3D Visualisation Standards in Archaeology is a list for the discussion of the desirability, practicality and nature of standards in the visualisation of archaeological artefacts, sites and landscapes. This includes models and reconstructions in any three dimensional digital format.
The list has low volume traffic. Messages are archived monthly and are available for browsing or searching.
This project aims to explore the material conditions of culture contact, plantation development and organisation, the rise of slavery, and consumer behaviour over eighteen sites in the Chesapeake Bay area. The website has been developed by a consortium of researchers from a number of regional institutions and is hosted by The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
The website is extremely comprehensive and aims to state the project goals, data and results for a broad public and professional audience. Consequently it contains a wide range of interlinked datasets, site reports and maps together with an online artefact database containing data on over 148,000 artefacts. The data is primarily derived from excavation work on the sites but also builds on the work of hundreds of previous and current scholars. It has been brought together for the first time in order to create an online database that spans the period c.1620 through to the mid 18th century for the 18 sites throughout Maryland and Virginia.
This website has more than enough information on it in order to satisfy students as well as researches and teachers in the field of American colonial archaeology.
Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey (ADIAS) is the website of the organisation responsible for: surveying; recording; and, where appropriate, excavating archaeological sites on the coast and islands of Abu Dhabi. Since its initiation, several hundred sites have been identified around Abu Dhabi. Operating primarily on a policy of non-intervention, the project's main goals have been to: locate; identify; and record the presence of sites, often utilising detailing topographical mapping. However, in recognition of the naturally unstable nature of archaeological remains, coupled with the rapid development of the coastal zone and islands of Abu Dhabi, surface collection of finds and even excavations have been undertaken in certain cases. The website provides access to many resources regarding the project, including: the project's newsletters from 2001 to 2006; press reports; images from excavated sites; and archaeological resources such as a radiocarbon archive. Contact details and information regarding staff are also available.
This is the website of the ALMYRAS-Project, which deals with ancient copper production on Cyprus. The project is a joint-venture between the archaeometallurgical project of Agia Varvara-Almyras in Cyprus, the Swiss National Foundation for Scientific Research, and the Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research. The unearthed architectural structures and artefacts come from the most complete productive chain in ancient Cypriot copper metallurgy. The website gives brief details of the excavations and survey, information on experimental reconstructions of copper production and information on proposed scientific studies and analyses which will be undertaken in the future.
The Akhmin Mummies Studies Consortium (AMSC) is an organisation dedicated to examining ancient Egyptian mummies in the USA to further the knowledge of the population in places such as Akhmin and other Egyptian sites. The consortium uses methods such as computerised tomography (CT) to build up representations of the mummified person that is examined. The organisation arranges talks and workshops and publishes articles and reports on its research. The site contains images of mummies and reconstructed portraits along with a bibliography of reports and articles published by the consortium.
The Alexandria Archive Institute is attempting to develop a comprehensive new integrated archive of archaeological information. The team of scholars employed by the Institute is specialised in "building open access, Internet-based resources for archaeology and world history". The Institute is developing the "Open Context" website, which uses "a simplified version of the data structures described by David Schloen's Archaeological Markup Language (ArchaeoML) for expression in a relational database system". The Institute also contributes to the development of BoneCommons, "an open access internet-based forum for the archaeozoological community", and the scientific version of the contents license "Creative Commons", Science Commons. Several other minor projects are being developed. The Alexandria Archive Institute presents the mission of the Institute as well as all its activities. The official blog of the Digital Data Interest Group (DDIG) is hosted on this website and it is a precious resource to learn and discuss the latest developments of computer technologies in archaeology.
The "Ancient Civilization City-State Virtual Trip" website by the Taisei Corporation of Japan publishes a series of virtual reconstructions of major archaeological sites in the form of short movies. There is a short introduction to each movie and a short section on computer graphics. It is possible to watch the movies in chronological order, starting with Mesopotamian Ur, and then proceeding to the temple of Abū Sunbul (Egypt); Dholavira (Indus civilisation); the Athenian Acropolis; the tomb of the first emperor of the Qin Empire in China; the Colosseum in Rome; Venice; the Mongolian town of Karakorum and Aztec Tenochtitlan. All the movies are low quality and yet large downloads (QuickTime version preferable), and the audio commentary is available only in Japanese. However, the movies can be a nice introduction to some of the earliest civilisations for pupils and undergraduates.
This was one of the first attempts of using computer graphics in archaeology and it mixes reconstructions with real actors and Computer Generated Images (CGI). Each movie had been scripted with a storyboard like a cinema movie and there are examples of everyday life (e.g. Ur), architectural reconstructions with natural light effects (e.g. Abū Sunbul), progressive building of monuments (e.g. China); and animations of maps (e.g. Venice) that should prove useful example for students of virtual reality applications in archaeology.
"Ancient Landscapes, Information Systems and Computers" is the home page of research into ancient systems of land management and various applications of Information Technology, particularly in Archaeology, conducted by the School of Information Systems, University of East Anglia (UK) Concerned largely with the study of Roman Cadastres (a system used for the control of land, or in this case its physical remains), the school has undertaken computer-based investigations in Lincolnshire and Leicestershire (Lindum), South Norfolk (Venta), Gloucestershire and South Wales (Gleuum), Essex and North London and Kent. There are links to more detailed pages on Lindum and Venta.From this page there are also links to: the Pasta Project (the COST Action G2 international collaborative research programme on ancient land management); and to a virtual tour of Caistor Roman Town - (a Web version of the interpretation panels prepared by the Landscape Archaeology Section, Norfolk Museums Service).
Antiquist is an online community of people working with computing in the heritage sector. There is a Wiki with some articles on GIS and other computing techniques applied to archaeology that may be useful to landscape archaeologists; a blog (not very active at the time of review); and a mailing list (user registration required). Antiquist promotes exchanges of ideas and discussion on a variety of topics related to archaeology.
This interactive website publishes a GIS research survey of the Roman Appian Way with bibliography; map; and virtual 3D reconstruction. The first section, "About" provides access to the bibliography about this IT project (mostly useful to those interested on computing and archaeology); and section "Data" is not accessible to the public. Section "WebGIS" contains an interactive map with satellite data on which have been plotted all monuments and archaeological features known from surveys. The detail and zoom of the map can be easily selected. Section "3D" publishes an interactive 3D map; it is possible to navigate the scene freely or using pre-defined viewpoints. Readers should know that this application is accessible installing the osg4Web plug-in, and that only the version for Internet Explorer worked at the time of review. The plugin requires a fast Internet connection and readers are warned that it crashed the browser a few times and there are no precise instructions on how to use the mouse for navigation. The actual 3D reconstruction is very sophisticated: it uses photographs as textures for the monuments and provides the position of main modern buildings and trees around the monument. Researchers specialising in the landscape of the Appian Way or 3D reconstructions may find this website useful.
The Archaeological Computing Laboratory (ACL), based at the University of Sydney, provides IT support for the university's archaeological staff and students, handling everything from word processing to GIS analysis. Its areas of expertise include CD-ROM and paper-based publications, instructional and database-driven website designs and computer-based mapping of historical data. Sydney University's leading GIS software company, ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc.), is also maintained by the ACL.The ACL is also heavily involved in specific research projects, including the Sydney TimeMap project: an attempt to present the history and archaeology of Sydney in an innovative, entertaining and interactive way while at the same time creating a scholastically valuable resource. Other projects include research into Urban Angkor and The International Dunhuang Project. Details and reports from each of the projects are available from the website.
The 'Archaeological Computing Newsletter' (ISSN 0952-3332) is an online version of the paper newsletter that has been in circulation since 1985. The online version does not yet contain the newsletter's article content, but includes contents lists of the most recent issues of the newsletter, conference notices, a search mechanism and a facility for online contributions. Items relating to relevant conferences, books, software, hardware, web reviews, interim articles of ongoing work, and longer reports of archaeological computing projects and issues are accepted. For potential contributors, the preferred format of online contributions is Rich-Text or any other common word-processor formats. To receive a copy of the newsletter itself, it is necessary to subscribe to the paper version. The site is, therefore, intended as an online companion to the paper newsletter. Details of how to subscribe are provided online.
This is the official website of the University of Southampton's Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG), which is concerned with computer-assisted research in archaeology. The website lists the projects run by ACRG staff. The projects have focused on a variety of techniques and technologies, including: GIS (Geographic Information Systems); virtual reality; mobile computing; database projects; digital imaging; bathymetric surveys; and data processing are provided. Notable projects in which the ACRG is involved include: "Adulis - a Port on the Red Sea, Eritrea"; "HMS Victory computer modelling project" (with large AVI animations of 3D reconstructions); "Negotiating Avebury Project"; "Urban Connectivity in Iron-Age and Roman Southern Spain"; "Virtual Reality in Archaeology"; and others. The reports are often very short, with only a few illustrations and no further readings. Students in particular may find this website useful.
The ADS hosts the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) Centre for Archaeology. The service collects, describes, catalogues, preserves, and provides user support for digital resources that are created as a product of research in archaeology and the historic environment. The ADS provides an integrated online catalogue to its archival collections, and to the collections of other organisations, connected by a metadata catalogue of over 450,000 records. These describe archaeological sites across the UK and much of Ireland, and wherever UK archaeologists are active. Collections currently available include resources from the English Heritage National Monuments Record (EH NMR) Excavation Index for England, EH NMR Index to Microfilmed Archaeological Archives, National Monuments Record of Scotland, Northern Ireland Sites and Monuments Record, the Clwyd-Powys Sites and Monuments Record, and many more. The catalogue may be searched by subject keyword, location, resource creator, object, or project title. Access to resources is also available via virtual collections which include: a section on dating; bibliographic databases (including the pre-1992 British and Irish Archaeological Bibliography); an expanding collection of CBA research reports and occasional papers (eventually the complete series will be available); ADS Guides to Good Practice and other publications; an extensive listing of archaeology journals with links to abstracts/full-text articles where available; and a number of excavation and find reports. The site also includes a full range of policy documents, help files, and details of who to contact and how to deposit data with the ADS. The Archaeology Data Service receives funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). Description based on one supplied by the JISC Resource Guide for the Arts and Humanities.
Popular Archaeology is the website of the Archaeological Resource Collection (ARC) whose aim is to make archaeological and historical information available on the net. It is also the home of ARCHI, a fully-searchable database detailing the positions of more than 95,000 archaeological sites in the UK. Searching the ARCHI database requires an email address (for demonstration results) or subscriber password (for full results - for a subscription fee). Demonstration results provide brief notes on monument type, period and location. Records link to freely available UK maps at other Internet sites - including historic maps and aerial photographs where available. The website also contains: a placename finder; a searchable tithe map and apportionment list database; an online gallery (dealing mainly with numismatics); a list of historical figures and events; and a glossary of terms, people and places. A comprehensive links page is provided.
Archaeoptics operate primarily within the archaeological and heritage sectors offering high-quality, 3D laser scanning services for digital recording, reconstruction and presentation. The technique of 3D laser scanning is explained and the accuracy of the method used by Archaeoptics presented. Archaeoptics are also developing the Archaeological Sites Database, project to develop a dynamically extensible database containing up-to-date and accurate information on various groups of archaeological site. A variety of software, papers, GPS data, movies and 3D models are available for downloading.
This website describes an AHRC, ESPRC and JISC funded project which aims to utilise emerging information science technologies such as text mining and facetted classification to “discover, share and analyse datasets and legacy publications which have hitherto been very difficult to integrate into existing digital frameworks”. The project has three main strands: to create an intuitive ‘three dimensional’ index of the ADS database (over one million records describing sites and monuments); to use natural language processing (NLP), allowing automated tools to expand the classification schemes providing much deeper and richer access to unpublished archaeological literature; to apply these tools to back runs of archaeological journals (currently being digitised) which will include investigating whether NLP can recognise and harvest place names and match them to precise grid co-ordinates. The project aims not just to create an important and sustainable archaeology resource, but to “make recommendations for the future format and indexing of grey literature, and to draw lessons for the wider humanities e-Science community”. Project presentations and publications will be added to the website as they are released.
This is the website of the ArchAtlas project which aims to provide a visual chronological and spatial atlas of major socio-economic processes in early antiquity such as the origins of farming, trade routes, and the growth of urbanism. The project was founded by Prof. Andrew Sherratt to test World Systems theory models. The website uses GIS techniques to integrate georeferenced information on archaeological sites and exchange routes with environmental data and satellite imagery. The website publishes a series of illustrated case studies; several low resolution 3D (VRML) virtual worlds; a few QuickTime panoramas; and some illustrated articles on the use of GIS in archaeology. It is possible to export to Google Earth and NASA WorldWind some datasets. This website may be useful primarily to researchers interested on world systems theory and can be used by lecturers in teaching.
Archbase is a website that contains details of various archaeological projects by different organisations. Featured projects include: excavations at the Graeco-Roman harbour of Berenite (Egypt), and the work of the Fayum Field school at the Graeco-Roman village of Medinet Watfa (also in Egypt). Full excavation reports (Fayum; Berenike; Eastern Desert Ware) and information with abstracts on related workshops (mobile people; residue analysis; ancient apprenticeship; history of the Eastern Desert) can be accessed from the home page. In addition, the website also contains the archaeological databases of some projects; to access these a password is required (researchers may be able to get one contacting the project's administrators). Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
ArchEd is a Windows computer programme for drawing and editing Harris matrices. ArchEd is free but users must register before they can download it. The website provides documentation and a simple guided tour of the programme. A FAQ page gives answers to a number of potential problems. There are mailing lists for discussion of anything about ArchEd and to receive notification of updates.
Archeoguide is a system designed to provide new ways of information presentation at cultural heritage sites through the use of advanced IT. This technology will include augmented reality, 3D-visualization, mobile computing, and multi-modal interaction. In short, the objective is to create a fully immersive virtual reality environment in which historic sites can be experienced as though at first hand. Archeoguide has several primary concerns relating to the experiences visitors encounter when view a heritage site. For example, information should be presented in context with the exploration of the site through position and orientation tracking; personalized and thematic navigation aids in physical and information space should, through the use of visitor and tour profiles, take into account cultural and linguistic background, age, and skills. The website details the aims and objectives of the project, and includes information regarding publications that have arisen from the work. In addition, a QuickTime video presentation of what Archeoguide aims to deliver is available, along with a PDF project presentation. Postgraduate students and researchers may find this website useful.
This is the website of Archeologia e Calcolatori, an international journal in the field of archaeology and information technology. In this website users can find general information in relation to the journal; author guidelines and special issues. The site provides a search facility; an index by year; open free access to more than 100 articles that can be downloaded as PDF and access to an image gallery containing all the colour plates published in the journal. Archeologia e Calcolatori identifying the positive introduction of computers in archaeology aims to publish the results of computer research carried out in the field of historical archaeology projects in Italy and abroad; the journal is published on the initiative of the Istituto per l'Archeologia Etrusco-Italica (now Istituto di Studi sulle civiltà italiche e del Mediterraneo antico) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), together with the Dipartimento di Archeologia e Storia delle Arti of the University of Siena.
This website of a computing lab at the University of Catania, Italy, publishes information about research on 3D and laser scanner modelling carried out at the lab. The focus of the lab is on Aegean prehistory (Minoan archaeology) and Classical Greece. Only a few pictures of the digital models are currently available, but there are also a list of publications and contacts of the principal investigators for those interested. Among the 3D models are Phaistos, Ayia Triada, Polizzello and some pictures of Kamares culture. The laser scanner models include the Greek torso of the God Asclepius from Syracuse, a wooden head from a Sicilian Christian church, and Hellenistic Thysia (Catania). There are some useful videos for some of the laser scanner models. Students and researchers interested in 3D modelling and laser scanner use in archaeology may find this website useful.
The ArchNet website has catalogued a large number and range of online resources relevant to archaeology. All websites are reviewed for suitability against an explicit editorial policy. The website is easy to navigate and resources maybe found by broad subject area, regions (selected by a clickable world map), academic departments, publishers and journals, and museums.
A set of interactive web pages exploring the spatial relationships between the henges and barrows in the region of Stonehenge. Java applets show intervisibility between the monuments and viewsheds from each monument. An animated applet demonstrates which monuments become visible whilst 'walking' along some of the monuments. Clicking on the applets opens a window with all available options.
This is the website of the CAA, an international organisation bringing together archaeologists, mathematics and computer scientists, to network about computer applications and quantitative methods in archaeology. With chapters based in the UK, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, India, the organisation holds annual conferences for which the attendance of research students, archaeologists in units, agencies and planning authorities is particularly encouraged. There are Web links to each of these national chapters, and special interest groups such as virtual archaeology who in 2002 examined as a group "Scientific Credibility and Authentication in Cultural Virtual Reality and Virtual Archaeology". The website provides a useful guide to the diverse presence of the CAA on the Web - spread around the individual websites of national chapters, and their conference websites.
Part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service's "Guides to Good Practice" series, the "CAD guide to good practice" is intended to provide guidance in documenting and archiving CAD datasets. The guide is an online version of a printed volume available from the AHDS, and as such is presented in the structured format of the book. It is aimed at individuals and organisations involved in the creation, maintenance, use, and long-term preservation of CAD-based digital resources in the humanities, but with particular emphasis on archaeological data. The guide provides a source of useful introductory and generic information, as well as emphasising long-term preservation, archiving and effective data re-use, and the importance of adhering to recognised standards and the recording of essential pieces of information.
The "Cambria Historic Landscape Characterisation" website provides an extensive historical and archaeological survey of various regions of Wales, explored through clickable maps. The information is divided up into areas/regions of interest within the country, which are then further sub-divided into specific landscapes and locations. Clicking on the photographic images of the landscapes takes the user to a more detailed account of the region. These take the form of an introductory 'Historical Background' section followed by 'Description and Essential Historic Landscape Components', and are often accompanied by an OS map of the surrounding areas. The sources used are listed at the bottom of the descriptions. The project is still ongoing, and as such it promises to be a comprehensive and useful historical-geographical directory of Wales.
This website available only in Italian publishes information on a virtaul model of Giotto's Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, Italy, which is accessible by visitors on location. The model has been built to reduce damage from the excessive flux of visitors and is similar to other projects that have been implemented in archaeology (e.g. the reproduction of the Lascaux cave in France). In addition to information useful for students in museum studies on how to produce software products to promote culture while protecting cultural heritage, the website also contains a few composed pictures of the panels with the frescoes and their location in the chapel. Students in museum studies, or visual arts may find this website useful.
The Centre for Computer-aided Egyptological Research (CCER) at Utrecht University in The Netherlands specializes in matters related to the application of computers in Egyptology. The Centre's activities concern developing general methods and programs, and providing worldwide advice and support. In this respect it coordinates the activities of the Computer Working Group of the International Association of Egyptologists. The centre publishes a series of CD-ROMs with pictures and data of Egyptian artefacts. A small selection is freely available online in the virtual exhibition. This website provides further resources useful to egyptologists: a multilingual Egyptological thesaurus; a database of 58,000 ancient Egyptian private names (Prosopographia Aegypti); a list of Egyptologists; an illustrated article on the great temple of Abu Simbel; an educational software presenting a trumpet found in the tomb of Tutankhamun (with sound recording); and a few fonts.
Cologne Radiocarbon Calibration & Paleoclimate Research Package website provides a free (subject to conditions) downloadable calibration package (CalPal) designed to support research on hominid behavioural response to Pleistocene climate change. The calibration program allows calendric age-conversion ("calibration") of radiocarbon data by a variety of methods (2D-Dispersion, Wiggle Matching and Monte Carlo). The site also provides technical information on the program, contact details for the program authors, and extensive links. These include related projects, information on paleoclimate research, radiocarbon, archaeology and mapping and geographical information systems (GIS). The CalPal library contains a manual for the program (in html and PDF format), recent CalPal articles (as PDF files), paleoclimate and calibration graphs, databases and references. A separate section of the website hosts CalPal online, a page that gives quick reference calibration dates for single radiocarbon results. Changes to the site and the program are recorded in the CalPal newsletter.
The temple site at Phimai, a World Heritage Site, consists of a walled complex of reconstructed temples, libraries, and ancillary structures. It is one of the most important Khmer monuments in Thailand. The digital reconstruction of the temple site in Phimai serves as a case study highlighting the potential of computer visualization as a tool in heritage resource management. Besides offering archaeologists, historians and museum curators a non-invasive environment for testing reconstruction scenarios, virtual worlds offer the public access to important historic monuments without the wear of excessive visitation. This smartly presented website provides an introduction detailing the history of the site and the role of digital technologies as an important part of heritage management. Access to the computer models themselves is provided, along with a discussion regarding their development.
Computer-assisted Paleoanthropology (CAP) illustrates the steps involved in creating cranial reconstructions from hominid fossils. A series of illustrated pages briefly describe data acquisition using Computer Tomography, the creation of 3D computer models from this data and using the models to make solid reconstructions using stereolithography. There is a section describing how this procedure has been used in morphological comparisons of Neanderthal and modern human skulls and in preparing a facial reconstruction of a Neanderthal child. The use of CAP to study non-human fossils and as an aid in modern medicine is also described. There is extensive use of animated images.
The Computing in Archaeology website provides information on a collection of projects using computers in archaeology. Solid modelling and ray-tracing are covered in a page on visualising Roman Canterbury. A paper 'Alternative Archaeological Representations' discusses the use of virtual reality (using VRML) to present multiple alternative interpretations of ancient buildings. There is a link to the 'Mobile Computing in a Fieldwork Environment' project which examines the application of mobile and context-aware computing in archaeology and the environmental sciences. 'Managing Complexity : archaeological information systems past, present and future' discusses the use of databases and geographic information systems. The programme 'GNET', a general purpose editor/browser for directed graphs which is useful as a tool for visualising archaeological stratigraphy, is available to download from the site.
Creating and using virtual reality: a guide for the arts and humanities was edited by Julian Richards and Kate Fernie and published online in 2002 by the Visual Arts Data Service (VADS). VADS, formerly AHDS Visual Arts was part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) which, until March 2008 received funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). The full-text of the guide is freely available and has been peer reviewed by experts in a range of the relevant subjects. The guide is intended for creators of, or those commissioning, virtual reality applications within arts and humanities subjects (e.g. architecture, fine art, history archaeology, heritage). The emphasis of the guide is on the development of desktop applications delivered via the World Wide Web. The guide includes sections on the history, philosophy and theory of virtual reality; methods and techniques for development (including Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) and Java); collaborative virtual environments (including representation and communication); documenting data from a virtual reality project (including metadata for describing applications and the resulting archive); strategies for archiving virtual reality applications (especially for preservation purposes). The online guide also includes a virtual reality case study library which includes commentaries on Brancusi's Mademoiselle Pogany at the Philadelphia Museum of Art; Virtual Wroxeter: Roman fortress; Virtual Saltburn by the sea; and the CyberAxis virtual gallery. Appendicies document relevant information and metadata standards and a documentation checklist which details the core metadata required by the AHDS for digital archiving.
A clearly written and attractively illustrated guide to the potential of Computer Aided Design (CAD) in data collection and visual presentation for use by archaeologists and architectural historians by Harrison Eiteljorg. The guide aims to demonstrate the limitations of conventional 2D plans and drawings and how 3D models produced using CAD are a markedly superior and efficient method of illustrating archaeological and architectural sites. The guide is presented as a five chapter report providing an introduction to the key theoretical, methodical and technical issues underpinning CAD, including comparisons with conventional architectural drawing, followed by sections on data gathering, creating CAD models (including examples) and a concluding chapter which evaluates the benefits and demands of this rapidly changing kind of visual technology. Chapter 4 is particularly instructive as it provides a valuable guide to the webpages of CAD-using projects which may be useful to individuals developing an interest in CAD technology). There is also an extensive glossary of technical terms and a bibliography of relevant online articles published by the CSA newsletter.
Published by the Center for the Study of Architecture at Bryn Mawr, Philadelpia, the CSA Newsletter contains information about applications of computers and other technology to scholarly work by archaeologists and architectural historians. The newsletter is published three times a year, and from Spring 2000 the newsletter is only available via the Web (together with a selection of back issues from 1990). A typical issue contains around eight short articles on topics such as CAD modelling, database creation, and digital imaging together with news from the CSA.
Cultural VR Lab is an online collection of resources documenting the work of the laboratory at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) which produces 3D virtual reality models of important archaeological sites. They seek to create accurate and authentic representations of culturally significant sites for both educational and commercial use. The lab was founded in 1997 and since then has completed a number of projects, with several more still in progress. The website includes project examples such as: the Roman Colosseum; the Roman Forum; the Inca Temple of the Sun; and the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore. Descriptions of each project are given, accompanied by still images of each model. The full virtual reality versions are not publicly available online. The website details the aims and objectives of the lab and includes: list of their publications; the courses they offer; and news of recent developments and media coverage. Some of the publications are available to download in PDF format. Links are provided to related websites.
The Current Archaeology website contains information about the two magazines that it publishes; Current Archaeology and the relatively recent Current World Archaeology. Both magazines are published six times a year and are focused on digging up the past in England and the rest of the world respectively. All periods and ages are covered and the magazines also reports on the latest discoveries in British Archaeology. Although the website does not contain the full-text of articles which appear in it, it does contain abstracts for all of its back issues.
The website also hosts an information centre which gives advice on how to go on an excavation as well as listing forthcoming excavations. In addition to this there is also a database that lists the many organisations that make up British archaeology. All of this information can also be found in the Archaeology handbook which is published yearly. The website also gives advice on the state of PPG16 in the UK as well as providing a list of links connected with archaeology both in the UK and abroad.
CyArk 3D Heritage Archive Network is a project funded by the Kacyra Family Foundation that is producing digital models of several archaeological and historical sites using laser scanners and other equipment in partnership with several institutions. The models are published on this website with basic data accessible to everyone and a 'professional edition' is available to researchers after registering for free (an agreement must be signed and faxed to the foundation). Several models are already available and these include Salvador da Bahia (Brazil); Angkor featuring Angkor Wat, Western Causeway and Banteay Kdei (Cambodia); Thebes featuring main temple, kitchens and storeroom's precinct, and Bab al-Barqiyya (Egypt); Cathedral of Beauvais (France); Tikal featuring the central acropolis, great plaza and north acropolis (Guatemala); Pompeii featuring the Basilica and Pisa (Italy); Chavin de Huantar featuring the plaza mayor and several buildings (Peru); Tambo Colorado featuring Northern Palace and plaza (Peru); Fort Winfield Scott, Deadwood and Mesa Verde (United States). After signing in, the 'archive' section provides a menu of all available sites. After selecting one, a list of monuments is on the left and at the centre there is an interactive architectural plan that provides access to the multimedia features via icons. Only a few of the monuments of any site are usually accessible for any site. On the lower section, introductory videos; essential information as well as galleries of thumbnail-sized pictures are available for each archaeological site. The multimedia features consist of colour photographs; QuickTime panoramas; CAD (2D) drawings. The 3D Point Cloud Viewer allows to simulate a virtual world experience using precise 3D point cloud data. This website is an exceptional tool for researchers to study and compare the architecture of ancient sites and each project is an exceptional case study of digital recording techniques applied to archaeology. This review refers to the professional edition of CyArk.
Digital photogrammetry and Computer Aided Design (CAD), widely employed in architectural design, are increasingly used in archaeological research projects for reconstructing and visualising ancient buildings and settlements in the form of 3D computer models. This technical website, written by André Streilein of the Delft University of Technology, provides a useful introduction, with illustrations, to the basic principles of digital imaging and demonstrates how traditional photogrammetry can be allied with CAD techniques, particularly for cultural heritage sites. A series of illustrated practical examples from a variety of heritage sites shows how photographic images can be digitally rectified for use in a CAD format. There is also a bibliographic list of relevant publications by the author, many available in web versions or downloadable as compressed postscript files. Although the resource is aimed primarily at architects working on heritage projects, the basic principles have a wide application and the website will benefit archaeological researchers, heritage professionals and advanced students who employ CAD in their work or who are interested in developing imaging skills for their reconstructions, either for research purposes or for presenting their work to the wider public.
Part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service's "Guides to Good Practice" series, the second edition of the "Digital Archives from Excavation and Fieldwork Guide to Good Practice" is intended to provide information on the best way to create and document digital material produced in the course of excavation and fieldwork, and to deposit this potentially vulnerable data safely in a digital archive facility for future use. The guide is an online version of a printed volume available from the AHDS, and as such is presented in the structured format of the book. The guide is aimed at: Agencies and bodies commissioning archaeological fieldwork, including national heritage agencies and local authorities; Creators of digital archives containing archaeological excavation and fieldwork data, including contracting and consultancy units, university-based research projects and national and local societies; Curators who will receive excavation and fieldwork digital archives, including museums, National Monuments Records and county or regional Sites and Monuments Records.
This website publishes a few sets of images using an interactive interface to make archaeology accessible to schools and the general public. The website itself was unfinished at the time of review, but as proof of concept it may interest already anyone interested in divulging archaeology on the Internet.
EpiDoc : Epigraphic Documents in TEI XML is the website of an initiative which aims to develop rigorous standards and tools for the digital encoding and interchange of epigraphic documents by using the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and the conventions of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). This resource contains the home page and resources of the community of developers as well as the guidelines to produce structured markup of epigraphic texts in TEI encoding language (an "open source" digital format). The current guidelines (marked as "stable") and drafts of proposed ones ("snapshot") are available as an online document. This is a specialist resource which will benefit anyone planning or participating in digital epigraphic projects in addition to those interested in humanities computing.
This is the official website of EPOCH, an EU funded research and development project (contract no. IST-2002-507382) that integrates the research activities of several universities and museums on ICT applications to cultural heritage. The website informs about the many training opportunities sponsored by the project, most of which are postgraduate courses. There also a newsletter and reports ("publications") on the state of ICT introduction in higher education among the EU member states (as part of the "Bologna process" towards meeting the requirements of the "Bologna Declaration" of June 1999) in PDF format. Some presentations made at conferences are sometimes available, for example the presentations given by team members at the EVA ("Electronic Imaging & the Visual Arts") 2006 conference are available in MP4 format from the "download section". Several papers by team members are available in PDF format from the "multimedia" section. Most articles and activities focus on virtual reality and Web technologies applied to archaeology. This website may interest staff, researchers and postgraduate students in computing applied to archaeology or anybody interested in HE training and especially developments promoted by the EU in support of the Bologna Declaration.
Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) are writers of Geographic Information System software. This part of their website focuses on the use of GIS in archaeology. The site provides a discussion forum; a collection of online papers on GIS in Archaeology; articles submitted by archaeological users of ESRI GIS; a section on tools, utilities, and other software of interest to archaeology GIS users and white papers and other documents. The online articles are generally detailed and well illustrated, however most of them are on American themes.
This is the official website of the Geo-Archaeological Information Applications (GAIA) laboratory in the School of Human Evolution and Culture Change at Arizona State University. The laboratory contains numerous case studies on GIS applications in the archaeology of the ancient Near East. The website contains information about the new "Digital Archaeological Atlas of the Holy Land" and the projects; the "Jordan Antiquities Department Information System" (JADIS) database; a presentation of the Iraq Cultural Heritage GIS database; and true colour Landsat satellite images of the Levant (including Cyprus), Egypt and Morocco. The JADIS database contains data about all known archaeological sites of Jordan from 20,000 BC to the modern ear and can be searched by keyword, or browsed through a Java applet (TimeMap). A version of the JADIS database using Google Earth was not working at the time of review. The West Asian Spatial Temporal Atlas (WASTA) is an extension of the JADIS database containing more archaeological sites in Mesopotamia and Near East; it uses the TimeMap Java applet. Simple instructions on the use of the Java database are provided. The Landsat satellite images available on this website picture Israel; Palestine; Jordan; Lebanon; Cyprus; Syria; Iraq; Saudi Arabia; Egypt; Libya; Turkey; Iran; Kuwait; Morocco; Algeria; and Western Sahara. They are available as georeferenced photographs (GeoTIFF format) and have been compressed. They can be very large, over 100 Mb each. Details on how they were produced and how to obtain and produce similar images of other areas are given. This website is important for researchers of GIS applications in archaeology as well as for those interested in the ancient Near East.
An American interdisciplinary team from the University of North Carolina has been conducting research in the Arroux River Valley region of Burgundy for over twenty years. This website concentrates on the use of remote sensing methods in their study and the use of GIS to analyse and visualise the results. The website gives reasonably detailed descriptions of the various techniques and includes many internal and external links to further information and tutorials. The ultimate aims appear to be the creation of virtual reality models, particularly QTVR panoramas, as aids to understanding the landscape.
This website seeks to describe the principles behind ground-penetrating radar (GPR) via a selection of archaeological surveys made using such technology. The website explains what GPR is, and what equipment is required. Of great interest is section "My recent articles" where there are several academic papers and publications on the topic free to access. The creation of two-dimensional sections and three-dimensional plots is described, and images of these can be seen in the case studies provided. Several of these case studies are ongoing, and so the findings are only at a preliminary stage. There are links to other websites about GPR in archaeology as well as links to various publications on the subject.
Heritage Key is a multimedia-rich website publishing news related to archaeology and illustrated short articles. The website is notable mostly for its 3D reconstructions of ancient monuments and video interviews with famous archaeologists such as Dr Zahi Hawass. This website uses the "power of image" to make archaeological news and discoveries accessible to everyone. Students will find the top news on archaeology and a newsletter that will keep them informed. Some 3D reconstructions will appeal to anyone interested on that field of archaeology or simply how to present archaeology to the public. A section reconstructs virtually the tomb of Tutankhamun, making its exploration an interactive feature. However, this feature requires the installation of a full application rather than a plug-in, and the application could not be installed in a virtual machine suggesting that it would be unsuitable for corporate (managed) and production computers.
This website seems a great place where to learn about archaeological news and spend some time to check out some multimedia features, but it is clearly aimed at the general public, it uses media-style headlines and the contents are unsuitable for use in academia. Look at great ways to present archaeology, enjoy some of the interviews and 3D reconstructions (e.g. those of the Antikythera mechanism) that have learning value, but be aware that the website does the opposite of a textbook: it simplifies and makes accessible archaeology to people with no previous knowledge rather than attempting to teach archaeological practice to the reader. It is a choice and not a fault, but one that our readership should keep in mind.
The higher education Academy Subject Centre for History, Classics & Archaeology replaces the former Learning and Teaching Support Network (LTSN) for these disciplines. Established by UK higher education (HE) funding bodies, the subject centres aim to promote high quality learning and teaching in all subject disciplines in higher education. The centres support the sharing of innovation and good practices in learning and teaching including the use, where appropriate, of communications and information technology (C&IT). The Centre for History, Classics, and Archaeology website includes: a calendar of forthcoming events; online editions of the Centre's newsletter, Learning and Teaching in history, classics and archaeology; briefing papers (e.g. Searching for Course Material on the World Wide Web); software reviews; a bibliography for history teaching and learning; a tutorial on Reading Archaeology textbooks; and full contact details. In addition, each subject area has its own separate area with more specific resources, including case studies. The Centre makes available small grants for the development of teaching and learning in history, classics (including ancient history), archaeology, and cognate disciplines. Some publications are downloadable in PDF format. Links to external sites that may be of interest are also provided.
This is the official website of the Institut für Raumbezogene Informations- und Messtechnik, Fachhochschule Mainz (Institute for Spatial Information and Surveying Technology, University of Applied Sciences, Mainz). The institute specialises in surveying, especially using computing and GIS technologies. Some of the research carried out by the institute encompasses the fields of archaeology and ancient history directly, although the geographic applications may also be of use to archaeologists. In the Projects section, the website publishes some short notices (often in English) of work carried out in the past. The full-text of many of the papers listed in the Publications section is available in PDF format; for others, only abstracts are given. A number of papers concentrate on landscape archaeology and present case-studies from all over Europe. Both the Projects and Publications sections can be browsed by technology employed or subject. The Diploma Theses section is of great interest as it details current research in the institute. The pages of the graduate students normally include a short abstract and a few pictures of the work done, but some contain posters, full theses and papers freely available in PDF format, video animations, computer graphics and virtual reality models. The Competencies section is an educational sub-site presenting the technologies that are taught at the institute, including: 3D Scanning; photogrammetry; remote sensing; cartography; surveying including GPS; and GIS.
The Internet and Open Source in Archaeology (IOSA) website concentrates on promoting open source software in archaeology. The website is structured as a blog with categorised news about computing in archaeology. It contains a calendar of events; a mailing list; open forums; a keyword search facility. The software directory contains hyperlinks to software packages; projects; multimedia and web technologies; and conference websites that may be useful to archaeologists. All entries are extensively commented, though the technical language used requires some knowledge of computer science. Prospective users of software presented on this website are warned that most software projects are under development and therefore unfinished; some software may require non-Windows operative systems to work; most software packages also require advanced experience in computing and are unsupported. Before trying any software, it is suggested to perform a full backup of all data. The website promotes a free Linux live bootable CD, ArcheOS, which allows to use a pre-packaged software suite aimed at archaeologists with minimal effort. This website can be useful to anybody seriously interested in any aspect of computing in archaeology.
Internet Archaeology (ISSN 1363-5387) is an online-only peer reviewed electronic journal available by subscription. It publishes papers of high academic standing which also try to utilise the potential of electronic publication which allows readers to explore the data upon which conclusions are based. Internet Archaeology publishes: the results of archaeological research, including excavation reports (text, photographs, data, drawings, reconstruction diagrams, interpretations); analyses of large data sets along with the data itself; visualisations; programs used to analyse data; and applications of information technology. The Internet Archaeology advisory committee consists of representatives from a range of bodies and universities including: The Council for British Archaeology; the Universities of Aarhus, California (at Santa Barbara), Cambridge, Durham, Glasgow, Leiden, Newcastle, Oxford, and York. The Journal is hosted by the Department of Archaeology at the University of York. Internet Archaeology's contents are archived by the Archaeology Data Service. The journal is predominantly in English but articles are also published in other languages (for example, French and German)as well.Internet Archaeology is available to UK HE/FE institutions under a national license agreement negotiated by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).
King's Visualisation Lab is an online collection of information on projects and research which demonstrate the scope of 3D and virtual reality simulations in the context of historical and archaeological research. The portfolio of projects includes: Making Space which is investigating a methodology for tracking the intellectual capital generated in the making of 3D visualisations; a reconstruction of Kew Gardens showing its evolution over two and a half centuries; the theatricalism of the Roman house in the Republic and early Principate; and the application of 3D visualisation to the study of Greek and Roman masked theatre. The group has made available various sample visualisations. These include 3D renderings of the Theatre of Pompey; a virtual tour of William Wordsworth's Dove cottage; reconstruction of a Coventry Iron Age village; and the Skenographia Project which is investigating architectural scenes depicted on a number of Pompeian frescos. The group's website also serves to advertise the consultancy services available.
This Web page contains information about Manual and Data Standard for monument inventories (MIDAS), which developed during 1996-1998 from the work of a committee set up to co-ordinate standards across English national and local inventories. MIDAS is part of Forum on Information Standards in Heritage (FISH), and aims to set out an agreed list of the items or 'units' of information that should be included in an inventory or other systematic record of the historic environment. These units of information are grouped together and cover areas such as Monument Character, Events, People and Organisation and can be classed as a 'metadata' standard for historic environment information. It is a 'content' standard or 'metadata' standard for historic environment information. This website aims to introduce the project explaining the history behind MIDAS, why it is useful and who should use it. The user can then download a copy of the full-text (as a PDF file) by following the link to the English Heritage website. The site is very simple to use and will be of use to anyone working in the higher education section. However, it will be particularly useful to those wishing to plan the content of a new inventory and wish to identify any additional information that would be useful to them.
The Mediterranean Archaeology GIS website is a digital repository of data from archaeological surveys carried out in and around the Mediterranean region (including Europe, North Africa and Middle East). The simple interface allows the visualisation of surveyed regions (the precision of the surveyed area varies depending on the available information) through maps. It is possible to access some basic data about the surveys, including contact details, publications and websites if available. It is necessary to have popups enabled to access survey data using the "spatial search". A separate "database search" provides direct access to the data and allows the construction of advanced queries. Archaeologists are invited to submit data of their own surveys (simple registration required for this); all submitted data are usually reviewed. The website is being developed and users should expect improvements and additional sites being added at short notice. This website could become a very important research tool in the near future. It is possible to request the code written for this website. The project and website have been financed through a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
This is the website for an AHRC-funded research cluster aiming to apply visualization techniques to heritage sites under threat from coastal erosion and buildings in Wales and Ireland. It brings together computer scientists, archaeologists and heritage managers and organisations including the National Museums of Wales and Ireland, the National Trust and English Heritage. In doing so, through as series of workshops (details available), it will allow the application of computer modelling technologies and allow custodians of these sites to model the “different stages of their site's past and present different versions of that past”. The workshops, which include a strong practical element, will be followed by an “agenda setting” report.
Nabonidus is an online collaborative tool to publish the results of excavations in a simple and effective way. The website is organised as an online database and any data entered may be made immediately available to the public as soon as entered. The major benefit is that by preparing a standardised service, results from different excavations will be comparable and archaeologists may find useful the possibility to use a predefined database that does not require substantial technological expertise. Nabonidus allows to have a dynamic preliminary report ready in real time after recording the data on-site, but this is also its main drawback: some excavators may prefer not to publish information on new findings as they are found, in which case storing data on a public server would not be advisable. The flexibility of creating custom fields is also not available at the time of review. Nabonidus is free for universities and non-profit organisations; a subscription fee is required for commercial use. Smaller projects, rescue archaeology and commercial archaeology may benefit from this tool as it can save both time and money; larger or more complex projects may be less suitable for the present version of Nabonidus. Nabonidus is not yet fully functional at the time of the review, but is complete enough for its functionality to be independently assessed.
This is the website of the Nu.M.E project. Nu.M.E stands for NUovo Museo Elettronico (the New Electronic Museum). The project aims to use virtual reality applications to create a virtual museum of the Italian city of Bologna which would be represented at present and in different historical periods, the scheme also intends to apply the methodology developed for the realisation of Bologna's virtual museum to others urban realities. This resource, which is made available in Italian and in English, provides details of the project's aims; historiographical context; methodology; state of the Art; organisation and related links. The Nu.M.E project is part of the Fifth Frame Work Programme E-CultureNet project.
This website has been developed as part of the project "Development of an interdisciplinary, digital communication system for the research and visualisation of settlements using the example of the medieval deserted village of Marsleben". The website is to be developed as an online collaborative tool specifically designed for archaeologists to visualise data coming from excavations organised in "layers". The website only contained information about the project itself at the time of review, but future updates should provide a full case study, Marsleben.
Recreating Rome as it was in 320 AD with all the houses and monuments within the Aurelian Walls might seem a daunting task, but this is exactly what a group of scholars from Virginia and Rome have attempted with "RomeReborn1.0". There are still pictures; videos; short articles; audio interviews; and a few papers, mostly useful to researchers in computing and archaeology. The virtual model itself, which is not accessible online, seems quite impressive. However, in such a large model the precision of the reconstruction will have been patchy. Furthermore, there is no trace of people or any activity, and all buildings appear brand new and shining. It made me remember an old lecture on Pompeii, when it was emphasised how some buildings were being restored after a light earthquake preceding the fatal one, how some old buildings had been converted; other abandoned; more being built and remaining unfinished; and the several artistic styles present in the town at the time of destruction: Pompeii is not a town dating to 79 AD, it is instead a town frozen in time at that date. The difference between this Rome and Pompeii is that one is an obvious fake and the other the original. This website may be useful to researchers interested in archaeological computing, but if you would like to see an ancient Roman town, take a tour of Pompeii instead.
Sardegna3D is one of several websites published by the Sardinian regional authority (Regione Autonoma della Sardegna), making available an interactive map of Sardinia. The website allows downloading a free software component for Windows and contains a help guide; the rest of the website can be accessed only through the interface of the software once it has been installed. The interface of the software is tidy and easily understandable, it starts with a satellite view of Sardinia that can be zoomed and tilted. Under the menu "view", item "views" allows to activate several layers, each displaying geographical features or cultural heritage sites (largely archaeological sites). Zooming in on any area of Sardinia reveals the types of sites selected through the layers, each identified by a distinguishing icon and a name; aerial photographs replace satellite photographs at higher resolution and it is possible to select photographs taken in different years. Topographical maps of Sardinia can be accessed via the default browser by clicking on the 2d button. By clicking on any site, a relevant page will open in the default browser, usually with texts and images. The software has parts written in English that should help an English-speaking readership in using it, but the help guide is only available in Italian and all textual resources accessible through the interface are in Italian. However, the software is so intuitive that many features can be used without any particular training especially if familiar with other virtual globes. This project is part of the "Sistema Informativo Territoriale Regionale, Infrastruttura di Dati Territoriali della Regione Autonoma della Sardegna" (SITR-IDT RAS). This is an outstanding research tool for anybody interested in the territory or cultural heritage of Sardinia and makes learning more entertaining.
"Speculum Dianae: Nemi at Nottingham" is a website on the sanctuary of Diana excavation at Nemi, Italy, carried out by Lord Savile in 1885. Section "explore" focuses on the history of the excavation and the recent attempts to produce a virtual reconstruction of it and contains short texts explaining some key topics; some pictures of archaeological finds; plans; and virtual reconstructions. The upper tabs allow selecting the topic and the lower tabs allow accessing all available slides for that topic. The texts are also read by research staff at the University of Nottingham in a series of videos. The multimedia interface of this website is simple and functional, but the videos may slow down access to the website without adding any benefit. At the time of review an interactive virtual reconstruction of the temple allowing to experiment with uncertain variables was planned. Section "virtual votives" contains more pictures of artefacts found during the excavation. It is possible to send electronic messages from this section, a capability that may attract younger students. This website does not summarise the results of the excavation and students should be aware of this.
Commercial firm InnovaTecno publishes a series of VRML virtual reconstruction models of the ancient Roman town of Tarraco, modern Tarragona, in Spain. The models require powerful computers and a fast Internet connection to be accessible. They should be treated as proof -of-concept and are based on archaeological reports. There is no life represented on the models nor any information or pictures about the present state of the town and these shortcomings limit the usefulness of the models for research and study purposes. The virtual models of Tarraco are freely accessible and may be useful to anybody interested in virtual reconstructions, and should be noted for the many details included (e.g. boats in the river).
TimeMap Open Source Consortium is the website of the body that has developed the TimeMap TMJava software that generates interactive maps aware of the chronological dimension and therefore particularly adapt for use in the fields of archaeology and history. The website contains documentation and examples as well as the history of the project and contact details to obtain support. The software can be downloaded after registering and is available as Java applet or Java-based Windows applications; the registration is free for personal use and an open source license is expected in the future. The software is intuitive to use but requires some previous knowledge of GIS (Geographic Information System) and a set of data with geographical coordinates and chronological references. TimeMap facilitates the production of maps that are validated to a set period or date and allows interactivity by: zooming; panning; or changing data display by altering the chosen period. Animations of great educational value can also be produced. It is possible to publish the maps onto a web page. Several data sets are available as example; many of these focus on the region of Angkor. TimeMap has been developed at the Spatial Science Innovation Unit (SSIU), University of Sydney, and is maintained by the TimeMap Open Source Consortium.
This website originally grew from an AHRC-funded Research Workshops Museums and Galleries grant awarded in 2006 to the University of Leicester. It presents, and now seeks to continue, the collaborative work between the University, Culture24 (formerly known as the 24 Hour Museum, the UK's national virtual museum), and the Collections Trust (formerly known as MDA). The website provides reports (some in PowerPoint format) on a series of workshops that took place between July 2006 and March 2007 in Leicester, Brighton, Newcastle, London and Cambridge at which museum practitioners and academics were brought together to consider as a think tank a number of issues related to the potential of the emergent Semantic Web and its associated technologies to the UK museum sector. The objective is to keep the website as the focus for discussion and debate in this area, and as the space for future collaborations, case studies and publications to be shared. The ongoing discussion on Web technologies applied to museums should interest researchers and museum studies students.
The Unicode Fonts for Ancient Scripts website by George Douros is a simple page from which a set of fonts with typefaces created from ancient scripts can be freely downloaded. The fonts can be used and modified free of charge. There fonts are Unicode compatible and include the Aegean (Linear B and other scripts such as the Phaistos Disk); Egyptian (both hieroglyphics and translitteration characters); Akkadian; and Greek sets. The fonts need to be installed on a local computer to be usable (access a PC as administrator) in Word or similar software packages.
This Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project aims to apply the Historic Landscape Characterisation technique to the Eastern Mediterranean for the first time. This recently developed process, which makes use of GIS to integrate historical, archaeological and geographical data, will allow the project to compare the post classical landscapes of two locations: Naxos in Greece and Silivri in Turkey. In doing so the project will aid the study of the two areas’ neglected Ottoman and Byzantine past. This website offers a brief description of the project, but promises that results will be made available online in the future.
This is the official website of the Virtual Heritage Lab, Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali, Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche, which specialised in the virtual reconstruction of archaeological and artistic heritage. The website provides information on the laboratory, staff and mentions of the lab in mass-media (in "media" section); the most useful sections are "projects" and "technologies". Section "projects" contains information on research projects carried out by the lab; these include the Roman road via Appia (substantial website); the Scrovegni Chapel (frescoes by Giotto; substantial website); landscape and geoarchaeology of Kazakhstan; Aksum; the Vettii House at Pompeii; the Mozan/Urkesh Archaeological Project; the cooperation in Peruvian projects at Chavin and Tambo Colorado. Section "technologies" contains short articles on technologies employed by the lab, including 3D laser scanning and photomodeling. Some of the articles and pages are in Italian only, but the importance of the website depends mostly on pictures and multimedia illustrations and therefore the website can be useful also to English speakers. Mention of additional projects and a list of publications relevant to these projects is available from the home page of the Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali. Both researchers and students may find parts of this website useful.
This website publishes the audio recordings in MP3 format of a conference held at Sheffield University between the 19th and 21st of April 2006 on new technologies in history and archaeology. The papers focus on GIS; imaging and virtual restoration of historical documents; data mining; Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS); and XML technologies. The papers may be useful to researchers interested in computing in history or archaeology.
This website presents a virtual reconstruction of the Roman consular road via Flaminia, produced by the Virtual Heritage Lab, the "Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali and the Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche". The website gives information about the methodology; a summary of the results and a basic description of the via Flaminia, especially the archaeological sites of Ponte Milvio (Milvio Bridge); Villa Livia; Grottarossa and Malborghetto. This website presents only the project and the actual virtual reconstruction is accessible solely at the Museo Nazionale Romano delle Terme di Diocleziano in Rome. The creators of the virtual reconstruction intend to publish a printed monograph, an interactive DVD (for sale) and an island in 3D online virtual world "Second Life" based on the reconstruction. The publication of different versions of the project, using various media may offer a real opportunity to compare and assess the pros and cons of different media, how they can be applied for one multimedia project and the usefulness of different media to target multiple sections of contemporary society. The website may be useful to students and researchers in museum studies, computing in archaeology and communication studies in assessing the potential of the technology and its maturity in out-reaching different audiences.
The Virtual Research Environment for Archaeology (VERA) project website publishes some information on this University of Reading project focusing on improving the use of digital technologies to document archaeological excavations. It also contains a blog, mailing lists and a list of contacts. Students and researchers interested in the project can ask to participate to workshops or provide feedback on new technologies by submitting their interest in the "Get Involved" page. There were no published results at the time of review, but people interested in the use of IT in archaeological excavations may want to learn more about this project.
The Visual and Spatial Technology Centre (VISTA) website presents a research group which serves its academic partners at Birmingham University by developing imaging software and projects for use in various applications, as well as archaeology. The website describes the facilities available at the Centre, and is primarily a showcase of advanced computing technologies. The research group has been involved in several projects, such as: 'Where Rivers Meet', which looks at the confluence of the Tame and Trent rivers in Staffordshire; the 'Vice-Chancellor's Cup project', demonstrating the power of digital imaging to create 3D models of artefacts; and the 'Cuneiform Digital Forensic Project', containing papers and electronic resources relating to Cuneiform script. Details of recent projects are available, but pages may change at short notice. At the time of review, some of the website's links were not working.