The "Progetto Mummia" website publishes an illustrated E-book in Italian about facial reconstruction and a report on a project entitled "3D facial reconstruction and visualization of ancient Egyptian mummies using spiral CT data". Although in Italian, the eBook is lavishly illustrated and the simple texts should be easy to understand using a dictionary or translator. The report in English explores the attempt to reconstruct the face of a person living in Egypt more than two thousand years ago using the mummified remains of that person and modern computer technology. The mummified head in question is probably from the Ptolemaic era, around third to fourth century BC. The head has been scanned with Computer Tomography (CT) and the bone structure and what is left of the soft tissues have been reconstructed and modelled in the computer. Then a model for reconstructing the face has been applied that include mathematical modelling of soft tissues with some anthropological input. The information, the formulas and the images are very instructive and this is a valuable resource for anyone interested in Egyptology, archaeology and the application of computers in the humanities.
The Alan Vince Archaeological Consultancy website provides useful general information on archaeological ceramics, including petrological and chemical analyses of ceramics. The website also includes a thin-section database (under current projects; accessible by contacting the author) and a ceramic chemical database. There are several preliminary reports of excavations in which the consultancy has participated, as well as an extensive report on the excavations at Cleeve Abbey, which integrate petrological and chemical analyses of ceramics. All the reports can be downloaded in PDF format. The website includes a few hyperlinks to other websites of interest. There is also an internal search engine. This website is a good introduction to the scientific techniques used in analyses of ceramics and it illustrates their importance and role within an archaeological excavation through practical case studies. The simple texts and educational character make this website particularly useful for undergraduate students.
The personal website of Allwyn B. Beaudoin, a Canadian palynologist, focuses on palynology and archaeobotany. The website focuses on data coming from North America, in particular the Canadian Prairie ecozone, but there are educational pages that can be used by anyone approaching archaeobotany for the first time. The dictionary of quaternary acronyms and abbreviations is a very useful resource, and already contains over 1,800 terms, and includes facilities to search or browse. The 'dung file' is an annotated collection of references on the subject of human faecal material in archaeological context and mammalian coprolites. The annotated list is divided according to topic and includes relevant techniques. The section gives an idea of what can be achieved with these studies and the comments are informative even without having access to the books and papers referenced. The other sections on the Canadian Prairies can also be useful case studies or sources of information on the subject for more advanced students. The list of personal publications includes some free articles in PDF format. Undergraduate students should read in particular the essay entitled, "What is Palynology?"
The American Association of Physical Anthropologists is a worldwide association of anthropologists focusing on human biology in the context of human culture and behaviour. Physical anthropologists study both current and fossilised humans. The association website provides information on the association and membership; the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and manuscript submission guidelines; and it publishes call for papers, practical information, and abstracts of the annual meetings. Announcements of forthcoming conferences can be found in the news section and there are also sections advertising job and funding opportunities. The website also archives the issues of the discontinued AAPA Newsletter in PDF format. Physical anthropologists may be interested in becoming members of the association. The abstracts of annual meetings cover all aspects of research carried out by members of the association and will therefore interest a broader audience of human biologists; social anthropologists and archaeologists.
The award winning "Ancient bristlecone pine" website details the science and history surrounding this species of ancient tree, currently held to be the Earth's oldest known living organisms. Whilst these trees have flourished in the White Mountains of the Colorado basin for thousands of years, the longevity of their existence was only discovered in 1953 by Edmund Schulman. The oldest specimen (named "Methuselah"), aged 4,767 years, has lived more than a millennium longer than any other tree. The extraordinary life span of these trees is facilitated by their unique strategies for survival and their ability to flourish in harsh environments with little competition for resources. This website provides information about the ancient bristle cone pine, including: details of Schulman's discovery, habitat, growth and characteristics, dendrochronology, a history of how the bristle cones came to be protected, a gallery of images, links to relevant sites and bibliography. The website may interest anyone concerned with archaeobotany or dendrochronology, but is also an interesting read for the uninitiated visitor.
The Anthro.Net Research Engine is a search tool that serves as a gateway to reviewed websites and bibliographic references. It is owned and managed by Eric J. White of the Department of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). The site also has an editorial board made up of anthropologists, archaeologists, psychologists and human geographers from UCSB, the University of Missouri, Columbia, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks and Oxnard College. The content of Anthro.Net is provided by the research interests of the site's visitors. The system keeps track of visitors' queries and uses them to build and maintain the search database. If the search engine cannot find at least ten quality websites that match a visitor's query, then that query is added to the system's 'to do' list. A separate program takes this list and meta-searches the web looking for sites that would match the visitor's query. Sites that do not regularly appear in the search results are dropped from the database. Additional sites are added and deleted from Anthro.Net using this methodology on a daily basis.
This website publishes the results of a research on the 'Antikythera mechanism', an extraordinary metal artefact recovered underwater by sponge divers over a hundred years ago. The mechanism is now interpreted as a complex machine that tracks the cycles of astronomical bodies of the Solar System and the associated phenomena as seen from Earth. The website is organised as a blog, with short posts presenting the project on the home page; the research team and some news are presented in "the project" section; several photographs of Computed Tomography (CT) scans and a few animations are available in section "data". A linked page of the imaging research carried out by HP labs allows users to interact with photographs of the mechanism by controlling lighting. External animations (very large; some requiring a Java virtual machine) can also be accessed through section "links". The project team aims to publish all data of their research on this website in 2007. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list to remain updated on the developments of the research. This website may be useful especially to researchers.
This website publishes the results of the research project entitled "Illness, health and socioeconomic conditions in the ancient Egypt. A multidisciplinary project" and coordinated by Prof. Edda Bresciani of the University of Pisa. The simple website is an online database containing data about all known Egyptian mummies conserved in Italy. As part of the project, several palaeopathological and genetics tests were carried out and these are available by clicking on the top menu in each record. The data available for each mummy are sometimes scanty, as it was impossible to perform a robust set of tests on all mummies, but at least the cause of disease and some essential information are given for every mummy. Unfortunately, at the time of review parts of the database did not work properly, leaving some data inaccessible.
Electronic sub-surface surveying with geophysical equipment has become one of the most powerful tools used by archaeologists to examine archaeological sites by non-invasive means and is widely used by academic researchers, cultural resource managers and planning archaeologists. This resource, published by Archaeo-Physics LLC, a North American commercial geophysics company, provides a useful introduction to the principles and methods of geophysical together with details of projects undertaken by the organisation at sites in the United States, the Middle East and the CIS, and is illustrated with high quality black and white and colour images. Data is provided in both a raw and a processed state and the high resolution images can also be downloaded as PDF files. Despite its commercial and promotional nature (there is a questionnaire for prospective clients, for example) this website nonetheless will provide undergraduate students and researchers in archaeological subjects with useful insights into the current state of geophysical research as well as broadening their knowledge of current applications of geophysical prospection in both academic and cultural resource management contexts.
The Archaeobotanical Database website is a database of archaeobotanical data from Eastern Mediterranean and Near Eastern archaeological sites. The website is part of an ongoing research project at the University of Tübingen, Germany. The database concentrates on the regions of Greece, Crete, Cyprus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and a few sites in Egypt during the period between 3,000 and 500 years ago. Access to the database is free, but it is necessary to fill in a registration form with the user's name and email address. A working password will be emailed immediately. The database can be browsed by field site or botanical taxa. By clicking on the name of each site while browsing by site, it is possible to view a short bibliography with the source of the data in the database. An advanced search form allows the viewing of detailed data by site, region, period, taxon, genus or family. It is also possible to perform a detailed search and plot the results on a colour map, which includes a list of the sites at the bottom. By clicking on the site marker on the map, a page with the bibliographic source of data for that site will open. The database is well constructed and easy to use (there is a tutorial on how to use the database). Archaeobotanists will find this website useful, but its simplicity and effectiveness is inviting also for students, who have the possibility of familiarising themselves with a research archaeobotanical database with little effort.
This is the official website of the Archaeochemistry research in the eastern Mediterranean (ARCHEM) project directed by Andrew J. Koh. As part of the project, researchers extract organic residues from artefacts (primarily ceramic vessels) and analyse them. The website provides a basic introduction to the work being carried out by Koh and colleagues and publishes some reports in PDF format. The project benefits from a lab at the Institute for Aegean Prehistory Study Center for east Crete (INSTAP-SCEC) and has analysed samples from Greek (Aphrodite's Kephali; Azoria; Gournes; Gournia; Mitrou; Mochlos; Petras; Plakalona Tourloti; Priniatikos Pyrgos) and Egyptian (Sedment; Areika; Aniba; Buhen) archaeological sites. No results have been published yet on the website, though this is a very recent project. Koh has carried out a detailed study of building C.7 at Mochlos as part of his PhD and an introduction to his thesis is available on the website; the full thesis may be purchased. An important aspect of this project is the integration of chemical analyses in the excavation process: analyses are carried out on suitable artefacts as they are unearthed, before any destructive processing, like washing, is applied. The website provides an essential introduction to the goals, methods and current work of the project. Interested researchers will find contact details of the project team; guidelines on how to select and handle artefacts for analysis; and a list of events in which the project is being presented.
Archaeological Site Index to Radiocarbon Dates from Great Britain and Ireland' is an online database hosted by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS) which provides almost 9000 radiocarbon dates from sites around Great Britain and Ireland. The database originated in 1971 as a printed index compiled by Cherry Lavell and produced by the Council for British Archaeology (CBA). Further supplements appeared until 1982 and in 2001 the resource was further updated. The records held in the database were collected and collated by hand from all available sources (including British and Irish archaeological publications) to produce the most accurate and complete description for each date. By the late 1980s and early 1990s, the database was becoming computerised and supplements from the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit datelist index helped keep the collection reasonably up to date. However, the material held within the database should not be regarded as fully comprehensive. Searchable via: date range; grid reference; and originator (amongst several other criteria), the database provides results in table form (with the user able to specify what criteria should be included in the results table). A further page is available for each record that presents more detailed information, including: the original publication in which the date appeared; and a brief report on the subject material.
Archaeology: an introduction is an electronic companion to the book of the same name by Kevin Greene and first published in 1995 (Routledge, 2002; ISBN 0415233550). The site is divided according to the chapters of the book. Within each section are annotated links to online resources and short paragraphs summarising the content of the chapter. Sample chapter headings include: the idea of the past; discovery and investigation; excavation; dating the past; archaeological science; making sense of the past. A hypertext index is also provided.
"Archaeology.Info" aims to serve both the academic community (involved in the field of human evolution) and the public at large. It strives to be a forum for the unity of ideas and to synthesise a common human evolutionary model, amidst the great uncertainty that surrounds this field of study. It also strives to popularise the idea of our shared past, in order to inform the general public. The website features an online glossary for archaeology and anthropology, a reference guide detailing online resources associated with archaeology and anthropology and a fresh perspectives section where new ideas are presented for debate. The website also features information pertaining to the Hominidae family. Information is given for the species Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, and Homo, and is accompanied by visual recreations of each respective hominid. A photographic collection of well-known hominid skulls is also provided with species-specific information and diagnostic features based upon existing fossil evidence. The site also has a collection of online articles relating to human evolution. Undergraduate students in particular may find this website useful.
A useful collection of illustrated academic papers on various aspects of Mesoamerican topics authored or assembled by archaeologist Lawrence Desmond, a Senior Research Fellow at the Peabody Museum of Harvard University. The papers, a number of which are multi-authored research reports, fall into two main areas of interest, namely, the use of ground penetrating radar and close-range photogrammetry at Mesoamerican archaeological sites, and early archaeological exploration in Mesoamerica from the Spanish conquest to the 19th century, particularly focusing on the work of 19th Augustus Le Plongeon and Alice Dixon who pioneered early archaeological, ethnographic and photographic work in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. There is also an excellent and judiciously chosen series of external links to websites on world archaeology, heritage and preservation, and archaeology and technology. Many of the papers are reproduced from academic journals and collected volumes but the resource also includes the full-text of the monograph 'A dream of Maya. Augustus and Alice Le Plongeon in nineteenth century Yucatan' (University of New Mexico Press, 1988) by Lawrence Desmond and Phyllis Messenger. While the immediate subject matter of this resource will appeal to students and researchers working in Mesoamerican archaeology, there is much here to interest a wider audience, both in the technical matters dealt with by the first group of papers and the historical content of the latter.
Archbase is a website that contains details of various archaeological projects by different organisations. Featured projects include: excavations at the Graeco-Roman harbour of Berenite (Egypt), and the work of the Fayum Field school at the Graeco-Roman village of Medinet Watfa (also in Egypt). Full excavation reports (Fayum; Berenike; Eastern Desert Ware) and information with abstracts on related workshops (mobile people; residue analysis; ancient apprenticeship; history of the Eastern Desert) can be accessed from the home page. In addition, the website also contains the archaeological databases of some projects; to access these a password is required (researchers may be able to get one contacting the project's administrators). Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
This is the website of "The Association for Environmental Archaeology". The Association was formed in 1979 by a group of environmental archaeologists based at the Institute of Archaeology, University of London, to provide a wide-ranging means of communication between those working in environmental archaeology and related subjects. The website provides information about the society and membership as well as a range of resources and links to information of interest to environmental archaeologists, particularly online journals and news items for relevant topics. A list of major bodies providing grants and awards in the UK is included to help those seeking funding for projects. There is an extensive list of web links.
The website of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones In Antiquity (ASMOSIA) provides information on the history and activities of the association, including membership information. The association is active in the field of restoration and conservation, promoting the combination of applied sciences (archaeometry) with traditional archaeology. A list of the proceedings, notes for authors and by laws of the association are available on the website. The newsletter is published online in PDF format. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
This web page is a simple description of an AHRC-funded research project into the origins of the Beaker people in prehistoric Britain. The project will study mobility, diet and health, through systematically sampling surviving well-preserved skeletal remains from the period. In particular, the project will study isotopes relating to diet and mobility, as well as examining dentition and skeletal remains for evidence of “diet, health, trauma, physical stress and funerary manipulation” alongside evidence from individuals’ burial contexts, discovery and chronology.
This website publishes preliminary reports of the excavations at Shiqmim, Israel. At the time of review the website only contains some papers in PDF format. These include "Desert Chiefdom: Dimensions of Subterranean Settlement and Society in Israel's Negev Desert (ca. 4500-3600 BC) Based on New Data from Shiqmim"; "A Method for Skeletal Arsenic Analysis, Applied to the Chalcolithic Copper Smelting Site of Shiqmim, Israel" (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ICP-MS); "Recent Discoveries Concerning Chalcolithic Metallurgy at Shiqmim, Israel" (a smelting installation distinct from crucibles and evidence for copper production at Mezad Aluf are reported); and "Evidence of Interpersonal Violence at the Chalcolithic Village of Shiqmim (Israel)", where three circumscribed depressed fractures found on the skull of an adolescent boy and leading to his death are discussed. Researchers may find this website useful.
The website of the Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage, part of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt, provides information on a variety of projects undertaken by the centre. The work of the centre is divided into the following programmes: Archaeological Map of Egypt; Architectural and Urban Heritage; Natural Heritage; Photographic Memory; Egyptian Folklore; Arts Documentation; Eternal Egypt; Manuscripts Heritage; and International Relations. The first two sections combine GIS mapping projects with photographic galleries of ancient monuments and urban architecture. The other sections provide images and information related to Egyptian heritage, though coverage is a bit uneven and not all aspects of the site were working at the time of review. The website may be of most use for its imagery bank, which could be used for lectures or essays on ancient Egypt, environmental archaeology, Islamic art and architecture, Egyptian folklore and modern history.
This dataset, hosted by the Archaeology Data Service, details the analyses undertaken on the biological remains recovered from excavations at Culverwell, a Mesolithic habitation site on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. Environmental investigations of the site began in 1979, when soil samples were analysed for land snails by Dr Helen Keeley of the Ancient Monuments Laboratory (now English Heritage based). Further investigations were undertaken during the late 1980s and early to mid 1990s, which revealed 'deep midden' deposits accumulated in a depression or gully. Columns of midden samples were taken during these investigations for further laboratory-based analyses. It is the results of these bioarchaeological analyses that are presented in the digital archive accessible via these webpages. Topics and fields discussed include the site stratigraphy, molluscs, bone and dental fragments, marine invertebrate species, and radiocarbon results. The digital archive takes the form of a main text report (available in HTML or Microsoft Word document formats) accompanied by 16 associated tables. The tables are available as HTML files or as comma delimited files that are suitable for importing into database programs.
"Bioarchaeology of the Near East" is a yearly journal available free and full text online; individual papers are available as PDF files. "The aim of the journal is to promote research on the history of human populations inhabiting South-Western Asia (chiefly Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Anatolia, Iran, and Egypt)". It concentrates on papers on physical anthropology and bioarchaeology. In addition to papers and reviews (both peer reviewed), the journal also publishes short fieldwork reports. Information for prospective authors is also available. At the time of review (just two issues available) the journal was still relatively unknown and mainly publishing reports of field projects carried out by the editors. Yet, the journal has potential given the topic, and being peer reviewed, free, and giving space primarily to eastern European authors it provides a venue for publishing research that just a few years ago would have been difficult to access for an international audience. Advanced students and researchers are the primary audience for this website.
This website publishes an online bibliography of sources relating to the broad field of bioarchaeology, which attempts to identify and interpret biological remains from archaeological sites in terms of human usage, biogeography, and palaeoecology. The bibliography includes information on classification, identification, distribution, archaeology (particularly of the Southwest of the USA), and other subjects. The bibliography was last updated in 1999 and therefore lacks the substantial corpus of references of the last decade, making it unsuitable as reference for undergraduate students.
The Biological Anthropology Research Centre (BARC) at the University of Bradford provides access to osteological collections that can be used by researchers for training and comparison purposes. The website provides information on the collections and how to access them. The centre has been funded by the AHRC.
The Society for Archaeological Sciences (SAS) blog is an excellent source of news in the fast-paced world of archaeological sciences. The blog announces new conferences, journals, websites of relevance to archaeological science. There is a link to the SAS Wiki, which lists job opportunities; conferences; laboratories; announcements; and graduate schools. The geographic focus of the blog is North America, but many news are relevant to anyone interested in archaeological sciences.
Blombos Cave is an important Middle and Late Stone Age site in South Africa, discovered in 1991 by the author of this website, Chris Henshilwood, who is also excavating it. The website publishes a series of illustrated articles on the discovery and excavation of the cave (click on pictures to enlarge them); a gallery of pictures; and an updated and extensive bibliography with several publications freely available in PDF format. There are three main phases of occupation of the cave in the Pleistocene, and more recent evidence of occupation during the Holocene. Phase M1 (Middle Pleistocene) is characterised by "high densities of bifacial points"; bone tools (one engraved); perforated shell beads (Nassarius kraussianus); and ochre. In the 75,000 year old levels archaeologists have found two engraved ochre plaques with a criss-cross pattern, which has been interpreted as some of the earliest evidence of art. A section also contains recent press releases. It is possible to make a donation or buy pictures. This website may be useful to both researchers and students.
"Bog bodies" is a single post on a blog focusing on "weird" news. The page contains several images and videos about bog bodies, including the "Tollund Man" that can be useful to archaeology students. It should be noted that since the pictures portray human corpses, albeit mummified, they can be disturbing to the casual viewer. The text is basic, and the value of the page resides mostly on the imagery.
Boneview is an educational website specifically targeting zooarchaeology first year undergraduate students. Through a series of pictures (unfortunately most blurred at high definition), it shows the commonest marks on bones that zooarchaeologists should look for. These include modifications caused by illnesses (arthritis and trauma); external agents (e.g. burning, butchering and weathering); and ageing. Section "mammalian skeleton" is an interactive tool to identify key bones in mammalians. The simplicity of the website and the use of colour pictures and interactive tools make this website a useful complement to an ordinary textbook, but this website cannot replace a hands-on practical for anybody wishing to work with bones. Its simplicity and limit to the most basic skills make it suitable as a brief introduction to zooarchaeology for all archaeology undergraduates.
Center for Remote Sensing is an online collection of resources on the work of the research centre at Boston University which promotes scientific research in archaeology, geography and geology. The aim of the Center is to study the Earth and its resources (including the monitoring of environmental changes), through the use of satellite images and other data from airborne and ground sensors. In 1997 the Center was selected by NASA as a "Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing". The information provided on this site includes extensive biographies of staff - including CVs and lists of publications - together with details and limited biographies of current students and extensive overviews of current and completed research projects. The site also has: a detailed listing of the facilities available at the Center; a current 'News' section; and, importantly, details on how students can undertake a program at the Center. The website is easily navigable, consisting of only seven main pages, and has logical and clear structure. Navigation is partly through an image map at the top of the page but can also be accessed through links at the bottom. No significant plug-ins are required to use the site although a QuickTime video restating the text is present on the 'Welcome' page.
The "Central Anatolian Neolithic e-Workshop" (CANeW) project collects and researches radiocarbon and geoarchaeological data on the Neolithic period in Anatolia, the Aegean and Upper Mesopotamia. This website is mainly a repository of data, which include 14C databases, chronological charts, site databases and geoarchaeological maps. In addition, this website presents the archives of the academic electronic discussions leading to a founding meeting for the project. All the papers presented at that meeting, as well as additional papers and reviews are also freely available in the website. Many papers, databases and charts are available in PDF format. The specialist data provide a great updated reference for the research on chronology and geoarchaeology of Neolithic Anatolia and Mesopotamia. Researchers in particular will find this website most useful.
The Database of Implement Petrology for Britain records petrologically examined stone implements dating from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. The records were assembled by the Implement Petrology Committee (IPC) of the Council for British Archaeology (CBA) between the 1930s and the mid 1980s, and have previously been published in Stone Axe Studies volume 2 (CBA Research Report 67, 1988, edited by T H McKClough & W A Cummins). Over 7,500 stone implements were examined whilst compiling the database. Broad ranges in the purpose, quality and composition of the implements were experienced, reflected in the database records. Rock sources and places of manufacture ranged from Lands End in England to the Northern Isles of Scotland and the Channel Islands. The database is thus a comprehensive study of stone tool use over a period of 3000 years.The database is categorised into 34 petrographic groups, to which the majority of implements have been assigned. Information on the rock type, purpose and locality of each entry is given. The full database is available for download (at a file size of 872KB) as a comma-delimited file, suitable for importing into most database packages.
The website of the "Centro Regionale per la Progettazione e il Restauro" of Palermo publishes information about this Sicilian centre for the restoration of monuments; a list of publications by members of staff; information on the most recent projects; progress toward the production of a "carta del rischio" (map of endangered monuments); the CRPR/InForma journal, with illustrated articles, academic papers, news and reviews, available as PDF files, and a mailing list. Several articles in the journal and in the "progetti" section present restoration techniques used on organic and inorganic materials that have been applied to archaeological and architectural materials as well as paintings, mosaics statues and other artistic works. A substantial section focuses on the restoration works at Piazza Armerina, including the results of geophysical, archaeobotanical and stratigraphic (from test pits) analyses carried out during such works. Among the topics explored in papers and articles (all in Italian) are: the Roman villa at Piazza Armerina; the Naskhi slabs at Palazzo Abatellis; geological study of rocks used in Sicilian monuments; biotechnologies applied to restoration of organic materials; dendrochronology applied to trees in historical landscapes; the restoration of musical instruments; palinology at Phoenician Motya; restoration of paintings by Antonello da Messina and Caravaggio; X-rays and paintings; conservation of metallic artefacts.
This is the website of CNRS Info, an online publication of the French National Council of Research. A special issue on archaeology dated 2000 is available full-text and summarises French archaeological research across the globe. It also includes some articles on environmental archaeology and archaeometry. The several illustrated articles are organised by region, with articles on French sites being also subgrouped according to chronological period, from the Palaeolithic to the historical period. Among the sites are: Closeau, near Rueil-Malmaison (France, Palaeolithic); Le Mourral, Trèbes (France, Neolithic); Rhí´ne Valley (France); medieval Marseille (France); Jerf el Ahmar (Syria); Alexandria (Egypt); Tahiti (French Polynesia). The site of Jerf el Ahmar is particularly important as it has been studied in relation to the emergence of agriculture and the social impact it had. There is a map, a small bibliography, a few pictures and a glossary in PDF format. Overall, this website can be very useful as it contains many summaries of important researches and provides a French perspective on state-funded research. The home page is quite confusing as the summaries of all issues of CNRS Info are provided and none of them contains any article on archaeology. Moreover, from within each article it is only possible to return to the home page. This unnumbered issue between issues 384 and 385 is in reality a separate volume that has been almost "buried". Researchers may find this website useful.
Cologne Radiocarbon Calibration & Paleoclimate Research Package website provides a free (subject to conditions) downloadable calibration package (CalPal) designed to support research on hominid behavioural response to Pleistocene climate change. The calibration program allows calendric age-conversion ("calibration") of radiocarbon data by a variety of methods (2D-Dispersion, Wiggle Matching and Monte Carlo). The site also provides technical information on the program, contact details for the program authors, and extensive links. These include related projects, information on paleoclimate research, radiocarbon, archaeology and mapping and geographical information systems (GIS). The CalPal library contains a manual for the program (in html and PDF format), recent CalPal articles (as PDF files), paleoclimate and calibration graphs, databases and references. A separate section of the website hosts CalPal online, a page that gives quick reference calibration dates for single radiocarbon results. Changes to the site and the program are recorded in the CalPal newsletter.
Complutum is an academic journal published by the University of Madrid. The journal has been published since 1991 and specialises in the archaeology of Iberia, Latin America and the Phoenicians. Some papers focus on theoretical issues or archaeological sciences (e.g. cave pollen). The journal publishes papers on Mediterranean societies dating from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age and pre-Columbian societies of America. Among the topics of several recent papers are archaeobotany (pollen analyses); long distance trade (e.g. askoi and Cypriot tripod in Iberia; Phoenician exchanges with Nubia); oldest writings from Iberia; the arrival of the first people in Latin America; and the Blue Nile survey (including pollen and archaeozoological analyses). The website contains indexes of all volumes and publishes online full text papers in PDF format after two years have been passed from their publication. Abstracts are available for all papers published since 2002. Most papers are in Spanish, only a few are in English or French.
Computer-assisted Paleoanthropology (CAP) illustrates the steps involved in creating cranial reconstructions from hominid fossils. A series of illustrated pages briefly describe data acquisition using Computer Tomography, the creation of 3D computer models from this data and using the models to make solid reconstructions using stereolithography. There is a section describing how this procedure has been used in morphological comparisons of Neanderthal and modern human skulls and in preparing a facial reconstruction of a Neanderthal child. The use of CAP to study non-human fossils and as an aid in modern medicine is also described. There is extensive use of animated images.
The Conservation Research Laboratory (CRL) is part of the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University. The laboratory deals primarily with the conservation of archaeological material from shipwrecks and other underwater sites. Recent projects include treating all the material recovered from the Belle, a ship lost by the French explorer, La Salle in 1686. The site also includes current CRL project reports.
The Conservation Research Laboratory (CRL) at the Nautical Archaeology at the Texas A&M University specialises in conserving archaeological artefacts and materials remained underwater for some time. This website publishes a series of reports and other data on several research projects carried out by the laboratory. 14 reports discuss issues involved in the conservation of artefacts found underwater. Compiled for a course, they include: silicone and polymer technologies, treatment of waterlogged wood, leather, rope, cork, corn cobs, kelp specimens and tanning of animal hides. There is a useful conservation manual by Dr Donny L. Hamilton and several illustrated papers, some of which are useful case studies for students. Researchers can contact the laboratory should they need some services. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
Dendrochronology, or tree-ring dating, is a major technique used by archaeologists for dating archaeological sites. This website merges contents from two projects, "The Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology" and "The New York State and NE North American Dendrochronology Project". The Aegean Dendrochronology Project based at Cornell University aims to provide a complete sequence of tree-ring dates from the 7th Millennium B.C. until the present in the Near East and the Aegean basin. The North American Dendrochronology Project is similar in nature but focuses on North America. Some basic information on the projects is provided, and submission of samples is invited. There is a page outlining the type of research conducted at the lab, especially the recent developments in dendrochemistry. Researchers interested in dendrochronological dating may find this website useful.
Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc. is the website of an archaeological and historic preservation firm, located in Lexington, Kentucky, America specializing in all phases and aspects of cultural resources and related studies. The site is extensive and contains much information on major projects undertaken by the company, regular news updates and online reports, presentations and publications. The site map makes navigation simple. The site introduces the company, staff, research specialities (including archaeology, bio-archaeology, geophysical research, lithics analysis and zoo-archaeology), projects carried out by the company, education and outreach work, links, a site map and contact details. The project pages include downloadable reports (some in PDF format) and titles and abstracts of reports available for sale. The education and outreach pages include details of the internship program run by the company and other educational projects including the Sayre School Historic Archaeology Project. The links page is extensive and includes sections on cultural resource laws and regulations, education and outreach, historic preservation, Kentucky archaeology and professional organisations.
The Dating Techniques website is part of the e-museum at Minnesota State University, Mankato. The educational website presents short descriptions of most of the relative and absolute dating techniques used in archaeology. The relative chronology techniques presented include: cation ratio; cultural affiliation; fluorine dating; obsidian hydration; patination; pollen analysis; rate of accumulation; seriation; and varve analysis. The absolute chronology techniques include: archaeomagnetism; astronomical dating; dendrochronology; electron spin; resonance; fission track; optically stimulated luminescence; oxidizable carbon ratio (OCR); potassium-argon dating; racemization; radio-carbon dating (carbon-14); thermoluminescence dating; and uranium-thorium dating. Each selection contains written explanations of the technique aimed at an undergraduate audience as well as some simple graphics and illustrations. Users can also try their hand at seriation using an interactive Java applet.
The home page of the Dendrochronology working group in Hamburg, Germany, a section of Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products. The site gives some basic information on dendrochronology and various offshoots such as dendroecology and dendroclimatology. There is an extensive bibliography in section "Literatur". A few research projects in Germany are presented in section "Arbeitsgebiete". There are a number of links to other websites concerned with dendrochronology.
The Dental Microwear website, published by the University of Arkansas, concentrates on the research of dental microwear in ancient humans and fossil primates. A few specialised software programs are freely available to download. The programmes included are suitable for both 2D and 3D analyses. The 'data archive' section contains data suitable for analysis with these programs. Sample images are especially useful for those not having access to a microscope. The section on texture analysis contains both articles and full papers in PDF format on the subject and it also includes information on how to use the provided software. There is also a long bibliography, with a few articles accessible directly and some others via Web links. Dental Microwear is an excellent educational tool for students pursuing studies in this area or those just curious to learn more about it.
The website of the "Des climats et des hommes - Glaciologie, climatologie, archéologie, histoire" conference organised by the INRAP and held in Paris on 19-21 November 2009 publishes the video recordings (Flash must be enabled; files in excess of 200 Mb) of all presentations. The recordings are also available at lower resolution (and without slides) in MP4 format accessing the "podcast" page.
The presentations span from the earliest hominids to the 2009 international conference on climate change held at Copenhagen and include the discussions held at the end of each session. Among the principal topics covered are the Neandertals and the possible role of climate in their demise; European and Near Eastern climate during the Neolithic and Bronze Age; the desertification of Sahara; Iron Age and Roman Europe; monsoons in China; medieval Greenland, the American Anasazi; modern Europe; volcanic eurptions and their role in climate change; and several climatological presentations concerned with contemporary climate change and global warming. Although most presentations do not focus away from the Mediterranean Sea and archaeologists and climatologists rarely combine their data in the presentations, the conference provides an updated cross-disciplinary perspective of current studies. Most archaeological papers explore the influence that climate had on specific locations at given periods, while the climatological papers are more concerned with economic and political issues. Despite many attempts of dramatising the topic, perhaps the most dramatic paper is the one focusing on Sahara since climate change affected human lives most clearly there. People reacted moving out of Sahara and it appears (also from the presentations) that mobility and adaptability is a constant of human history. This resource is a treat for researchers and can be useful to students as well; some understanding of French is required to follow many presentations.
This is the website of Digital Morphology, a National Science Foundation Library at the University of Texas at Austin providing access to HRCT data on over 100 species of plants and animals. High-resolution X-ray computed tomographic (HRCT) scanning is an industrial refinement of conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanning. This archive presents samples of the vertebrate skull, which have been surveyed from fossils to embryos and adults of living species. The library website offers a variety of resources, including slice-by-slice animations and Java applets of complete data volumes and animated volumetric and 3D surface renderings, plus an introduction (written by a "world expert"), references, links, and archival museum metadata for each specimen. These visualizations are available on the Web at moderate resolution; full resolution datasets are available on request. "Real" solid object versions of digital datasets are produced by utilizing rapid prototyping technology to "print" copies of the data. Students (and researchers) in archaeozoology may find this website useful.
This is the website of the Division of Anthropology of the American Museum of Natural History, that is dedicated to the study of human culture and biology. Members of the Division carry out ethnological research in Asia, Africa, North, Central and South America, and study such global topics as warfare and the origins of the state, highlights of these expeditions are presented online. The online collections section provides an opportunity for the browser to see the Division's archaeological, ethnological, and physical anthropology collections, assembled from the time the Museum's founding (late 1860s) to the present day. These include more than 500,000 objects from cultures in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and the Greater North Pacific region. The website enables the browser to use the Museum's Collection Management System to browse, search for and view images, detailed description, publication and exhibition history of each object. The Museum's research into archaeology and ethnography of North and Central America and Mexico is also introduced, including Web pages for: the excavation of the Hidden Cave, Nevada; and the archaeology of the Barinas region of Western Venezuala. Online, there are pages about the Museum's digital imaging project and other conservation initiatives and programmes. Information is also provided for visitors planning to research at the Museum.
Until the late 19th century when developments in the chemical industry allowed the manufacture of artificial colouring agents, dyes were laboriously manufactured from a range of plant and animal extracts. This wide-ranging website provides a comprehensive historical, cultural and scientific overview of the various processes involved in the making of dyes such as Indigo and woad, Tyrian purple, Murexide and Lichen purple, from technical chemical details to biographical and historiographical material illuminating the history of dye making. Extensive bibliographic references and weblinks on this subject and contact details of modern manufacturers and supplies of traditional dyes are provided. The resource includes a guide to the contents of the journal "Dyes in History and Archaeology" since 1991 which published the proceedings of annual conferences on this subject. The text is illustrated throughout with a variety of botanical and historical images as well as many chemical formulae. The hypertext links lead you to a variety of websites of related interest in English, French and German. "Ancient dyes" has a wide potential audience among students and researchers of archaeology, anthropology and history of all periods (including the history of science, industry and clothing). Regular meetings are organised and advertised on this website.
The Electronic Repository for Dutch Archaeology (eDNA) aims to make research results and research datasets available to other researchers. 34 archived archaeological projects and about 200 registered (current) archaeological projects provide a wealth of research data on current or recent archaeological research in the Netherlands and Italy, including preliminary archaeological reports; scientific (archaeozoological and palinological) analyses; and regional studies. Each entry is accompanied by descriptive metadata that refer to the project, researchers, publisher, subject keywords, temporal and spatial coverage. Most datasets are available in Dutch, but so far only a few have been made available in English.
Also available on the site is a list of publications about archaeological projects in the Netherlands, including full-text archaeological reports, monographs and theses and information about recent archaeological findings and theories. The list is searchable and browsable by author, title, organisation. Organisations include the councils of Groningen, Den Haag, Vlaardingen, the Rijksdienst voor Archeologie, Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten (State Service for Archaeology, Landscape and Monuments formerly Rijksdienst voor Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek), RAAP (Archaeological Consultancy) and the HSL-Zuid (High Speed Line).
This website gives a fairly complete overview of current archaeological research and recent literature in the Netherlands and is an excellent resource for archeologists and historians.
Professor Michel Barsoum presents in this website his theory suggesting that the Pyramids of Giza were built using an early form of concrete instead of limestone quarried blocks. The author with other colleagues has conducted a sophisticated study of the limestone blocks (published in a printed journal) including extensive scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses and concludes that the stones are probably made of reconstituted limestone. The amorphous (i.e. regular) structure of the pyramids' stones at atomic level and the presence of silicon dioxide nanoscale spheres have not been recognised in natural limestone. The employment of casting would explain their regularity and precision, which often leaves no space in between stones. The website contains the recording of a lecture by the author where the author presents the theory (and it is just a theory being discussed at the time of review) and some interviews. The research was partly funded by the National Science Foundation. Researchers in material culture and material science applied to archaeology may find this website useful.
An online database of the archaeological geophysical surveys undertaken by the Archaeometry Branch of the Ancient Monuments Laboratory since 1972. The database structure and data dictionary are given. Access to the records is via clickable maps. These return records for surveys in a 10km square of the point selected. Geophysical report summaries are listed by year. Hypertext copies of reports of many surveys since 1993 are available complete with plots and interpretations. There is an online form for submitting new records to the database.
The Environmental Factors in the Chronology of Human Evolution & Dispersal programme (EFCHED) website publishes the results of a recent major project funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). Section "results and findings" contains the most valuable data, short illustrated summaries of the 12 sub-projects part of EFCHED. Section "resources" provides access to a separate website hosted by the University of Glasgow with further data. Researcher in particular may find this website useful.
Research on hominin dispersal is still highly debated and the dynamics are far from being well known; new discoveries are frequently published and since the end of the project at least two separate human species have been added to the human tree, one in Flores and one in Siberia, considerably altering some views. There is no doubt that the EFCHED project contributed substantially to the field, but readers should not expect from reading the pages of this website an updated textbook-like guide to the recent research in this field; it is a collection of data from recent researches.
A useful interactive osteological database aimed at helping undergraduate students identify the skeletal remains of humans, gorillas and baboons and primates for the use of archaeologists, physical anthropologists and comparative anatomists. The resource provides fully labelled high quality images of individual bones with accompanying database entries and comments, viewable side by side with other species, as well as Quicktime and VRML animations to demonstrate the articulation and three-dimensional morphology and articulation of all the major bones. In addition you can download a series of 21 printable Gif files with images of different parts of the human skeleton which can be assembled as a complete skeleton. The plug-ins necessary for the animations can be downloaded from this site as there is additional technical information for the new viewer. Also features is a glossary and a short guide to other osteological resources. While eSkeletons lacks a broader introduction to osteology, comparative anatomy or human/ primate evolution, the website is nonetheless a useful online reference source for undergraduate students and researchers in the relevant fields.
This is the blog of Dr Fusun Ertuğ, an archaeobotanist at the University of Istanbul. Her blog contains a mixture of articles on Anatolian archaeology; archaebotany and Turkish ethnography. There are only a few posts, mostly announcements, in English, the rest is in Turkish. However, researchers interested in the archaeobotany and especially ethnography of Anatolia may find it quite useful. Some of the author's recurrent themes are the relationship between women and plants in Turkey, which is a very original approach to gender studies, and handwoven baskets.
The "Searchable database of European chronologies" website searchable database of dendrochronological chronologies in Europe. The database of chronologies may be searched by tree species, laboratory, or by period. The results give the species and the period (and area) covered by the chronology and information on the laboratory and researcher. A clickable map links to a list of laboratories and the chronologies they have. A form enables new chronologies to be submitted. The database does not appear to have been updates since 2000, but it may still be useful to researchers.
Fararcheo is the personal website of Patrizia Farello focusing entirely on zooarchaeology in Emilia Romagna, Italy. The author presents a series of short articles (articoli) organised by period on animal remains found at several sites excavated in the region. The quality and contents of the articles is variable but some include numerical data organised in tables. Most of the articles concentrate on the Iron and Middle Ages. A few articles on zooarchaeological discoveries in Etruscan sites (such as Rubiera, Mirandola and the Po valley) are included in the Iron Age section. One article presents a discovery of remains of dogs dating to the late Roman period in the sewers of Classe (where the eastern Roman fleet was based) and includes an English abstract.
This website is a simple and illustrated presentation of the archaeological site of Colletière aimed primarily at undergraduate students and the general public. About the year 1010 three settlements were established on the shores of Lake Paladru. The archaeological sites were occupied for a mere 30 years and then abandoned. The sites became flooded and as a result show an unusual state of preservation. The settlement at Charavines has been the subject of extensive excavations. At low water levels these excavations can be performed by traditional techniques, but the majority of the excavation is performed underwater. Charavines was a defended site and weapons, riding equipment, and armour have been recovered. Agricultural and industrial artefacts as well as culinary implements have also been recovered, along with personal ornaments, musical instruments, and gaming pieces. This website introduces these elements of the investigations as a series of illustrated pages. A set of pages describe the various scientific investigations being carried out.
Flintsource is a specialist resource presenting a catalogue of European flints and other minerals (including some obsidian) and their source. Flint and obsidian tools were widely used in prehistoric Europe, and this website detailing the various types of minerals and their source, providing also magnified pictures of the minerals and pictures of the areas in which the minerals are found on or near the surface. The website is a valuable reference tool to determine the origins and movements of such tools, as well as to locate possible ancient mines. Advanced technologies such as chemical fingerprinting through X-ray fluorescence (XRF) can also help in tracing the source of some tools, but ultimately the knowledge of the available sources and the types of flint coming from each one are indispensable to answer scientific questions. There are a few short texts as well as bibliographic references. The website can be navigated through simple maps or browsed by name. Both students and researchers interested in this field of research will find this website useful.
This website, created by Dr Dennis A. Etler, focuses on human fossils found in China and contains: a catalog of fossils; a slideshow; and a handful of academic papers. The catalog contains: an overview table detailing all the major fossils; a picture gallery; an atlas; and a timeline. The slideshow, "Age and Living Environment of Yunxian Man" by Li Tianyuan, is available in both English and Chinese. It is a PowerPoint presentation of a lecture that shows the cranium of "Yunxian Man" fossil hominid found in Hubei province, and analyses ESR and palaeomagnetic dating as well as environmental data. There are several pictures of fossil fauna and stone tools. The section on material is particularly thorough and informative. The papers, in PDF format, also focus on Yunxian fossils. In addition, they also present Wushan (Longgupo) fossils and compare Asian fossils with African fossils. There is also a slideshow on the latter subject. The other pages of this website concentrate on presenting the research activity of Dr Etler and his personal interests.
The Fossil Hominids website summarises the archaeological evidence of the hominids and presents the debate between creation versus evolution. The debate concerns mostly American anthropologists, but the controversy re-emerges worldwide every time new fossils are discovered, as the human tree of evolution is not fully known and new fossils can be groundbreaking. The website focuses on the archaeological and scientific evidence, summarising the most important discoveries and including a section on the most recent discoveries in palaeoanthropology. The website contains a few pictures and some pages (such as fiction and humour) that may appeal especially to younger students and undergraduate students approaching palaeoanthropology for the first time.
GeoArch offers a consultancy service for the analysis and interpretation of ferrous and non-ferrous ancient metallurgical residues and their relation to archaeological geophysics. The website gives brief details on current geoarchaeological projects and geophysics surveys. A section covers experimental work being carried out on iron smelting and charcoal burning giving lists of all smelting experiments with their operating parameters. This website may be useful primarily to professional archaeologists or undergraduate students.
This website publishes the free and full-text edition of the Geochronometria journal (since volume 18), which focuses on interdisciplinary studies on absolute chronology, especially combining techniques used in natural sciences and archaeology. The individual papers are available in PDF format, and although many papers concentrate on C14 radiocarbon and thermoluminescence studies, a broad range of techniques is represented. Most of the papers are reports of analyses carried out at several sites. The website provides instructions for prospective authors to submit their papers. Specialist researchers on absolute chronology will find this journal useful.
This website is published by Harald von der Osten-Woldenburg, the Geophysicist and Conservator of the department of antiquities of the state of Baden-Württemberg, (south east) Germany. He has been working on the project 'Geophysical Prospection of Archaeological Sites' for the government of Baden-Württemberg since 1991. Up to now the project has used Geomagnetics, Geoelectrics, Electromagnetic Induction and Ground Penetrating Radar and this website presents some of the results of this prospection. The website presents these results as short illustrated descriptions of the surveyed sites which can be accessed through lists based on the survey method used or from a list of site names. For some of the sites which were surveyed and later excavated there are links to more detailed archaeological reports in German and English hosted by Historical Heritage in Baden-Württemberg. The author of the site also gives a list of his publications and a link to the publisher of his book 'Unsichtbares sichtbar machen. Geophysikalische Prospektionsmethoden in der Archäologie' (Making Invisible Visible. Methods of Geophysical Prospections in Archaeology).
The Global History of Health Project website publishes information on the project and some posters presented at recent conferences in PDF format; it also includes contact details of the principal investigators and research associates. The project and the website is divided in two main sections: Western Hemisphere and Europe. The full-text version of the volume The Backbone of History: Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere provides the contents for the former part; the latter part is due to change as the project progresses. The project researchers are studying skeletons from hundreds of burial localities and dating up to 10,000 years ago to assess the state of health of people throughout history. The concluded Western Hemisphere study has analysed 12,000 individuals who lived over the past six millennia and evidenced a long-term decline in skeletal health among Native Americans in the pre-Columbian era. The current research project focuses on Europe and the Mediterranean region. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The Historical Metallurgy Society UK seeks to provide a forum for the exchange of information and research about the history of metallurgy and archaeometallurgy. The Society organises an annual residential conference as well as meetings and lectures. They produce the journal 'Historical Metallurgy' (published annually in two parts), a newsletter, symposium reports, and various books. The contents pages of the journal may be viewed on line, although the full-text version is only available in print to Society members. Submission guidelines are provided. Included on the website are guides to historical and archaeological resources, both online and off, and a series of archaeology 'datasheets' to download (in PDF format), which provide introductions to the various kinds of artefacts and evidential remains relevant to the study of metallurgy. The Society also offers student grants to facilitate research into historical metallurgy, details of which are posted on the website. A membership application form may be downloaded from the site.
This website focuses on the computed axial tomography (CT) scan of a single mummy of an ancient Egyptian female aged about 30. It has been published by the Institute of Medicine of the University of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, and was developed for the exhibition 'The Secret of the Mummies: Eternal Life at the Nile'. The website provides a few details on how the scans have been performed, and includes six Quicktime movies and virtual realities taken from the scans. The virtual realities can be particularly useful to students of medicine wishing to apply CT technology to mummified remains. The educational colour coded movies are also essential for archaeologists with little or no medical knowledge who wish to understand the potential of CT technology for this area.
The website of the Institute of Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies (IAMS), an international research body which since 1973 has promoted the study of the origins and developments of metallurgy within its cultural and historical context from the earliest period to recent times. The website sketches the background to previous research in ancient metallurgy and provides a useful chronicle of IAMS-sponsored projects in major metal producing areas of the ancient world, including the Sinai, the Negev (particularly at Timna in the Arabah Valley), south-western Britain and the Rio Tinto Valley in Spain, together with a guide to current research and teaching and an index of the Trustees and Scientific Committee of the Institute. Modern research into the technical and cultural history of ancient metal working began with the exploration of the Arabah Valley in the Negev region of Israel by Nelson Glueck in the 1930s and 1940s, work which was popularised as the location of 'King Solomon's Mines'. Work here, particularly at Timna, but also in the southern Sinai peninsula by Beno Rothenberg and the IAMS since the 1950s revealed a flourishing history of copper production extending from 6000 BC to the Islamic period which reached its peak during the large-scale processing of metal under the Egyptian New Kingdom (c1550-1150 BC). While the relationship (if any) of Timna with the biblical Solomon remains unproven, IAMS has also supported a major project on the role of metals in Biblical and Talmudic literature. The website also includes a concise news sheet and information on IAMS publications and the annual summer school organised by the Institute. This useful resource will benefit students and researchers interested in the archaeology and history of ancient metal production and technology in general, particularly in Egypt and the Levant.
This website is an online repository of recent documents for staff and students at the Institute of Anthropological and Spatial Studies (IAPŠ), part of the Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (ZRC SAZU). Among the papers and theses, those on GIS applications and the "Adriatic islands project" may interest a broader audience. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ) website provides information on the council, its activities, meetings and quadrennial conferences, as well as membership options. There is an interesting section on definitions of archaeozoology, useful links, and information about affiliated working groups. The reports from the working groups are short but informative and elucidate current research. Some of the groups also run separate mailing lists and/or websites, details of which are kept updated in the reports along with contact details for the groups. A few publications on paper have been produced by some of these groups and details of these are available in the reports or separate websites. Among the most active separate websites are: the Animal Palaeopathology Working Group; the Fish Remains Working Group; the Zooarchaeology Working Group; and the Archaeomalacology Working Group. The Animal Palaeopathology Working Group section contains news, an updated bibliography, short papers in PDF format, a mailing list and forum and photo galleries. The Fish Remains Working Group section contains a mailing list, an bibliography, a database of fish remains and a history of the group's activities. The Zooarchaeology Working Group section contains some specialist software, including: a database of European insect fauna (BUGS); the Zooarchaeological Data Management System (QBONE); the Archive for the North Atlantic (NABONE); an introduction to the group in PDF format; a yearly newsletter and mailing list; a section on radiocarbon dating; as well as information about a field school in north Atlantic archaeology. The Archaeomalacology Working Group section publishes a newsletter and information on the group's research activities.
The 'What is archaeozoology?' section of the ICAZ (International Council for Archaeozoology) website introduces archaeozoology to students in a question and answer format. Selected books on archaeozoology are also recommended. Answers given are concise and easily understandable and have been prepared by specialists in the field. The website provides information including: what archaeozoologists study; what scientific backgrounds are usually necessary to become one; what they do and where they go for their work; why their research is important; and where to find more information in the library and on the Internet. By selecting 'working groups' on the same website, it is possible to access further specialist information on core researches in the field and check out some data sets and specialist bibliographies. The general public and especially first year undergraduate students may find this website useful.
Internet Archaeology (ISSN 1363-5387) is an online-only peer reviewed electronic journal available by subscription. It publishes papers of high academic standing which also try to utilise the potential of electronic publication which allows readers to explore the data upon which conclusions are based. Internet Archaeology publishes: the results of archaeological research, including excavation reports (text, photographs, data, drawings, reconstruction diagrams, interpretations); analyses of large data sets along with the data itself; visualisations; programs used to analyse data; and applications of information technology. The Internet Archaeology advisory committee consists of representatives from a range of bodies and universities including: The Council for British Archaeology; the Universities of Aarhus, California (at Santa Barbara), Cambridge, Durham, Glasgow, Leiden, Newcastle, Oxford, and York. The Journal is hosted by the Department of Archaeology at the University of York. Internet Archaeology's contents are archived by the Archaeology Data Service. The journal is predominantly in English but articles are also published in other languages (for example, French and German)as well.Internet Archaeology is available to UK HE/FE institutions under a national license agreement negotiated by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).
A useful cultural and technical analysis of various aspects of iron manufacturing by Xander Veldhuijzen of University College London combined with up-to-date insights on recent archaeological work on metallurgical sites in Israel and Jordan. Based largely on his MA thesis and several recent publications in scholarly journals, this website offers: a technical and chemical introduction to the physical processes surrounding the extraction, smelting and refining of iron production; a detailed and fascinating cross-cultural account of iron making in traditional non-Western (mostly African) communities; a history of iron production in the Near East based on previous research followed by an account of the author's recent research and fieldwork at Tell Hammeh az-Zarqa in Jordan and Beth Shemesh in Israel. Each section includes extensive bibliographies of recent and classic readings on this subject while the links page connects the reader to a host of sites of archaeo-metallurgical interest as well some of the author's personal reflections on the problems of archaeological research in Israel/ Palestine during the recent political troubles. This clearly written and attractively presented resource will benefit students and researchers of in Near Eastern studies as well as archaeologists and other scholars interested in the history of metal technology.
The Journal of Cave and Karst Studies is a full-text, online version of the from the National Speleological Society. The journal contains papers on various disciplines, including cave archaeology. Three issues are published each year and these are freely available in PDF format. Past issue topics included: stable isotope analysis of human remains; cave archaeology in the Appalachian Mountains; cave archaeology of Belize (including the ritual use of a cave); Maya cave art; cave archaeology in North America; intensive mineral mining in Cave Mammoth Region, Kentucky, and its relationship with early farming; and osteological comparison of prehistoric Native Americans (osteoarchaeology). Volume 59 (1), April 1997 is a special issue on cave archaeology.
The Journal of Nordic Archaeological Science (JONAS) publishes original theoretical and applied papers by experienced and younger researchers within the field of archaeological science. The papers are available free and full-text from this website, which also contains information about the journal. The journal publishes preferably papers from authors based in the Nordic–Baltic area; all papers are peer-reviewed. The topics range across all aspects of archaeology of Europe and are not limited to the northern regions. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This is the official website of the "Neolithic revolution in a global perspective" international conference held in Paris in 2008. It publishes the video recordings of all lectures given during the conference, including the discussion. Most lectures were in French, with only a few in English. The conference gathered some of the leading experts on the Neolithic period across the world, and its main strength is indeed the worldwide coverage. Making such an important conference available on the Internet is certainly a commendable and rarely seen choice. Almost every aspect of Neolithic studies has been presented, and the video recordings allow to see in most cases also the Powerpoint presentations. Postgraduate students and researchers will benefit most from accessing these lectures.
This is the website of The Laboratory for Ceramic Research, which is mainly involved in archaeological research. This activity serves archaeological science by providing laboratory investigations of ceramic artefacts. The website has summaries of current projects being undertaken by the laboratory covering prehistoric and medieval pottery. A page describes the techniques used to analyse ceramics. There is also a list of publications by members of the laboratory staff. Researchers may find this website useful.
This is the website of the Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology. The main research interest of the Laboratory is the construction of reference chronologies on oak, pine and spruce for different regions of Sweden. Other research fields are dendroclimatological studies on living conifers (pine and spruce) in Sweden, and dendrochronology on Arctic driftwood to study the palaeo-oceanography of the Arctic Sea. The wood-anatomical research is mainly devoted to charcoal identifications of material from archaeological excavations. Pages on the site explain dendrochronology and introduce projects being undertaken at the Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology. There are also links to other related websites, links to recently published papers by staff at the project and a list of publications for sale.
This is the website of "The Leakey Foundation", named after Dr. Louis Leakey, was established in 1968 to increase scientific knowledge and public understanding of human origins and evolution. The Foundation promotes a multidisciplinary approach to exploring human origins and awards grants totalling more than $600,000 annually for research exploring human evolution including research into the environments, archaeology and human palaeontology of the Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene; into the behaviour, morphology and ecology of the great apes and other primate species; and into the behavioural ecology of contemporary hunter-gatherers. The website offers information for grant applicants and a downloadable application form in PDF format. The website contains brief information about past and current projects funded by the Leakey Foundation, an audio archive of downloadable excerpts of interviews and lectures by pioneers of paleoanthropology, and a selection of educational resources. A timeline of important anthropological discoveries and projects gives a brief history of the science of anthropology. A visual glossary acts an illustrated dictionary of technical terminology. A reading list and collection of links point those interested in the field of paleoanthropology to other material of interest. The contribution of the Leakey family to the discovery and study of fossils of early humans cannot be understated and students will find here some essential historical information as well as interesting interactive and multimedia features. Grants and activities of the foundation will interest instead primarily researchers, who may also want to subscribe to the newsletter "DigDeeper".
The Literature on Archaeological Remains of Cultivated Plants website maintained by Dr. Kroll of the University of Kiel presents a searchable bibliography of archaeobotanical sources. A search form provides access to the bibliographic database, which is not limited to a specific chronological period or region. The "slideshow" section contains scanned pictures of the many species found in archaeological contexts. The "help" page contains instructions on how to use the website and includes a list of species and keywords on general topics that can be used to glean fruiful results. These lists are available in PDF or Word files. The database is not unique or complete and requires some prior knowledge of archaeobotany to be of use. Researchers and archaeobotanists may find it useful. The slideshow is particularly useful for students and may be used as source of illustrations for class presentations.
'The Lithics Site' provides an online resource cataloguing websites relevant to archaeological lithic analysts. The resource (in a modified form) was also published in issue 22, spring 1999, of Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship. The catalogued websites are categorised by topic area to facilitate easy browsing, and most of the 12 main topic areas comprise a comprehensive resource. These topics include: General Web Sites Archaeology, Relevant Earth Science References, Inter-/ Cross- Disciplinary Science; Research Projects and Initiatives; Literature and Databases (Libraries and Library Resources; Bibliographies; Periodicals; Book and Article Links; Radio and TV Shows; Newspaper Story Links; Databases); Relevant Educational and Institutional Sites (Academic Departments with Relevant Resources; Archaeological Courses on Lithics; Research Centres and Laboratories; Geological Surveys; Organizations and Associations; Electronic Fora (discussion lists and newsgroups); Technology Concerns (including knapping and replication studies); Prehistoric Cultural and Artefact Information and Theories (including artifacts and point typologies); Geological Sources, Samples, and Procurement; "Images on Stone" or Rock Art Sites; Software and Data; Commercial Concerns; and Museum-Related Concerns. The list was updated at the time of review, and may be useful to anyone interested in lithics.
The official website of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology presents the research carried out at the institute. There are several departments, including one in Linguistics, one in Evolutionary Genetics and one in Human Evolution (the first to sequence the Neanderthal genome). The Department of Linguistics studies "the diversity of human language and the historical processes underlying this diversity" by searching for properties that are universal to all languages. This is achieved both by researching sounds (phonetics and phonology) and words (lexical comparison). The department also is focusing its research on relating each language to the others, to form a "language tree". Despite the name, the "Department of Evolutionary Genetics" will be best known by archaeologists since it focuses on sequencing ancient DNA (e.g. the Neanderthal genome). The Department of Human Evolution instead focuses on applying scientific techniques to archaeological research (e.g. diet, climate and migration research through isotopes; dating; osteoarchaeology; etc.). Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry is a subscription online journal established in 2001. Subscription information is provided. Articles published in the journal are intended for a specialist audience, but include general introductions so as to be comprehensible to the non-expert. As well as academic reports on recent archaeological finds and excavations, the journal includes reviews and research notes evaluating new archaeological techniques. All articles are in English, with Greek abstracts. Articles are selected from a contents page, and are in PDF format. The website provides submission guidelines. The scope of the journal is broad and moderately interdisciplinary.
The archaeology pages of Minnesota State University's 'e-museum' website consist of an online exhibition of various artefacts. The archaeology pages are divided into a number of sections. The general archaeology section offers a timeline of the development of archaeology in the U.S.A.; links to other sites; and descriptions of various fields of archaeology. Section "Dating Techniques" provides a brief commented list of most dating techniques, which could be used by undergraduate students. The 'Artifacts' section provides information on artefacts, mostly from the American continent. There are a large number of illustrated pages on various types of projectile points and North American pottery styles with bibliographic references. Another section provides links to various fieldwork projects undertaken by staff and students at the Minnesota State University from the 1970s onwards. These briefly describe the aims of each project and provide a photo gallery. They do not however go into great depth or provide access to finds and results in the form of a full report. A bibliographic database related to Minnesota archaeology is included, as well as a geographic directory of important archaeological sites around the world. There is also a directory of world museums sorted by type of collection. Sections on rock art, prehistoric technologies, underwater archaeology and 'virtual archaeology' provide some information, which might be valuable to schoolchildren. This website publishes a variety of contents and can be used as a valuable introduction to archaeology for children and undergraduates. A few sections on Minnesota archaeology may also interest researchers.
The MIRACLE website offers 'an insight into micropalaeontology' based on microfossil images. The aim of the site is to enable the user to be able to distinguish between the major micropalaeontological groups. These include: Calcareous Nannofossils; Conodonts; Diatoms; Foraminifera; Ostracods; Palynology; and Radiolaria. Each group has its own web page which provides: a history of study; the geological range of the group; their classification criteria; their applications (e.g. biostratigraphy or palaeoenvironmental reconstructions); their biological features and life cycle; preparation and observation techniques; and finally a number of images of various specimens. This is a clear and informative site.The MIRACLE project receives funding from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).
The Munich Archaeometry Group employ a range of scientific methods in the study of archaeological ceramics. The group is made up of a small number of archaeologists, physicists, chemists, geologists and soil scientists who study ceramics from the Andes and from Celtic and Roman Europe. They make use of neutron activation analysis, thin section microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy to gain detailed physical and chemical descriptions of pottery. The website contains abstracts of research projects that the group has undertaken. A few illustrated papers outline some of the technologies. There is an extensive list of publications by members of the group. A section publishes information on forthcoming events. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The official website of The Neandertal Genome Project directed by Prof. Svante Pääbo publishes data (DNA sequences); a list of publications; press releases; job opportunities; and contact details. A short article outlines the aims of the project. Specialist researchers will benefit most from this website, but the press releases may be useful to students.
As part of the the project, "over 70 bones were screened to identify those that would provide Neandertal DNA and which were not contaminated with modern human DNA. A number of technical advances implemented during the project have drastically reduced the need for precious fossil material." The majority of the sequence current at the time of review comes from Neandertal bones from Vindija Cave in Croatia and it was obtained through careful processes that have eliminated most contamination and damage in the DNA sequences.
The "Neanderthal climate preferences and tolerances" website presents the research objectives and results of the project that investigates whether the present chronological data for the late Mousterian in Europe is biasing our perception of Neanderthals by showing that they used to live in an environment colder than that preferred by anatomically modern humans (AMH) and therefore were disadvantaged when the climate warmed up. The project is focussing on the region that experienced the greatest variation in climate, namely European Russia and the Ukraine north and east of the Black Sea. A range of cross-validated methodologies (OSL, TL, magnetic palaeointensity, and argon-argon) is being applied. At the time of review final results were not yet available, but preliminary results were available in section "talks", where copies of Powerpoint presentations are available in PDF format. An extensive bibliography on the subject is also available, with contributions from project members singled out. The project is funded by NERC.
The Neanderthal museum website focuses on the Neanderthals, whose first traces were discovered in 1856 in the Neander Valley, Germany. The cave of Feldhof, where the first skeleton has been unearthed, does not exist anymore and the entire area has been transformed in an artistic park. This website contains short descriptions of the museum and park, the artistic exhibitions, research sponsored by the museum and practical information to visit or contact the museum. The section about research contains some information about the EU-financed research project "The Neanderthal Tools" (TNT). Many abstracts and some presentations delivered at project meetings are available for download in PDF format. These files are very informative as preliminary reports on recent research and have contact details of all researchers involved. The TNT project is largely concerned with the virtual (3D) reconstruction of ancient human bodies as well as the application of computing in archaeology.
The Ancient Biomolecules Initiative is a Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) programme exploring the biomolecular record of past life which is entombed in archaeological and geological deposits. The findings have applications in archaeology, anthropology, forensic science, research into the past climates and oil exploration. This resource consists of a series of leaflets in PDF format which describe the key findings of the Ancient Biomolecules Initiative. Students in particular may find this website useful.
This website published by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) focuses on providing basic information for researchers on Science-Based Archaeology and includes information on NERC grant programs. Essentially it is a useful resource for researchers (and postgraduate students) looking for funding in the UK.
The 'New Zealand Radiocarbon Database', hosted by the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand, contains almost 3000 radiocarbon dates collected from archaeological sites around the country. Compiled by the Department of Conservation Science and Research Unit, the database holds records from the past 40 years from 7 different laboratories around New Zealand. The database can be searched by geographical (ie. specific site-based or map-based) criteria or sample criteria (ie. a particular material or lab number). Searches are undertaken via an online form, and combinations of criteria can be employed to broaden or narrow a search. The results are returned in table form with the laboratory number, the recorded radiocarbon date with its standard error, and a description of the sample itself. Each returned result is linked to a further page on which more detailed descriptions of the sample and the archaeological contexts from which it came are given. An extensive help section is provided to aid novice users and those new to radiocarbon dating. This website may be useful to researchers.
The North American Database of Archaeological Geophysics (NADAG) a database and website that aims to promote use, education, communication, and a knowledge base of the practice of archaeological geophysics in North America. Geophysical methods in archaeology are routinely employed and widely accepted in Europe but most American archaeologists have little knowledge of their potential and their level of use in projects remains low. The NADAG project aims to help correct this imbalance. The NADAG project is being developed under a grant from the National Park Service's National Center for Preservation Technology and Training. It is maintained by the Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies (CAST) and developed by members of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Arkansas.
NADAG contains a number of components pertaining to archaeological geophysics in North America and around the globe. These include an image library depicting project results; a searchable projects database containing information about archaeo-geophysical projects; a bibliographical database; and information about instruments and practitioners. An education section gives brief overviews on theory and methods in geophysical prospection. The website makes substantial use of animated gif images both for amusement and information. A "graphic-lite" version is available via the website of the University of Arkansas Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies.
This is the website of the North Atlantic Biocultural Organisation (NABO). NABO aims to cut across national and disciplinary boundaries in order to help North Atlantic scholars make the most of the research potential of their research area. The website presents information about NABO's activities and there are few online article and newsletters. A major project being undertaken is the Icelandic Historical Landscapes Program which involves posting a number of downloadable datasets, principally concerned with archaeological topics, on the website. Already present are: an interactive database of North Atlantic and European Insect fauna; a zooarchaeological data comparability project; a database with manual of zooarchaeological data from excavations at Hofstapir, Iceland; a series of digital osteological manuals; and inks to a tephrochronological database and the Scottish Palaeoenvironemental Archive Database. A set of field research reports and radiocarbon reports is being established. Although this resource may interest primarily researchers, students may find information on forthcoming field schools run by the organisation.
"The Origins and Ancient History of Wine" website by Dr Patrick McGovern provides a wealth of information on the earliest known evidence about wine. Most of the evidence concentrates in the ancient Near East, including Egypt. For the curious, the earliest evidence is provided by some Neolithic (5400-5000 BC) jars originally from Hajji Firuz Tepe in Mesopotamia and now at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. There are short articles focusing on individual regions; a map; a glossary; and a basic introduction to archaeological chemistry ("How did we know it was wine?"). Chemical analyses have been carried out by the "Museum Applied Science Center for Archaeology" (MASCA). The articles are aimed at the general public, but might be used also as introduction to this important topic in any class. There is an interactive quiz (for instance, "how much wine was buried in Scorpion I's tomb?") and the possibility to leave a comment about your preferred wine.
Oxford Ancestors is a company created by Prof. Bryan Sykes to trace the origins of people through DNA analyses. This website provides some full-text papers in PDF format and various short articles explaining the techniques used and analysing some of the results. The Mitochondrial DNA trees that have been created can be very important in determining the migratory movements of people throughout history. A key result of relevance to archaeology is the apparent disconnection between family memories and genetic affiliations. This suggests that interbreeding between people from different regions of the world has been commoner than it would appear from official past records or memories passed between generations. The idea of belonging to a specific race or cultural group is often the result of a cultural, social or political construct. This behaviour should be kept in mind by archaeologists when considering the possibility of contacts with distant people using solely material culture. Some preliminary studies (e.g. Saami) have also demonstrated that linguistic groups do not match genetic groups, and therefore language should be considered just as another cultural trait. In short, similar haplogroup frequency (genetic similarity) and cultural affinity appear quite separated. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The Oxford Dendrochronology Laboratory (ODL) is an independent tree-ring dating laboratory that is employed by institutions worldwide. Initially confined to the city and county of Oxford, the ODL now operates throughout much of southern England and Wales, whilst work in the USA and France has established its reputation abroad. Although primarily concerned with the dating and analysis of standing timber structures, the Laboratory has developed a technique of extracting miniature cores that has allowed its work to extend into the field of dating smaller, more delicate objects such as thin panelling and art-historical objects. For example, the technique has been applied to medieval chests from Magdalen College, Oxford, and the doors of Salisbury Cathedral and the Tower of London. The ODL publishes the results of its various investigations, first through the Ancient Monuments Laboratory at English Heritage, and later independently. This website presents much information regarding the ODL and dendrochronology in general. Comprehensive pages on sampling procedures and the interpretation of tree-ring dates provide useful technical background, whilst details of past and ongoing projects in both the UK and abroad are available (including the resulting dating information). Contact information and a set of related links are likewise provided. An updated register of dated buildings in England and Wales is available. The historical information and data on current projects as well as the details to initiate new studies make this website useful to both students and researchers.
The Oxford Materials Science-Based Archaeology Group is concerned with the investigation of all aspects of the metallurgical process, from smelting to metal finishing, and from the first use of alloys in the 5th/4th millennia BC to the Industrial Revolution. The website gives abstracts of current research projects, a full list of publications by the group and abstracts of some of the publications. There is an extensive archaeo-metallurgical bibliography. A 'Databases' section presents maps of iron-working in Great Britain for all periods, the Iron Age and the Roman period and various bibliographies relating to archaeo-metallurgy. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
The PalaeoWorks website focuses on pollen and spores in Oceania and has been published by the The Australia National University. The website contains information and news about the research activities of the group across the globe. The Indo-Pacific pollen database and the Australasian pollen and spore atlas are the most important resource and are available in PDF and Filemaker format files. Further data booklets are available for several individual sites. Many technical reports are also freely available in PDF format. Most of the reports are papers based on data from the databases. The website is a fundamental resource for archaeobotanists researching Australia and surrounding areas. The databases can be helpful to students too, as it can be difficult for students to access extensive compilations of raw data already prepared for use. Access to published papers from these (and other) database may also help students to understand what and how to read raw archaeobotanical data.
This website brings together the Netherlands scientific journal on vertebrate palaeontology, Egyptology and the archaeology of northwest Europe "PalArch". It publishes scholarly articles and reviews of books in the fields listed above. The articles are freely available and can be accessed through a list of abstracts. Some monographs or CD-ROMs, however, must be ordered. A newsletter is also published regularly, but only a few articles within this are freely available. It is possible to become a member of the foundation which publishes the journal for a modest fee or obtain access to all the contents by covering the costs of production and any shipping charges. Authors are invited to publish in the journal. This website may be useful especially to researchers of Egyptology, which is the journal's main focus.
South Dakota Palaeopathology is a website published by the University of Iowa focusing on human remains from the Crow Creek Massacre site and collections. The website contains approximately 400 colour pictures illustrating all the pathologies that have been recognised. Short articles describe the categories in which the diseases have been divided. The categories include: congenital and developmental diseases; degenerative processes; dental diseases; infectious and inflammatory diseases; metabolic and nutritional diseases; traumatic diseases; tumours. The website documents a specific event in history with some background information, but the data can be successfully used as educational tool by any introductory students in osteoarchaeology. The website succeeds in presenting a broad range of diseases, beyond the obvious ones that nonspecialists might expect to find recorded in bones. The texts have medical rigour in their commentary of pathologies. The study of diseases in bones is a specialist field within osteoarchaeology (palaeopathology) as more data can be extracted from bones and therefore the website should not be treated as a comprehensive introduction to osteoarchaeology.
This website accompanies the television braodcast of "The Perfect Corpse" on American television. It summarises some recent research on bog bodies (naturally mummified human bodies) in America and Europe. There is a transcript of the TV program and an essentail bibliography in addition to a few illustrated interactive reports (some "printable versions" are available) aimed at the general public and students. Undergraduate students may find this website useful. Readers are advised that some images of ancient human corpses may be disturbing. A Flash enabled browser is necessary as well as the ability to open pop-ups on this website.
A section of the website focuses on the 4th century BC "Tollund Man" and it includes an audio recording of Seamus Heaney's poem "The Tollund Man", which demonstrates how archaeological discoveries can influence contemporary culture.
This personal website written by Peter Brown at the University of New England, Australia, focuses on Australian and Asian palaeoanthropology, but includes educational and informative sections. There are index pages of Australian and south-east Asian discoveries; a presentation of the human body for students of palaeoanthropology; research resources including raw data and case studies; some papers available especially for postgraduate students; and a list of selected web links. A PDF document provides an introduction to the human skeleton and the index pages provide access to smaller pictures, whcih provide links to corresponding articles. Each article contains colour pictures, a short description of the findings and a bibliography. These articles will prove very useful to undergraduate students as case studies and scholarly papers are also available as large PDF files. Among the skeletons presented are those from Lake Mungo, of particular interest since the Lake Mungo 1 sepulture, dating from 17,000 years ago, is currently regarded as the oldest in Australia and possibly the earliest human cremation known in the world. In the research section, the 'querks' link opens an mp3 audio recording about the discovery of the small adults at Flores (proposed name: Homo floriensis). The page also makes available raw data, ready to be imported into software programs, which may be used by students to familiarise themselves with palaeoanthropological data and test statistical functions. However, these datasets are incomplete and unsuitable for researchers. Undergraduate students approaching palaeoanthropology for the first time will find this website most useful.
This is the official website of the Quaternary Environments Network (QEN), which publishes an atlas presenting colour palaeovegetation maps covering the entire globe during the last 130,000 years. The core of this research concentrates on the period from the Last Glacial Maximum (18,000 years ago) and the mid Holocene (5,000 years ago). This period saw the affirmation and survival of only one human species and the emergence of human culture and the earliest civilisations. The studies presented in this website are most important to determine the relationship between humans and the environment at a crucial moment for humankind. The maps covering the whole globe are divided into the following regions: Europe; Eurasia; Africa; Australasia; North America; and South America. The website also includes gridded maps and a GIS-compatible map (access may be charged). There are also some freely available articles and papers on: the production of palaeovegetation maps; the last Ice Age; radiocarbon dating and the need for calibration; and sudden climate transitions (climate change). There are a few hyperlinks to the official (now outdated) QEN project website and other resources. Both students and researchers in archaeology may find the site useful, especially considering the recent interest in climate change. Students approaching environmental archaeology will find some of the articles most helpful. An updated version of some pages may be found at http://web.archive.org/web/20050401092938/http://members.cox.net/quaternary/
Radiocarbon is an online academic journal dedicated to carbon 14 dating techniques in a number of fields, including archaeology (especially Palaeolithic archaeology), oceanography and geophysics. The full text of articles published in the journal between 1959 and 2004 are freely available. The website also provides links to introductory articles on radiocarbon dating which are to be found on other websites, and to the archives of the C14-L discussion forum. Later volumes are available after payment of a fee.
This website publishes the important "Radiocarbon Palaeolithic Database Europe" by the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) that includes a list of over 8,000 Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites across Europe (including Russia and therefore northern Asia). Each record in the database contains the name of the archaeological site; name and contact details of the person who has provided the information; geographical coordinates; the material cultures represented at the site. For many sites additional information is available, including 14C, AMS, TL, OSL, ESR and Th/U chronometric data; environmental (archaeobotanical and archaeozoological) data; and bibliographic references. The database is being developed and future versions will update the existing data and add new information. The database is in Microsoft Access 2002 format, freely accessible (free registration required) and unrestricted and therefore it is possible to use all the advanced features of any version of Microsoft Access version 2002 or above. Prepared reports with the available chronometric data can be printed immediately; personalised reports can be produced and all data can be exported to other programs such as GIS software. It is also possible to add, update or delete data from the personal copy of the database. It is also possible to download an empty copy of the database to produce similar databases for other regions. An additional file (KML format) permits to map all archaeological sites with Google Earth or NASA WorldWind using the provided geographical coordinates. Basic instructions on the available files and details to download the files are provided in the website. This database is an essential research and reference tool for all archaeologists interested in Palaeolithic Europe. It is highly recommended that all interested researchers and advanced students download a copy and contribute to its development.
Radiocarbon WEB-info is an educational website that provides information on radiocarbon dating (C14) techniques. The site is especially designed for undergraduate students of archaeology, but also contains a separate section for k-12 students. The website includes: historical notes; pre-treatment; main techniques applied in the research; corrections and calibration; publications; and Web links to projects and laboratories. The website is not a comprehensive guide of all techniques employed in radiocarbon dating, which vary from laboratory to laboratory. Further information on current techniques can be found in the websites of individual laboratories. The educational character of this resource is evident in the use of links to provide access to glossary entries and explanatory pages.
The Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art (RLAHA) is dedicated to the development and application of scientific methods to the study of the past. It is part of School of Archaeology at Oxford University. The RLAHA conducts research on scientific dating methods, palaeodiet and stable isotopes and archaeomaterials and also offers dating and analysis services. The website gives brief information about the various techniques employed and details of how to submit samples for analysis. The radiocarbon dating section offers the OxCal radiocarbon calibration software for free download and provides an online manual. Researchers in particular may find this website useful, largely for contact details and information on the analyses carried out at the lab.
In 2006 a conference was held at Manchester Museum on "Respect for ancient British Human remains". The web site associated with the conference has been maintained, as an archive for papers (downloadable as PDF files) presented at the conference, dealing with the ethical issues surrounding the excavation, examination, storage and display of human remains from archaeological sites in the UK. Issues discussed include dealing with bog bodies, remains held in museums, pagan views, and reburial.
This is the online Scottish Palaeoecological Archive Database (SPA database). The SPA Database was developed by the University of Edinburgh and Historic Scotland. The database "provides information on sites in Scotland where the natural archives of peat bogs, mires and lochs preserve evidence of past environments and environmental change." It concentrates upon sites where pollen evidence has been recovered. The database includes the following information: Location of all mire and lake sites where palynological investigations have been carried out; Location of all extant raised and intermediate mire sites known to Scottish Natural Heritage; Details of all publications reporting palaeoecological work on this locations; Information on the nature of the work carried out on each site; Information on modern landuse, landuse capability classification, designations as SSSI and possible development threats; Addresses and contact points for palaeoecologists and environmental archaeologists currently active in Scotland. The Data search is fairly easy to use, and may be searched for sites, publications or researchers.
This website outlines the ongoing Sealinks Project at the University of Oxford. The multidisciplinary research project focuses on the earliest Indian Ocean seafarers. The website contains information on the project; a list of publications (including a few available full-text in PDF format); fieldwork and postgraduate degree opportunities for students and the list of staff, students and volunteers involved in the project. Researchers and postgraduate students in particular may find this website useful.
This digital archive, hosted by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS), details the analyses undertaken on soils and sediments from a terraced slope at an Early Bronze Age site on the Aegean island of Amorgos. The analyses aimed to determine the nature and amount of erosion on the slope during the past 5,000 years, and assess the impact upon the formation of the surviving archaeological record. The Early Bronze Age site of Markiani on Amorgos, Greece, appeared to have undergone an initial phase of illuviation and colluviation with increasing leaching and oxidation over time, probably associated with the establishment and occupation of the Early Bronze Age site and agricultural/pastoral usage of the hillslope. The Early Bronze Age occupation may potentially have continued for 800 years, but subsequent evidence shows dis-use, collapse and silting-up of the settlement ruins.The digital archive is available for download in the form of three text documents (all in HTML format), accompanied by 18 images (in GIF format). The images present locational information regarding the site, section drawings from the excavations and photomicrographs of the various soil structures.
This website by a research group at the University of Pennsylvania publishes some datasets that will be useful primarily to specialist researchers. The datasets include skeletal data from the cemetery of Ban Chiang, an important ancient site in northern Thailand and a World Heritage Site; a bibliographic database. A metallurgical data should be added in the near future (not yet available at the time of review). The skeletal data include an updated version of the CD-ROM published with the book "Ban Chiang, a Prehistoric Village Site in Northeast Thailand I: The Human Skeletal Remains" by Michael Pietrusewsky and Michele Toomay Douglas (ISBN 0924171928) and data from Non Nok produced by Michele Toomay Douglas for her doctoral dissertation. All datasets are available in both Microsoft Access 2000 database and comma-delimited text formats and appropriate notes for the interpretation of the data are available on the download page. The osteological data include several measurements; cranial capacities; data on teeth and dental pathologies; pathological conditions and evidence of osteoarthritis. To access the bibliographic database it is necessary a registration for technical reasons, but it is very quick and no personal data are required. The database is frequently updated and includes journal articles; doctoral dissertations; edited books; monographs; and reviews focusing on the whole of Asia, including India; Thailand; Malaysia; Indonesia; China; Polynesia; Japan; and the Philippines; some papers can also be downloaded in PDF format. This is a very useful website for researchers interested in the archaeology of South-East Asia.
The 'Spatial and Chronological Patterns in the Neolithisation of Europe' resource consists of an online electronic spatial database of radiocarbon dates for the later Mesolithic and early Neolithic of Europe, roughly 9000-5000 BP. The resource's time frame covers the range from the later Mesolithic in southeast Europe to the earlier Neolithic in northern and northwest Europe and contains additional information on the contexts of the dates, the material dated and economic and cultural associations. The resource has been compiled from a number of European sources and contains information on around 2500 dates (from an original set of around 4000). Although the database itself is not downloadable from the ADS website, there is detailed documentation on the tables and fields that constitute the database. Considerable space is also dedicated to the project's aims and methodology together with a history of the project and the development of the database as well as an extensive bibliography. The site is easily navigable through the standard ADS interface and users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions prior to accessing the resource. The search interface is extensive and highly flexible and requires no client-side plug-ins in order to function.
The website for the Stone Age Institute, based in Bloomington, Indiana, presents the Institute's research into human origins and introduces its various activities. The Institute has carried our excavations of Palaeolithic sites where in: Gona, Ethiopia; Ain Hanech, Algeria; Transvaal, South Africa; and Nihewan Basin, China. Part of the website focuses on particular aspects of experimental archaeology, concentrating on the manufacture and use of lithic tools. Some of these experiments have involved the participation of Chimpanzees and other apes (Kanzi, the Bonobo). Other studies have involved traditional communities and brain imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). The website also contains news of recent palaeoanthropological discoveries, and a list of publications by staff members is available. This is an educational and informative website aimed primarily at the general public and students.
The Stone in Archaeology project was carried out by the Department of Archaeology, School of Humanities, University of Southampton and has now been deposited with the Archaeology Data Service (ADS). By doing so it has ensured that a unique multidisciplinary digital resource in the field of lithic archaeology has been created. The aim of the project was to build on the large pre-existing collection of archaeologically relevant comparative rock samples held at Southampton University. This was to be achieved by creating a searchable relational database of all archaeological stone known to have been exploited in Antiquity throughout the British Isles. This database is accessible both to beginners and those with geological experience and allows the identification of stone samples by searching on the distinctive physical properties of a stone. The database provides information regarding the use, quarry location/vicinity and distribution of the stone throughout various periods of history. The site is easy to navigate and the full database is accessible online via a standard ADS interface. Although there is no subscription charge, users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions before accessing the resource.
This is the personal page of professor Sturt W. Manning at Cornell University. The page summarises his academic career, but also includes an important article about his recent research on the "Thera (Santorini) volcanic eruption and the absolute chronology of the Aegean Bronze Age" that updates his book "A test of time: the volcano of Thera and the chronology and history of the Aegean and east Mediterranean in the mid second millennium BC". In his article he concluded that the Late Minoan I A eruption of Thera happened between 1627-1600 B.C. with 95.448dbc4robability based on the application of radiocarbon wiggle-matching to a carbon-14 sequence of tree-ring segments from an olive tree, which had been buried alive in life position by the tephra. A historical summary of the research, a short explanation of the most recent results and an updated bibliography are included. Two illustrated educational articles provide up to date information on the radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating techniques with essential bibliography are suitable learning materials for students. Manning is leading the research on Aegean Bronze Age absolute chronology using scientific techniques and therefore interested researchers may want to check this page regularly for updates.
The single-page website "Submerged Forest and Old Ship Remains in the Solent" addresses the work undertaken on the timbers discovered by Don Bullivant and John Barber near Hayling Island in the Solent, just off the south coast of England. The timbers appear to be shaped artificially, suggesting they were part of a boat or ship, but radiocarbon dating has proved inconclusive regarding their date. However, radiocarbon analyses undertaken on other wood found in the area have yielded dates around 6,300 BC - suggesting these timbers belong to a long-submerged forest (one of the several so far discovered in the Solent). References is provided. Students in particular may find this website useful.
SCIEM2000 is a major inter-disciplinary research project aiming to refine our understanding of the chronological relationships between Eastern Mediterranean cultures of the second millennium BC using a variety of archaeological, historical and scientific dating techniques. This website is currently being updated and only contains essential contact information.
This website focuses on the discovery of Tauteval Man, a Homo erectus skeleton discovered in the Arago cave in southern France. This find included the first complete front section of a Homo erectus skull. The website gives information on the discovery of the skull and other bones, and presents facial reconstructions. Other sections describe the environment at the time of Tauteval man and his technology. There are introductions to the various scientific methods used in dating and analysing the skeleton. There is also a brief description of the archaeological techniques employed at the site and the fate of artefacts and ecofacts from excavations. There are also contact details of the research team and an educational game. Both researchers and students may find this website useful.
The Tell Brak / Kilise Tepe archive is the result of an archaeological excavation focusing on the contextual analysis of the use of space at two Near Eastern Bronze Age sites. This archive represents the raw material of a project designed to collect and analyse data from two Near Eastern excavations, Tell Brak in north-eastern Syria, and Kilise Tepe in southern Turkey. The project was jointly initiated by Dr. R.J. Matthews and J.N. Postgate, and was funded by the Leverhulme Trust. The archive consists of introductions to the excavations at Tell Brak and Kilise Tepe; reports on archaeobotanical, zooarchaeological, micromorphological and ceramic analyses. The files composing the archive can be freely downloaded; they are in BMP; delimited text; plain text; MS Word; MS Excel; GIF; HTML; RTF formats. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
"Tephrabase" is an online database of tephra (the solid material produced during volcanic eruptions) layers found in Iceland, north-west and northern Europe, Russia and central Mexico. The database holds over 800 references on tephrochronology, volcanology and related topics such as palaeoenvironmental studies and currently concentrates on Iceland and Mexico. In the database you can find information about name, age and geochemistry of tephra layers as well as information about relevant volcanoes and volcanic systems. A comprehensive reference database is also included. The website provides very good information about how the database was designed and changes that have been made. This is not a archaeological website in a strict sense but can be useful for those who are doing palaeoenvironmental studies and on the research area tephrochronology plays an important part to help archaeologists date their finds.
Dr Henri Grissino-Mayer of the University of Tennessee has compiled a comprehensive online resource on all aspects of dendrochronology, aimed at a wide audience, from the general public to professional dendrochronologists. The website offers an introduction to the basic principles of the science, tips on the care and use of laboratory and field equipment, as well as a portal to related resources on the Internet, including tree-ring databases, software, suppliers of equipment, conferences and workshops, and bibliographies. An image gallery of trees and tree-rings refers mostly to North American trees. The site is indexed and can also be searched by keyword.
This website contains an educational collection of thin section images of bone microstructure, including samples from cattle; dogs; humans; pigs and other animals. There is a bibliography. Unfortunately the navigation of the website is not easy and requires visitors to go to the top level page or use the browser's back and forward buttons. Students in particular may find this website useful.
A comprehensive guide to web resources for dendrochronologists, including links, software available, bibliographic references, web-accessible databases, supplies and jobs. All links are annotated and arranged according to type of information provided. A section on 'principles of dendrochronology' written by the site owner is well illustrated, and a gallery of 54 photographs is presented with a question alongside the caption which can be utilised by teachers (answers are provided). A searchable index and alphabetical listing of pages together with a site map make this large site easily navigable. Developed originally at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, The University of Arizona, the site is now hosted by the University of Tennessee.
The Upper Tisza Project is an interdisciplinary Anglo-Hungarian landscape archaeology project, based in the University of Durham/Dept. of Archaeology and Eötvös Loránd University/Institute of Archaeological Science, Budapest. The project focuses on three principle aims: (1) the definition and explanation of changes in the palaeo-environment, together with changes in regional economic potential, over the last 10,000 years; (2) the definition of long-term changes in arenas of social power which are related to the exploitation of local and regional potential; (3) the clarification of upland-lowland relationships though definition of the mechanisms of exploitation of upland resources. This resource presents the results of the project in eBook format and, at present, Book One of the Upper Tisza Project, out of a projected Eight, is available. It contains the introduction to the project, the information pertaining to fieldwalking methods and the results and interpretations of one of the three fieldwalking blocks. The site is easily navigable through the standard ADS interface and users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions prior to accessing the resource. The eBook itself is stylistically different to the rest of the ADS website and is slightly more difficult to navigate, partly due to its use of frames. A non-framed version of the book is due to be implemented in the near future alongside the uploading of Book Two.
The Vela Spila website, produced in both English and Croatian, presents the results of almost thirty years of exploration of Vela Cave (Vela Spila), located near the western end of the island of Korcula, outside the town of Vela Luka. Fieldwork conducted by the Yugoslav Academy of Science, Institute of Archaeology began in the cave in 1974 and has continued on an almost yearly basis ever since. The cave has, however, a far longer history of study and was first described in 1835 by the local historian, collector and museum commissioner Nikola Ostoic. Around 200 square metres of the cave have been excavated since 1974 to an average depth of 4 metres and the cave bottom has yet to be reached. The Vela Spila website is professionally designed and easily usable. The vast bulk of the site consists of reports on the archaeology of the cave and this is organised into seven main periods from Upper Palaeolithic through to Early Bronze Age. The website is rich in images with a dedicated photo gallery with site images and QuickTime panoramas. Many of these images focus on artefacts, sorted by period, and include extensive ceramic images as well as others of lithic; bone; and shell objects. The website is logically set out by period and navigation is relatively easy. This website may be useful especially to students.
The Vernacular Architecture Group (VAG) dendrochronology database, hosted by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS), provides access to an index of tree-ring dates from over 1000 structures from around Great Britain and Ireland. The records held within the database are those published in "Vernacular Architecture", up to Volume 32 (2001). VAG was formed in 1952 to further the study of lesser traditional buildings through the study and recording of vernacular architecture, and today it numbers over 500 members. The database is searchable by several criteria via an online form. The criteria include felling date range, geographical information such as grid reference or county, chronological period, and the type of structure. These can be combined to broaden or narrow a search. In addition, the returned results can be ordered by date, location or structure type. Clicking on any returned result from a search will provide a further page detailing that specific location, whilst a short list of similar investigations at nearby sites also appears at the foot of these pages.
Excavations at Whistling Elk on the banks of the bank of the Missouri River in South Dakota revealed two prehistoric houses dating from the 14th century AD. The remains were under about a metre of alluvial deposits and were discovered because of erosion of the river bank. Otherwise there are no surface signs, other than occasional crop marks, of archaeological remains. This makes the site ideal for investigation using remote sensing methods and a combination of four geophysical survey methods were employed: electrical resistivity; electromagnetic conductivity; magnetic gradiometry; ground penetrating radar. The website describes the project and presents the results clearly and concisely. The website is very simply constructed - a table of contents links to each page and each page links back to the table of contents with a few cross references to other pages.
The World Data Center for Paleoclimatology website holds a section covering Tree-Ring Data. This section contains data for the user to download, search interfaces for online use and links to other useful websites. There are also sections on standards to be used in citing data contributors as well as data creation. The website uses a range of technologies, including a Java webmapper which allows the user to navigate around the world looking at the details or tree ring dates, site, collector, place, altitude, species and date. There is also an ArcIMS GIS interface which combines the tree-ring data with other data sets available to NOAA Palaeoclimatology. The website does not have a particularly attractive design but is full of useful data and links.
This archived website by the Italian National Research Council (CNR) publishes the complete proceedings of the 2001 international conference 'The World of Elephants' in PDF format. There are sections on the fossil record as well as zoological and environmental studies, which may be of interest to students and researchers in archaezoology and environmental archaeology. A large section focuses on the presence and relationship between early humans (hominids and hominines) and elephants (or mammoths) during the Palaeolithic in Europe, Africa, Japan, China, Taiwan, Russia and Mexico. A specialist section looks into the possible role of humans in the extinction of the ancient megalofauna and is entitled 'Megalofauna extinction with emphasis on elephants, mammoths and mastodonts'. Another section concentrates on artistic representations of elephants in antiquity. The sections entitled 'The use of proboscidean remains in every day Palaeolithic life' and 'Stone tools and elephant remains in the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic of the Iberian' may be of interest to archaeologists regardless of their specialisation. Finally, a small section (two papers) on ivory objects in the Italian Bronze Age presents a short overview across the Italian peninsula and concentrates on the settlement of Frattesina, which was part of the Aegean (Mycenaean) exchange network in the West Mediterranean.
'Zooarchaeology and taphonomy' provides an introduction to the different elements involved in the analysis of animal bones. The website consists of the two main sections of Zooarchaeology (the study of archaeological animal remains) and Taphonomy (the study of postmortem, pre-burial and post-burial processes and their impact on faunal remains). The zooarchaeological section of the site focuses on taxonomic and element identification as well as the determination of age and sex. Alternatively, the taphonomy section describes weathering and root etching, carnivore and rodent tooth marks, burned and calcined bones and butchery analysis amongst other taphonomic indicators. The site also includes a section on the processes and methodology involved in collecting, identifying and analysing faunal remains as well as sections on common zooarchaeology taxa, common calculations and a bibliography and links sections. There is also a large 'kid's section', entitled 'bones, stones or artefacts', which includes a number of activities and resources aimed at teaching children. The Zooarchaeology and taphonomy website is easy to use but suffers at certain points from dead links and an inconsistent or garish layout. The site provides a simple and concise introduction to the various elements of faunal analysis.