This website contains the excavation reports of the fieldwork and research projects carried out at 'Ain Ghazal, a Neolithic settlement located near Amman, Jordan. The settlement has yielded several artefacts suggesting a particular importance of symbolism within that ancient community and the reports mostly focus on this aspect. The reports are organised in chapters and present an overview of the site and symbolic items such as tokens of many shapes, animal and human figurines, modelled human skulls, "monumental" statues and motifs painted on walls and floors of buildings. This website also includes catalogues of human figurines and statues as well as a few papers exploring the significance of the recognised symbols. The reports are illustrated with colour pictures, graphics, drawings and plans and include bibliographies. The publication of a few more reports has been announced. 'Ain Ghazal was first settled during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (about 7250 BC) and thereafter expanded to include 30 acres of land. It was abandoned during the Yarmoukian Pottery Neolithic (about 5000 BC). A paper concentrates on a single stone statuette with flat breasts and no genitalia, which has been found in what has been interpreted as an open sanctuary. The figure is possibly connected to a fertility cult, interpreted as a reaction to increasing problems in farming. This and other reports within this website suggest that the changing environment had a paramount effect in the life on the settlement, a theme which is perhaps overemphasised.
The 1001 Wonders website is in the process of creating an interactive site for each of 1001 world heritage sites around the globe. Each finished page has a 360 degree interactive panorama of the site, as well as a brief description. The website is very easy to use. A visitor clicks the "Planisphere" menu at the top of the homepage to access a world map. From here, parts of the world can be clicked on to get to particular sites in that area. The panoramas are a high resolution and very clear and would make an excellent teaching tool as well as an informative and interesting resource for students and members of the general public.
The website 'Centre for the Study of the Domestic Interior' (CDSI) is the homepage of this multi-disciplinary research project funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and located at the Royal College of Art. The center aims to produce innovative histories of domestic interiors and social spaces by combining traditional architectural and design histories with more recent academic interests sensitive to cultural and visual context, consumption studies and gender and subject-oriented approaches. The website provides abstracts of current CSDI projects, ranging from Italy 1400-1600 A.D. to the Cold War interiors of the 20th century, which are accompanied by short bibliographies and recent publications as well as details of research personnel in addition to news, information of forthcoming conferences and meetings. The various projects differ from traditional studies of domestic space in that they attempt to evolve new types of spatial typologies and to place them within a synchronic historical context. There is a clear emphasis on 'total' histories of domestic contexts combining history, archaeology, design and consumption studies with contemporary research in sociology and philosophy. One major emphasis is the importance of subjective responses to interior design based on ethnography, oral histories, popular publications and personal diaries. Various projects also question traditional assumptions about the role of gender, class, social status and consumption patterns in the construction of domestic spaces. This project is a collaborative venture with the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Bedford Centre for the History of Women at Royal Holloway College, University of London. The holistic, cross-disciplinary approach adopted by the CSDI projects will appeal to a wide and diverse audience interested in the relationship between social attitudes and the built environment and will interest historians and archaeologists in many fields of study.
The Ancient City of Athens is an excellent website which has an extensive range of photographs of principal archaeological sites in Athens, taken from the slide collections of Prof. Kevin Glowacki and Nancy Klein of Texas A&M University. There are photographs of the following areas: the Acropolis; the agora; the Arch of Hadrian; the city Eleusinion; the Kerameikos; the Library of Hadrian; the Lysicrates monument; the Olympieion and south-east Athens; the Philopappos monument; the pnyx; and the Roman agora. There is also a section on the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron, in Attica. Within the different sections there is a good range of general and detailed views. The photographs from the Acropolis' slopes are particularly useful, not only because they are annotated but since access to these sites is difficult for most visitors to Athens. In addition, the Acropolis section provides far more than the usual snapshots, with detailed photos of architectural sculpture and pre-classical building works. The photos of the Agora and Kerameikos offer an excellent and comprehensive selection. In addition to the photographic archive the site offers a number of other resources, which are: an introductory essay on the topography and monuments of Athens; a very brief outline of Greek history to AD 1453; information about the tribes and eponymous heroes of the ancient Athenians. Bibliographic details are given, as well as links to other relevant websites.
The Ancient Greek World Web presentation is a virtual exhibition created by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. It deals with aspects of ancient Greek history and society from the sub-Mycenaean period to the Hellenistic period (c. 1100-31 BC). A section entitled 'Land and Time' gives a chronological overview of the history of the periods which are covered. Other sections cover the following broad topics: daily life; religion and death; and the economy. Each section is divided into several sub-sections and is illustrated using images of ancient Greek art (vase paintings, sculpture and coins); accompanying text provides important details about these artefacts. The site is well presented, and the images which are used to depict important aspects of ancient Greek life would be very useful particularly for those studying or presenting a variety of classical courses, who require easy access to the primary sources.
Ancient Journeys is the online Festschrift in honour of the distinguished American classicist and ancient historian Eugene Numa Lane, and contains the full-text of 20 articles written by his colleagues and students on a wide range of subjects dealing with Greek and Roman art, archaeology, history, religion and literature. The resource also offers biographical information, a tabula gratulatoria and series of personal memoirs by his associates, as well as a bibliography of Lane's published work. Published by the Stoa Consortium, the Festschrift is notable for its broad range of topics but also for the absence of a paper version. A hypertext medium is used throughout and links are provided to Perseus for Latin and Greek words. Many of the articles are illustrated and the images can be viewed as thumbnails or at larger scales. This resource will interest a wide range of students and researchers in Greek and Roman studies.
Among the many treasures gathered together at the Morgan Library in New York is a collection of ancient Near Eastern seals and tablets ranging in date from the fifth to the first millennium BC, which provide a fascinating insight into the art and iconographic traditions of Mesopotamia as well as demonstrating the extraordinary skill of ancient craftspeople to carve in miniature. This website provides a snapshot sample of some of the finer items with brief descriptions and high quality illustrations viewable at a variety of scales while the full collection of Near Eastern artefacts (and of the general library holdings) can be searched using Corsair, an elaborate, custom designed search engine which allows you to hypertext around the collection as well as making highly specific enquiries. This resource will interest both the general public but also provide a very useful research tool for researchers and teachers in archaeology and oriental or Middle Eastern studies.
Arachne is a collection of digital photographs of Roman and Greek antiquities with associated metadata; a simple and free registration is required to access it. Most photographs carry a watermark and are B&W, but they should be fine for use in teaching and research. Three major collections have been prepared: the Ara Pacis; Trajan's Column; and reliefs from sarcophagi. In addition to these collections, thousands of photographs can be searched and browsed with simplicity, these include photographs of artefacts in museums; pictures and drawings of architectural structures; painted ceramics; maps; aerial pictures; and reproductions of the Classical style (e.g. Neoclassical architecture). This website contains photographs of archaeological sites from all over the Mediterranean Region. This is a large and expanding collection of photographs and is recommended for use in teaching for its quality and sheer number.
The project benefits of support from Berliner Museen; Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (DAI); and Winckelmann-Edition Stendal.
Published by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA), Architecture.com is a searchable online portal about architecture and the built environment. In addition to providing practical information on architects and the architectural profession (which can also be accessed via the main RIBA webpage), the site features news and debate about the built environment and a valuable reference index of online resources in architecture and architectural history. The fully searchable catalogue of the RIBA Architectural Library (housing the biggest architectural study resource in the UK) is complemented by useful introductions to individual parts of the collection such as books, archives, drawings and photographs. A selection of portraits of leading architects (with annotations) possessed by the RIBA library is reproduced here and provides a useful source of images for historians. The website also provides two separate pages of Internet links. A compilation of over 1000 mainly UK-based sites with abstracts and references is accompanied by a list some 2000 sites on the main RIBA webpage with a broader international subject matter, including the comprehensive 'Great buildings' website. Also included are links to online exhibitions on architects and architectural projects. Architecture.com is a valuable reference source both for practical information on the architectural profession but is will also interest architectural and social historians and heritage professionals.
This website is a portal to several articles on the culture and environment of the mountain valleys in Piedmont, Italy. The website is organised as a newsletter, with a few issues available and various articles within each one. Popular traditions, cultural facts and rock art are the main sections. The first two sections can be useful in Italian studies and there are also articles on toponymy and traditional arts and crafts in the region. Italian and English texts appear side by side, an important feature for those wishing to learn the Italian language. The largest part of the website concentrates on the many sites of rock art in the region. In each issue, a drop-down menu facilitates navigation. The articles are generally very short, but also focus on very small sites and include pictures that can be enlarged as well as some drawings. Many archaeological sites in the region have been preserved because they are located in remote parts of alpine valleys, are difficult to spot and previously were not adequately represented in archaeological literature. The possibility to review most of them with simplicity is the greatest achievement of this website. The English index is available by clicking on the logo.
This is the official website of the Armenian Rock Arts Network which publishes papers and galleries of pictures on rock art in Armenia and surrounding regions (Turkey and Azerbaijan). The "library" section contains a substantial collection of full-text papers on the subject, in various languages (mostly English, Armenian and Russian). The "map of Armenian rock carvings" contains galleries of pictures of several archaeological sites in the region, including Avagyan; Geghama; Gobustan; Hushardzanner (Gueghamian mountains); Karabakh; Navasar; Van (capital of the Urartu kingdom); and Ughtasar (Syunik). The galleries are sometimes accompanied by captions in English or other languages. The pages on Hushardzanner are the online version of the book "Geghama Lerneri zhayrapatkernere" (The rock-carvings of the Ghegham Mountain Range) by A. A. Martirosian in English. This is an essential website for anybody interested on rock art in Armenia or surrounding regions.
This resource provides online photos of Ancient Art and Architecture, covering material from the Ancient Near East, Ancient Egypt, Minoan and Mycenaean civilisations, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Greece, and Rome. The pages are part of Art Images for College Teaching, a database of visual resources for use in education, a project that also covers arts of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods, the eighteenth to twentieth century, and also non-Western art. The author encourages users to contribute their own images, and the value of the site will increase with user involvement. The admirable intention and large scope of the database is at present restricted by a limited depth. In its current state, the site is of most value to the general public who would desire a general overview, although there is inevitably some imbalance in that the resource can only use the photos that it has. Thus there are photos of the sculpture of East pediment of the Parthenon, but none of the West, nor a view of the temple as a whole. The temples at Paestum receive a significant proportion of images. The Erechtheion is represented by two 'Caryatids', and not the temple as a whole. There is a reasonable selection of Archaic and Early Classical Greek sculpture, but later and famous works attributed to Praxiteles, Lysippus or Polyclitus are absent. Egyptian art is represented by eleven images. Roman architecture and sculpture receives more, with 5 pages, but is similarly selective. There are a number of factual errors, such as the mislabelling of Parthenon South metope 28, and East pediment figure G. No measurements are provided with the photos. The descriptions provide identification, location and date, although bibliography is provided for each image. If the author's hopes and intentions are satisfied, this resource could be of immense use for novices to ancient art.
The website Arte en Cantabria is devoted to the national and cultural heritage of the northern Spanish region of Cantabria. Palaeolithic cave art is perhaps the most important artistic manifestation in the region and it is well represented in this website. A few maps show the distribution of sites, and there are sections on Palaeolithic and post-Palaeolithic art as well as the history of the discoveries of cave and rock art in Cantabria. Individual articles concentrate on each cave with artistic representations and contain a few colour pictures, some of which can be enlarged. The website also contains some clickable maps. The cave of Altamira is the most important site in the region. In short, this website is a useful introduction to the cave art in the region.
The rock art of the Susa Valley (Susara), Italy, is the subject of this website, which provides access to short pages, one for each documented rock art site in the area. Most of the rock art in the area dates from the Neolithic to the Roman period. Each page has simple texts in both English and Italian and a few pictures and drawings. Separate galleries with additional pictures are accessible by clicking on the pictures of the home page. The "itinerario" is a short article on an Iron Age or Roman period feature interpreted as ritual site or sanctuary. There are plenty of rock art sites across the alpine valleys of Italy, but most of them are very small or unknown to public, such as those presented in this website. ARchivio Online, of which this website is a separate section, is publishing all the rock art sites located in the Piedmont region.
This website Arte Rupestre in Valchiusella is a collection of articles and short presentations about the rock art sites in the Italian Chiusella Valley. There are several rocks with anthropomorphic figures in the valley, some of which are ordered along a footpath, the "Path of the Souls". The website presents some of them, focusing on the Rock of the Crosses (Pera dij Cros). The site offers a comparative table with the figures from the Valley and those found in Valcamonica. Separate galleries of pictures can be accessed instead by clicking on the pictures in the home page. A full-text paper on the Path of the Souls is available in Italian only.
This website describes four Arts and Humanities Research Council funded workshops which aimed to address the current challenges faced by Samian (a type of pottery produced in the Roman Empire in the 3rd century BCE) research in the UK as well as provide a snapshot of the state of current research into Samian pottery. The hope is that the workshops will lay the foundations for a new generation of Samian specialists as well as establishing new standards of documentation and curation. Each of the workshops is described (although at the time of review, the most recent had yet to be updated beyond the simple programme), with certain presentations available to download, and the ensuing discussions précised.
The University of Oxford Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology website contains museum information, gallery plans, scheduled events and exhibitions, museum news, publications information, pages for individual departments and collections, as well as contact information. As well as digitised highlights from the museum's collections, there are details about past, present and forthcoming exhibitions, both temporary and permanent. A small number of images illustrate the descriptions. There is a link to the Object of the Month, as well as virtual exhibitions. A section provides free access to out-of-print publications, including books on pre-Roman Italy, Cyprus and Scythian artefacts in the museum. The collections of antiquities in the museum include products from the Palaeolithic to Victorian periods; from Egypt and the Middle East to Europe and Britain. The Roman and Greek Classical collections comprise several casts from sculptures. The Museum receives some core funding from the AHRC.
Asianart.com is an online journal published by respected art historian Ian Alsop. It was among the first ejournals to harness the ability of web browsers to display images alongside analytical text. With over 50 online exhibitions, the website surpasses many traditional gallery spaces in sheer number of pieces on view. The holdings are especially good for Himalayan art, both by traditional artists and Western observers. Robert Powell's exquisite ink drawings of high Himalayan structures are well represented. The site is a known scholarly resource and has been the venue for important papers on Newar and Tibetan topics, which are published along with critical responses where these are appropriate. Of the site's various areas, the Articles, Exhibitions and Associations will be the most rewarding for scholars, though as with almost all art historical journals, the commercial element is also present in a listing of galleries.
This website provides, besides other information about Asturias, a series of short illustrated essays on the archaeology and history of this northern Spanish region, from the Stone Age to modern times. Of particular interest to students of Celtic are the sections on the Iron Age hill-forts (the castros). These forts, as well as humbler thatched-roof dwellings dating to the same epoch, have parallels in the British Isles. According to the website, they are characteristic of Celtic Iron Age structures in the Atlantic area. More generally, topics covered by the site include: religion in Asturias; craftmanship; pre-Romanic art; traditions and folklore; and the Asturian language. The site is equally navigable in English, Spanish, French and Asturian, although the texts seem to be entirely in Asturian, and is illustrated with photographs throughout.
This website presents AURA (the Australian Rock Art Research Association, Inc.) and its activities. Several sections concentrate on themes of general interest, including cave art and rock art conservation, interpretation, methodologies to date rock art, cognitive archaeology, palaeoart epistemology, rock art recording, Pleistocene portable palaeoart, Pleistocene seafaring and a glossary. The section about cave art presents papers on Australasian cave petroglyphs and a few deontological controversies that should be ignored by students. More interesting are the other sections. The section about rock art conservation focuses on both natural and anthropogenic causes of deterioration. The section about interpretation includes a three parts publication of the Sydney Daramulan engravings. Numerous articles form, in fact, a comprehensive general introduction to the archaeological interpretation, including articles on the role of ethnographic, iconographic and scientific interpretation. A long list of articles detailing the various methods applicable in dating rock art is followed by a few papers on dating European (Portuguese and Italian alpine) and Australian rock art. A separate project on Early Indian Petroglyphs (EIP) is investigating the claim that some of the oldest rock art may be found in India. A paper on rock art, taphonomy and epistemology is at the centre of the section about palaeoart epistemology, along with articles on philosophy of archaeology and semiotics. The website makes available many free full-text papers and articles in PDF format across all it sections and the AURA newsletter. New contents and updated news are being added to this website.
The Barbarians on the Periphery website offers an informative and well-illustrated hypertext presentation, based on a doctoral thesis by Constanze Maria Witt (University of Virginia, 1997) on the origins of Celtic art in Central and Western Europe in the Urnfield and Hallstatt periods (circa 1000-500 BC). Witt attempts to combine contemporary anthropological theory with up-to-date art historical analysis. The site includes six essays covering contemporary perception of Celtic art and culture, methodological issues, 'Mediterranean interactions', ethnic and cultural identity, mortuary analysis, drinking and banquets, and sex and gender. Furthermore, there are excellent picture essays (including maps) on ten of the main Celtic archaeological sites of Continental Europe (Dürnberg; Glauberg; Hallstatt; Heuneburg; Hirschlanden; Hochdorf; Kleinaspergle; Reinheim; Vix; and Waldalgesheim). The site also provides dedicated picture essays on flagons and wagons, and a substantial bibliography.
The BBC History website "Romans" examines the enduring traces of Roman rule (43-410 CE) to be found in Britain - the language, culture and the landscape. Aimed at students of all ages, this website complements recent BBC broadcasts and includes considerable contributions from presenters and producers for example: Roman military historian and associate producer of "Simon Schama's History of Britain", Dr Mike Ibeji asks what the careers of Roman soldiers reveal about life in Roman Britain; Lindsay Allason-Jones (University of Newcastle Upon Tyne) explores the lives of Romano-British women; Adam Hart Davis, presenter of "Local Heroes" asks "What did the Romans do for us?" Other topics include: Roman Empire (Andrew Wallace-Hadrill); Roman Amphitheatre (Kathleen Coleman); Pompeii: Its Discovery and Preservation (Salvatore Ciro Nappo). As well as numerous interpretative texts there are multimedia resources taking advantage of the Internet's versatility as a teaching/learning medium. These include: galleries of images of Hadrian's Wall and Roman mosaics; five FAQs about Roman Britain answered; audio dramas (with script) of the Boudiccan Rebellion in 60 CE; and an interactive 3D reconstruction of Housesteads fort on Hadrian's Wall circa 3rd Century CE. For earlier Internet browsers a text-only version is available for much of the content. The "Romans" site maintains the design of BBCi History - such as the links to History content from the left and top navigation bars (which also identifies which area of the site you are currently in). The search box allows you to search History and the rest of the BBCi website. The bottom navigation bar offers access to: the "reading room" (feature articles authored by prominent historians); the "multimedia zone" (interactive content - games, 3D reconstructions, animations, audio and video); "For kids" (content designed for both primary and secondary school ages); the "how to" section (that offers advice on local and family history, house history, and amateur archaeology).
The Beazley Archive is a research unit of the University of Oxford's Faculty of Literae Humaniores; this is its website. The original archive of Sir John Beazley (1885-1970) included about 250,000 photographs, notes, drawings and books relating to ancient Greek and Roman art. In 1979 information technology (IT) projects began with the Pottery Database of Athenian figure-decorated vases of the 7th-4th centuries BC. Since 1992 IT projects on other aspects of classical art have been created. This website displays information about the Archive, including publications and bibliographies, and gives access to the IT projects and databases. These include: gems; pottery; sculpture; and the dictionary. For example: Pottery - The Beazley Archive text database records information about Athenian figure-decorated vases illustrated in publications available to the Ashmolean Library. Begun in 1979, it now has over 67,000 entries, with fourteen fields, including bibliographical references, find-place, shape and iconographical terms. In 1992 the Archive began to participate in a European Union project (RAMA) linking the collections of seven museums across Europe via the Internet. This project enabled the Beazley Archive to begin digitising its photographs and drawings. These include a vast collection of images of classical sites. An enhanced version of the original database is now available via the website (users may search for images according to location). The Dictionary feature of the resource is an excellent alphabetical guide to classical sites and terminology (including references to places, technical terms, buildings, people, gods and other figures from myth); each explanatory entry is accompanied by relevant images from the archive's collection. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement Scheme.
Borobudur, the great Buddhist stupa on Java (Indonesia), was built and decorated possibly before 800 AD. This page, hosted by the Australian National University, provides an extensive resource on the site, including background and contextual information, VRML (virtual reality) models, and photographs. In addition, many sections, plans and maps have been made available for more detailed analysis. A comprehensive bibliography supports the main content, whilst a links page provides access to further information regarding Borobudur itself, Java, and Indonesia as a whole.
The Bradshaw Foundation cares for the study and preservation of the Palaeolithic Bradshaw paintings in Australia. The foundation supports and presents worldwide research on cave and rock art, but it includes also a section about DNA research on the initial human spread across continents as well as other approaches to human migration. This website includes several freely available papers, and a downloadable ebook in PDF format, 'Australia - Rock Painting Sites in the Kimberley Region'. There are reports of visits by foundation staff to Palaeolithic art sites in France, including a virtual visit to Chauvet cave, Easter Island, Caucasus, Africa, South (Bolivia and Brazil) and North (Baja Peninsula and the Coso Range) America. A section focuses on the temples of Malta. The website is media rich and easily navigable. A newsletter and a news ticker complete the offer of this website, which also sells some products to support the activities of the foundation, mainly CD-ROMs extending the contents available on site. The various topics presented are summarised with a direct link to the relevant section in the sitemap page, which may be convenient to visit as not all the contents are reachable directly from the home page.
Breaking Through Rock Art Recording: Three Dimensional Laser Scanning of Megalithic Rock Art is the website of an AHRC-funded project aimed to test the technique of 3D laser scanning for the recording of prehistoric rock art. The project aimed to assess the technique as a means: for discovering 'new' or previously unrecorded art; for monitoring erosion or surface decay; and as a visualisation and presentation tool. The study focused on a selection of sites in: Cumbria and Northumberland-Castlerigg Stone Circle; Long Meg and her daughters; the Copt Howe panel; and the Horseshoe Rock. The website: defines the project aims; gives some background to the project; discusses the potential of laser scanning and the techniques used; and includes photographs of the Castlerigg stones alongside screenshots of the surface models produced from the laser scanning dataset.
Published on the website of the French Government's department of Culture and Communication and available in French, English and Spanish, this website documents the Palaeolithic Chauvet cave (named after the man who found the cave, Jean-Marie Chauvet in December 1994) at Pont d'Arc, in the Auvergne region of France. The website provides a virtual map of the cave, with enlargeable images of the wall paintings and archaeological finds and supplies details about the discovery of the cave, its authentication and preservation. Commentaries are provided by sculptors and anthropologists about the significance of the cave and how they felt on viewing the paintings.
This website, produced by the French Ministry of Culture and Communication, is an in-depth analysis of the prehistoric cave paintings at Lascaux, France. The site is split into 2 sections - 'Discover' and 'Learn'. 'Discover' places the caves in their geographical and chronological context, describing the discovery of the Palaeolithic cave paintings by 4 teenagers in 1940, and the closing of the caves in 1963 due to excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (from visitor's breathing). This section also has a virtual tour of the caves, complete with high quality images. The part of the site called 'Learn' focuses on particular aspects of the paintings and their interpretation, for example, the use of perspective, and the themes of the art. Archaeological dating methods and artefacts are also described and explained. Further, there is a bibliography for those wishing to pursue further research, and an online interactive quiz. Finally, there are travel instructions for anyone wishing to visit the caves in person.
The splendid Celtic Art and Cultures website was originally designed as a teaching aid for an art history course taught at the University of North Carolina. This attractively illustrated resource provides a rich visual introduction to many aspects of the Celtic world from 800 BC to 1000 AD, and will complement conventional printed study materials. The database of images can be searched by period, country, object type, and material, while a hypertext vocabulary provides illustrated explanations of key terms. In addition, there are maps and timelines, plus interpretative essays on Celtic design, Hallstatt burials, Celtic high crosses and Irish monasteries. Bibliographic references and links to other Celtic websites are also included. Much of the archaeological and historical background information on the Celts themselves is provided in the form of a virtual exhibition, created by UNC students who took the original course. The site will be of particular benefit to undergraduates, but also to teachers at a variety of levels.
The Census is a research database which documents antique art and architecture known in the Renaissance. The project focuses on recording which antique monuments were proven to be known where, when and in what state of preservation. There are more than 200,000 entries containing pictorial and written documents, locations, persons, concepts of times and styles, events, research literature and illustrations. Since 1995 the Census project was based in the Kunsthistorisches Seminar of the Humboldt University of Berlin. In 1997 the database was published on CD-ROM, and after the year 2000 it became available on the Internet. The Census was taken up in the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften as a long-term project in 2003 within the Academies Programme.
General Luigi di Palma Cesnola (1832-1904) was the most famous, if not notorious, excavator and collector of Cypriot antiquities in the 19th century, whose extraordinary assemblage of artefacts was dispersed to many museums and institutions both during his lifetime and after his death. This excellent website provides a guide to the collection of Cesnola material now housed in the Semitic Museum of Harvard University along with a very useful, concise guide to Cypriot archaeology and material culture. The core of the resource, still in progress at the time of writing, is a database of over 1300 objects, searchable by accession number, shape, classification and historical period. The use of pulldown menus provides a useful browse function for visitors to the site not familiar with Cypriot archaeology. Many of the objects are illustrated with thumb-nail images which can also be viewed at a larger scale. The objects are contextualised with the help of short, period-by-period accounts of Cypriot archaeology ranging from the Neolithic to the Byzantine periods circa 10,000 B.C.-1500 A.D. In addition the resource features short entries on fabric and artefact types and on the chronological schemes employed in Cypriot archaeology. The website also features concise biographical material, including a discussion of Cesnola's book 'Cyprus. Its ancient cities, tombs and temples' of 1877, in addition to a short bibliography listing key publications of Cesnola material. This valuable resource will appeal to a wide audience, ranging from undergraduate students in Near Eastern and Mediterranean archaeology and art history to more experienced graduates and researchers in the subject.
The website, Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc : the cave's newsletter, is devoted to the discovery of the Chauvet cave, France, where some of the earliest Palaeolithic cave art has been discovered. The main feature of the site is a newsletter which focuses on the early issues involving the conservation of the art, the microclimate within the cave and all the efforts made to provide safe, non-destructive access to the cave. Each edition concentrates on a topic and includes interviews with experts. Cave art is only referenced in this resource. Other features of the website include a gellery of images and links to related archaeological resources from the French Ministry of Culture and Communication. This website, which is equally navigable in French, English and Spanish, may be useful to understand the key conservation and managerial issues in a major archaeological project within a cave.
This website contains a set of pages describing the construction of timber framed houses and their inhabitants since the 13th century. Developments in construction techniques are outlined and the two main techniques, cruck construction and box-framing, are explained. Different approaches to infilling timber frames are described. It also considers key elements of timber-framed houses, including roofs, tiles, glazing and lighting. There is a bibliography and a glossary of terms. The pages have a number of useful photographs and line drawings. A picture gallery has photographs of some fine houses in Ludlow, photographs of modern timber framing and diagrams with explanatory text of a hall house.
The Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture (CASSS) aims to detailed, authoritative survey of English pre-Conquest sculpture. The website is currently limited in its functionality, although there is still a link to the previous website, which has more information available. On the old website, currently there is a list of publications and information about the project and staff. CASSS is in the process of producing regional catalogues of carved stones, with full bibliographic references and scaled photographs. The catalogues are of interest to historians, archaeologists, art historians, place-name specialists and local historians. On the old website, the project is in the process of producing regional catalogues of carved stones, with full bibliographic references and scaled photographs. The catalogues are of interest to historians, archaeologists, art historians, place-name specialists and local historians. Photographs can be provided, the project welcomes comments from the public, and it is possible to register to receive further information about publications.The website provides information on the project, Corpus publications for individual counties, the digital grammar of Anglo-Saxon ornament, links to related websites, and a link to the CASSS database. There is a list of regional volumes already published, those in preparation and forthcoming publications. The digital grammar of Anglo-Saxon ornament includes sections on: classification of forms and shapes of monuments; dating methods; epigraphy; techniques of carving; classification of ornament; and a bibliography. The CASSS database features information from Volume IV (South-East England), as a sample of what will become available in the future. The images of sculptures appear with information about the website, location, discussion, dates, description, measurements and evidence for discovery. The project has received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement scheme.
The Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland is an online project attempting to build a comprehensive database of the twelfth-century sculpture of the isles. At the time of cataloguing this site, the database covered England and Ireland; sites in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales are currently unavailable. Each building's database entry is split into nine sections: location; general description; exterior features; interior features; furnishings; loose sculpture; history; comments and opinions; and bibliography. Most entries also provide a number of photographic images of Romanesque architectural details. The database may be searched by site or by checklist item, thus providing a useful means of comparing particular features from different sites. There is also a useful glossary of the descriptive terms used. Given the amount of information provided for each building, it is likely to be a number of years before this project approaches its conclusion, but the site is already an exceptional resource for those studying Romanesque architecture and Anglo-Saxon churches. Two glossaries defining some specialist terms are available. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) within the Resource Enhancement scheme. Additionally, the data from the project has been deposited with the Visual Arts Data Service (VADS).
Virtually the Ice Age has been produced by the Creswell Heritage Trust. It provides an introduction to various themes within the Ice Age and uses the site of Creswell Crags in Nottinghamshire as the main focus, allowing users to explore the site in a number of different ways. The website consists of the following areas: A virtual tour of the limestone gorge at Creswell Crags including QuickTime panoramas from strategic points around the site. A series of themed pages which explore Stone Age people, the landscape of the Ice Age, and 100 years of exploration of the site. A catalogue of related museum objects including enlargeable images of artefacts, photographs of excavations and sites, site notes and plans, and excavation diary accounts A message board (currently unavailable) where visitors to the website can interact with museums, archaeologists and each other. The website is attractive and well laid out with good graphics. It is aimed at a non-specialist audience and is very clear and simple. Specialist archaeological terminology is defined in a glossary that accompanies the website.
This is the website of the David M Robinson collection at the University of Mississippi's University Museum. The Museum holds over 2000 objects, a collection built up principally by Dr Robinson, the excavator of Olynthos, his wife and Mr and Mrs Frank Peddle. The website puts online photographs of a significant and diverse proportion of the museum's holdings. Of Greek artefacts, there are inscriptions, coins, sculptures, mosaics and other objects, mainly small bronzes and terracottas. The Roman objects are organised in the same categories. In addition there is an important collection of Greek and South Italian vases, of which there are around ninety photographs presented here. There is also a small section on Egyptian artefacts. In all cases, there is a brief accompanying description, but no dimensions. A bibliographical reference is provided for most of the inscriptions, vases and sculptures. Many of the Greek vases are also linked to the relevant entry on the Perseus website. A number of the photographs of vases are out of focus, so whilst the images provide a general impression they may in some cases be inadequate for detailed study.
Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project is an online collection of digital photographs and measurements based on a large marble street plan of the ancient city, completed around the start of the third century AD. Parts of it survive in numerous fragments, the assembly of which into a coherent 'jigsaw' has long challenged archaeologists. Stanford University's Digital Forma Urbis Romae Project has collected high definition digital photographs and computer measurements of the 1186 surviving fragments (these may be viewed here) and is now aiming to develop computer algorithms that might help to establish a more useful searchable version of the map. The user interface for the selection from Stanford's database which been made so far is available online. This site, though, is the news page for the technical side of the project. It contains a detailed description of the process which the Stanford team is developing, which will be of interest to those who seek to bring the latest technology to bear on ancient problems. The site also offers background information on the original map itself, as well as a detailed annotated bibliography of relevant reference works. There are also useful press reports and news updates about the progress of the project.
The DigMaster website presents the artefactual evidence (specifically figurines) from two separately excavated Persian sites (Tell Halif and Maresha) together with those from the Pierides Foundation Museum in Larnaca, Cyprus. The site provides an easy to use figurine database interface with a wealth of images and VR media. The DigMaster website is simply set out and very intuitive. There are pages describing the geography and environment, the excavation, survey and ethnography of the sites, as well as a summary of the stratographic settings of the figurines. A simple visual browse structure enables the users to view the figurines arranged by type. There is also contact information for the site's authors, and links to related projects. This is an excellent example of the way in which electronic publication of fieldwork results can move way beyond the limitations of traditional 'hard copy' publication. A new website, DigMasterII, is expanding this website.
This AHRC-funded resource presents a collection of twenty-three silkscreen prints by Douglas Howcroft Mazonowicz . These prints are copies of pre-historic rock art from key sites in France, Spain, Algeria and of Etruscan tomb murals. These offer a useful supplement the now largely inaccessible or faded originals.
'Dr. J's Illustrated Guide to the Classical World' is a mélange of texts, images and weblinks illustrating many aspects of the ancient Greek and Roman World assembled by Dr Janice Siegel of Illinois State University and is designed to open up the world of classical antiquity to students of all levels. This is an on-going project and will be added to over time. It provides much useful supplementary study material for school children and preliminary undergraduate students in Classics, ancient history and classical archaeology. Illustrated lectures and texts feature items on ancient history, myth, drama, art and archaeology sites and art. The many images and photographs are provided by the author herself or else derive from the major archaeological museums of the world. The website, the core of which is the author's personal webpage, is largely designed to facilitate undergraduate appreciation of the Classics in their studies and is particularly suitable for browsing but is also intended to provide learning aids for teachers. Siegel's colloquial text and selection of images draw numerous parallels between the ancient world and modern political and military events. These also serve a didactic purpose for students and faculty, as will the inclusion of course materials and accounts of her teaching experiences since 1994. Other features of the site include a wide-ranging survey of audio-visual teaching resources in classics, available either online or in video or CD versions.
The e book "Dunhuang art" (ISBN 8170173132), by Prof. Duan Wenjie and translated into English by Tan Chung, focuses on the approximately 500 caves containing 45,000 square metres of frescoes and 2,415 stucco colour statues of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas located at Mogao, on the oasis of Dunhuang, Gansu Province. The author is a leading authority on the topic and this is the only book available in English that presents a Chinese perspective on the caves. Dunhuang is the largest Buddhist centre in China and the art found there dates from the 4th to the 14th century AD. This website contains the entire text of the book, including images, the glossary and the bibliography. A few additional articles have been added to the online version, and chapters cover: the style of art at Dunhuang; Dunhuang Art during different phases of the Tang Dynasty; and conservation of relics at Dunhuang. It is possible to download a font to display diacritical marks. This website is an essential resource about the early artistic heritage of China as well as Indian and Buddhist culture in China.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Egyptian antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on Egypt and Egyptology and several pages on individual objects from the collections of the museum (about 200 in April 2006). There is a map and a timeline. An extensive and updated bibliography of publications in French is available. The presentations of individual objects are recommended to anybody with even a passing interest for Egyptology. Most objects have artistic value and are described and interpreted in detail; several pictures are also available for each of them allowing to see all sides of objects. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long).
The eMuseum website provides highly detailed images and brief descriptions of national treasures and important cultural properties held by the museums of Tokyo, Kyoto and Nara. A large number of Japanese artefacts together with earlier Chinese paintings and documents are presented. All the information on the site is available in five languages: Japanese, Chinese, Korean, English and French. Although the home page is only in Japanese, clicking on any of the icons for the different categories leads to an easy-to-use graphical interface in all five languages. Images are organised into the following categories: Japanese painting (11th-13th centuries and 15th-19th centuries); Chinese paintings (Song and Yuan dynasties); Swords and Blades; Others (includes Buddhist statues, votive and ritual objects and vessels); Buddhist sutras and Chinese classics; Japanese Classic and Historical documents; Japanese and Chinese calligraphy; Textiles. Once a category is selected the user is presented with a list of all objects within that section, which leads through to a more detailed record for each object. This contains a thumbnail image, information of an object's date, period, material and provenance and a brief description. Navigation buttons also allow the user to browse an entire section without returning to the initial list. The thumbnail image provides access to a larger version image of the object that can in turn be enlarged further and viewed in detailed segments. Certain objects on the website also have the option to view them from different angles using the 'Image Browser' option. The eMuseum website is easy to use (but also includes a multilingual 'how to use' section) and provides easy access to very high quality images of a large number of important objects.
The England's Rock Art (ERA) website is a website focusing on all aspects of research and conservation of rock art; its key resource is a database integrating geospatial data; pictures; and research notes. The database can be browsed or searched, and particularly useful appear the possibility to access it by selecting rock art motifs. At the time of the review the database included only sites in Northumberland and County Durham; future updates with sites located in other counties added are planned. Researchers, students and enthusiasts should head directly to the database as this is a valuable resource.
The rest of the website is mainly limited to present rock art and contains some galleries of pictures, including a few videos and interactive features for the younger or most bored of the visitors.
The Eternal Egypt project is an online database of Egyptian historical and cultural resources, and is available in English, French and Arabic. In partnership with the Egyptian Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage and the Supreme Council of Antiquities and with the financial and technical backing of IBM, the resource features the following: high resolution images of key artefacts; panoramic webcam views of live sites of historical importance in Egypt; and reconstructions of lost or damaged sites. The library section provides a series of essays on key aspects of ancient Egyptian civilisation, accompanied by a useful glossary, while an interactive map of the country provides a selection of objects, with commentary, from the most important archaeological sites. There is also a detailed timeline. The resource can be browsed by topic, artefact, character or location. Topics covered include: arts and crafts; science; agriculture; commerce; culture and society; and government. A QuickTime plugin is necessary to view some of the features of the site. Eternal Egypt was winner of Museums and the Web 2005 Best of the Web: Best Innovative or Experimental Application.
Eura is a portal website focusing on European rock art. There are several sections, though some external to this site, concentrating on various sites and areas in the Alps. There are sections on Valcamonica, Mt. Bego, Valtellina, Western Alps, Valcenischia, Valsusa, Maurienne, Valchiusella, Carschenna, Garda Lake and Austria. A hyperlink brings to a paper published in Tracce, which is part of the same group of rock art websites to which this website belongs. Finally, a slideshow including both pictures and maps provides an overview of the many sites. This website appears disorganised and partly amateurish, but it produced by a group of freelance archaeologists working at the rock art sites. By following a hyperlink to the their main site (Footsteps of Man), apart from further information on the archaeologists behind the website, it is possible to request (in the section labelled "research") a free copy of the Rock Art Database (RAD), which contains individual records for many rock art figures from across the alpine region.
EuroPreArt aims to establish a data-base of European prehistoric art and to launch a European institutional network devoted to this domain, and to contribute to the awareness of the diversity and richness of European Prehistoric Art, as one of the 'oldest artistic expression of Humankind'. The website, which is intended to be open-ended and accommodate new entries over time, at present consists of over 800 examples of European engraved or painted rocks from 7 participating European countries, namely, namely, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. These records, mostly in English but also in Spanish or Portuguese, are accessible in various ways : country by country (either in list form or as an interactive map) or with the help of a search engine. Each entry provides a detailed description of the engraving, together with information on its geographic and environmental context, chronology, symbolism and state of conservation together with photographs and tracings of the images and accompanying bibliographic references. The entire bibliographic database of almost 3000 entries is presented alphabetically but can also be searched by keyword and author. There is also a slide show of rock art arranged according to country which provides an attractive visual overview of the range the entire subject. An extensive feedback system allows the reader to contact the many individuals and groups who have contributed to this resource, which will interest a wide constituency of amateurs and academics alike.
This website publishes the free and full text reports of the excavations by members of the French School of Athens at Delos. Most of the issues focus on Greek art, including artefacts such as figurines, lamps ceramics and mosaics. Delos was believed to be the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. Each issue focuses on particular areas of the settlement (both private and public) or classes of materials. Delos is an important archaeological site for the study of ancient Greece and this website may be useful to many students and researchers since it contains many reference works.
"The False-Door : dissolution and becoming in Roman wall-painting" website is the online publication of an ongoing research on Roman wall-painting, focusing on the motif of the false-door in Campanian sites such as Pompeii and Herculaneum. The illustrated website reconsiders Gilbert Picard's thesis that the false-door imagery represents the entrance to the tomb or the underworld. The false-door motif is therefore analysed to test this view, suggesting that the house was seen by ancient Romans as sanctuary where the spirits of the ancestors (Manes) met the gods and spirits protecting the household (Penati and Lares). The study concentrates on the symbolism of the representations taking also a phenomenological point of view in consideration.
The false-doors have been considered in recent literature as sophisticated, perspective-aware decorations following the conventions of Pompeian styles (the first style includes sober representations of false-walls; the second style extended the real architecture by depicting architectural features that affected the visual perception of space; the third style involved some scenes). From a strict evolutionary perspective of art, false-doors just represent the second degree of complexity. Such a view is unsatisfactory because over-simplistic; the town of Pompeii had all three styles in use at the time of its destruction (79 AD) and it is unlikely that all three styles emerged within a short period of time in that area as the skills of a few artists improved. Interpretations such as the one proposed on this website are therefore welcome, but readers must be aware that it is a working hypothesis aimed at researchers and advanced students; undergraduates should not use this website for their general assignments on Roman art.
This website describes the AHRC-funded work being undertaken to make the University of Nottingham’s Felix Oswald Samian Collection more accessible to scholars. The collection was established by pioneering Roman pottery researcher Felix Oswald and is based on excavations at Margidunum (Nottinghamshire) and acquisitions from French antiquarian Albert-Edward Plicque. The project aims to increase visibility of the project through digitisation (based on rubbings to ensure accuracy) and a full re-analysis of the collection. This re-analysis will identify “each specimen-form, fabric, decoration and stamp and full quantification” and link potters’ stamps and signatures to the Leeds Index of Potters stamps. The project will also use suitable sherds to create an online fabric series. One of the most important outcomes of the project will be a fully searchable online database, and a demonstrator is available here.
This German website publishes a bibliographic database of occurrences in ancient Coptic hagiographic texts of female representations. Field "Kommentar" contains short descriptions of the actual figures, but there are no pictures. Access to the database is free and all contents are full-text; a printable version can be selected. The database can be browsed or searched. Specialist researchers intrerested in Byzantine and early Arab Egypt; early Christianity and Coptic religion and culture may find this database useful.
This website records the expeditions in the Libyan Desert of amateur archaeologist András Zboray. The geography, natural environment, history of explorations, rock art and other archaeological features of the Sahara desert are presented in a series of lavishly illustrated articles. The texts are generally short, but there are many pictures and references to recent scholarly literature. All pages are integrated by a clever use of hyperlinks. The section about rock art includes pages on Karkur Talh, Karkur Murr, Western Uweinat (Ain Doua & Karkurs), Jebel Arkenu, Jebel Kissu, Yerguehda Hill, Mogharet el Kantara (Shaw's Cave), Wadi Sora and Northern Gilf Kebir (including wadis). The author asks the public to submit pictures and information on other Saharan sites for publication in his website; an extra page about the site of Karkur Talh is already available. The section about the archaeology of the Sahara presents some interesting discoveries, mostly preliminary reports from archaeologists working in the region. The major features include Bagnold's stone circle, some evidence of Egyptian voyages in the desert, several wadis and Abu Ballas "Pottery Hill", where 400 ancient water jars have been found 180 Km from the nearest oasis, possibly to supply caravans. The website also provides a free collection of maps, a collection of Landsat images and an updated bibliography. A collection of hyperlinks to other researchers and institutions studying the Sahara deserves some attention, as some of the featured explorers embody the literary and cinematographic figure of the lonely archaeologist explorer.
This is the website of the Italian National Photographic Archive, part of the Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la Documentazione (Central Institute for Cataloguing and Documentation, ICCD). The archive contains documents related to the historical, artistic, archaeological, architectural, landscape and folkloristic heritage of Italy. Founded in 1892, the archive also offers a wide range of material on historical photography and the documentation of the most important aspects of contemporary Italian society and culture. The archive holds over 50,000 black and white images coming from various collections, and about 20,000 colour photographs. The interface is both in English and Italian, but the most useful way to access the collection, by searching for keyword among pictured objects and monuments, is available only by selecting "archivio" and then "schede oggetti" in the Italian version. Among the historical collections it is possible to find photographs by: Ludovico Tuminello; Giacomo Caneva; John Henry Parker; Francesco Chigi; Francesco Paolo Michetti; Luciano Morpurgo; and others.
The archive also contains images from the Casa Savoia collections, representing public and private events of the life of Umberto I's and Vittorio Emanuele III's families. There are numerous photographs of archaeological artefacts conserved in Italian museums and ancient architectural monuments. The archive publishes interactive CD-ROMs such as "archeologia a Roma tra il 1870 e 1930", which contains all photographic material on early archaeological excavations at Rome. CDs and high resolution photographs can be purchased through the online shop; all photographs are available for free at lower resolution and are accompanied by extensive captions in a tabular format.
This website publishes the free and full text version of the final reports of the archaeological excavations at Delphi carried out by members of the French School of Athens. Delphi was considered by the ancient Greeks to be the centre of the world. Delphi was once the site of an oracle of the earth goddess Gaea. Later, Apollo substituted Gaea, after the Greek god defeated the monstrous serpent Python, which guarded Gaea, and expelled her from the sanctuary. Apollo was the main divinity worshipped at Delphi, but the sanctuary also honoured Dionysus. The sanctuary became famous for the oracle: it was believed that the word of the local sacerdotess, referred as Pythia, were the words of the god. The Pythia was very influential in the Greek world and because of this several wars were fought to control the town and the oracle. Recently scientists discovered in the area of the sanctuary a source of natural ethylene gas, which could have been responsible for the trance-like state of the sacerdotess and the vapours noted by ancient authors. A sacred way connected the sanctuary to the proper temple of Apollo and it was lined with treasuries that several Greek cities had offered to Apollo (those offered by Athens and Thebes are the subject of specific volumes). The Athens treasury contained a wall covered with inscriptions, including musically annotated hymns to Apollo, which are the subject of one of the available volumes. Several volumes focus also on Greek art and especially sculptures. Of particular importance is the "Charioteer of Delphi" (about 470 BC), a bronze cast of "Severe" style, which represents the passage from Archaic to Classical art (an entire monograph focus on this statue, and several more describe art works of Archaic period). Delphi was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.
Since Delphi is a fundamental archaeological site for the study of ancient Greece, this website may be useful to a broad range of scholars and students, from those seeking the picture of a particular monument or art work to anybody carrying out research on any subject (archaeology, classics and art history primarily) related to ancient Greece.
This simple, functional but elegantly laid-out website describes the pre-Arabic petroglyphs found in Fujairah, one of the United Arab Emirates. Although short on detail, the site quickly gives an overview of the rock carvings, their context, execution, and supposed significance. The website is divided into three sections: an overview, images of the carvings, and interpretation. Comprehensive references are provided to relevant academic works in print.
Website of the Gardom's Edge Landscape Project which explores the ways of life of people who lived and laboured in the Derbyshire Peak District from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. The project is run jointly by the Archaeology Service of Peak District National Park Authority and the Department of Archaeology and Prehistory at Sheffield University. A set of pages explore the findings of the project thematically. These can be accessed from the contents page or via clickable maps. Two seasons of fieldwork (1998 & 1999) are presented as diaries. A collection of QTVR panoramas illustrate the landscape.
This website provides access to the Getty Research Library Photo Study Collection database. The collection includes over two million images of works of art and architecture, mainly consisting of black and white photographs. The photographs themselves are not all accessible online. The images primarily relate to Western art, architecture and the decorative arts from antiquity to the modern period, but images related to the study of archaeology are also being added to the collection. About half of the collection is represented by description only but images are being added periodically. The collection is catalogued by periods (such as medieval) and by media (such as sculpture or print) and is searchable by keyword and by artists' names.
The Getty Vocabulary Program has built and maintained these Vocabulary Databases. The database comprises online editions of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT), the Union List of Artist Names (ULAN) and the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN). These databases provide information about terminology relating to art, architecture and material culture and also provide biographies of artists and information about major sites of artistic or architectural interest in the world. Useful in describing works of art for indexers and cataloguers and as knowledge databases for researchers.
The website "Great Buildings collection" is an impressive online encyclopaedia of important world buildings and their architects edited by Kevin Matthews and published for free on the Internet by Artifice Inc., a 3D modelling software company based in Oregon with a focus on architecture. The database, which will interest a range audience of students and researchers in architecture and social history as well as the general public, features over 800 buildings which can be searched by a variety of categories such as period style, building type, date, climate, country, locational context (such as urban, rural, mountainside or coastal) or architectural feature (for example all buildings with domes or courtyard) in addition to personnel choices by the editor such as Millennium buildings. Each building is displayed as a series of data fields (the information for which is supplied by a range of contributors) and illustrated with photographic images and/or 3D digital models. The entries are fully hypertexted and are interlinked with the main RIBA website to facilitate use of their online architectural resources. Timelines of architects and of buildings are also created on the site. Bibliographic references to linked to commercial bookselling websites though other non-related advertising fliers also proliferate. The images can be freely used for non profit-making and educational activities but there are also details of a licensing scheme for commercial usage. The website also features news links to the Architecture Week site for up-to-date stories on buildings and planning.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Greek and Roman antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on the Greek, Etruscan, Roman and Byzantine civilisations as well as several pages on individual objects from the collections of the museum (about 250 at the time of review). There is a map and a timeline. The presentations of individual objects are highly recommended as many are masterpieces of art. Most objects have artistic value and are described and interpreted in detail. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long).
This website published by the library of the University of Heidelberg contains a significant number of free and full-text e-books on archaeology; Egyptology; and modern languages literature. It is possible to access digitised manuscripts (Bibliotheca Palatina; Codices Salemitani; and Heidelberger Handschriften) as well as documents and books on the region of Heidelberg; incunabula; documents about the university of Heidelberg; geological writings; art history books (especially nineteenth century European art); archaeology (Minoan, Mycenaeans, Greeks, Romans, Etruscans, iconography, pottery) and Egyptology books; literature of South Asia; World War I archival documents; and other special documents preserved at the university. It is possible to search or browse through the documents and books, mostly written in German. Among the texts are the full-text edition of Arthur J. Evans' "The Palace of Minos" and other works by Evans; works by Adolf Furtwängler, Bernard de Montfaucon, Heinrich Schliemann, William M. Flinders Petrie, and John Ward; and Matthew A. Sherring's "The sacred city of the Hindus: an account of Benares in ancient and modern times". The list of available books is increasing. Since fundamental works of archaeology in the public domain can be accessed through this website, archaeologists at all stages may find this website useful.
The "History Experience Centre" is part of the official Ulsan Metropolitan City website and focuses on the archaeology of the Ulsan region of South Korea. Section "Hall of the Ages" presents a timeline of the archaeological phases of the region from the earliest evidence of human presence, dating back to about 700,000 years ago, to contemporary times. By selecting the overview page all main phases are summarised with several illustrations. There are in-depth summaries of archaeological evidence, including ceramic styles, settlements and material evidence. The English version sometimes uses incorrect words, for example calling archaeological features "relics". However, the descriptions are clear enough and there are many colour pictures that are accessible from the many "gallery pictures". The abundance of details and pictures may be sufficient to the experienced researcher to recognise many archaeological artefacts and features and often the summaries could be satisfactory even in a final excavation report. Section "Hall of Cultural Properties" contains short reports of the main monuments, including the Bronze Age petroglyphs at Bangudae (scenes of hunting and perhaps whaling with boats) and Cheonjeon-ri (animals and geometric figures). More recent monuments are also included. Some archaeological sites are also present in the lists, and for each site a selection of artefacts is illustrated. Short videos and 3D reconstructions are also sometimes available in addition to texts and pictures. Section "Folklore Hall" focuses on games, religion, music and recent material evidence, while "Hall of Geography" contains pictures of several historical maps of the region with short commentaries. Overall, this is an excellent website that summarises the archaeological and cultural evidence from the Ulsan region effectively and may be of interest to both researchers and students.
The excavations at Hohle Fels cave have yielded the oldest animal and anthropomorphic representations known and this website presents some of the artefacts and useful archaeological information of the contexts. The navigation of the website is very simple and there are many illustrations and only a few short texts in German. Sections "Forschung" and "Grabungen" present a short history of the exploration and excavations at the cave which span nearly two centuries. Section "Auswertung" contains some essential data about the geology and stratigraphy of the cave as well as results from radiocarbon dating. There are also drawings of stone tools for both the Magdalenian and Gravettian periods. The most interesting part is the "Die Funde" section which is a simple gallery of pictures (clicking each picture opens an enlarged version) of some artefacts and animal bones found during the excavations. Among the artefacts are a possible stone phallus dated to the Magdalenian; and a few Gravettian (around 30,000 years ago) ivory carvings including a head of horse; an aquatic bird and an anthropomorphic figurine part lion and part human. There is a bibliography (Literatur) with a few full-text papers available in PDF format. Many pictures on this website are very famous and anybody interested in the origins of art, iconography and symbolism should visit it.
This is a collection of pictures originally prepared for the course "Notions d'histoire de l'art et d'archéologie : Egypte et Proche-Orient anciens" by the late Prof. R. Tefnin. The collection contains over 500 colour and B&W photographs at medium resolution reproducing mainly tomb frescoes, artistic artefacts and architectural masterpieces such as the pyramids; there are also a few didactic drawings. The photographs are listed with a small thumbnail; clicking on the thumbnail it is possible to access a larger version of the photograph. However, only part of the picture can be seen, and the website requires minimal interactivity to display other parts of the picture. Metadata with information on the subject are provided on each page, and users should be aware that some pictures are taken from books. All photographs are copyrighted and suitable only for personal or internal use only. Although students may find here some useful pictures, the collection remains most useful to lecturers to prepare their courses.
Alison Stones's Images of Medieval Art and Architecture website, based at the University of Pittsburgh, is an image bank featuring pictures of castles, monasteries, cathedrals, churches and maps from England, Wales, and France. Many of these were scanned from a collection of slides donated by Ruth Dean. The number of images available for each building varies widely, and in some cases the photographs are supplemented with older drawings and floor-plans, and occasionally suggestions for further reading. Although the site lacks a search function, it is easy to navigate. It comprises three main sections: images of Britain and images of France (both arranged alphabetically by location), plus a helpful glossary. This last feature will be particularly useful to students who are new to this area, and includes illustrations of many of the described features.
This website is the online version of a wide ranging, lavishly illustrated and extensively referenced online art history course by Dr. Chris Witcombe of Sweet Briar College, Virginia. The course focuses on the social, political and religious interpretations of artistic representation of women in six broad areas or periods: Egypt; the Aegean basin; Palestine; Greece; the early prehistoric period; and barbarian Europe. Each section is organised around a series of case studies or essays which are accompanied by discussion topics and questions, extensive bibliographic lists, and collections of relevant Web links. Particular pieces of art from each culture or period are examined: the site describes each art piece, looks at how they have been interpreted, and examines the role of women in ancient cultures. Essays and online lectures by other academics and students are also featured. Textual sources from the relevant Greek, Hebrew and Egyptian contexts are extensively used throughout. A hypertext medium with frames is employed which sometimes can be clumsy to use, though it allows you to have several parts of the course on screen at once. Some of the in-text links are inaccessible to off-campus browsers. This resource will be valuable both to college students taking courses in ancient art, archaeology, ancient history, and gender studies, and also for those interested in cross-cultural and multi-period approaches to art and gender and in comparative religion.
This Spanish-language website presents the activities of the prehistory research group at the University of Cantabria. The most interesting sections are the presentations of the various projects (proyectos) and the free full-text short papers (textos). The numerous projects are all listed in one page, which gives access to the individual pages of each project. Most of these pages are illustrated with colour pictures and some have maps or GIS images. A few of the projects are also presented in English. The short papers are all in Spanish and have colour pictures. Some papers benefit from digital publication by the including hyperlinks, tables and computer graphics. Although they are defined as short papers (textos breves), they are complete. The unifying topic is the prehistory of Cantabria, which the papers explore in length from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age.
Designed and maintained by the non-profit organisation, Islamic Arts and Architecture Organization (IAAO), this website offers an introductory exploration into the developments of Islamic architecture, Arabic calligraphy, coins and the woven arts; each complimented by a host of details and images. Most entries typically describe the origins of the major forms and styles, the methods of construction or execution, as well as providing some limited detail about their religious or cultural significance and function where appropriate. For those wishing to delve deeper into these topics, the creators have developed a helpful bibliographic section containing approximately a dozen different citation lists focused on the four primary subject divisions of the site itself. This website may be most useful to students and the general public.
The Kampuchea Country of Legend website contains an image database of temples in Cambodia compiled by enthusiast David MacCartney. There are also some descriptions of the temples but they are often only in French. By clicking on the temple thumbnails, a site visitor can access maps, photographs, and sometimes the relevant Google satellite aerial photograph. Also on this website, history of Cambodia, current cultural information, and descriptions of the Angkor religion can be found in French and English. Angkor Wat, probably the most famous Cambodian temple complex, built in the early 12th century, is a unique combination of two common Khmer architecture temple styles: the temple mountain and the galleried temple. The temple has many levels: the higher the level, the more exclusive.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the site of Altai, Kazakhstan. The few illustrated articles concentrate on the discoveries of tombs and Bronze Age rock art carvings in the area. The 'diaporama' (picture gallery) collects in one place all the many colour photos and drawings in the articles. There is a map and a bibliography.
This website publishes the conferences organised at the University of Montpellier III by the Paléoassociation, which focuses on archaeological sites from the Palaeolithic period to the Bronze Age and cave art. For each conference it is possible to listen to the lecture by using a Real Audio player and all pictures that were projected as part of the lecture are normally accessible on a separate page; for several lectures an abstract and bibliography is also available, in some cases a complete bibliography of the site can be downloaded in PDF format. In the past lectures these are some of the sites discussed: the Palaeolithic caves of Mayenne-Sciences (France), Mezmaiskaya (Russia), Conques (France), Hortus (France), Arbreda (Spain), Castel 2 (France), and Ramandils (France); the Palaeolithic archaeological sites of Zhoukoudian (China), Fressignes (France), Moula (France, Ardèche), the Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain), Romani (Spain); the Neolithic sites on the "Horn of Africa", Plussulien (France), Doline de Roucadour (France), Cap Manuel (Senegal), Balma de la Margineda (Andorra), Fontbrégoua cave (France), Capoulière (France); and the Chalcolithic (Copper Age) site of Rocher du Causse. This website can be very useful to researchers, but requires the Internet Explorer browser and a fair knowledge of spoken French to listen to the lectures.
The Logan Museum of Anthropology is a teaching museum of Beloit College, Wisconsin. It has notable collections of: Mesoamerican ceramics; native North American basketry and other artefacts; and Old World palaeolithic finds, particularly from France and North Africa. The website hosts four online exhibitions. The first contains images and descriptions of the museum's palaeolithic artefacts grouped geographically and by time period. The second online exhibition is divided into two halves, one covering the woodland and Mississippian traditions of central and eastern North America between 700 AD and 1500 AD, the other examining the cultures of south-western North America, including the Anasazi, Casas Grandes, Hohokam, and Patayan. The third exhibition presents three-dimensional views of some of the museum's most interesting objects, and requires QuickTime viewer. The final exhibition was put together by students in 1999, and covers the 'World of Music'. It was not functioning when checked. The history of the museum and the collections is described on the site, which also gives access information and opening hours. The museum publishes a biannual newsletter, available online in PDF format. There is an education section, a calendar of events, and a search engine.
Marbles Reunited is a British-based group co-ordinating the campaign activites of a number of individuals and groups who wish to see the repatriation of the Psrthenon sculptures, currently housed in the British Museum. It thus serves as an organising body for establised groups such as Parthenon 2004 and the British Committee for the Restitution of the Parthenon Marbles. This includes support for the proposal of the Greek government to reunite the sculptures with fragments still in Athens in a purpose-built musuem, on permanent loan. The website is distinctly forward looking; there is little exploration of how the sculptures got to the British museum, nor Greek and English responses through the nineteenth and twentieth century. What is clear is the organisation's disatisfaction with the current situation, where the sculptures are "displayed in a side hall and a couple of corridors of the British Museum." The website concentrates on future plans, detailing the Greek proposal and the new Akropolis museum, but also the advantages to the British Museum, "a 'win-win' situation" as the organisation terms it. In addition to contact details and resources for those interested in joining the campaign, there is a list of high-profile supporters and relevant links, an archive of press releases, and a page of responses to frequently asked questions. At the time of writing, a significant proportion of the site was still under construction. In addition to the text, there is an interactive guide that requires Macromedia Flash Player
The Medieval Wall Painting in the English Parish Church website provides an online catalogue of churches in England that are decorated with medieval wall paintings, dating from the twelfth to the fifteenth century. The catalogue can be browsed by geographical location using a county map of England, or by subject via a page of thumbnail images. Photographs of all the paintings are provided. The images are accompanied by useful descriptions and notes on their importance and context. The paintings have been separated into categories which include, among others: pre-1200 paintings; Genesis scenes and the Tree of Jesse; the early life of Christ; the Virgin; the Saints; the Doom and the weighing of souls; the Passion cycle; and devotional scenes. In addition to the main catalogue there is also: a general introduction to medieval wall paintings; a bibliography; and a selection of pertinent links. This website would be invaluable to anyone studying medieval art and religious iconography, although it should be noted that this is an ongoing project and coverage is not complete.
This website hosts a collection of images of Mesoamerican sites and artefacts, and essays about Mesoamerican archaeoastronomy and Teotihuacan mural art. There are photographs of the remains at Teotihuacan and of the Mayan sites of Chichen Itza, Palenque, and Uxmal. There are further galleries of the stelae and ceramics found at Izapan, and stone sculptures and miscellaneous artefacts from throughout Mesoamerica. Most of the images are clear although not especially large. They were scanned at 72 dpi. The essays described how archaeological finds have shaped our knowledge of Mesoamerican calendars, and how mural art can be interpreted and misinterpreted.
An attractively produced website providing a visual overview of Mesoamerican art and archaeology from the Preclassic Period to the Spanish Conquest (1500 BC-1521 AD) based on teaching materials assembled by Dr. Manuel Aguilar of California State University at Los Angeles. The numerous photographs of objects, archaeological sites and reconstruction models as well as maps and site plans are arranged by period and culture group with images viewable as thumbnails and at a larger scale. Each featured item is provided with a data-card providing vital information and brief commentary. There is also a useful page of weblinks to other Mesoamerican resources which will supply background information and further research materials to complement the images provided in this site. This website will benefit in particular undergraduate students of New World archaeology as well as those requiring comparative material for more general courses on world civilisation.
"Mothers of Time, Seven Palaeolithic Figurines from the Louis Alexandre Jullien Collection" is a useful article published by the Canadian Museum of Civilization about seven figurines from the excavations at Balzi Rossi caves, in northwestern Italy. The Gravettian (around 25,000 years ago) figurines were discovered between 1883 and 1895 by Louis Alexandre Jullien. The figurines show considerable variations in the iconography, demonstrating that symbolism and art were at work. All the figurines portray nude females, or "Venuses", but the figurine called "mask" appears different and might represent a different subject, even if it is probably just another variation of the same theme. This website provides pictures and short descriptions for each figurine. Questions have arisen about the authenticity of the figurines, but subsequent discoveries suggest that they are genuine. Some essential bibliographic notes are provided. The website may be useful especially to students and the article seems appropriate for a seminar or other teaching.
The website of the Museum of Cycladic Art contains useful information on all collections and activities at the museum, and is aimed primarily at the general public. The website is very neat and easy to navigate, and contains sections on the "museum" with practical information and an online version of a DVD presenting the museum ("virtual tour"). Section "permanent collections" is the most interesting, especially for undergraduate students. It includes artefacts from the Cycladic Collection and Collections of Ancient Greek Art and Ancient Cypriot Art, pictured and described in some detail. The selection of Cycladic artefacts follows an educational criterion, for example several figurines out of the very few in existence with traces of paint have been included. Figurines are one of the key topics, and this evident also in section "special topics", where there are also diagrams ordering the know types. There are also sections on Greek art and Cypriot antiquities (the latter focusing on trade), also with selected artefacts presented in greater detail. For each of the three sections there is a ”Special topics” area. These are thematic essays on various issues (including a large number of texts on Ancient Greek Art). Bibliographies are given in some pages, concentrating on publications of the museum (a section on these is also available). "Donators" (sic) is an interesting section on the donors that from the start gathered the collections of the museum. It may interest anybody who is interested in the sometimes difficult relationship between collectors and public museums. Section "education" is also noteworthy, and is aimed at schoolchildren. It includes a "resources" area, which provides online virtual tours to all the collections and museum publications, available as PDF files. Section "activities" outlines the research carried out by staff or promoted by the museum, and some occasional lectures and seminars organised by the museum may interest researchers. The "exhibitions" section provides information about current and upcoming exhibitions, as well as all previous exhibitions - whether art or archaeological exhibitions - presented at the MCA. There are many colour illustrations, maps and diagrams throughout the website, making this website an excellent educational tool up to undergraduate level.
This is the website of Museums Sheffield, which incorporates Bishops' House, Millennium Gallery, Graves Gallery and Weston Park. The website covers events and temporary exhibitions at each of the sites. There is also a section looking at the collections in each of the museums and galleries, covering a broad range of artefacts such as metalwork, decorative arts, archaeology, natural history and the social history collection and Ruskin collection. The 'Learning' section of the website has a broad range of resources for teachers, including various teaching packs and flashcards available to download freely as PDF files. The website also has an experts exchange where schools can upload their own projects completed from the museums' guides. The website has information about upcoming events across the four venues and there are details of how to get more involved with Museums Sheffield along with some general information for visitors and a FAQ section.
The National Committee on Carved Stones in Scotland (NCCS) was formed in 1993 in response to the threats (both human and natural) facing Scotland's carved stones. Its goals are to increase awareness of these dangers, to promote appreciation of the carved stones, to encourage a greater understanding of them, and to develop a common approach to their recording, publication and preservation. The website presents information regarding the role of the NCSS and highlights some of the issues associated with Scottish carved stones. Advice on sources of relevant information, and guidance on specific topics (such as recording, preservation, and the moving or sheltering of carved stones) is also available, along with sections detailing publications and past conferences. A news section gives information about forthcoming events and conferences held by the NSCC, whilst a membership section allows interested visitors to become more involved in the organisation and its work. Finally, a small image gallery towards the bottom of the home page gives an idea of the types and styles, and indeed beauty, of the carvings in question. The website is easily navigable, and is suitable for most browsers.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Near Eastern antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on the collection as well as several pages on individual objects (about 200 at the time of review); there is a map and a timeline. Anatolia, Persia, Mesopotamia and the Levant are all represented in the objects analysed in detail. Several tablets and inscriptions of famous texts, such as the Code of Hammurabi, are also presented in some detail, though translations are only partial. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long). An attractive introduction to the Near Eastern collection of one of the world's great museums which will interest the general public and school children as well as university level students of archaeology and ancient history.
This website presents information and images about Northumberland's ancient carved panels, dating from between 6,000 and 3,500 years ago. The data can be browsed by parish, map, panel type, current location, nature of access, wheelchair access, image type, or panel art motif. The panels can also be searched by various criteria. Brief details about the location, archaeology, environment and management of each panel is recorded, along with images and further notes and art descriptions, many made by Stan Beckensall. An interactive area on the site includes video and audio clips, learning materials, a 360 degree virtual tour and some general tips about visiting rock art. FAQs and links to relevant Web resources complete the site. This website is the result of a project funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).
This website details the archaeological research conducted in the Sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia (Ancient Korinth or Corinth, Greece) by Ohio State University. Isthmia was one of the four great Panhellenic sanctuaries, active from the Archaic period through the end of Antiquity, with a rich period of medieval use as well. This website details this work, and information can be found about: the site, including the sanctuary of Poseidon and the Roman bath; preliminary reports since 1992; the fieldwork carried out by The Ohio state University since 1987; related projects including Dokos and Agios Vasilios; bibliography and other resources; and news. This website has been identified as a model site by the staff of Archaeology magazine, an official publication of the Archaeological Institute of America.
The official website of the Oxford Expedition to Egypt (OEE) publishes information on the project, information to purchase books and the "Linacre College Oxford Expedition: Scene-details Database". The database contains drawings of scenes depicted in Egyptian art (funerary contexts) from Dynasty III to the end of Dynasty VI (First Intermediate Period) as well as basic information on their location. Chronologically the database includes the Old Kingdom. Some PDF files, a map and an index facilitate access to the information. There is also a bibliography and a glossary. The database is organised hierarchically (or pyramid-like as the authors suggest) and is easy to use. For instance, boat scenes may be found selecting "themes" and then "commerce"; similarly several dance and music scenes can be accessed accessing "themes" and then dance and then "Dance, music and games". Although the database was born out of a project published in the printed series "Egypt in Miniature", it can be used without accessing the books. Researchers in particular may find the database useful.
This is the official website of Côa Valley Archaeological Park, which contains Upper Palaeolithic rock art and has been declared a World Heritage Site. Clusters of painted and engraved rocks have been found. The website will be useful mostly to the visitor since it provides practical information, but there are occasionally special sections being published. A few pictures and the possibility to purchase an inexpensive booklet are provided. Everyone may find this website published by the Portuguese Ministry of Culture useful.
This website about the frieze decorating the Parthenon at Athens has been produced at the Department of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University. It is a useful tool for students to explore a unique masterpiece of Greek art, especially from an aesthetic and iconographic perspective. The four main sections of the frieze are reproduced integrating black and white pictures with drawings in order to reproduce the continuous series of scenes; interactive controls allow scrolling through the many scenes and it is possible to access larger photographs and drawings by clicking the icons underneath some scenes. There are also maps of the Parthenon and diagrams of architectural features. The frieze is attributed to sculptor Phidias, and was set in place between 443 and 438 BC and carved about at that time; it represents a procession, possibly that of the Panathenaic festival.
The carved frieze from the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is the most famous, and controversial, collection of sculpture to survive from the classical Greek world. This clearly written and attractively illustrated resource, available in Greek and English, brings together all the surviving fragments of the frieze, presently housed in the British Museum, the Louvre and the Acropolis Museum, in a digital format. The site provides a concise and fascinating introduction to many aspects of the Parthenon and its sculpted decoration, including a history of the frieze and the building itself since its execution by Athenian statesman Pericles between 447 and 438 BC. The reader is given an outline of the religious significance of the Parthenon and the Panathenaic festival for the Athenian people as well as a discussion of the various interpretations of the temple iconography. The frieze itself is presented stone by stone with a commentary on each fragment, including reproductions of drawings by Carrey (1674) and Stuart (1757) which preserve details no longer visible on the surviving sculptures. Usefully, the sculpture from each of the four sides of the temple is presented initially as a series of continuous thumbnail images which allows the iconographic scheme to be viewed as a whole as well as detail by detail. This excellent website, produced by the Acropolis Restoration Service and published by the National Documentation Service (EKT), is intended by the authors to appeal to a wide-ranging audience from the general public to university level academics.
This special website from the Guardian newspaper collates reports and commentary covering the debate over the Parthenon Marbles, which are currently housed in the British Museum. There are direct links to the latest stories and access to older articles in the Guardian's archive (going back to May 1999). The interactive guide to the history of the sculptures gives a brief account of the background; a link to a more complete history leads to a website from the Hellenic Electronic Center. In addition, there are reports relating to British and Greek perspectives, as well as those relating to the British government and the British museum. All reports and commentaries come from the Guardian or Observer. This site is a useful place to explore the differing perspectives on whether the marbles should be returned to Greece.
The website of the Peabody Essex Museum provides users with information about current, previous and upcoming exhibitions at the Museum. The collections include Maritime Art and History in addition to Photography (containing many maritime images), and Arts of the Pacific Islands. Details of the collections are included on the site. Specific exhibits are breathtaking: there is a complete Qing dynasty house to explore ('Yin Yu Tang House'). The house is situated in its geographic, cultural and historical context, and the viewer is able to examine every detail of the architecture, living patterns, artwork, furnishings and so forth. Even with such a delightful showcase, the real zing lies within the Artscape engine. Here a viewer can study images from dozens of exhibits, building a bookmark list as they go. ARTscape includes photos and descriptions of objects from the collection plus "definitions, book excerpts, quotations, video clips and audio clips". The Peabody is a museum of art, architecture and culture located in Salem, Massachusetts and founded in 1799. The site contains information about PEM's collections of American decorative arts; its Asian, Indian, Oceanic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, African and Native American art; plus Asian export art, early American architecture, maritime art, rare books and manuscripts and photography. Images of many items from the collections are provided, covering, for example, textiles, furniture, paintings and crafts and the site also provides details and online presentations on current and past exhibitions held at the museum. The museum's holdings are strongest in the Asia-Pacific region, especially East Asia, and the opportunities for comparative or historical work with this tool are staggering.
The Maritime Art and History Collection features the work of Fitz Hugh Lane, Robert Salmon, and James Buttersworth. It is possible to search an image library of 80 items by artist or by subject. Examples of navigational instruments, scrimshaw and folk art are also included on the site. The site also includes: an outline of the holdings of the Phillips Library; a programme of events; visitor information; and press releases. This site was nominated in the competition for Best Museum Professional's Site in 'Museums and the Web 2004: Best of the Web'.
The Perseus Project is a large digital library of online texts and images for the study of ancient Greece and Rome. The resources available via Perseus are extensive, including the following: primary texts (in the original ancient Greek and Latin languages as well as English translation); secondary texts relating to various aspects of the ancient world; a set of linguistic tools; and a number of large databases relating to the study of ancient archaeological sites and artefacts. The art and archaeology section of the website offers a searchable collection of art objects, sites and buildings, with descriptions and images drawn from museums worldwide. It includes architecture, sculpture, coins and vases, and provides access to supporting tools such as atlases and encyclopaedias. The study of the classical world via Perseus is further enhanced by: an interactive atlas; an extensive encyclopaedia with embedded cross-references; and a series of overview articles. The site also offers several further collections of primary and secondary texts: papyri (from the Ptolematic and Roman periods); English Renaissance texts (including all of Marlowe's works, a facsimile of the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays and other resources); London (atlas from 1780 to the present, texts about London, photographs and other materials); books on California and the Upper Midwest from the Library of Congress American Memory Collection; and documents on the history of Tufts University. Mirror sites are available in Berlin and Chicago.
This website is a collection of colour photographs by amateur archaeologist Bob Forsyth. The collection includes most rock-art sites in Clark County, Nevada, and some photographs refer to sites in the surrounding counties. The petroglyphs have been produced by the Paiute, Shoshone, Chemehuevi, as well as the Anasazi Native Americans. Some of the rock art sites date as back as 1250 AD. The rock art sites are arranged in alphabetical order, and for each one there is a short introduction and a gallery of thumbnails. Clicking on each thumbnail will bring on screen the full picture. There are no supporting texts or interpretations of the pictures, and therefore the site is most useful to those who already have some knowledge of rock art and the ancient cultures of Nevada. The website is easy to navigate and is an exceptional visual reference of the southern Nevada cultures. One of the main purposes of this website is to raise awareness of the area among the local people in order to preserve the sites. Several examples of misbehaviour at the sites have been documented by Forsyth's camera. The website also includes some pictures of the regional environment, which is the peculiar Nevada desert.
This website presents information and photographs relating to archaeological surveys undertaken in the forum at Pompeii, which was destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79. The Pompeii Forum Project is a collaborative venture sponsored by the National [USA] Endowment for the Humanities and the University of Virginia (amongst others). A large archive of black and white images of the buildings found there is online here, along with detailed reports on the technology and instruments used to undertake the surveys. Further reports give details of a project which uses the principles of structural engineering to investigate the reconstruction of Pompeii after an earthquake there in AD 62 (seventeen years before the eruption of Vesuvius). The focus is on the urban centre of the Roman city of Pompeii, and its urban history through to modern times. There are also links to further resources on Pompeii for use by teachers and students, and a list of lectures and publications relating to the project.
This website is published by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and focuses on the Roman villa of Torre de Palma, Portugal. The villa has yielded magnificent mosaics, featuring subjects such as horses and the muses. The website includes concise illustrated articles, a bibliography, a map, and a gallery of gorgeous pictures in the 'diaporama' section. The articles are hyperlinked to a glossary, and there is a separate page for notes. Anybody interested in Roman mosaics will find this website useful.
This is the website of the Virtual Museum of Prehistoric Rock Art and has been produced as an initiative of the Siberian Association of Prehistoric Art Researchers (SAPAR), together with Kemerovo State University, Russia. The site is in Russian and English, although the English version is rather sparser. The first section introduces the evolution of hominids with a few illustrations and diagrams. The other sections focus mainly on rock art and are organised by chronological period. For each period there is an introduction, with colour pictures, and some hyperlinks to pages with further information. The Palaeolithic section is divided into cave art and portable art. Cave art sites such as Kapova (Russia), Altamira (Spain), Lascaux, Cosquer, Chauvet, Rouffignac, Niaux, Pech Merle (France) and Brasilia (South America) are included and there are a number of pictures for each site. The other sections concentrate on eastern European, Russian and Indian archaeological sites, such as Kamennaya Mogila, Gobustan, Zaraut-Kamar, Shakhti, Bhimbetka for the Mesolithic and Karakol for the Bronze Age. A further section explores the art of the Scythians, mainly jewellery. This eclectic website also features a few short biographies of past researchers. A key strength of this website is that it summarises the position of Russian researchers on rock art. There is far more rock art in the world than that presented on this website, but this is an excellent starting point, at least, for northern Asian ancient art.
This website accompanied the exhibition "L'art préhistorique des Pyrénées" in 1996. The gallery of images in the itinerary section is the most useful part, publishing images of artistic artefacts dating from the Magdalenian (17,000 to 11,000 years ago) Pyrenean territory. The depicted artefacts are evidence of symbolism as well as art, but now much older artefacts have been found in the world. Students in particualr may find this website useful.
Eight examples of the oldest human-form statues ever found in the Near East were on display from 28 July 1996 to 6 April 1997 at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC in an exhibition entitled 'Preserving ancient statues from Jordan'. This website provides information about the discovery, construction, conservation and display of the statues found at the Neolithic site of 'Ain Ghazal and explores them as works of art and ritual objects. The site also includes a short bibliography.
This is the website of the Public Monuments and Sculpture Association (PMSA), a registered charity, which has been working since 1991 to raise awareness among the public and the authorities of the rich heritage of monumental art of Britain from all periods by encouraging cooperation among concerned individuals and supporting conservation and education projects. The society founded the National Recording Project (NRP) to catalogue every piece of public sculpture in the British Isles, including architectural decoration, and to create both a permanant digital archive and a series of regional monographs (the Public Sculpture of Britain series published by Liverpool University Press). The online database contains thousands of entries (many with photographs) of notable public sculpture arranged by region with a user friendly selection of images on the main PMSA page. The resource includes a selection of the various projects supported by the society (including the production of a handbook for the use individuals and groups responsible for the preservation not just of sculptures but archives and studio remains of artists). The Save our Sculpture initiative uses a series of regional cases studies to highlight the constant threat to the sculptural heritage of towns and cities around Britain and encourages local individuals and groups to get involved in the conservation movement. The website also provides membership details and information about society events. There are also links to the websites of other public art organisations. This resource will benefit art and architectural historians as well as archaeologists and social historians interested in the relationship between monuments and public memory. Images from the resource are additionally deposited with the Visual Arts Data Service (VADS).
Pyramids of the Sun and Moon is a website about the complex of religious structures at the heart of the ancient city of Teotihuacan. The city was located in what is now the San Juan Teotihuacan municipality in the State of Mexico. The complex consists of two pyramids and a temple on an route forming the main axis called the "Avenue of the Dead", which is actually lined with many ceremonial platforms, not tombs as was once thought. There is a good plan of this site on the website. The complex is significant because in the first half of the first millennium CE, Teotihuacan was one of the largest cities in the world, and was very influential throughout Mesoamerica, and this power is reflected in the architecture - the pyramidal structures are some of the most impressive to be built in the pre-Columbian Americas. An architectural style associated with Teotihuacan known as talud-tablero can be seen in the complex. Typically of Mesoamerican city planning, the urban grid is orientated 15.5 degrees east of north, an alignment with celestial events such as sunset or sunrise on significant days in the ancient Teotihuacan calendar. The information on this site is very thorough and interesting, but not properly accredited, so a student should be careful to check information against other sources.
This is the official website of the "Gobustan National Historical-Artistic Preserve", a UNESCO World Heritage site, and it focuses on the rock art of Gobustan, Azerbaijan, which may date from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Roman period. This interactive website presents the printed and multimedia bibliography of the archaeological site as well as a minimal demonstration of GIS database that is however not accessible through the website. There are news of recent events such as conferences. An interactive slideshow presents some pictures from the site, but disappointingly no captions. Among the carvings are human figures, animals and ships (possibly the oldest depictions of ships in rock art). The carvings are located within the perimeter outlined by the Beyukdash, Kichikdash and Djingirdash mountains and the hill Yazili. The characteristic mud volcanoes of the region are not mentioned on this website. This is a useful, albeit limited, introduction to the rock art of Gobustan.
This Web page describes AHRC-funded research to re-display the Ancient Greek and Roman collections at the University of Cambridge's Fitzwilliam Museum. The project aims to bring the University's archaeological scholarship into "conversation" with contemporary museum display practices, in the light of recent advances in art history research, moving away from 'thematic' or 'stylistic' displays, towards an understanding of the role of "changing technology, the complexities of workshop practices, and the role of ancient markets" as well the influence of collectors on museum objects. Outputs will include a new public catalogue and Web pages for visitors.
This interactive website uses multimedia and virtual reality technologies to present some of the most important architectural monuments built in the Mediterranean region. Sections on ancient, Byzantine; Medieval; Renaissance; Baroque; Islamic and other architectures contain each four parts: a short introduction; virtual panoramas; interactive plans and featured projects among those carried out by staff at Columbia University. Among the featured monuments are the temples in the Athenian acropolis; the Pantheon of Rome; Greek temples of Magna Graecia; Byzantine monuments at Ravenna and Istanbul; several medieval cathedrals including Amiens, Assisi, Canterbury, Chartres, Cluny, Durham, Florence, Lincoln, Milan, Reims, Rome and Salisbury; Renaissance monuments in Rome, Florence and Venice; Baroque monuments at Bath, Paris and Italy; modern architecture in New York and Islamic architecture at sites such as Bam, Granada and Istanbul. Monuments and places such as the Athenian Parthenon; Byzantium; Amiens Cathedral; Florence Cathedral; the Opera House in Paris; Fallingwater house and many others have been singled out for special interactive features. There is also an interactive version of Jacopo de Barbari's map of Venice (direct link in "Relations" field) drawn in 1500. This is a very useful website for students interested in architecture, history of art or archaeology.
This essay, which originally appeared in French in Archeologue-Nouvelle Archeologie (1996), explains the cultural evolution of Cro-Magnons in the Early Upper Paleolithic period c. 40,000 years to c. 17,000 years ago (i.e. the period pre dating the cave paintings of Lascaux). The author, Randall White argues that there was an emergence of shared forms of symbolic representation in the art of the period and that artistic representation was seen as advantageous. This was particularly evident in personal ornaments. The essay discusses materials, techniques and includes several illustrations of items discussed.
The "Rock Art in Valtellina" webpage provides a synopsis of the petroglyphs discovered around two sites, Teglio and Grosio, in Lombardy, North Italy. At Teglio, several engraved Copper Age stelae depict daggers and axes that are datable stylistically to the Chalcolithic, while at Grosio (also home to a Medieval castle) 5454 carved figures dating largely from the Iron Age and Bronze Age were found on a rock face. Measuring over 84m in length the rock, known as Rupe Magna or "Big Rock", is alleged to be the largest engraved rock in the Alps. The website provides information on the Neolithic and First Copper Ages, the Copper Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, supported by images of the engravings. Further information on Rupe Magna and the Park of Engraved Rocks of Grosio is also available. Students in particular may find this website useful.
The Sacred Sites website is a database of images and descriptions of places around the world that are considered to be spiritual. The site is the work of Martin Gray, a photographer who has worked for National Geographic whose experience is evident by the quality of the photographs. The sites are often places of pilgrimage, including ancient monuments, temples and churches, making this website a good place for architecture students to find inspiration and information. The site is clear and easy to use. Visitors can search by continent, or browse through the suggested sites that flash up at the top of the homepage.
This website is part of SardegnaCultura, an official publication of the regional governmental body. It summarises the history of Sardinia from Palaeolithic to contemporary times, though most of the website is concerned with pre-Nuragic, Nuragic, Phoenician, Roman, Byzantine and Medieval history and focuses on artefacts and architectural structures (material culture). There are short illustrated article for each period, usually a set focusing on archaeology (archeologia), architecture (architettura) and art (arte). Three other sections set this website apart: "guide" (full text ebooks of archaeological guides), "monografie" (full text versions of printed academic books and papers) and "monumenti" (an encyclopaedic work of the major architectural buildings in each period). Different sections are available for each period, with fewer options for post-Medieval periods.
Among the ebooks and papers in PDF format are: "Necropoli ipogeiche di S'Adde 'e Asile e Noeddale (Ossi)"; "Laconi. Il museo delle statue Menhir"; "L'altare preistorico di Monte D'Accoddi"; "Il Nuraghe Albucciu e i monumenti di Arzachena"; "Il museo archeologico di Sassari G. A. Sanna"; "Anghelu Ruju"; "Ricerche archeologiche nel Marghine-Planargia"; "Il Nuraghe Arrubiu di Orroli"; "Barumini"; "Il museo archeologico di Dorgali"; "Civiltà nuragica"; "S. Antioco"; "Monte Sirai"; "Tharros"; "Nora"; "Sardegna punica" (Punic Sardinia); "L'ipogeo di San Salvatore"; "Storia della Sardegna e della Corsica durante il periodo romano" (1923) by Ettore Pais; "Turris Libisonis"; "Fordongianus"; "Sant'Andrea Priu"; and "Studi storici sulle istituzioni della Sardegna nel Medioevo" (Historical studies on Sardinian institutions in the Middle Age). Although some books are now old, most are recent publications.
The website Skenotheke: Images of the Ancient Stage has been developed by John Porter, a classical archaeologist based at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. The site is dedicated to images of ancient Greek and Roman theatre which are available on the Web; as such, whilst it does not feature original content, it is a very useful one-stop resource for those interested in ancient drama and the locations where this was performed. Links are provided to virtual reconstructions of ancient theatres, as well as to images of modern productions of classical plays. Images of ancient theatres are arranged by geographical location. Sections are dedicated to the following: the theatre of Dionysus at Athens; deme theatres; other theatres across mainland Greece (including those at Corinth, Delphi and Epidauros); the theatres of Asia Minor; and those on the Greek islands. There are also resources on Roman theatre including that at Pompeii. In addition, the site offers a collection of images of Greek and Roman drama shown in ancient art (including: vase paintings; figurines; mosaics; frescoes; and architectural decoration). These images would be useful for those studying acting in the Greek theatre and related topics such as Greek masks. The site offers resources for the study of satyr plays and comedy as well as Greek tragedy.
This is a webpage dedicated to the petroglyphs at Lake Onega, Estonia, first discovered 150 years ago. Around 1,176 rock art images are known along the Lake's 20km shoreline, of which many have been the subject of extensive study - most recently by the Estonian Society of Prehistoric Art between 1982 and 1994. The webpage offers descriptions and images of several of the carvings and provides in-depth statistics regarding the petroglyphs' morphology and distribution over the area. A bibliography of related material is also provided.
This website is a collection of pictures by photographer and amateur archaeologist Doak Heyser. The colour pictures have been taken at rock art sites in the soutwestern region of the United States of America. The rock art has been produced by Native Americans at sites such as Rochester Creek, Barrier Canyon, Fremont, Three Rivers and Ute. There is a gallery of pictures of Anasazi petroglyphs and Pueblo Bonito at Chaco Canyon. Another gallery focuses on negative, painted and stamped handprints. There are only a few short comments in some sections. These outstanding high resolution pictures of Native American rock art permit to appreciate these cultural manifestations. Experienced researchers may find sufficient to look at these pictures, but students and non-specialists should read some scholarly work before approaching this website. On the home page there is list of scholars, who have published on these petroglyphs.
Coptic is the name given to the latest stage of the ancient Egyptian language from the first century BC and written in an alphabet deriving from Greek and Demotic. The term is applied more generally to the distinct culture of Egyptian Christianity and its diaspora which still uses the Coptic language in its religious rituals. This website, produced by the St Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society of Los Angeles, is part of an on-going project to preserve and promote Coptic culture by providing digital resources for Coptic language, literary, archaeological and artistic study. Projects include the Coptic Microfilm Library (CML) which aims to put all relevant Coptic and Arabic texts online and the Mapping of Coptic Monuments project, which will record all Egyptian Christian architectural and archaeological sites. The Manual of Coptic Studies (at the time of review almost completely empty and not updated since 1996) includes: the liturgy and texts of Coptic Christianity; a history of the language; a guide to Coptic writing; a directory of Coptic scholars. Other features include a useful slide show of frescoes from Coptic churches and monasteries. There is also a run of newsletters from the mid-1990s and downloadable software. The links page provides further information on websites of Coptic interest.
Styppax, named after a celebrated Cypriot sculptor mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, is a valuable online resource for the study of sculpture from the island of Cyprus, particularly from the Cypro-Geometric, Cypro-Geometric and Cypro-Classical periods (circa 1050-300 BC). The resource consists of an extensive bibliography of published works (including book reviews) related to sculpture and related arts in ancient Cyprus but also to the surrounding region from which Cypriot material culture drew so many of its influences in the Iron Age. The bibliography includes sections on collections of Cypriot art in world museums, travellers accounts and the work of early archaeologists and antiquarians, provenience and distribution studies on Cypriot sculpture, as well as iconographic and religious aspects. Miscellaneous essays on aspects of Cypriot art include the full-text of Mylonas's 1998 University of Mannheim doctoral dissertation on 'Archaische kalksteinplastik Zyperns' (which includes a survey of stone sculpture on the island beginning circa 1900 B.C.) and Jenkins's article arguing for a Cypriot origin for the kouroi from Naukratis in Egypt reproduced from AJA 105 (2001). Also included are maps of Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean and a series of web-links to institutions holding substantial or significant collections of Cypriot art as well as to websites with images of Cypriot sculpture. This website will benefit a wide range of students and researchers working in Mediterranean and Near Eastern archaeology and art history.
This is a website published by a local history enthusiast, Simon Knott, which aims to catalogue all of the Anglican and Catholic churches in Suffolk, with descriptions and accompanying photographs. Currently there are around six hundred churches featured on the site, and these can be searched or browsed by place name. Each entry contains: a short history of the church; details of architectural changes made to the buildings; and location and access details, as well as Simon's personal view of the building and its features. In addition to the main catalogue, there are also: suggestions for further reading; a glossary of unfamiliar terms; and audio files of programmes and interviews the author has participated in for BBC Radio Suffolk. This site would be of interest to those studying church architecture (particularly medieval) and archaeologists.
Tales of the frontier: political representations and practices inspired by Hadrian's Wall is the website of a major Arts and Humanities Research Council project (July 2007 - Sept 2009), which is investigating the cultural and political meanings given to this famous Roman frontier system. The project will range in time from the Venerable Bede (8th Century) to contemporary tourism, and will draw on a wide variety of resources including works of art and literature. The website contains details of the project and staff. There are pages for news, publications and events. There are a small number of selected external Web links of relevance to the project. The project is based at the Durham Centre for Roman Cultural Studies, which is also developing the Hadrian's Wall Research Framework.
This website outlines and publishes a database of Celtic artistic artefacts produced by a collaborative effort between the British Museum and the University of Oxford. The database is available as an Excel document and it includes for each artefact a short description; its archaeological context; key bibliography; chronology; and inventory or catalogue numbers to identify them. There are no pictures or extended description, making this database primarily suitable to researchers.
Texas Notes provides access to full online texts of a fascinating collection of articles concerning Pre-Columbian art, architecture, and history. Begun in 1990 by epigrapher Linda Schele, the Texas Notes were a ground-breaking method of disseminating the continual advancements in the decipherment of Pre-Columbian material, coming from the Mesoamerica Center at the University of Texas in the early 1990s. Although some of these articles have now been made obsolete by further discoveries and greater understanding of the languages, these articles provide an intriguing record of the development of epigraphy and understanding in this field. Dealing primarily with Mayan inscriptions and glyphs, the Texas Notes also contain material relating to other Mesoamerican cultures of Central and South America. Hosted by the University of Texas at Austin, a prominent centre for the study of Latin America, and a product of their Center for the History of Ancient American Art and Culture, this is an accessible, although sometimes slow, site, which relies on the download of PDF files.
The page also links to other online publications from the Mesoamerica Center, and is part of the Center's larger online resource, giving information about its activities, staff, and a collection of gateways.
The website of Thera Wallpainting Exhibition Hall by The Thera Foundation publishes a virtual tour of the Bronze Age wallpaintings found at Akrotiri, Thera. There are also other images of the archaeological site. The pictures are unfortunately of low quality and cannot replace a textbook. The map also refers to a museum where the reproductions of the paintings are exhibited and not to their original settings. Students in particular may find this website useful as a quick reference of the paintings.
The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art's Timeline of Art History is an excellent online gallery spanning the entire history of the visual arts from the Palaeolithic to the present day, across all continents and cultures. It won the Museums and the Web 2005 Best of the Web: Best Research Site. The site is subdivided into chronological and geographical sections, each of which contains images of paintings, illustrations, sculptures, apparel, and other artefacts representing the characteristic styles and forms of the period in question, arranged along individual timelines. Each section also contains text describing the historical background and important events of the years it covers, along with links to relevant special exhibitions. Absolute dates for the prehistoric period and information on minor archaeological cultures should be read with caution, as new research can make obsolete such information fast. The presentation is usually of high standard, minimally biased towards European classical culture and Western art, with enlarged versions available of each image and a number of QuickTime video presentations. There are a number of special topics providing more detailed looks at particular facets of art history, and a general index of the site's contents. Special topics authored by experts in the field include: ancient cultures (Australian "Pre-Estuarine", Egyptian, Halaf, Ubaid, Minoan, Mycenaean, Phoenician, Jomon, Valdivia and others); African art, ancient near eastern art, colonial art of the Americas, Islamic art, and Greek and Roman art. The site also features a search engine and an extensive categorized list of links to external resources. This is a very useful reference tool for students, which is especially valuable for its aim of summarising cultural and artistic developments throughout the entire history and the whole world.
The website presents a topographical bibliography of Ancient Egyptian statues of unknown provenance. The online materials consist of Parts 1&2 of Volume VIII of a series of volumes on Ancient Eyptian objects including: hieroglyphic texts; statues; reliefs; and paintings. The website publishes the full version of Parts 1&2, Volume VIII, as well as short samples of Parts 3&4. The topographical bibliography is regularly updated and the authors invite Egyptologists to contribute to the project by contributing corrections and additions. All files are made available in PDF format. This is a great reference work for all Egyptologists.
'TRACCE. Online Rock Art Bulletin' is an wide-ranging web magazine and worldwide database catering for students and enthusiasts interested in prehistoric engravings, images and inscriptions from archaeological sites all over the world. It is maintained by the Società Cooperativa L'Orme dell'Uomo (Footsteps of Man archaeological co-operative) based in Valcamonica in northern Italy, which boasts one of the most impressive collections of open-air rock art in Europe. Past issues of the online bulletin from 1996-2002 are supplemented by articles, news features and commentaries which have been added continuously since then. In addition, there is a worldwide database of weblinks to over 600 rupestral sites, an extensive searchable encyclopaedia of rock art and links to bibliographic and didactic pages on the parent site 'Rupestre.net'. Registered users can post articles and comments as well as communicate with other online members, making this a very useful forum for students, scholars and the general public to exchange ideas in an international context. While the base languages of the website are English and Italian, the web interface is available in most European and various east Asian tongues, over 30 in total. Because many of the sites features in TRACCE are in environmentally sensitive areas or, in some cases, actually threatened by modern development (such as dams and building projects), this website also serves to alert a wider audience (from the general public to environmental campaigners) to the dangers facing the prehistoric landscapes which produce rupestral engravings and is a valuable news source for individuals interested in heritage issues, both amateur and academic.
Trajan's Column is an online collection of images and background material on the Roman monument, a 100 foot stone column recording the military victories of the Roman Emperor Trajan (reigned 98-117 CE) over the Dacians and the Germans in the second century CE,which is one of the most remarkable and best preserved survivals of monumental art from classical antiquity. This website provides a searchable database of over 500 images focusing on various aspects of the design and execution of the column's sculptural decoration as well as several introductory essays on the historical background, subject matter and wider physical context of the monument within the Forum of Trajan in Rome, presented throughout within a hypertext medium. This highly user-friendly resource is designed to be accessible to individuals at varying levels of knowledge and experience of the subject. An elaborate search engine allows you to explore highly specific aspects of the monument while Claudio Martini's interactive cartoon of the entire column provides an excellent introduction to the overall design and layout of the monument and contextualises the individual details provided by the database of images. The site can also be explored through the use of indices organised according to: subject; sculptural technique; and scene number or location. The high quality images (slides and drawings) were generated by sculptor Peter Rockwell, over the course of his study of Roman stone-carving practices, and can be viewed at three different resolutions. Technical information on all the imaging and programming details (including the programming code) is also provided. This detailed, stimulating and attractively presented website will interest archaeologists and classicists as well as art and military historians at many levels from the general public and novice undergraduate to the more experienced researcher.
The Trust for African Rock Art (TARA) is an independent non-profit organisation dedicated to preserving ancient rock art in Africa. TARA is based in Kenya. The website offers full information about the organisation and its aims, plus news, five free newsletters for download, and exhibition listings. TARA claims an "an extensive library of over 70,000 African rock art images" and there is a gallery on the website showing 17 examples images. Prints may be purchased. There is a listing of rock art sites open to the public in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.
This website describes the University of Chicago's excavations, since 1989, of the sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia near Corinth; this was one of the most important religious centres of the ancient Greek world and the location of the pan-Hellenic games. In addition to reports for the 1989-2007 field seasons, the resource includes a number of articles on various aspects of ancient Isthmia as well as a bibliography of publications by the project team. The resource offers numerous useful maps, plans and photographs of the sanctuary. Particularly attractive is a series of 3D views and contour plans illustrating the architectural development of the sanctuary of Poseidon from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BCE. Ability to view large images (using Adobe Acrobat) is required. This site will be of value both to undergraduates and to those initiating research into the archaeology of Greek religion and social life.
The University of Melbourne's Classics and Archaeology Virtual Museum Project puts online the majority of the contents of the Classics and Archaeology wing of the University's Ian Potter Museum, together with a number of collections not owned by the University. This vast online resource offers access to Greek, Roman, Egyptian and Middle Eastern manuscripts, pottery, coinage, bronzes, vases and sculpture.The centrepiece of the site is the database that allows the user to search the collection. Over 7000 images are available, and there are a number of photos for each object, taken from differing angles and with varying degrees of detail. This makes the site particularly useful for research, as do the full descriptions, bibliographies and comparisons for individual pieces. This information, with all other relevant data such as date, provenance and material, is attractively presented and easily accessible. The self-directed tour allows the user easy access to full lists of the artefacts and the history of the individual collections. There is extensive documentation about the development of the museum and the virtual museum project.
The website of the Upper Midwest Rock Art Research Association (UMRARA) contains several scholarly articles and papers. Topics include the rock art of Wisconsin (Gottschall) and Minnesota, lithics and Native Americans of Minnesota. There is a report on the Nett Lake site of northwestern Minnesota, a paper on the Fort Ransom Writing Rock in North Dakota, and reports of the Fisk site, the Bluffs Rockshelters, and Reno cave of Minnesota. There is also an account of the reconstruction of an ancient weapon, the atlatls. Many reports contain colour pictures, some of which are at high resolution. Some of the prominent hyperlinks point to external resources that may not be available. A short biographical note is given for the authors of articles and papers.
This website is an illustrated introduction to the rock art of Valcamonica. The corpus of petroglyphs in the area dates from the Palaeolithic to the modern period and it is exceptional for the continuity. The many pictures and short comments permit to appreciate the developments of rock art in the region as timeless form of cultural expression. There are pages informing the reader of the chronology and locations of the petroglyphs. Most of the remaining part of this website is made of galleries of pictures, and only some of these are organised by type or have a comment. Nonetheless, most of the petroglyphs are self-explanatory and require little interpretation to understand the subject. The galleries are ideal complement to books on the subject, which may not have many colour pictures. The website appears sometimes as a disorganised collection of pictures published by an amateur, but this website is part of the EuRA website and has been produced by a small research group residing in the alpine valley. The categorisation of the pictoglyphs is archaeologically correct and therefore students can use the website, possibly after having some knowledge on the subject. Valcamonica rock art is inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage list.
This website outlines a series of three AHRC-funded research workshops which will bring together medieval studies scholars from a wide range of perspectives to discuss the inscriptions painted on Islamic and Christian medieval monuments in the Mediterranean world. Although the texts are, on occasion, well known and studied, this has been as reading matter, not as art - whereas the location, size and scripts use point to a variety of other non-literary uses. The first workshop ‘The Limits of Text - Ornament, Aesthetics, Legibility’ will approach texts as a decorative ornaments; the second ‘Memory and Performativity’ will consider their impact on the space and uses of the buildings; the third workshop will deal with multi-lingual and informal inscriptions.
This online resource applies modern computer technology to create digital impressions of what 15 ancient Greek and Roman sculptures might have looked like in their original painted state, showing images of the pieces in their present format alongside the imagined polychromatic originals. Featured sculptures include: kouros and kore statues; statues of Apollo; a Parthenon metope; and Trajan's column. Contextual and historical information is minimal but there is a useful basic bibliography and a series of hyperlinks to sources of images of ancient art. The website also provides technical and methodological information on how the reconstructions were made. The 'Virtual Gallery' provides useful complementary learning materials for undergraduates studying classical art and archaeology and their teachers. It will also benefit art historians and artists interested in comparative historical materials.
A Visual Tour through Late Antiquity provides a selection of images of artistic evidence and material remains from the 4th to 7th centuries. The prime focus of the website is late antique Gaul at the time of Gregory of Tours (538-594) but context is provided by a variety of other images. The collection is divided into five sections: Late Roman court and aristocracy; Imperial art of 6th century Ravenna; Gallic art of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries; Frankish art and artefacts; and Royal grave goods. The Visual Tour through Late Antiquity was originally compiled for the use of students at the Nipissing University (Canada) but it also provides a good general introduction to some famous late Roman and early Frankish images and artefacts.
The website "Ancient Near Eastern Art" introduces this collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, which possesses one of the largest and most significant collections of Near Eastern artefacts in the world. This beautifully produced and easily navigated website provides an excellent guide to these holdings for both the general public and the professional academic. The collection can be searched in a number of ways, from a series of 50 highlighted objects selected by the museum or via a search engine which allows you to store a personal collection of search results for future research. Each record provides brief but informative descriptions of each object together with a high quality illustration which can be viewed at a variety of scales from thumbnail to full screen size. The Heilbrunn timeline of world art history which accompanies the entire museum collection, presented as an attractive interactive world map, situates the objects in their wider chronological and cultural context. This resource is a fine example of online museum publishing and will interest a wide public from the interested amateur and school children (and their teachers) to university level students and researchers of ancient Near Eastern art, archaeology and history.
This website, focusing on the archaeology of Sri Lanka, is part of Virtual Library Sri Lanka by Rohan Hettiarachchi. It is a collection of news and short articles (with variable quality), some illustrated and some hosted on other websites, on many aspects of ancient Sri Lanka. Topics covered by the articles include: prehistoric settlements; the earliest civilisations of Sri Lanka; the archaeological sites of Pallemalala and Walallawita; the ancient ports of Sri Lanka; the Chinese cultural presence and influence in Sri Lanka (Yapahuwa, ceramics, trade); clay stamp seals; moonstones; marine archaeology (including European shipwrecks); Dutch and Portuguese forts; and historical tsunamis. A separate page on heritage contains in a similar format numerous articles on ancient and historical art and architecture. There are references to myths and these are clearly evidenced. This website can be an excellent introduction to the archaeology of Sri Lanka for undergraduates or scholars unfamiliar with the region; there are some bibliographic references. Some of the articles penned by scholars may also be useful to researchers.
Yorkshire rock art is an online collection of materials which explores rock art from Neolithic and Bronze Age Yorkshire. Rock art is classed here as stones inscribed with cup and ring marks. It provides an accessible introduction to the subject. Each stone from either North- or West-Yorkshire has its own page giving details about including background information, photographs and drawings. The collection is clearly not comprehensive, but it is clear that the author has a love of the subject, and those with a local interest could do worse than to use this site as a jumping-off point to more detailed resources. This website may be useful primarily to students.
This is the website of the Zippori (Sepphoris) excavation project, an archaeological site in the Lower Galilee between the Mediterranean and the Sea of Galilee. It is run by the Israel National Park Authority. This resource includes information on: Zippori during the Roman Period; the Art and Architecture of Byzantine Zippori; the Mosaic Pavements of Roman and Byzantine Zippori; a Bibliography; and a History of the excavation and the Hebrew University team. A history of the site's excavations is provided, as are recent reports on the park, running from 1998 onward.
Zippori, a former ancient capital of the Galilee, possessed a vibrant religious, commercial, and social community. Today, Zippori covers 16 square km and the excavations were opened to the public in 1992.