French version. The layout and level of detail presented here will interest the general public or school students and their teachers who will enjoy and benefit from the interactive nature of the resource. Undergraduates may also find it useful.
This website publishes the lecture notes written by John Illsley, retired lecturer from Bangor University, for use by students taking the third year subject `History and Archaeology of the Ship'. Ships from ancient times until early modern times (18th Century) are presented and discussed. Appropriate references are given, but students should note that this website is no longer updated, affecting primarily the bibliography. There are seminar reports, essay questions, and hyperlinks to related websites. These lecture notes are accompanied by several pictures, but some are inaccessible. These pages are published by the Centre for Maritime Studies, Southampton University.
"A History of the Native People of Canada" is an online study of what is known about the prehistory of Native peoples of northern North America, (the territory now known as Canada), prior to the arrival of Europeans, based on a survey of archaeological research carried out over several decades. The study is organized chronologically with sub-division according to the different cultural groups. The home page is a simple hyperlinked table of contents - similar to chapters in a book. It is based on extracts from the first two volumes of Dr. J.V. Wright's books and CD-ROMs, published by the Canadian Museum of Civilization on the history of the Native peoples of Canada. The study is based upon archaeological evidence as there are no pre-European written records. It is a history built upon the minute fragments of evidence, remains such as broken stone tools, discarded food bones, and the vague traces of dwellings. This "admittedly inadequate archaeological history is, however, the only history that exists for the more than 12,000 years" that the ancestors of the Native peoples occupied Canada prior to its colonisation by Europeans. The first volume 10,000 B.C.E. to 1,000 B.C.E. begins with the spread of Ice Age hunters out of a land mass called Beringia that once joined Asia and North America. The second volume examines developments across Canada from 1,000 B.C.E. to 500 C.E., such as the introduction of pottery from the south, and the communal hunting of bison became increasingly important on the Plains. In addition, during this period the first evidence of ranked societies composed of slaves, commoners, and nobles appeared on the West Coast, and Palaeo-Eskimo art approached its pinnacle. All end-notes are hyperlinked to the bibliography, allowing careful checking of references. However, unlike a book there is no specific index, and one must rely upon the search (and advanced search) facilities presented in the top navigation bar of the Web pages of the Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation, visible on every page. Here you can also gain access Museum website map and index; a quick links drop down menu; and a toggle button allowing easy transition from English/French versions of the pages.
The House of Ptolemy is a resource guide, intended as a study aid and to provide bibliographical material for students of Greco-Roman Egypt. The main focus of the site, as its name suggests, is the period of the Ptolemaic kings (331 BCE - 30 BCE), descendants of Macedonian Greeks. There are also compendious sections on Roman, Byzantine and modern Egypt. Within these periods, links are arranged by theme into sets and subsets, in a fashion that is generally clear and efficient. Topics covered include: historical overviews; Ptolemaic numismatics; Ptolemaic genealogy and king lists; the transition to Roman provincial Egypt; the city of Alexandria; the culture of Ptolemaic Egypt; the Ptolemaic empire outside Egypt; the Jews of Egypt. Most of the links are presented with a comment from the site's author: this is a personal list, not a faculty or institutional webpage. The selection of items is therefore prone to subjectivity and its completeness cannot be guaranteed; furthermore, material of widely varying intellectual depth, rigour, and specialisation is included among the links. At the time of writing this review, the site was last updated in 2002 - this meant that some of the links were no longer functional. Nonetheless, there is a wealth of material here, well organised; the numerous awards garnered by the page indicate its worth. This site is a useful starting point for students.
The National Institute of Research on Preventive Archaeology (INRAP) is a public research organization affiliated to the French Ministries of Culture and Research. The Institute carries out evaluations and excavations of threatened archaeological sites and then publishes the results, partly on this website. The site makes available the publication "La France archéologique" with some illustrations and interviews in PDF and MPEG video format. There is a section presenting recent news and another focusing on recent discoveries. The section about preventive archaeology in particular features definitions of the terms and some illustrated case studies. The section about the excavation sites contains a searchable form and directly accessible sections of a database of all the excavations carried out by the institute. For each record and site a short description, the geographic location, any published picture and information on the excavation and publication are provided. The website also includes a section on French legislation on archaeological matters and a glossary. The English version of this website features only a limited amount of the original contents. This website is a key resource for recent discoveries in France, as most of the archaeological research in France is carried out under the control of this public institute. Researchers may benefit from all sections of this website, while students are likely to find the section about discoveries to be the most interesting.
This is the official website of the Institute for Research on and Valorisation [i.e. dissemination of research results] of Transylvanian Cultural Heritage in a European Context. It publishes online a free full-text journal, 'Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis', which contains articles in Romanian and English on the archaeology of Transylvania (known in antiquity as Dacia), without any chronological restrictions. Guidelines for submitting work to the journal are available. The most interesting section of the site is the 'Bibliotheca Septemcastrensis', where free full-text books printed by the institute are available online. Most of the books are in Romanian; a few are in German. Among the subjects covered are: inter-ethnical relationships in Transylvania between the 6th and 13th century AD; rural landscape in Roman Dacia; and the Böhmerberg. Also offered are an encyclopaedic series on archaeological sites in the region, and monographs on Roşcani. Some volumes contain illustrations (drawings and colour pictures). It is possible to perform full-text searches of texts published anywhere on this website. Information on the institute and its academic courses, staff, and research activities is provided in separate sections. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The International Dunhuang Project (IDP), based at the British Library, is a significant international collaboration that is carrying out research on over 100,000 manuscripts, artefacts, and paintings from Dunhuang and other Silk Road sites. The project is placing these textual and image resources on the Internet, together with information on their provenance, history, and cultural context; it is a work in progress and the resulting database is not expected to be completed for several years. Several international partners are co-operating, and this is resulting in a lack of uniformity in the database, as well as in the use of specific languages for collections of records in the database. The website is aimed at both the layman and the specialist. By providing bibliographies, maps, photographs, site plans, and contemporary images, it provides a wonderful insight into life on the Silk Road during the first millennium AD. The IDP bibliography consists of around 10,000 items. There is also a list of the project's own publications, and an IDP Newsletter. There is an excellent map section and a manuscript search facility which enables both simple and quite sophisticated subject searches. Images of the search results are displayed along with metadata about the objects. "My Space" is a feature enabling a record to be kept of the reader's personal searches and information. There are also links to special topics such as: Chinese bookbinding; Buddhism in Central Asia; and an account of Sir Aurel Stein's dogs and travelling companions. The website provides comprehensive information about: the sponsors of the project; its objectives; its activities in conservation and digitisation; and other aspects of the project, both educational and practical. Most available information focuses on manuscripts and textual information, but there is also considerable information of archaeological value: the database contains both pictures of artefacts and historical pictures of excavations. The website is easy to navigate and provides a contact form for feedback.
The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (now the AHRC) within the Resource Enhancement scheme, and from a number of other institutions and individuals.
This is the website of the Inuit Heritage Trust, an Inuit organisation established by and for the Inuit of Nunavut. The Trust is dedicated to the preservation, enrichment and protection of Inuit cultural heritage and identity embodied in Nunavut archaeological sites, ethnographic resources and traditional place names. The website is presented in English, Inuinnaqtun, and Inuktitut (and the font for the latter's writing system can be downloaded) and provides much valuable information on many aspects relating to the preservation of Inuit heritage. Cultural heritage professionals will be particularly interested in the sections on the legal and ethical codes governing this area but the site will also benefit students and researchers of anthropology and world archaeology. The projects section was nominated in the competition for Best Museum Web Site Supporting Educational Use in Museums and the Web 2004: Best of the Web while there is also a useful series of links to related websites and a section on educational resources which can be purchased from the Trust.
The 'Islands in a Common Sea, Isles of Scilly' archaeological project website publishes some images and reports from the survey of the islands carried out by a team of British archaeologists lead by Dr Jacqui Mulville. The survey gathered environmental information as well as archaeological data. The extensive 2006 report is available in PDF format with a summary of the methodology, updated results, colour pictures and references. Both researchers and students interested in the archaeology of the Isles of Scilly will find this website useful.
"Japanese Archaeology" is the site of Professor C. T. Keally (Sophia University, Japan) and presents an overview of his written work and research in Japan together with a broad historical background to Japan's archaeology. The site is clearly divided into a number of sections providing general background information on Japanese archaeology and chronologies, specific topic-focussed research reports, photographs of fieldwork projects and news articles on events in Japanese archaeology. The site is largely geared towards Professor Keally's research interests and, as such, the overviews and chronologies are focussed in more detail upon Japan's Prehistoric Period (Palaeolithic, Jomon, Yayoi, Kofun). These areas are complemented by the full-text of a number of Keally's research reports, forming a major part of the site. Aside from a purely academic focus, the site also contains information on working in archaeology in Japan. The site adheres to an extremely basic, and therefore technologically accessible, format and consists largely of text with a few images confined to specific sections. On the rare occasion in which Japanese text is used in the site, it is presented as images, and thus does not require the user to download and install additional browser character sets.
Of general interest is Prof. Keally's paper entitled "A Criticism of Wikipedia", which focuses on Japanese archaeology: there are only few academic reviews of archaeological entries in Wikipedia available, and this one demonstrates how the open format of Wikipedia fails to maintain academic rigour with archaeological interpretations (which can be contested by both scholars with different views or data and amateurs).
The emergence of new Jewish communities in Britain following their readmission in the 1650s resulted in the creation of a rich and unique heritage of religious building types such as synagogues, cemeteries and ritual bathhouses, but also social spaces such as schools, soup kitchens and hospitals. The decline in the size of the Jewish population and changes in the economic status of congregations since WWII has placed many Jewish buildings of considerable social and architectural importance under threat. This website describes the attempts of a project organised by the Jewish Memorial Council (JMC) and substantially funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund to survey, photograph and archive some 350 surviving examples of Jewish buildings constructed up to the Second World War. The resource includes a map of survey sites in the British Isles, a list of listed synagogues and other Jewish buildings, an outline of sites under risk (or lost, including the last major synagogue in Dublin demolished in 1999) and details of plans for publication and preservation of surviving monuments. Many of the structures under threat are characterised by lavish 19th and 20th century architectural or decorative features and fine craftsmanship, often combing contemporary styles with specifically Jewish features. The resource also provides practical advice for individuals and groups, both members of synagogue communities or the general public, to record any part of the Jewish built heritage which is under threat. This site will interest in particular architectural and social historians and heritage professionals but will also broaden public awareness of this important aspect of the built environment in the British Isles.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Islamic medieval sites along the Kenyan coast and especially the site of Gedi. The website contains a few articles concentrating on religious, funerary and trade contexts; a map and a bibliography. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles.
"Keys to the Past" combines the Sites and Monuments Records of Durham and Northumberland County Councils in a single searchable online resource. Both basic (keyword) and advanced searches of the SMR are available, and images and additional relevant content descriptions accompany many records to provide more detailed information. The website also includes a "Local Histories" section, giving potted descriptions the history and archaeology of settlements in the Northumbria and County Durham. There are also chronological and thematic overviews of the region's material culture. In general the site provides a highly useful and usable resource to anyone studying the region or wishing to access the SMR, suitable for both academic researchers and the curious layman.
The website of the Kythera Island Project (KIP), an international multi-disciplinary project designed to explore the 7000 year human history of the island of Kythera in the Aegean within the context of changing natural and cultural dynamics and of both insular and regional factors. Based principally at University College London and the British School at Athens, the project has conducted intensive survey fieldwork since 1998 on a variety of island landscapes and to date has documented some 200 archaeological sites from the Late and Final Neolithic period (5th and 4th millennia BC) to Ottoman and recent times, the results of which are summarised and analysed in this resource. Kythera's nodal position between Crete and the Peloponnese ensured a major role in facilitating contact between different parts of the Aegean and the central Mediterranean throughout its history, a role which has also influenced changes in the lifestyle and identity of the islanders over millennia. Kythera therefore is an ideal focus for studying the nature of island societies in their wider context and of expanding the older geographical concept of the island laboratory. Specialist reports, reflecting the multi-disciplinary aims of the project, are also provided: archaeometallurgy; botany; geoarchaeology; GIS; geophysics; historical geography; mortuary landscapes; pottery; stone tools; restudy of the older excavations at Kastri in the 1960s and a new project at Tholos on the edge of Kastri town. Apart from a detailed explanation of the methods employed by the survey team, further insights on the methods of KIP are provided by various PDF versions of the recording forms. Other features include a bibliography of research stemming from the project, a guide to the personnel, and details of sponsors. Historical geographers and historians of the longue durée will also benefit from this website. The site is now archived.
The website "Aerial Archaeology in Northern France" explores the possibilites offered by this archaeological method appplied to the region Picardie, Somme and Churmont. First developed as a result of wartime military photography during the First World War and later in the deserts of the Middle East during the 1920s, aerial archaeology has become a major tool for studying and reconstructing ancient landscape features, many of which are otherwise invisible from the ground. The method and practice of aerial archaeology was pioneered in the 1950sarchaeologist Roger Agache in the rural landscape of his native Picardy. The resource provides a wide-ranging introduction to the discipline of aerial reconnaissance from the choice of the appropriate technology (for example planes, helicopters, balloons and elevated cranes) to the optimal environmental conditions for identifying and photographing sub-soil features. A searchable database of aerial photographs is complemented by a useful synthesis of the history of the countryside revealed from aerial archaeology from the time of the first farmers in the 5th millennium BC to the development of the modern rural landscape. The biographic portrait of Roger Agache serves as a brief history of developments in aerial archaeology since WWII. Other features include an extensive bibliography, a chronological chart of sites known from aerial reconnaissance from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Middle Ages and a didactic interactive game for younger readers of the website. This website is an important resource for the study of the development of the northern French rural landscape and will interest a wide range of students and researchers in both archaeology and history and their related disciplines.
"L'aventure des écritures" is a French-language site that provides a detailed, multi-layered and richly illustrated introduction to the history of writing. There are three section: one dealing with the origin and diffusion of some 25 world writing systems from ca. 3300 B.C. to ca. 1200 A.D (Naissances); one introducing the various supports for writing (Matters and forms - Matière et formes); and the third introducing "the page" (La page) namely presenting the history of the printed paper and the book. The website reflects an exhibition at the BNF in 1999. Using a hypertext medium, the reader is guided through the history, mythology and cultural context of the world major writing systems: Cuneiform, Egyptian, Chinese, African and Pre-Columbian and related scripts. These are complemented by sections outlining theoretical and cultural aspects of writing systems such as signs and cryptography, the relationship between writing and speech, and the symbolic and religious associations of letters and scripts. In addition to the wide-ranging bibliography and glossary of terms, there is extensive citation of academic and literary reflections on writing. The related, and equally splendidly presented 'dossiers pédagogiques' deal with the physical aspects of writing, book making and printing from inscribed clay tablets to illuminated manuscripts to the CD-rom. The excellent education section provides a very useful resource for teachers at all levels of education though it will be particularly useful for schools. This website has a wide potential audience from the general public to students, teachers and researchers of archaeology, classics and ancient languages or else to those interested in e-publication and education.
This is the official website of the "Neolithic revolution in a global perspective" international conference held in Paris in 2008. It publishes the video recordings of all lectures given during the conference, including the discussion. Most lectures were in French, with only a few in English. The conference gathered some of the leading experts on the Neolithic period across the world, and its main strength is indeed the worldwide coverage. Making such an important conference available on the Internet is certainly a commendable and rarely seen choice. Almost every aspect of Neolithic studies has been presented, and the video recordings allow to see in most cases also the Powerpoint presentations. Postgraduate students and researchers will benefit most from accessing these lectures.
This website describes the "Laconia Rural Sites Project", a series of archaeological projects in Laconia, Greece. The focus of the investigations was to ascertain whether the sites were continuously inhabited or used merely as storage or semi-permanent residences during local agricultural cycles. Surface characteristics and soil were analysed to discover the nature of human activity on the sites from the early Helladic to the Byzantine period. The project organisers have employed an interdisciplinary approach to the project to learn how the rural sites functioned. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Leave scheme.
This extensive Latin American prehistory web page is part of the eMuseum at the Minnesota State University. It describes the peoples and events of Mesoamerican prehistory from the first settlers to the Spanish conquest, covering the Aztecs, Incas, Maya, and other significant cultures. The main page links to short articles on themes such as: the peopling of Central and South America; big game hunting; the transition to domestication; the history of Latin American archaeology; and the arrival of the Spanish. There are menu pages for Mesoamerican and South American sites and cultures. These contain pages for each major group and for important archaeological sites associated with them. The pages are organised according to the traditional time periods of the region: preclassical, classical, and postclassical. Each page offers a brief overview of the history of its subject, accompanied by illustrations and a short bibliography. A 'technology and society' section contains information about calendars, sports and games, religion, farming, social structures, and other aspects of everyday life in Mesoamerican societies. The site provides a straightforward overview of Latin American history before the arrival of the Europeans, and is suited to school use or as a reference guide for those with no specialist knowledge of the field.
This website publishes two GIS applications, one focusing on the area of Nasca and one on Palpa. At the time of the review the resource was slow to access, and required inserting manually the passwords (respectively "Nasca" and "petroglyph" without quotation marks; the same password must be inserted on both fields of each application) as well as deselecting some layers (from the "maps" menu) in the initial view and loading them one after the other. Both applications worked properly after the first loading, and from the interactive maps it was possible to access information on single monuments and stones (textual data and colour pictures, some with the petroglyphs highlighted, depending on the selected monument). The GIS applications do not require a learning curve for anyone with basic experience of GIS software, and a small help page is also available. The applications are interactive GIS maps linked to databases and are a precious tool for experienced researchers.
The Logan Museum of Anthropology is a teaching museum of Beloit College, Wisconsin. It has notable collections of: Mesoamerican ceramics; native North American basketry and other artefacts; and Old World palaeolithic finds, particularly from France and North Africa. The website hosts four online exhibitions. The first contains images and descriptions of the museum's palaeolithic artefacts grouped geographically and by time period. The second online exhibition is divided into two halves, one covering the woodland and Mississippian traditions of central and eastern North America between 700 AD and 1500 AD, the other examining the cultures of south-western North America, including the Anasazi, Casas Grandes, Hohokam, and Patayan. The third exhibition presents three-dimensional views of some of the museum's most interesting objects, and requires QuickTime viewer. The final exhibition was put together by students in 1999, and covers the 'World of Music'. It was not functioning when checked. The history of the museum and the collections is described on the site, which also gives access information and opening hours. The museum publishes a biannual newsletter, available online in PDF format. There is an education section, a calendar of events, and a search engine.
This website presents the excavations at Los Adaes, Louisiana, USA, a Spanish outpost founded in 1716, in the territory of the Adaes people, at the frontier with the French controlled area. The website contains short illustrated articles summarising the archaeological and historical evidence of the battle for the control of the area between France and Spain in those years in section "at the edge of an Empire". "Life on the frontier" instead focuses on the everyday life at the site, which was too far from any other Spanish town and therefore had to provide for supplies independently by trading with the local native American populations like the Caddo people. A section also focuses on the archaeological excavations, but it contains mostly educational articles aimed at inexperienced archaeologists. There are some special articles adding more data on some topics, a few references and a gallery of images. There is also an accessible version of this website, which is neat and preferable for reading and printing. This website is a nice overview of 18th century Louisiana, but the information about the archaeological site are too scanty for a learned audience, which is a pity because the website could have targeted multiple audiences.
The Madaba Plains Project has been investigating the rich archaeological remains of the fertile uplands of central Jordan since 1968, focusing in particular on the development of urban society in the Bronze Age (3500-1200 BC) and the relationship between human settlement and environmental adaptation over the past five millennia. The project is a collaborative multi-disciplinary venture between a number of North American institutions (Andrews University, Canadian University College, La Sierra University, Pacific Union College and Walla Walla College) the results of which are available in a variety of online publications. This website provides a loosely structured introduction to the overall project (in part intended as a guide to prospective students and volunteers with basic bibliography on Jordan and its archaeology and history) with photographs and online slideshows of the relevant sites. The website contains brief reports of excavation and survey work of archaeological sites centred on the prominent and long-occupied Tell el-'Umeiri (Tall al-Umayri) and include: the cave site of Khirbet Rufeis (Roman, Byzantine, Ummayyad, Late Islamic and Modern occupation); Tell Jawa (South), a large urban settlement dating from the Bronze Age; El-Dreijat, occupied from the Iron Age II period onwards with notable remains from the Persian/Hellenistic period and again from Byzantine and Ummayyad times; Rujm Selim, a multi-period site with Iron Age II, Persian and Hellenistic remains as well as Roman wine presses and hydraulic features; various smaller trial excavations at Bronze and Iron Age burial and settlement sites within the 5km hinterland of Tell el-'Umeiri. Many of the sections are accompanied by bibliographies of published sources for this project. In addition there are detailed descriptions of the various survey strategies pursued by the project, again with accompanying bibliographies for more detailed research.
This website is a major corpus of artifactual and historical material relating to the people of Canaan/Israel and surrounding areas in the Middle and Late Bronze Age and Iron Age I-II periods, c2200-550 B.C. This resource is aimed at both undergraduate students and researchers in archaeology and ancient or biblical history. It will also be of interest to those interested in ancient Near Eastern religions and the origins of Judaism. The site uses a Hypertext medium to interpret Canaanite material culture in the context of the historical and literary record which is provided through extensive quotations from J.B. Pritchard's seminal Ancient Near Eastern Texts (ANET). The material in this resource can be accessed in three main ways: a period by period account provides a chronological and cultural framework based on contemporary historical sources, biblical accounts and excavation reports; a topical index based on important aspects of culture such as burial customs, dress and personal adornment, warfare and architectural; a Hyperlink general index with links to over 90 key topics of Canaanite, Israelite and Phoenician culture.There are many photographs and drawings of artifacts, architecture and archaeological contexts from all over the region while bibliographic references accompany all of the major entries. Quicktime Plug-in 4.1 or later is required for some of the interactive features. The lack of a word-search index is frustrating given the considerable quantity of material in the resource and the historical sources are not explicitly indexed. Nonetheless the quantity and range of the material is impressive and the website will be of widespread interest.
Amateur archaeologist Barbara McKenzie's "Maya Ruins.com" presents a neat collection of photographs, which greatly enhances the understanding of many Maya archaeological sites. The website welcomes the reader with a simple map of the Yucatan peninsula, where all mentioned sites are plotted. By simply selecting the name of any site, a short introductory page of the selected site and links to the galleries of photographs is displayed. Links to larger archaeological areas open with an invaluable topographical map that allows users to orientate themselves, select specific images from different points of view, and identifies the major temples and building. For those image sets that do not include a map, it is possible to get a good sense of direction from the descriptions that accompany every photograph and highlight some of their features. The appeal of these pages will be widespread among those interested in Maya culture, but students and schoolteachers looking to supplement their presentation materials may find this website most useful. By clicking on the tabs on the upper part of the screen, it is possible to access a short background paper and the bibliography. The latter contains a number of references specific to the archaeology and history of the region.
Medioevosicilia is an Italian website written by a Sicilian art critic focusing on medieval churches and castles in eastern Sicily. For each monument there is a brief description and a gallery of pictures. There is also one referenced paper on the Cistercians in Sicily (in the "storia" section). The website contains further galleries of pictures on rural Sicily and Mount Etna. The pictures themselves in some cases match the accompanying poetical compositions, but the author also publishes a personal collection of poetry in his personal blog "Epigrammi". The contrast between the apparent beauty and serenity of the pictures in the main website and the sadness radiating by the poetry in the blog is noticeable. The website is updated frequently and may be useful to both students and researchers in the medieval archaeology of Sicily or Italian studies generally.
A commercial website providing useful practical information on the megalithic monuments of the British Isles and Europe with some additional coverage of world material. The British Isles can be searched via an interactive map and A-Z gazetteer which is based on the published work of Aubrey Burl, the leading expert in this field. Each megalithic site is provided with a basic data sheet, images and practical details on finding and visiting the monument, and advice on good practice in dealing with landowners and ensuring the on-going conservation of the site. There is also a news service for stories of archaeological interest and a forum for discussion. The 'Ancient Sites' section is a series of stories, reflections and links to articles elsewhere submitted by website readers and provides useful material for discussion. The prehistoric web index provides a comprehensive but uncritical guide to the many other sites of megalith interest and, given the potential for lunatic fringe archaeology in this area, the potential reader will have to exercise their academic judgement. Nonetheless, these further links will particularly interest those who require a wide range of images and maps or those concerned with the popular impact of archaeology and with 'New Age' and related interpretations of the past.
The megalithic temples of Malta, dating from 5500 years ago, are the oldest free standing stone structures of the world. This website contains more than 400 web pages of information about the prehistoric sites on the islands of Malta and Gozo. Seven megalithic temples are to be found on the islands of Malta and Gozo, each a result of an individual development. This website is based mostly on photographs and images (including Quicktime virtual panoramas) of the temples and therefore will have limited use for undergraduate assignments and greater use in teaching. The intention of the author is to give as much visual information as possible - using photographs, illustrations, and virtual reality tours and movies; many pictures are however too small to be really useful. All aspects of Maltese archaeology are included in what is a virtual archaeological tour of the islands.
This website hosts a collection of images of Mesoamerican sites and artefacts, and essays about Mesoamerican archaeoastronomy and Teotihuacan mural art. There are photographs of the remains at Teotihuacan and of the Mayan sites of Chichen Itza, Palenque, and Uxmal. There are further galleries of the stelae and ceramics found at Izapan, and stone sculptures and miscellaneous artefacts from throughout Mesoamerica. Most of the images are clear although not especially large. They were scanned at 72 dpi. The essays described how archaeological finds have shaped our knowledge of Mesoamerican calendars, and how mural art can be interpreted and misinterpreted.
This is the official website of the Middle Mekong Archaeology Project (MMAP). The MMAP team is studying caves in the UNESCO World Heritage site of Luang Prabang in the heart of the middle Mekong River basin, in northern Laos. Past surveys in the area have identified "69 archaeological sites and excavations at three cave sites". The website includes a list of involved researchers; contact details; a link to a preliminary report in Antiquity; and the subscription page of a newsletter of the project.
The 2010 field season has been blogged with several pictures, and many more are being published in Flickr. The blog has chronicled the discovery of what appears to be a burial pot from the Iron Age (2000 BC); two bones thought to be human; a piece of skull; and the exploration of a cave called Tham An Mah, once used as a Buddhist temple. Much information focuses on the local ethnography and its is hoped that the blog will be updated with some some results. Some information about this very neglected region may be useful to researchers or students interested in the region.
The Modern Antiquarian, based on Julian Cope's book of the same name, is a large resource of folklore, images, news, forums and links and an excellent 'community' archaeology website. The scope of the site is the prehistoric landscape, focusing particularly on visual remains such as henges, stone circles, standing stones, burial mounds, rock art and hillforts. There is a lot of content on this website but two particular strengths that I mention here: Firstly there are some superb images on this website and the resource is growing and developing as more and more users add content to the site. The standard of the photography is generally very high and the images included are often attractive and artistic as well as being potentially useful for research. Another excellent feature of this website is the Map Browser. This colourful and attractive interface allows you to enter a UK postcode to zoom to an area of interest, or simply pan and zoom a map of UK counties to locate sites. Archaeological sites are represented as colour-coded diamonds depending on the type of site they represent. Different types of site can be switched on and off as separate layers within the interface. Clicking on a site on the map brings up locational information for that site plus all related postings, images and links. Users can add further content to any of the sites once they have registered on the website. The full content of the website is available without a need to register or log on. However, if users wish to post comments or images to the site, registration is necessary.
"The Mongols in World History" is an educational website part of "Asia for educators" that looks at the Mongols and their Empire, which was one of the largest in history. The website concentrates on several less known aspects such as trade; religion; arts; military tactics; public works; laws; the perils of nomadic life; the cultural significance of several animals (including horses and camels); and others. Of course, the history of Mongolian conquests is also featured. There are also historical biographies of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan (1162?-1227); Khubilai Khan (1215-1294); Ögödei (1185-1241) and Marco Polo (1254-1323?). There are some excerpts in PDF format taken from the book "The Book of Ser Marco Polo: The Venetian Concerning Kingdoms and Marvels of the East" and edited by Colonel Sir Henry Yule; "All the Khan's Horses" by Morris Rossabi; and "Dietary Decadence and Dynastic Decline in the Mongol Empire" by John Masson Smith. Some educational materials have been prepared and will help teachers in using this website for teaching classes. Students and teachers may find this website useful.
The Museum of London website provides a host of information about the museum and its collections. The site has details of permanent collections and of past and current exhibitions. The Museum's galleries deal with all aspects of London life. This site provides a taster for the galleries and exhibitions, which include life on and around the Thames from prehistoric times to the present day. The museum has a strong interest in the archaeology of London and this is reflected on the website. There is a section devoted to the London Archaeological Archive and Research Centre (LAARC), which includes a searchable catalogue of London archaeological sites and general information on archaeology in London. The learning section contains information and resources for teachers. Other features of the website include details on: opening hours, location, events and news. The site includes a database of oral sources, and contemporary opinions on London and by Londoners. Parts of the site (especially useful for visitors) can also be viewed in German, Spanish, French, and Italian.
The official website of the Niigata Prefectural Museum of History in Japan concentrates on the Jomon culture and the history of the Niigata region. A few simple texts with colour pictures introduce some of the arguments. The Research Activities section contains the profiles of the researchers working at the museum, and there are some scientific papers or short articles by Mark Hall (Sarmatian gold, glass and pottery; obsidian in Hokkaido; Jomon pottery) and Toru Miyao (Jomon pottery). In the Publications section it is possible to access English abstracts of papers published in the Bulletin of the Niigata Prefectural Museum of History, and to access some interesting pages written on the occasion of the special exhibit 'Jomonesque Japan'. These provide only an introduction to Jomon culture, and hence are suitable for students. A few archived archaeological news items from the region, and some general information on the museum and its exhibitions are available. Although this website is incomplete and at times confusing, students may find enough information and pictures to complete an assignment on the Jomon culture of Japan. Researchers may find some of the papers on Sarmatian and Jomon material culture useful.
This is the official website of the Sicilian archaeological field school of Northern Illinois University. The excavation team has its main excavation at Monte Polizzo, which is the largest archaeological site currently excavated in Sicily. The website publishes preliminary reports of the field research carried out, plus minimal background information on western Sicily and Salemi. Monte Polizzo is an important Elymian site and excavations there have begun after several years of surveying. The preliminary reports concern these surveys and include some maps and photographs, mostly of the team members. The preliminary reports contain mostly photographs of the excavations and some artefacts, but can be useful in determining the type of materials found and their contexts. There are also PDF versions of several publications related to the project, in English and Italian. Additionally, the website provides some useful information on the team and how to participate in the excavations.
The North American Prehistory pages of the Minnesota State University emuseum provide a reference guide to the various cultures that inhabited the continent before the arrival of the Europeans. They also contain an introduction to the earliest big game hunters that crossed to the Americas, a history of American archaeology, a few photographs of petroglyphs, and a handful of links to related websites. The main page consists of a map of North America, which links to chronological tables of the cultures that occupied each region. Each culture has its own web page, although most are brief, giving only a basic overview of their lifestyle and archaeological remains. Links are provided, however, to websites with more detailed information about each group. Many of the pages are also available in Japanese.
This website is the official guide of the Greek Ministry of Culture to the museums, historical buildings and monuments, and archaeological sites of Greece. It offers a comprehensive and illustrated overview of around 1000 heritage sites in the care of the Greek government and combines concise information on the historical and artistic attractions of each site or museum together with practical information on opening times, contact details and management responsibility. The information can be accessed in two principal ways, either via a clickable cultural map of Greece or else in the form of searchable A-Z lists of the relevant sites and institutions. The latter constitute an attractive and easily accessible mini reference guide to historic sites in Greece. Most of the featured sites and museums offer thumb-nail images which can be also viewed at a larger scale. The resource also provides a guide to the many bodies, both Greek and foreign, which are responsible for archaeology and heritage management in Greece together with information on relevant education programmes and recent exhibitions in Greece and abroad. Some of the relevant links are still under construction. Links to the parent website of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture provide a wider view of cultural institutions in Greece.
The website is also available in a Greek language version.This resource will have a wide audience in academic world and will be particularly useful for those planning a study tour, research trip or field project in Greece in addition to appealing to the interested amateur.
An overview of various aspects of the Olmec civilization, which flourished and expanded in southern Mexico and Central America during the Preclassic era, circa 1500/1200-100 BC, by Kimberly Lavin a student at the Religious Studies Department of St. Vincent College, Latrobe, Pennsylvania under the supervision of Fr. Thomas Hart. The website provides a summary of key issues such as: chronology and historical development, ethnic and linguistic composition and distribution of Olmec peoples, physical anthropology, a survey of archaeological sites and material culture, and religious and social developments. The bibliography promised in the table of contents and the in-text illustrations do not appear to have been included. This fact, and the undergraduate nature of the work, suggests that the resource can mainly be used by more experienced Mesoamerican students and scholars as an aide-memoire rather than by preliminary students in this subject.
The archaeological complex of Old Orhei (Orheiul Vechi) is situated in the valley of a tributary of the Dniestr-Raut River in Moldova. Archaeological research has demonstrated activity in the area from the Upper Palaeolithic through to the late Medieval period. This website describes the setting and the various archaeological remains, which include fortresses (Prehistoric and Medieval), tumuli, cave monasteries, Medieval bath houses, and a church. There is information on the history of archaeological investigations since 1947 and an index of Medieval monuments. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
Brochs are unique to Scotland and are concentrated mainly in the northern tip of the Scottish mainland and the Northern Isles. This website serves as an introduction to the brochs on Orkney giving descriptions of the layout and methods of construction as well as their evolution from roundhouses. There are moderately detailed descriptions of the brochs of Gurness, Midhowe, and Borwick. These provide some information on the location and discovery of the brochs and are illustrated with small photographs of the monuments. This website may be useful primarily to students.
The website 'Orkneyjar: The Heritage of the Orkney Island' is an online resource dedicated to the archaeology, heritage and history of the Orkney Islands. This well designed website is written and published by a journalist and local history enthusiast. The website provides a collection of resources on the history and traditions of the Orkney Islands, mainly from prehistoric times until the fourteenth century, although later periods are also included. On the site users will find a brief history of the Orkney Islands, a timeline from 3,800 BC to 1379, information on historical sites, characters, and events, as well as a discussion of folklore and traditions. There are some lovely digitised primary sources on the site too, including a map of the Orkney Islands drawn in 1654. The homepage presents some of the iconic monuments: The Tomb of the Eagles; The Stone of Odin; and The Scar Viking Boat Burial. The site is updated constantly.
This website publishes research carried out by several Scottish universities and institutions on all the places in the Northern Isles of Scotland (Orkney and Shetland) and Caithness which have the name Papay, meaning 'the island of the priests' and Papil, meaning 'the settlement of the priests'. The location, environment, and toponyms (place names) of such sites are taken into consideration for the first time in an attempt to understand the use and practical meaning of the terms. Individual sites can be browsed using menus or accessed through maps. For each site, researchers have collected information on the local ecclesiastical history and on archaeological antiquities. The preliminary report is also available in PDF format, and includes a useful bibliography. Researchers intend to extend the study to the rest of Scotland. The project has benefited from financial awards and support from the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland and The Russell Trust.
This is the official website of the excavations in the region of Paphlagonia, Turkey. Paphlagonia was a region on the north-central Black Sea coast of Anatolia, situated between Bithynia and Pontus, which included several Greek colonies such as Sinope and Hadrianopolis. The website was still incomplete at the time of review, but there is already an introduction with maps, a paper on Hellenistic and Roman ceramics ("an overview of the Turkish archaeological literature") and illustrated preliminary reports on the surveys carried out at Hadrianopolis (6th century AD Christian mosaics) and Kimistene (Roman temple). Some pages contain many pictures and may require some time before loading. This website, pending updates, may be useful to students and researchers studying Paphlagonia during the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
The website "Paris, ville antique - Paris, a Roman city" is beautifully produced interactive guide to the early history of Paris (Roman Lutetia) providing a guide to the archaeology and history of the French capital from ancient times to the early Mediaeval period and presented in a hypertext medium. The site has a very good English version. Although Neolithic and Bronze Age occupation from the 4th-3rd millennia BC is documented at Bercy and beneath the Louvre, the history of Paris really dates from the oppidum, or defended settlement, of the Parisii mentioned (and possibly destroyed?) by Julius Caesar during the Gallic wars in 53-52 BC. The settlement was transformed by the conquering Romans into Lutetia which became one of the largest and most sophisticated cities north of the Alps but which by the 3rd and 4th centuries AD had become a fortified settlement protecting the region from barbarian invasions. Sections on the site are: the City; aspects of daily life; archeology in Paris; and a virtual tour of Roman Paris. Key features of this website include: a history of the town describing its natural setting and indigenous Celtic inhabitants; a guided tour of the city relating the ancient and modern topography within an interactive map; an account of the history of excavation in Paris from the time of Gregory of Tours in the 6th century AD to the more explicitly archaeological work of the Commission du Vieux Paris and the Service Régional de l'Archéologie; sections on daily life, trade, manufacturing and artistic production revealed through artefactual remains. Also included is a useful concise list of key ancient sources and modern publications on the history of Paris and a chronological chart. Apart from its appeal to the general reader, this website is an attractive didactic resource for archaeology students at school and university.
The Past perfect website, funded by the New Opportunities Fund and run jointly by Durham and Northumberland County Councils, uses the latest in virtual reality interactive technology to bring the archaeology and history of the two counties alive. The website is split into 7 case studies from Northumberland and Durham spanning from a prehistoric burial to twentieth century mine. Within each case study a series of virtual reality scenarios are presented along with audio and video clips, and a more detailed archive including excavation and specialist reports available online and to download as PDF files. There is also a useful archaeological glossary and a section introducing archaeology. The site runs slowly, and may cause problems for those with slower or older browsers, although there are extensive help pages.
The Perseus Project is a large digital library of online texts and images for the study of ancient Greece and Rome. The resources available via Perseus are extensive, including the following: primary texts (in the original ancient Greek and Latin languages as well as English translation); secondary texts relating to various aspects of the ancient world; a set of linguistic tools; and a number of large databases relating to the study of ancient archaeological sites and artefacts. The art and archaeology section of the website offers a searchable collection of art objects, sites and buildings, with descriptions and images drawn from museums worldwide. It includes architecture, sculpture, coins and vases, and provides access to supporting tools such as atlases and encyclopaedias. The study of the classical world via Perseus is further enhanced by: an interactive atlas; an extensive encyclopaedia with embedded cross-references; and a series of overview articles. The site also offers several further collections of primary and secondary texts: papyri (from the Ptolematic and Roman periods); English Renaissance texts (including all of Marlowe's works, a facsimile of the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays and other resources); London (atlas from 1780 to the present, texts about London, photographs and other materials); books on California and the Upper Midwest from the Library of Congress American Memory Collection; and documents on the history of Tufts University. Mirror sites are available in Berlin and Chicago.
The website "Pevsner Architectural Guides" contains the series with the same title, founded by the architectural historian Sir Nikolaus Pevsner (1902-1983), which is an indispensable resource for students and enthusiasts of the architecture and building history of the British Isles. The volumes are now in the process of revision and augmentation more than 50 years after the first one appeared in 1951. This official website of the Pevsner series was launched in 1998 by the Buildings Books Trust in collaboration with Yale University Press. It provides valuable information on the progress of new editions of existing volumes and of the new series of city architectural guides, while also offering a series of fascinating short accounts of the history of the series and the social and intellectual background of its creator, by a variety of leading art and architectural historians. There is also a page of judiciously chosen websites providing a wide conspectus of online resources for the architectural and social history of the United Kingdom. This site will benefit professional historians, archaeologists, and architects, as well as interested students and laypersons.
This unusual website focuses on separating truths from myths in reports of poisoned arrows being used by natives of Melanesia against ship crewmembers during the 19th century. It is the result of a research using the collections at the Pitt Rivers Museum of Oxford.
This website accompanies a television documentary produced by Louisiana Public Broadcasting. "Poverty Point Earthworks: Evolutionary Milestones of the Americas" examines the site now called Poverty Point State Historic Site in north-eastern Louisiana. The archaeological artefacts discovered at Poverty Point provide evidence of a highly developed ancient American culture that inhabited the lower Mississippi delta between 1750 and 1350 BC. This site includes one of the largest native constructions in eastern North America and the earthworks are the oldest of their size in the Western Hemisphere. The website includes brief information about the television documentary, a reconstructed plan of the earthworks, a transcript of the program, video clips of the geographic location, site structure, mound structure and artefacts (these clips require RealPlayer 7 Basic to play correctly), a list of related websites and credits.
This website stores the database produced by the "Predicting the Location of Hominin Sites in Africa and Asia" research project. It contains two parts: a searchable textual database recording all sites with their geographic location and key bibliographic references; and a GIS database, plotting the sites on a map. Together they form a highly specialised tool to further research by helping in visualising the existing sites and predicting the best areas to conduct new research. All data can be consulted using the online interface or downloaded and imported into local software applications. Only researchers and postgraduate students may truly benefit from this work.
This website is a comprehensive undergraduate course on the archaeology of the Aegean basin from the Palaeolithic period to the beginning of the Iron Age. Based on the lecture notes of Prof. Jeremy Rutter, this course provides an illustrated survey of prehistoric culture in Greece, Crete, the Aegean islands and western Turkey, including the development of the Minoan, Mycenaean civilisations and their connections with the wider Mediterranean world. Three sections on chronology, the ancient environment and the history of the discipline, introduce 29 individual lessons which focus on key cultural developments in the Aegean region. Each lesson, organised either on chronological or thematic lines, provides detailed information on the relevant topic including discussions of all the key debates within the subject. The bibliographies accompanying each lesson are extensive and many of the lessons include photographs of relevant sites and objects as well as numerous site plans. The illustrations can be viewed in a variety of sizes from thumbnail sketch to original scan scale which is particularly useful for line-drawings. This has become a standard undergraduate resource though the content and particularly the reading lists will also be of use to graduate students on MA courses or to archaeologists and ancient historians whose specialism lies elsewhere.
InterReg IIIa is a European project focusing on the prehistory and protohistory of the regions facing the Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean). This website presents the activities of the project, which include excavations in the islands of Pianosa and Elba in Tuscany, the sites of Petra in Corse and Contraguda Perfugas, and the Tres Nuraghes Torre Foghe in Sardinia. Short reports, with colour pictures and computer graphics, are available for all the excavations.
The preliminary results of the survey of the peninsula of Itanos, Crete, by the French Archaeological School at Athens are published in this website as a searchable database of archaeological sites ranging chronologically from the Late Neolithic to modern times. There is an introduction of the project and some guidelines on how to use the database. It is possible to perform searches by record number; area; chronology; function or keyword and multiple variables can be used. For each archaeological site in the database there is a short description; a map; the proposed chronology and function; and a few pictures (clicking on them opens larger versions). There is no information about the finds that have been found. This website may be useful especially to researchers studying north-eastern Crete.
The Provincial Archaeology Office of the Culture and Heritage Division, Department of Tourism, Culture and Recreation, is the regulatory agency for all archaeology conducted within the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Their website lists their responsibilities, and provides information and guidelines to those wishing to conduct archaeological excavations within their area of jurisdiction. There is also a copy of province's Archaeological Investigation Permit Regulations. There are html versions of the Annual Report Series 'Archaeology in Newfoundland and Labrador'. Annual Newsletters and an extensive reference list may be downloaded as a PDF file. There are also a few photographs of archaeological sites and useful maps plotting all known sites by period. The website has a simple and easy to use design in which all pages are linked by hyperlinks and each page has a direct link to the main menu.
This website presents the results of the Pylos Regional Archaeology Project (PRAP), which investigated the history of land use and landscape development around the Late Bronze Age palace (the so-called Palace of Nestor) near Pylos in Messenia, south-western Greece. In addition to preliminary reports of fieldwork between 1992-1997 and a bibliography of research by PRAP members, the site also provides detailed reports on the re-examination of finds from 1998-2005. The site also contains the following: a gazetteer of archaeological sites with accompanying thumb-nail maps; pottery and small finds databases, with images and descriptions of finds; a three-dimensional tour of the Palace of Nestor (this requires Quick Time); and photographs of the study area. This resource will be of particular use to undergraduate students and researchers interested in Mediterranean landscapes and survey methodology and in the long-term economic and social history of south-western Greece.
This website publishes the important "Radiocarbon Palaeolithic Database Europe" by the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) that includes a list of over 8,000 Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites across Europe (including Russia and therefore northern Asia). Each record in the database contains the name of the archaeological site; name and contact details of the person who has provided the information; geographical coordinates; the material cultures represented at the site. For many sites additional information is available, including 14C, AMS, TL, OSL, ESR and Th/U chronometric data; environmental (archaeobotanical and archaeozoological) data; and bibliographic references. The database is being developed and future versions will update the existing data and add new information. The database is in Microsoft Access 2002 format, freely accessible (free registration required) and unrestricted and therefore it is possible to use all the advanced features of any version of Microsoft Access version 2002 or above. Prepared reports with the available chronometric data can be printed immediately; personalised reports can be produced and all data can be exported to other programs such as GIS software. It is also possible to add, update or delete data from the personal copy of the database. It is also possible to download an empty copy of the database to produce similar databases for other regions. An additional file (KML format) permits to map all archaeological sites with Google Earth or NASA WorldWind using the provided geographical coordinates. Basic instructions on the available files and details to download the files are provided in the website. This database is an essential research and reference tool for all archaeologists interested in Palaeolithic Europe. It is highly recommended that all interested researchers and advanced students download a copy and contribute to its development.
The Ramparts website is composed by four illustrated papers: "Survey of fish weirs on the Taf, Towy and Gwendraeth estuaries, Carmarthenshire, South West Wales"; "Fforest yr Esgob - a survey of Deserted Rural Settlements" (an archaeological survey of settlements dating from the Middle Ages to the 19th century in a remote are of south-central Wales); "Carmarthen Bar and its shipwrecks"; and "Carmarthenshire Place-name Survey".
Carmarthen Bar (a sand bar) lies on the north coast of the Bristol Channel in Britain. Three rivers enter the bay here, the main one being the Towy (or Tywi). Many 19th Century ships were wrecked on this bar and some reasons for this are given. Some of these shipwreck remains are now lying at Cefn Sidan Sands - sand dunes to one side of Carmarthen Bar. To improve safety the "Carmarthen Bar Navigation Committee" has been established and they include current information on navigating the bar safely.
Roman Britain, an exceptionally well-thought-out website compiled by an interested amateur, contains a wealth of useful pages and links to information on Roman Britain. The website offers an extensive variety of material relating to the Roman occupation of the British Isles, including: information from the Peutinger Table and the Ravenna Cosmography, and other ancient texts; a section on Hadrian's Wall with maps, guides and information; useful lists of governors, emperors, and Roman military units in Britain; transcriptions of military diplomata and inscriptions; a timeline; numerous little detours into explanations of Roman coinage and calendars, etc.; and gazetteers of notable Britons, British tribes and deities of the period. The website contains only limited amounts of text and instead includes many compiled lists of sites, legions, tribes, etc. and its strength is in these simple, very useful lists. Section "The Romano-British" contains a series of interactive maps, which can display the location of most Roman (and contemporary) sites in Britain. Roman sites can also be mapped using a separate map with simple layers that can selected or de-selected. The maps were working only with Internet Explorer. This material would be of interest to anyone working on Roman Britain, although the sometimes cartoony graphics and dog-Latin scattered around the site might put off more serious scholars. Several pages were missing at the time of review.
"Roman Villas in the North of England" has been produced as the result of an undergraduate dissertation submitted to the University of Manchester in August 2001 entitled "Villas of the Brigantes and Parisi: Criteria for Site Location" by Martin Burroughs. The data collection phase of this project produced a corpus of 65 villa sites and the author makes the claim in his dissertation that this gazetteer forms the most complete and reliable list of Northern villas that has ever been assembled. This resource contains the full-text of the dissertation, available to download in both PDF and Word document formats. The gazetteer itself can be found in Appendix 1 of the dissertation but can also be downloaded separately as comma delimited txt files (CSV and TXT) complete with a "read me" file with field definitions. The website is easily navigable through the standard ADS interface and users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions prior to accessing the resource. Both students and researchers may find this thesis useful.
Initiated by the Sussex Archaeological Society at Fishbourne Roman Palace, the 'Romans in Sussex' website is a resource enabling users to access databases of objects and sites in Sussex relating to the late Iron Age (circa 100 BCE - 43 CE), the Roman and the early Saxon period (- 600 CE). It is intended primarily for use in learning and teaching and it has been designed with three separate levels to meet the needs of teachers of: Key Stage 2 (ages 7-11); Key Stages 3 and 4 (12-16); and for further education and higher education and the general public. Teachers may also find this resource useful for background information. Timelines and maps describe key events in Sussex, Britain and Rome throughout this period. Clickable maps illustrate known archaeological features at relevant times in the period. A thematic section divides the period into Late Iron Age, Roman and Anglo Saxon, examining subjects such as settlement and land use, religion and burial, people and politics and trade and industry. Its primary aim is for use as a research tool by students to find out about various aspects of life during this period, drawing on images and descriptions of objects from museums and collections from all over Sussex. Many of the artefacts are not on public display, or even published, and so are available here for the first time. The project is funded by Resource: the Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries.
The Romans in Sussex website project started in early 2000, when the Sussex Archaeological society made a successful bid for a grant from Resource: the council for Museums, Archives and Libraries. The Level 3 website is a teaching resource for the history of Sussex from 100BC to 600AD at undergraduate level. It illustrates the events leading up to and during the Roman occupation of Sussex. Timelines and maps give key events in Sussex, Britain and Rome throughout this period. Clickable maps illustrate known archaeological features at relevant times in the period. A thematic section divides the period into Late Iron Age, Roman and Anglo Saxon and examines subjects such as settlement and land use, religion and burial, people and politics and trade and industry. There are searchable databases for artefacts from a number of museums in Sussex and for archaeological sites by location or by type. An updated bibliography is also available. Versions of the website for younger audiences (level 1) and the general public (level 2) can also be accessed from this website.
The Rough Cilicia Archaeological Survey Project has been using surface survey to map and record evidence of past human existence in western Rough Cilicia, southern Turkey. The website presents detailed reports on the results of surveys carried since 1996 and, in particular, on the discovery of Juliosebaste, a prominent town at least from the early Roman through the Byzantine era. A series of pages present a web GIS which show the survey areas and the major sites found. A Survey Pottery Study Collection has photographs and descriptions of the major classes of pottery found plus a number of QuickTime movies illustrating, with commentary pottery classes. Further QuickTime movies and animated gif images show discoveries made during the surveys and computer reconstructions of some settlements. Many of the pages of the website have a navigation bar in a frame at the left of the browser window although some pages open in a new browser window and are devoid of navigation aids. The website makes intense use of multimedia resources, but section "Article" contains a summary of the research suitable for undergraduate students, including an essay entitled "What is Survey?"
This is the website of the Riu Mannu survey, which is a field walking project that seeks to examine the development of socio-political organization in Sardinia, from the earliest occupation of the island, through to the Middle Ages. The fieldwork took place between 1991 and 1999, and was directed by M. Beatrice Annis (University of Rome), Peter van Dommelen (University of Glasgow) and Peter van de Velde (University of Leiden). Analytical studies of the finds, both pottery and obsidian and pottery, are currently in progress. This website contains details about the aims and outcomes of the research. It also contains images of the fieldwork in practice, and a bibliography of published output relating to the project. The project is part of the ongoing archaeological research of the University of Glasgow in Sardinia. Some pages are also available in Italian.
This website created by Vladimir Eremenko - graduate of St. Petersburg University - is a unique source for all involved in archaeological studies not only in Russia but all over the world. It contains such sections as "Arkheologiia stran mira"; "Novosti arkheologii"; "Antichnaia arkheologiia"; "Arkheologicheskie organizatsii"; and others. The section "Biblioteka online" provides users with various lists of online libraries worldwide. The site is constantly updated with all the sections reviewed if required and new articles included. Thus in 2003 six articles were added (S.V. Riabchikov "Kollektsiia meotskikh drevnostei"; S.& M. Aleksashin "Pamiatnye stely Peredol'skogo pogosta", etc.). Some new bibliographies were also included as well as information on forthcoming conferences and other materials. The site is mostly in Russian, so a Cyrilllic character set is required.
Samnites and Samnium publishes a collection of illustrated articles by Davide Monaco, an amateur archaeologist. There are preliminary reports on the 2004 excavations of Vastogirardi; a paper on the sanctuary of Pietrabbondante by Filippo Coarelli and Adriano La Regina; and John Patterson's paper "Una cittí chiamata Sannio" (A city named Samnium). There are articles on Samnite coins; the army; religion; and the Oscan language (including the bronze tablet of Agnone), which are adequate for use in undergraduate essays. There are also an extensive bibliography, a list of ancient sources mentioning the Samnites and a public forum. Readers should be aware that some articles are available only in Italian and that some English articles are abbreviated versions of the original versions in Italian. The Samnites were a fierce Italic people that fought three wars against Rome for the control of the Italian peninsula; they also sided with Hannibal during his incursion in the Italian peninsula and caused trouble to Rome in the following centuries until Sulla defeated them one last time in 82 BC. This website is a good introduction to the Samnites for the general public and undergraduate students.
The Sangro Valley Project is an investigation into the past settlement and land use in the catchment of the Sangro river in central Italy. This website covers Phase 2 (1999 to the present day) of the project, which first began in 1994. The project is a collaboration between the Soprintendenza Archeologica dell'Abruzzo (Italy), the Institute of Archaeology, Oxford University (UK), and Oberlin College (USA). It consists of archaeological field work, research, and a field school, and aims to assess man's impact on, and transformation of, the Sangro Valley between the prehistoric and medieval periods.The website includes preliminary reports for the 1999, 2000, and 2001 seasons, and a set of QuickTime panoramas that give a good impression of the spectacular scenery of the Sangro Valley.
Sardegna3D is one of several websites published by the Sardinian regional authority (Regione Autonoma della Sardegna), making available an interactive map of Sardinia. The website allows downloading a free software component for Windows and contains a help guide; the rest of the website can be accessed only through the interface of the software once it has been installed. The interface of the software is tidy and easily understandable, it starts with a satellite view of Sardinia that can be zoomed and tilted. Under the menu "view", item "views" allows to activate several layers, each displaying geographical features or cultural heritage sites (largely archaeological sites). Zooming in on any area of Sardinia reveals the types of sites selected through the layers, each identified by a distinguishing icon and a name; aerial photographs replace satellite photographs at higher resolution and it is possible to select photographs taken in different years. Topographical maps of Sardinia can be accessed via the default browser by clicking on the 2d button. By clicking on any site, a relevant page will open in the default browser, usually with texts and images. The software has parts written in English that should help an English-speaking readership in using it, but the help guide is only available in Italian and all textual resources accessible through the interface are in Italian. However, the software is so intuitive that many features can be used without any particular training especially if familiar with other virtual globes. This project is part of the "Sistema Informativo Territoriale Regionale, Infrastruttura di Dati Territoriali della Regione Autonoma della Sardegna" (SITR-IDT RAS). This is an outstanding research tool for anybody interested in the territory or cultural heritage of Sardinia and makes learning more entertaining.
This website is part of SardegnaCultura, an official publication of the regional governmental body. It summarises the history of Sardinia from Palaeolithic to contemporary times, though most of the website is concerned with pre-Nuragic, Nuragic, Phoenician, Roman, Byzantine and Medieval history and focuses on artefacts and architectural structures (material culture). There are short illustrated article for each period, usually a set focusing on archaeology (archeologia), architecture (architettura) and art (arte). Three other sections set this website apart: "guide" (full text ebooks of archaeological guides), "monografie" (full text versions of printed academic books and papers) and "monumenti" (an encyclopaedic work of the major architectural buildings in each period). Different sections are available for each period, with fewer options for post-Medieval periods.
Among the ebooks and papers in PDF format are: "Necropoli ipogeiche di S'Adde 'e Asile e Noeddale (Ossi)"; "Laconi. Il museo delle statue Menhir"; "L'altare preistorico di Monte D'Accoddi"; "Il Nuraghe Albucciu e i monumenti di Arzachena"; "Il museo archeologico di Sassari G. A. Sanna"; "Anghelu Ruju"; "Ricerche archeologiche nel Marghine-Planargia"; "Il Nuraghe Arrubiu di Orroli"; "Barumini"; "Il museo archeologico di Dorgali"; "Civiltà nuragica"; "S. Antioco"; "Monte Sirai"; "Tharros"; "Nora"; "Sardegna punica" (Punic Sardinia); "L'ipogeo di San Salvatore"; "Storia della Sardegna e della Corsica durante il periodo romano" (1923) by Ettore Pais; "Turris Libisonis"; "Fordongianus"; "Sant'Andrea Priu"; and "Studi storici sulle istituzioni della Sardegna nel Medioevo" (Historical studies on Sardinian institutions in the Middle Age). Although some books are now old, most are recent publications.
The Scottish Borders Heritage website combines historical and archaeological resources with visitor information to provide a comprehensive guide to the Borders area of southern Scotland. Information regarding individual Heritage Sites is categorised into five themes (Early Settlers, Border Warfare, Farm and Factory, Historic Townships, and Church History), which are in turn sub-divided between eleven geographical areas. In all, 119 Heritage Sites are documented, which can be browsed either by theme or by location. The website is associated with a series of books by John Dent and Rory McDonald (published between 1997 and 2001). Also available within the website is an image gallery that presents photos from the Borders region in association with the themes mentioned above. Links to other Scottish Heritage organisations are also available, while a News and Events section provides information and articles regarding Borders heritage issues and events.
The Secrets of the Norman Invasion website was created by an amateur historian, Nick Austin, out of his enthusiasm to discover where the Normans landed prior to the Battle of Hastings. Austin proposes that the Normans did not land at Pevensey, the traditionally accepted site, but instead at Wilting Manor, East Sussex. On the site, Austin presents an extensive range of diverse primary and secondary sources to support his claim, from contemporary chroniclers and the Domesday Book, through to the Bayeux Tapestry. He has also studied aerial surveys and resistivity maps of the Sussex coast and examined the geography of the local towns and villages. All of these are accompanied online by a lengthy and detailed argument in favour of Austin's preferred landing site. Austin has received help and assistance from local archaeology groups. Amateur and professional historians alike will find this an interesting resource, whether or not they agree with Austin's argument. There is a link to the associated Norman Invasion chatboard. A Spanish version has been added to the site. As it is an amateur site, there are some adverts.
This simple website publishes the preliminary results of the international archaeological team investigating Shala Valley near Shkodër in Albania. There are information on the project; contact details; a few maps; short videos and the yearly field reports in PDF format. Of considerable interest are the reports of the ethnohistoric and survey teams, which focus on the patterns of inhabitation and subsistence as well as development and life quality in the area during the last century (before, during and after Communist rule): the Communist rule disrupted the traditional way of living in several ways (e.g. irrigations canals were enlarged, travel restrictions were enforced, communal barns were built). Depopulation is affecting life mostly in recent years. The reports evidence the use of symbols on the masonry of houses and that the current occupation dates back to the Middle Ages. A few archaeological sites seem to be much older, dating (according to initial research) to the Middle Palaeolithic, Late Bronze Age and Late Roman periods. This website may be useful primarily to researchers.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Zankor, province of Kurdufān, Sudan. It is the preliminary report of a survey carried out by French archaeologists, focussing particularly on medieval antiquities. There are a few articles illustrated with plans and colour pictures. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. A bibliography, a map and contact details of the surveyors are provided.
This website publishes the preliminary results of the Southern Euboea Exploration Project. There are a few colour pictures and the newsletter "Seepage" available, as well as a short history of the project, pasta and present members as well as contact details. There is a bibliography, and further bibliographic references may be found in the newsletter. This website may be of interest especially to researchers.
The 'Spatial and Chronological Patterns in the Neolithisation of Europe' resource consists of an online electronic spatial database of radiocarbon dates for the later Mesolithic and early Neolithic of Europe, roughly 9000-5000 BP. The resource's time frame covers the range from the later Mesolithic in southeast Europe to the earlier Neolithic in northern and northwest Europe and contains additional information on the contexts of the dates, the material dated and economic and cultural associations. The resource has been compiled from a number of European sources and contains information on around 2500 dates (from an original set of around 4000). Although the database itself is not downloadable from the ADS website, there is detailed documentation on the tables and fields that constitute the database. Considerable space is also dedicated to the project's aims and methodology together with a history of the project and the development of the database as well as an extensive bibliography. The site is easily navigable through the standard ADS interface and users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions prior to accessing the resource. The search interface is extensive and highly flexible and requires no client-side plug-ins in order to function.
This is the highly detailed and well thought-out website of the Sphakia Survey, an interdisciplinary archaeological project whose main objective is to reconstruct the sequence of human activity in a remote and rugged part of Crete (Greece), from the time that people arrived in the area, by c. 3000 BCE, until the end of Ottoman rule in AD 1900. The project's research covers three major epochs, Prehistoric, Graeco-Roman, and Byzantine-Venetian-Turkish, and has involved the work of many people using environmental, archaeological, documentary, and local information. The website includes: photographs of Cretan landscapes, objects and archaeological finds; illustrated versions of the project's preliminary articles; a searchable database of the site catalogue; a case study based on one period (Graeco-Roman) in one of the eight regions surveyed; and a description of the project's research methodology. This resource is a joint project between the Sphakia Survey project and the Humanities Computing Development Team at the University of Oxford. The website is part of an online course for adult learners; an educational video based on research at Sphakia is available. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
The Mesoamerican Ballgame is a visually stimulating, award-winning website that requires a Flash plug-in before it can be opened. Amongst other Web awards, this won the Museums and the Web Best Overall Site in 2002, a competition in which museum professionals recognized excellence in heritage website design from around the world nominated by the community.The Sport of Life and Death was an organised game using a rubber ball and teams that was developed by the Olmecs living in Mesoamerica (which includes modern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador) around 1500 BCE. The game was played in one form or another until the Europeans colonized the Americas, and forms of the game are still played today. This, the first team sport, is described in the context of the history of sport from bowling, wrestling, and the Olympic games through Medieval times to current sports.This site boasts a completely interactive and interconnected clickable map of the Mesoamerican world with a timeline (1500 BCE-1519 CE) and and with a left-nav menu showing historic and archaeological sites, evidence of the ballgame and artwork of the cultures of Mesoamerica: Olmec; Western Mexico; Teotihuacan; Maya; Veracruz; Toltec; Huastec; Aztec; and the Spanish Conquest. This immense resource is presented graphically with Flash, music, video footage (such as a Quicktime movie of a Ballgame reenactment), model VR footage, VR panoramas, stunning photography, artwork and animated icons and mouse cursors. Where appropriate the memory size of files and anticipated download times for varying connections to the Internet are provided. The exploration of the Mesoamerican World and the Ballgame, and the virtual presentation of the touring museum exhibition that this site accompanies, is facilitated by a huge Site Map accessible from the bottom-nav bar on all pages. This map is incredibly colourful and an invaluable and comprehensive navigation aid. Although not revolutionary, the website design uses Flash to its full potential enhancing the educational, informative, navigational, and fun content that is presented.Each page provides links to further information about the objects in each section, and the institutions and agencies that have contributed to the exhibition which include academics from US and central American universities, as well as institutions such as Yale University Art Gallery and the National Geographic.
This is an online guide to European megaliths and other ancient sites - "stone circles, dolmens, standing stones, cairns, barrows and hillforts". Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi, the authors of this online resource, have visited and photographed all 529 archaeological sites displayed in these pages. Each record contains one photograph and a brief description on average. A larger version of most pictures is available by clicking on the "hi-res" button. There is a QuickTime VR gallery (prehistorama) with several 360 degrees panoramas. In particular there are pages of stones from: England; France; Ireland; Italy; Scotland and Wales. The archaeological sites can be accessed also from the "tours" section in the order that they have been visited. The "archaeonews" section provides updated news, which is accessible also via email newsletter, RSS and audio podcast. There is an internal search engine, a space for discussion (forum) and a glossary.
This is a website published by a local history enthusiast, Simon Knott, which aims to catalogue all of the Anglican and Catholic churches in Suffolk, with descriptions and accompanying photographs. Currently there are around six hundred churches featured on the site, and these can be searched or browsed by place name. Each entry contains: a short history of the church; details of architectural changes made to the buildings; and location and access details, as well as Simon's personal view of the building and its features. In addition to the main catalogue, there are also: suggestions for further reading; a glossary of unfamiliar terms; and audio files of programmes and interviews the author has participated in for BBC Radio Suffolk. This site would be of interest to those studying church architecture (particularly medieval) and archaeologists.
SCIEM2000 is a major inter-disciplinary research project aiming to refine our understanding of the chronological relationships between Eastern Mediterranean cultures of the second millennium BC using a variety of archaeological, historical and scientific dating techniques. This website is currently being updated and only contains essential contact information.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and presents the preliminary results of a geoarchaeological survey of the Badiya (steppe) in Syria. About eight hundred and fifty sites have now been discovered in the region; prior to this survey only around a hundred were known. The sites span all historical periods. This website also includes a glossary; a bibliography; a 'diaporama' (gallery of images); and contact details for the researchers.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on northern Syria. This overview of French archaeological research in Syria summarises the history and material culture of the region. There is also a short history of research. Two illustrated articles concentrate on the villages of Sergilla and Déhí Ã‚Â¨s. There is an extensive bibliography and numerous colour pictures, plans, and drawn reconstructions. This website may be of particular use to students.
This website provides an online guide to the Tafila-Busayra Archaeological Survey (TBAS), a three year project (1999-2001) carried out in the Trans-Jordanian Plateau south-east of the Dead Sea which was intended in part as a hinterland study of the Edomite capital of Busayra. Conducted by Dr Burton MacDonald of the St. Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia, the project attempted to connect, both geographically and chronologically, with the work of the Wadi al-Hasa Archaeological Survey (WHS; 1979-83) and the Southern Ghors and Northeast 'Arabah Archaeological Survey (SGNAS; 1985-86). The survey area, covering a region of some 480 sq. kilometres in the region from west of Tafila and Busayra to Jurf ad-Darwish in the east, had previous been explored by Nelson Glueck in the 1930s and Stephen Hart in the 1980s. The resource provides illustrated summary reports (including valuable artefact scatter data) which can be downloaded as Word files for each of the three years of the project along with bibliographic references to the paper publication in the American Journal of Archaeology, the Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan and the American Center of Oriental Research Newsletter. This resource will benefit specialists and students in Near Eastern archaeology, particularly those interested in long-term landscape developments and intensive inter-disciplinary survey methods.
Tales of the frontier: political representations and practices inspired by Hadrian's Wall is the website of a major Arts and Humanities Research Council project (July 2007 - Sept 2009), which is investigating the cultural and political meanings given to this famous Roman frontier system. The project will range in time from the Venerable Bede (8th Century) to contemporary tourism, and will draw on a wide variety of resources including works of art and literature. The website contains details of the project and staff. There are pages for news, publications and events. There are a small number of selected external Web links of relevance to the project. The project is based at the Durham Centre for Roman Cultural Studies, which is also developing the Hadrian's Wall Research Framework.
This is the website of "The Archaeological Settlements of Turkey", a project aiming to catalogue all known pre-Classical settlements within the territory of modern Turkey. The targeted settlements date from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age, though the database does not include yet any settlement past the Early Bronze Age. The website offers access to a growing database of settlements and a GIS version of it. Computing technologies are extensively used, sometimes openly experimented, and a Java enabled browser is required to access the GIS section, which only plots the settlements on a map of Turkey and return on click of each site the corresponding database record. The database can be queried using a simple or advanced search, but the latter only refines the geographical region to be searched. By clicking a period underneath the simple search form, it is possible to access an advanced form limited by period, which is perhaps the best way to perform a search. The data returned by the database are often succinct, and only at times there are maps and pictures. It is also possible for the public to add settlements to the database, or modify data in any record. Such modifications are reviewed before inclusion in the online version. The Turkish team of archaeologists behind TAY is not affiliated to any institution and this is perhaps most evident in the decision to involve the public in the compilation of the database. The website is hosted by the Istanbul Technical University, Turkey.
This website details the archaeology and history of the Caddo peoples of what is now northeast Texas, northwest Louisiana, southwest Arkansas, and southeast Oklahoma. The Caddo were settled tribes who formed the westernmost Mississippian culture. They tended to live in dispersed communities, with fewer primate centres than other similar groups, but with a fine pottery tradition. The Caddo cultural tradition can be traced back to around 800 AD, although the site's coverage begins before this, looking at archaeological remains from the first settlers of the region onwards. The website is extensive, tracing the prehistory of the Caddoan peoples and the historical period after the arrival of the Europeans. Nineteenth and twentieth-century dispersal and developments are also covered. There is a kids' page and a teaching section for schoolteachers. Most of the historical material should prove of interest to older students up to undergraduate level. The site is richly illustrated with photographs of artefacts, maps, and illustrations pictorially recreating Caddoan life and culture. Significant archaeological theories concerning Caddoan community structure and ritual practices are explained.
This illustrated website publishes the preliminary data from the excavations at Tell 'Acharneh in Syria by Laval University, Quebec, which has been exploring this important ancient urban centre since 1998. Acharneh, 35 km south-west of Hama in modern Syria, is a large tell site of some 70 hectares located on the Orontes river in the southern portion of the fertile Ghab valley whose strategic position helps to explain its long history of human occupation from the Early Bronze Age to the mediaeval period. This site has been identified with the powerful city of Tunip mentioned in Near Eastern and Egyptian documents of the second millennium BC and central to our understanding of the political makeup of the region in this period. The ancient town disappears from ancient records at the arrival of the Sea Peoples at the end of the Bronze Age. As part of the project, archaeologists are revising the pottery sequence, which is used as an important chronological yardstick in Near Eastern stratigraphy. The website publishes short fieldwork reports since 1998 (accessible by year or excavation area); bibliographic references; a video produced from GIS data; topographical and satellite maps; news on recent research; and lists of project members by year. The English language version of this website was in preparation at the time of review. This is an informative resource on an important archaeological site and will benefit students and researchers in Near Eastern archaeology and history and related subjects. However, the scanty data from the preliminary reports only allow for an introduction to the research at this archaeological site.
The website of the Templo Mayor Museum in Mexico City preserves, exhibits and publicises information on archaeological materials excavated over the course of several seasons of work conducted by the Templo Mayor Project, from 1978 to the present. Long presumed to be lost, the precinct of the Aztec Temple Mayor (or Great Temple) of Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City) was discovered during routine maintenance work in the old colonial urban centre. An unparalleled archaeological source, the Templo Mayor is a vital and unique key to understanding Aztec society. An accessible resource, this website not only discusses the archaeological excavations conducted to date on the site of the Great Temple, but also provides a clear and detailed explication of Mexican culture and history. With useful links providing cross-referencing to explanations and images and a helpful glossary, this is an extremely well-designed site of use to Mesoamerican scholars of all levels, from the academic seeking archaeological images to the school student wanting an accurate and comprehensible synopsis of the pre-colonial Nahua culture of the Valley of Mexico.
Texas Notes provides access to full online texts of a fascinating collection of articles concerning Pre-Columbian art, architecture, and history. Begun in 1990 by epigrapher Linda Schele, the Texas Notes were a ground-breaking method of disseminating the continual advancements in the decipherment of Pre-Columbian material, coming from the Mesoamerica Center at the University of Texas in the early 1990s. Although some of these articles have now been made obsolete by further discoveries and greater understanding of the languages, these articles provide an intriguing record of the development of epigraphy and understanding in this field. Dealing primarily with Mayan inscriptions and glyphs, the Texas Notes also contain material relating to other Mesoamerican cultures of Central and South America. Hosted by the University of Texas at Austin, a prominent centre for the study of Latin America, and a product of their Center for the History of Ancient American Art and Culture, this is an accessible, although sometimes slow, site, which relies on the download of PDF files.
The page also links to other online publications from the Mesoamerica Center, and is part of the Center's larger online resource, giving information about its activities, staff, and a collection of gateways.
The Thesprotia expedition website publishes the preliminary results of the survey work carried out in the Kokytos river basin, Epirus, from prehistoric to modern times. The methods employed for the survey includes intensive surveying with grids 10x10 m or 20x20 m; GIS, GPS and geoarchaeological analyses. The earliest artefacts found date to the Palaeolithic (ca. 100,000 years BP), for which three archaeological sites have been identified. The survey has also found evidence of Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age human occupation; scarce is the evidence for the Iron Age. More substantial artefacts have been found for the Greek and Roman period (including epigraphs) and later periods. The website only summarises the preliminary results and publishes a few colour illustrations, often without caption, and contains an extensive bibliography.
The British School at Rome’s Tiber Valley project studies the changing landscapes of the middle Tiber valley from 1000 BC to AD 1000. The website is composed of a series of introductions to parts of the project, including a study of local Roman towns, a survey of South Etruria and excavations at Forum Novum - Vescovio. The Roman towns project analyses urban settlements in the middle and lower Tiber valley of central Italy, ranging from the larger privileged centres down to the smaller agglomerations and roadside sites. Conducted by a team from the University of Southampton. The town of Falerii Novi in particular has received a good deal of attention, and the website includes a geophysical survey of the town. The other towns discussed in the preliminary results section are: Baccanas; Castellum Amerinum; Forum Cassii; Otricoli; Portus; and Vignale. This part of the project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme. A bibliography and notices of past conferences complete this website. Students in particular may find it useful.
The Tlahuica Culture home page is a website describing the records and archaeological remains of the Aztec Tlahuica peoples of central Mexico, in what is now the Morelos region. Their largest cities were Cuauhnahuac (modern-day Cuernavaca) and Huaxtepec (modern Oaxtepec). This site details the remains at Teopanzolco, Coatetelco, Tepozteco, Yautepec, and the Palacio de Cortés, along with some rural villages and agricultural areas. The texts are illustrated by maps, diagrams, and photographs. The remains at each location are described along with a brief history of excavations and a summary of the importance of each site. There is also a page on the origins of the Tlahuica, their language, records, economy, and social structure. A bibliography is included.
The Troodos Archaeological Survey Project is an interdisciplinary, international project that aims to investigate the history and development of human activity and settlement in the Troodos Mountains of central Cyprus. The survey makes use of fieldwalking, aerial photographs and satellite imagery, database and GIS recording and analytical procedures, and geomorphological mapping to locate industrial sites and agricultural villages; to consider and redefine the possible existence of a site hierarchy; and to reconstruct an early industrial landscape.These pages introduce the project and the methodology. There is a report on the survey results for 2000 with information on prehistoric and historic archaeology, archaeometallurgy, pottery, geobotany, and architecture. New reports are being added to the site based on the 2001 season findings.The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
This website describes the University of Chicago's excavations, since 1989, of the sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia near Corinth; this was one of the most important religious centres of the ancient Greek world and the location of the pan-Hellenic games. In addition to reports for the 1989-2007 field seasons, the resource includes a number of articles on various aspects of ancient Isthmia as well as a bibliography of publications by the project team. The resource offers numerous useful maps, plans and photographs of the sanctuary. Particularly attractive is a series of 3D views and contour plans illustrating the architectural development of the sanctuary of Poseidon from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BCE. Ability to view large images (using Adobe Acrobat) is required. This site will be of value both to undergraduates and to those initiating research into the archaeology of Greek religion and social life.
This is the home page for the Institute of Egyptian Art and Archaeology at the University of Memphis (Memphis Tennessee, rather than Memphis, Ancient Egypt). The site consists of an introduction to the Institute, an online exhibition of a few of the artefacts held at the Institute, a photographic 'tour' of major architectural and archaeological or historic sites in Egypt including Aswan, Giza and Luxor. The exhibition area is small but of good quality, with fairly detailed images of artefacts taken at different angles, and accompanying descriptions. The photographic tour of Egypt does not go greatly beyond the realm of holiday snaps, but short explanations of the subjects photographed may provide a basic introduction to Egyptology for the general public. The site also gives news of any upcoming special exhibitions at the institute. This website is nicely presented, but slight in content, and is aimed more at the public than the academic market. Architects or Egyptologists may however find some use for the images at the site (copyright permitting).
This is the website of "The University of Sydney Central Asian Programme". The programme is an initiative designed to promote research into the landscape and culture of the Central Asian states. Under this programme the Karakalpak-Australian Expedition was established with the aim to study the history and archaeology of ancient Chorasmia, a land in existence between the 7th Century BC and the 7th Century AD in the north-west of modern day Uzbekistan. The website outlines the expedition's history and provides information on the archaeological sites concerned, supported by thumbnailed photographs. Information on the programme's School's Support Project is also available, while a Maps page provides large JPEGs of 19th and 20th century maps of the area.
The Heritage Lottery funded Unlocking Essex's Past project aims to make publicly available a wide range of resources from the Essex Heritage Conservation Record. The project moves beyond the 'traditional online HER' by incorporating a highly comprehensive search system including a GIS interface. The underlying database includes a wide range of multimedia content, such as virtual reality models and aerial photographs, together with the standard HER record information. The project is highly orientated towards supporting individual research and provides easy access to data focussed upon specific towns in Essex ('My Town'). Two sections, 'Investigating the Past' and 'Protecting the Past' also exist which concentrate firstly upon the methods and techniques employed in archaeological research and secondly on the legislation and methodologies employed in heritage conservation. The website is consistently navigable with little difficulty. One of the most impressive features of this website is the integration of the NMR Monument Type, Building Materials and Evidence Thesauri and MDA Archaeological Objects Thesaurus into the search interface, allowing standardised terms to be used when searching the Essex Heritage Conservation Record.
The Upper Tisza Project is an interdisciplinary Anglo-Hungarian landscape archaeology project, based in the University of Durham/Dept. of Archaeology and Eötvös Loránd University/Institute of Archaeological Science, Budapest. The project focuses on three principle aims: (1) the definition and explanation of changes in the palaeo-environment, together with changes in regional economic potential, over the last 10,000 years; (2) the definition of long-term changes in arenas of social power which are related to the exploitation of local and regional potential; (3) the clarification of upland-lowland relationships though definition of the mechanisms of exploitation of upland resources. This resource presents the results of the project in eBook format and, at present, Book One of the Upper Tisza Project, out of a projected Eight, is available. It contains the introduction to the project, the information pertaining to fieldwalking methods and the results and interpretations of one of the three fieldwalking blocks. The site is easily navigable through the standard ADS interface and users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions prior to accessing the resource. The eBook itself is stylistically different to the rest of the ADS website and is slightly more difficult to navigate, partly due to its use of frames. A non-framed version of the book is due to be implemented in the near future alongside the uploading of Book Two.
The website "Vindolanda Tablets Online" is an excellent site which provides an online database of the Vindolanda Tablets found at the Vindolanda fortress near Hadrian's Wall dating from the first century of the common era. The site is extremely easy to navigate and features a help section. The database is intended to be used as a learning tool for teaching Latin and Classics at all levels; primary school (there is a link to the Latin course for primary schools, Minimus), A and AS levels, undergraduate, postgraduate and for research purposes. The website is based on the publication of three volumes of materials on the tablets, but obviously offers many more facilities than the printed form. There is a section on the background history to the fort of Vindolanda, where the tablets were found. The tablets provide information on the social, cultural, and military history of the fortress. There is an online exhibition of the tablets, which features sections on people, places, documents, reading the tablets, and forts and military life. An excellent reference section provides information about Roman systems of dates, measures, currencies, military units and ranks, and Roman nomenclature. The tablets themselves can be viewed individually, and through an image zooming viewer. The tablets are arranged as a fully searchable set of digital materials with information included that is related to the tablets. The texts of the tablets can be searched by document type, people, places, military terms, archaeology, and other terms. A comprehensive links page provides information on over 70 websites and a bibliography of printed material. The project is based within the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University and is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The initial capture of the digital images was supported by an Arts and Humanities Research Board grant.
"The Virtual Museum of Iraq" website has been produced under the scientific supervision of the Italian Research Council (CNR) and is supported by the Italian Foreign Ministry. Despite the involvement of research staff, the website is aimed at the general public in a bid to help the Iraqi people reconstruct their cultural identity and it is of limited value to students. The website recreates graphically the environment of a museum and selected artefacts are displayed in "halls", each focusing on a distinct chronological period (prehistoric to Islamic periods). The selection of many artistic objects suggests the use of old fashioned criteria and limits the value of the website as an educational tool. For each artefact there is a "description" with a picture, and often there are 360 degrees QuickTime VR representations of the artefact ("Explore") and a "video" a few minutes long outlining the archaeological and/or cultural contexts. The information for the individual artefacts is succinct and correct. Section "backstage" (bottom bar) contains short videos by the scientific curators providing additional information on the project; these videos are available in Italian only.
The website is very polished and uses of several multimedia technologies, including virtual reconstructions, but navigating through it is not as easy as it could be. Virtual reconstructions are however based on "best guess" policies and therefore of limited value to anyone serious about the study of a culture. There is also a distracting running music that cannot be switched off permanently. The layout of the website appears to be that of a real museum. The project saw the involvement of staff from the Iraq museum in Baghdad, but is not the official website of the museum even if at times it may appear to be. It would have been preferable to see less graphics and no virtual walls potentially suggesting that the website acts as a replacement of the real museum. Since the real museum has been damaged in a conflict, the use of virtual reality to recreate that environment as good as it can be seems ethically challenged and may well become the subject of academic discussions involving students. Despite the obvious great efforts in producing the website, the graphics and multimedia seem to overshadow the actual artefacts and whilst the casual user may think that the website is a great introduction to the Iraqi culture using the latest technologies, even undergraduate students will struggle to squeeze out of it some educational value.
The Wealden Iron Research Group (WIRG) website provides information on a wide range of the groups activities together with a general introduction to iron production in the Weald. The Weald has been identified as a key iron-producing region for the British Isles and it contains nearly 800 identified iron-making sites dating from the pre-Roman period up to the 19th century. The WIRG, established in 1968, has carried out a wide range of activities on the Weald. The website contains information on the group's research aims, meetings, excavations and other fieldwork together with details on how to become a member. One of the key group activities is conducting a programme of experiments intended to replicate the bloomery smelting process used in the Weald during the Roman occupation. The website contains a highly detailed and well-illustrated section on these experiments together with details of the groups publications and annual bulletin of research. Aside from providing details on the WIRG itself, the website also contains a brief history of the iron industry in the weald from prehistory to nineteenth century. The WIRG website is simply and consistently set out using frames and is via navigation a standardised side menu. The illustrations are clear, are captioned and linked to larger versions. The website also contains a number of links to related websites.
"WebGIS" is a powerful web application that combines the functionality of Google Earth with scientific data from a GIS survey. At the time of the review only one archaeological site was active, Babylon, which is accessible by clicking on Iraq in the initial map and then "Babilonia". The interactive map consists of a digital map of a central area of Babylon that can be searched by building or coordinates. It is possible to generate and display in the browser a picture of any parts of the area; this mode requires few resources from the computer and is therefore faster. There is a legend from where the layers can be activated or deactivated and a small help page. The selectable layers include Quickbird and Ikonos satellite data; topographic map; aerial photograph; digital elevation model; elevation curves; vegetation; roads, elevation points; buildings and others. If the computer has at least 512Mb of memory installed, Google Earth can be started from the browser and it will automatically download and load all datasets. From within Google Earth it is possible to select or deselect several layers; start a virtual tour of all buildings; use additional satellite photographs to map the terrain. The interface is very intuitive and written partially in English; users should note that all contents and interfaces from Google Earth will appear in the same language of the copy of Google Earth installed on their computer. It is suggested to use Google Earth to visualise the data for greater control and simplicity, but users should note that it is possible to access the legend, identify buildings, read elevations and access other features only from the browser. This is an innovative use of GIS and web technologies applied together to archaeology research. Babylon is an excellent case study and this website can be very useful to anybody interested in the archaeology of Mesopotamia.
This website publishes the West Bank and East Jerusalem Archaeological Database Project by the S. Daniel Abraham Center for International and Regional Studies at the University of Tel Aviv. The website publishes the full-text PDF and data files of the 2009 publication "Israeli Archaeological Activity in the West Bank 1967 - 2007: A Sourcebook". There is also an interactive map using Google Maps to plot the sites. "The West Bank and East Jerusalem archaeological database forms part of an Israeli-Palestinian dialogue initiative concerning the standing of archaeological sites and materials in the event of final status negotiations between Israelis and Palestinians. Some data are also available in Microsoft Excel format. Researchers in particular may find the website useful. The area interested by the survey is a political "hot-spot" making very difficult for researchers to visit the area and therefore awaiting political solutions this database is most welcome.
The website "Western Australian Museum Department of Maritime Archaeology online databases" has made a number of databases available online. There are five databases in total: artefacts; bibliography; strangers on the shore (which contains records of all known European and Asian shipwrecks around Western Australia where survivors have had indigenous social contact); numismatics; and Western Australian shipwrecks. The last includes details of the names of the ships wrecked; date of loss; area in which the ship was wrecked; and whether the wreck has been found. The bibliographic listing gives information about 6,000 primary and secondary sources available in the museum library. Each of the databases is searchable, but they cannot currently be searched as an entire collection. All of the material relates to maritime history in Western Australia.
The Window on Wiltshire's Heritage (WOW) website acts as a central resource and portal to related websites with a focus on the archaeology, architecture, art, nature and museums of Wiltshire. The project involves 22 partner organisations from across Wiltshire with the aim to provide a virtual display of Wiltshire's heritage. The website consists of eight main themed sections, two of which are currently under development, and these in turn link through to the partner websites on which the various datasets are hosted. The partner websites can also be searched from the WOW website through the 'Discover' section. The WOW website itself also hosts a 'Get Involved' section in which users can view and vote for their favourite Wiltshire monument. The site also features a news section, listing upcoming events and developments in Wiltshire's heritage sector, and publishes an e-newsletter which can be subscribed to through the website. The site is easily navigable, well designed and well set out. Lists of results, linking through to the partner sites, are produced for searches and from the selection of keywords and a warning is always given when a user is about to leave the WOW pages.
This website presents information on the activities of the Worcestershire Historic Environment and Archaeology Service. There is information about: the Sites and Monuments Record; field services provided by the Archaeological Service; Heritage Studies at University College Worcester; and the Local Heritage Initiative. A set of pages give advice on activities with archaeological impact (metal detecting, planning, farming). The Newsletters of the County Archaeology Service is published on the website. A page describes churches in Worcestershire and gives examples for each of the major architectural periods. A page describes the Central Marches Historic Towns Survey. There is an extensive section on the Civil War as it related to Worcestershire.
The Yavneh-Yam Project, begun in 1992, is being conducted under the auspices of the Department of Classical Studies, Tel Aviv University. The site is situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, between Ashdod and Tel-Aviv. The project is intended partly as a training excavation for students, and the website is keen to recruit for forthcoming excavations. The aim of the project is to analyse the physical and social-anthropological characteristics of the various civilizations that have occupied the town since antiquity. These have included Greeks, Phoenicians, Jews, Christians, Samaritans, and Muslims. The website introduces the history and geography of Yavneh-Yam, and describes the excavations that have been undertaken. It also includes illustrations of some of the more impressive finds that have been made. A section on the recreational side of the excavations is intended to tempt future participants, and an online application form is available for those so induced.
The Zea Harbour Project focuses on the ancient Zea Harbour in the Piraeus, Greece. The harbour with shipsheds at Zea is among the largest Classical architectural complexes; 196 Athenian triremes were based here. The project uses both land and marine excavation techniques and has investigated also another of the three harbours of Athens: Mounychia, which hosted 82 triremes. Section "publications" is only available to team members; section "ancient history" focuses on the trireme and the shipsheds by presenting the information in a timeline format from the naval program of Themistocles to the sack of the Piraeus by Sulla in 86 BC. Annual reports from 2000 are available in section "project"; the 2005 report contains a video of a 3D reconstruction of the triremes, shipsheds and harbour. The most recent information can be found in the "news" section. A page describes the excavation techniques employed by the team, including the enclosure system adopted to survey the waters of the harbour. There is a gallery of pictures; it also includes photographs of column drums from the area. Classical Athens owed much of its power and influence to its navy and this updated website explores the heart of it with its many pictures and texts. It is an important contribution to our understanding of ancient Greece.
The central museum of the Åland Islands, the Ålands Museum was founded in 1934 and covers the archaeology, ethnology, architectural history and natural history of the area. The Åland Islands are located in the Baltic Sea, off the east coast of Sweden, and have therefore been open to influence from a number of cultures. Sections on local archaeological sites, the importance of hunting and fishing and seafaring are presented from historical and archaeological perspectives.