This website encourages exploration and understanding of and participation around the collection of Aberdeen Art Gallery and Museums (Aberdeen Art Gallery, Aberdeen Maritime Museum, Provost Skene's House and the Tolbooth). A selection of images have been digitized to represent the scope and depth of the collections and arranged in virtual tours, including some of relevance for art history, maritime history, the history of science and industry, archaeology and numismatics. There is also an online catalogue of this selection of objects from the collection of Aberdeen Art Gallery and Museums. It is possible to view these objects in various ways: single image with basic cataloguing information; 6 images with a simple caption of the object's title or name; or a list of objects without images. All the images can be enlarged to a full-screen size.
The 'Afghanistan: hidden treasures from the National Museum, Kabul' website was published to accompany an exhibition of the same title, held at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC from 25 May to 7 September, 2008, in association with the National Geographic Society and the Asian Art Museum, San Francisco. The exhibition explored the cultural significance of over 200 artefacts that were discovered in a vault under the Presidential Palace in Kabul in 2004, and which are now the property of the National Museum of Afghanistan. Drawn from four archaeological sites and "ranging in date from 2200 BC to AD 200, the objects present a rich mosaic of Afghanistan's cultural heritage." The website features an introductory video, maps with images and video clips of sculpture and jewellery, a timeline of treasures, and extensive related material from National Geographic. The timeline divides the objects by the following archaeological sites: Tepe Fullol (2200 BC-1900 BC); Balkh (600 BC-300 BC); Ai Khanum (300 BC-146 BC); Tillya Tepe (100 BC-1st century AD); and Begram (1 AD-200 AD).
Established to support the International Polar Year 2007-2008, this series AHRC of AHRC funded workshops and related research project aims to uncover the hitherto hidden histories of the IPY Field Stations. The project sees the international field station as a crucial and under researched ‘nexus’ in the organisation of science, which nevertheless has tended to become the focus of competing social and geopolitical tensions. With this perspective, the project aims to understand the impact of the ‘archipelago’ of international field stations on the surrounding territories and on the science produced, both from a cultural and historical perspective and as a way of furthering the aims and acceptance of future science. As well as abstracts of papers presented at the first workshop, the website includes biographies of researchers involved in the project and its relationship to the International Polar Year 2007-2008.
The Amphoras Project website hosts a substantial corpus of information on the typology, manufacture, use, and distribution of amphoras in both the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas. This is in addition to an extensive bibliography on the subject. Amphoras were large storage vessels used throughout the ancient world for long distance trade in oil, wine and other commodities in the Mediterranean region. The main part of the resource consists of a searchable database of amphora fragments from the Athenian Agora and Corinth based on the archive of the late Virginia Grace, who assembled an extensive index of amphora material from all over the Mediterranean. The database includes a wide-sample of vessel and fabrics types and an important corpus of amphora stamps which are valuable tools in dating fragmentary storage vessels. The searchable bibliographic database is equally extensive and encompasses information from Greece, Italy, North Africa and Egypt, the Black Sea and the Balkans. A complete bibliography of Virginia Grace's publications is also provided along with website links to other relevant resources on amphora studies. The website also includes the illustrated texts of numerous important articles on amphora studies, including translated texts of seminal works by Russian scholars otherwise inaccessible to non-Russian speakers. In addition, there is a selection of ancient Greek passages in translation referring to amphoras in the ancient world. While this website will largely be of interest to specialists working on ancient pottery and on trade and the ancient economy in general, it will also benefit the more ambitious undergraduate student or those writing dissertations on otherwise dispersed and inaccessible material.
The British Museum website has provided this online catalogue of objects from their collection, from the town of Enkomi to illustrate Ancient Cyprus. Currently over 1,700 objects are recorded in this first publication, with plans for further sections with objects from across the island of Cyprus to be added to this online resource. Reports on the tombs, post-Bronze Age occupation, 'Enkomi and Late Bronze Age Cyprus' and other find locations, are provided together a guide to the collection, edited by Thomas Kiely. Thumbnail images of all objects are provided and clicking on the image provides more detailed information for individual objects. There is also a search facility. Maps of Cyprus and its archaeological sites are also available as well as a bibliography and further reading.
The Ancient Greek World Web presentation is a virtual exhibition created by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. It deals with aspects of ancient Greek history and society from the sub-Mycenaean period to the Hellenistic period (c. 1100-31 BC). A section entitled 'Land and Time' gives a chronological overview of the history of the periods which are covered. Other sections cover the following broad topics: daily life; religion and death; and the economy. Each section is divided into several sub-sections and is illustrated using images of ancient Greek art (vase paintings, sculpture and coins); accompanying text provides important details about these artefacts. The site is well presented, and the images which are used to depict important aspects of ancient Greek life would be very useful particularly for those studying or presenting a variety of classical courses, who require easy access to the primary sources.
Arachne is a collection of digital photographs of Roman and Greek antiquities with associated metadata; a simple and free registration is required to access it. Most photographs carry a watermark and are B&W, but they should be fine for use in teaching and research. Three major collections have been prepared: the Ara Pacis; Trajan's Column; and reliefs from sarcophagi. In addition to these collections, thousands of photographs can be searched and browsed with simplicity, these include photographs of artefacts in museums; pictures and drawings of architectural structures; painted ceramics; maps; aerial pictures; and reproductions of the Classical style (e.g. Neoclassical architecture). This website contains photographs of archaeological sites from all over the Mediterranean Region. This is a large and expanding collection of photographs and is recommended for use in teaching for its quality and sheer number.
The project benefits of support from Berliner Museen; Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (DAI); and Winckelmann-Edition Stendal.
The Archaeological Leather Group brings together archaeologists, textile specialists and conservators to study leather artefacts. Their web site provides information about the Group and its work, including updates on conferences, publications and meetings. There is an extensive bibliography for those wishing to carry out research on this subject, and a link to practical guidance provided by the document "Guidelines for the care of waterlogged archaeological leather" which the Group published in partnership with English Heritage in 1995 (available as a free PDF download from the English Heritage web site).
This is the website of the Archaeological Museum of Bologna. The museum, inaugurated in 1881, is home to several noteworthy collections of Villanovan, Etruscan, Greek and Roman artefacts from areas surrounding Bologna. The catalogue of the museum can be accessed from the Italian version; it contains multiple images of selected artefacts (mostly Classical ceramics and coins) along with their description. In particular, the museum's Numismatic collection provides access to a sizeable number of images depicting the obverse and reverse sides of coins and medals originating from various periods. The rest of the website - available in both Italian and English - offers simple descriptions of the museum's thematic sections and is aimed at the general public. Additionally, the website offers news on current and forthcoming events at the museum.
Archaeology and the Native Peoples of Tennessee is an educational website published by the Frank H. McClung Museum, University of Tennessee. There are two main sections, one with some historical photographs of archaeological research in Tennessee between 1934 and 1942 and a timeline of ancient Tennessee. The latter section has pages focusing on the main periods detected in the archaeological records and plenty of colour pictures. The website summarises the main evidence available to archaeologists on Native Americans in Tennessee since 12,000 years ago (Palaeoindian period). The history of Tennessee is narrated through a selection of artefacts individually presented and allows readers to familiarise with the archaeological evidence. This website may be useful to students up to undergraduate level; schoolteachers may also use this website after introducing the Native Americans and archaeology.
The website "Beyond the Walls of York : the Road to Hull" is the second excavation report in The Archaeology of York Web Series by the York Archaeological Trust. It presents the work carried out at the site of the former D.C. Cook car showrooms in Lawrence Street, York. Roman ditches were identified and excavated, revealing features of the medieval period including a large boundary ditch, a barrel-lined well and an oven. Archaeologists have found some pottery dating to the Anglian (8th/9th century) period. Investigation of plant and invertebrate remains gave a very rare view of rural conditions on the eastern edge of York. It is possible to access most of the contents by clicking on the site plan and selecting the individual areas that have been excavated. The relevant extracts of the report and records from the database will then open in new windows. A discussion of the finds and an extensive bibliography are also available. This website uses SVG graphics and contains several maps and colour pictures. Students as well as researchers should find this website useful.
The Arkeotek Journal is a peer reviewed, full text online journal focusing on material culture. The journal prioritise articles on the pre- and proto-history of Europe. All articles are available in both English and French with supporting data and bibliography; a PDF version of the articles is planned. At the time of review only a few articles were published, and these concentrated on interpreting archaeological data using theoretical frameworks (e.g. symbolic values of Pressignian daggers; Social inequality in the Upper Palaeolithic; etc.). The journal was launched in January 2008 ans is published by The European Association for the Archaeology of Techniques (Association européenne d’archéologie des techniques).
These Web pages contain photographs of archaeological remains (architectural features and sculpture) from Athens and the surrounding region of Attica. The following sites are featured: the Akropolis (Acropolis); the agora; the Kerameikos; the Pnyx; the Olympieion; the region of Attica; Sounion; and Thorikos. Each has its own section of the website where the user may access images of buildings (in their present state), sculptures and some inscriptions. Brief descriptions are provided for each photograph, along with relevant bibliography. The photographs are clear, and the site is easy to navigate; this is therefore a useful visual resource for archaeologists and classicists.
This website describes four Arts and Humanities Research Council funded workshops which aimed to address the current challenges faced by Samian (a type of pottery produced in the Roman Empire in the 3rd century BCE) research in the UK as well as provide a snapshot of the state of current research into Samian pottery. The hope is that the workshops will lay the foundations for a new generation of Samian specialists as well as establishing new standards of documentation and curation. Each of the workshops is described (although at the time of review, the most recent had yet to be updated beyond the simple programme), with certain presentations available to download, and the ensuing discussions précised.
The University of Oxford Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology website contains museum information, gallery plans, scheduled events and exhibitions, museum news, publications information, pages for individual departments and collections, as well as contact information. As well as digitised highlights from the museum's collections, there are details about past, present and forthcoming exhibitions, both temporary and permanent. A small number of images illustrate the descriptions. There is a link to the Object of the Month, as well as virtual exhibitions. A section provides free access to out-of-print publications, including books on pre-Roman Italy, Cyprus and Scythian artefacts in the museum. The collections of antiquities in the museum include products from the Palaeolithic to Victorian periods; from Egypt and the Middle East to Europe and Britain. The Roman and Greek Classical collections comprise several casts from sculptures. The Museum receives some core funding from the AHRC.
This is the official website of the Bead Study Trust, which publishes "The Bead Study Trust Newsletter" [ISSN 1463-9602] and the catalogue of the Beck Collection of beads held in the University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge, England. The trust is an important association that promotes the study of ancient beads and this website provides information on its publications and contact details. A sample table of scientific analyses carried out on glass beads shows the difference in the chemical composition of beads from Pella; Tell Brak; Tell el Amarna and Minoan Crete and other beads from Europe. Researchers in particular may wish to contact the association.
The Beazley Archive is a research unit of the University of Oxford's Faculty of Literae Humaniores; this is its website. The original archive of Sir John Beazley (1885-1970) included about 250,000 photographs, notes, drawings and books relating to ancient Greek and Roman art. In 1979 information technology (IT) projects began with the Pottery Database of Athenian figure-decorated vases of the 7th-4th centuries BC. Since 1992 IT projects on other aspects of classical art have been created. This website displays information about the Archive, including publications and bibliographies, and gives access to the IT projects and databases. These include: gems; pottery; sculpture; and the dictionary. For example: Pottery - The Beazley Archive text database records information about Athenian figure-decorated vases illustrated in publications available to the Ashmolean Library. Begun in 1979, it now has over 67,000 entries, with fourteen fields, including bibliographical references, find-place, shape and iconographical terms. In 1992 the Archive began to participate in a European Union project (RAMA) linking the collections of seven museums across Europe via the Internet. This project enabled the Beazley Archive to begin digitising its photographs and drawings. These include a vast collection of images of classical sites. An enhanced version of the original database is now available via the website (users may search for images according to location). The Dictionary feature of the resource is an excellent alphabetical guide to classical sites and terminology (including references to places, technical terms, buildings, people, gods and other figures from myth); each explanatory entry is accompanied by relevant images from the archive's collection. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement Scheme.
One of the finest and most diverse collections in Athens, and also the oldest in Greece, it is no surprise to find that the Benaki Museum's website is exemplary in form and content. It offers all the necessary information for the prospective visitor, including QuickTime movies of many of the galleries, details of past, present and future collections, and overviews of the collections. A journey through the museum passes through Ancient Greece and the Roman period, the Byzantine period, the Frankish and Ottoman occupations, to the struggle for independence in the nineteenth century and the establishment of the Greek state thereafter. Each section is represented by a selection of choice artefacts, the illustrations of which can be enlarged. The Museum also holds important collections of historic heirlooms, over 6000 paintings and drawings by Greek artists and those who visited or were inspired by the country, as well as Coptic, Chinese (largely the gifts of George Eumorphopoulos) and Islamic art and a collection of Toys and Games from Greece and the wider world. There is admirable attention to the history of the museum, with special features on the founder, Antonis Benakis, and other significant donors, as well as the building itself (the Benakis' residence in Athens) and plans for the division of the collection (the Islamic collection, the Department of Historical Archives, and the collection of Toys and Games) and their prospective homes. The Museum's Archive collection is particularly important, and there are separate pages for the Historical (much relating to the Greek War of Independence and the later rise of Eleftherios Venizelos), Neo-Hellenic Architecture and Photography archives. The last has further links to pages devoted to James Robertson, Nelly's, Voula Papaioannou and Dimitris Harissiadis, all of which are well illustrated. All three archives are responsible for publications, details of which are listed.
The research section of the British Museum website has provided this online version of their publication no.166 entitled ‘The Berthier-Delagarde Collection of Crimean Jewellery in the British Museum and Related Material’ by Júlia Andrási, published in 2008. The content of this publication has been provided as PDF files. The contents and preliminaries are a 40-page document, followed by an 82-page catalogue, with the colour plates and appendices in separate PDF files. A geographical background of the Crimea, summary of the ethnic history of the Crimea, and a history of the collection in the Ukraine, as well as a commentary on select items and groups in the collection has been provided by Aleksander Aibabin, together with a scientific report by Susan La Niece and MIchael Cowell on ‘Crimean metalwork: analysis and technical examination’. A 10-page bibliography accompanies this publication.
Blombos Cave is an important Middle and Late Stone Age site in South Africa, discovered in 1991 by the author of this website, Chris Henshilwood, who is also excavating it. The website publishes a series of illustrated articles on the discovery and excavation of the cave (click on pictures to enlarge them); a gallery of pictures; and an updated and extensive bibliography with several publications freely available in PDF format. There are three main phases of occupation of the cave in the Pleistocene, and more recent evidence of occupation during the Holocene. Phase M1 (Middle Pleistocene) is characterised by "high densities of bifacial points"; bone tools (one engraved); perforated shell beads (Nassarius kraussianus); and ochre. In the 75,000 year old levels archaeologists have found two engraved ochre plaques with a criss-cross pattern, which has been interpreted as some of the earliest evidence of art. A section also contains recent press releases. It is possible to make a donation or buy pictures. This website may be useful to both researchers and students.
This is the website for the Bowes Museum, situated in County Durham. Opened in 1892, the museum has public galleries on three floors containing a number of collections, including European fine and decorative arts, paintings, costume, ceramics and musical instruments. The website contains a comprehensive database for all of the collections, plus details of the museum's events and education programmes. The archaeology collection comprises over 360 items excavated or collected in Co. Durham including cup and ring marked stones, a Bronze Age hoard and graffiti and other objects from the Roman fort at Binchester. This resource provides a useful corpus of artefacts for those interested in the archaeology of Co. Durham. An informative virtual tour contains numerous full colour photographs.
Explore Highlights is an online database of exhibits from the collections of the British Museum. The site describes thousands of objects, sorted under headings of 'culture,' 'people,' 'place,' and 'material,' all of which are described in some detail and accompanied by good quality images. Descriptions of artifacts from across the world are designed for the general public rather than archaeologists, and technical terms are explained. Each description does however conclude with suggested further reading that may be of use to a more scholarly browser. The website also offers virtual tours, and an excellent search engine. The presentation of the site is impeccable, and, although it is targeted toward the general public rather than an academic audience, the site will doubtless be of interest to the scholar wishing to find what exhibits the British Museum holds in specific fields.
The British Museum is one of the great treasure houses of objects from the Middle East, whose collection ranges in date from the Neolithic period to the present. The excellent official website provides an attractively designed guided tour of the highlights of the Middle Eastern galleries, an outline of the history of the collection, a guide to recent and current research conducted by department staff, news of forthcoming lectures, study days and conferences and an extensive page of weblinks to sites of archaeological interest. The website provides a fascinating history of the Middle Eastern collections which, begining with Sir William Hamilton in the 18th century, have been added to by a galaxy of colourful antiquarians and archaeologists such as Claudius Rich of the East India Company, A.H. Layard, William Loftus, Hormuzd Rassan, T.E. Lawrence, Leonard Woolley, E.A. Budge and Kathleen Kenyon. More recent research is represented by brief notes on British Museum sponsored excavations in various locations around the region. The galleries can be browsed virtually with the help of enlargeable thumbnail photographs while the collection itself can be searched in a variety of ways using Compass. This fully hypertexted database of the entire British Museum collection provides concise descriptions and cultural contexts of individual objects accompanied by good quality photographs. This resource is an excellent example of web publishing and will profit a very wide range in individuals interested in the Middle East including school children and their teachers, the general public, undergraduates and researchers in archaeology and ancient history and museum professionals.
This website contains a selection of the free online ‘Occasional Papers’ published by the British Museum. At the time of writing, these (the result of specific research into the museum’s collections) were varied in range and included: ‘A researcher's guide to the Lachish collection in the British Museum’ covering the 17,000 objects from the 1930s British excavations at Lachish in Israel; ‘Sir Aurel Stein, proceedings of the British Museum study day’ a useful reference for the study of the “scholar, explorer, author”; ‘Albrecht Dürer and his Legacy ‘, the result of a conference accompanying the landmark 2002 exhibition of the same name; ‘Cleaning and Controversy: The Parthenon Sculptures 1811-1939’ a study of the controversial 1930s cleaning of the Elgin marbles, and the historical context of this; ‘Development and evaluation of the HSBC Money Gallery at the British Museum’ a narration the creation of a new and important gallery at the museum, and a study of its impact; ‘Access to Museum Culture: the British Museum from 1753 to 1836’ a study of the early access arrangements to the museum’s collections. Each of these PDF documents is broken down by chapter for ease of reference and speed of download.
This website brings together material at the British Museum of interest to researchers. Of particular note are the details of individual research projects, which include a vast range of subjects in the fields of archaeology, art history, anthropology, world cultures and museology. Additionally, the website makes available a limited number of fulltext research publications as well as bibliographic details of all the museums publications, including the fulltext online journal British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan. The pages also include a link to the Museum’s online collections database of its two dimensional pictorial art holdings, and details of the Museum's own archives and Paul Hamlyn reference library.
The British School at Rome (BSR) is a centre for research on the archaeology, history and culture of Italy, and for contemporary art and architecture. It is one of a large group of national academies in Rome. This website includes information about: residential awards for researchers and artists; a programme of exhibitions in contemporary art; a programme of lectures and conferences on the humanities; a specialist research library; a publications programme; and a virtual tour of the School. Also included are pages relating to archaeology fieldwork projects, including excavations at Forum Novum (villa, church and amphitheatre) since 1997 directed by the Birmingham University Field Archaeology Unit, the British Museum and the British School at Rome, and carried out in collaboration with the Soprintendenza Archeologica del Lazio. This project aims to complement other urban studies being carried out as part of the Tiber Valley project, in particular to the study of the larger scales of urban form currently being carried out by the University of Southampton. Interdisciplinary research projects also detailed here include: the Pompeii Project (an archaeological and multimedia investigation of a small section of the extinct city, known as Insula 9, which includes a virtual tour of Insula I.9 on this website); the Tiber Valley Project (an integrated project examining the hinterland-city relationship in central Italy); and the Roman Ports Project, which traces at the development of Portus, the port of imperial Rome.
This is the website for the School of African and Oriental Studies’ Brunei Gallery. The gallery hosts a programme of changing exhibitions reflecting the subjects and regions studied at the school, which are archived here. The building also houses the AHRC-funded Foyle Special Collections Gallery, a recently opened display space for the School’s rich but largely unknown collections of manuscripts, books, paintings, prints, ceramics, textiles, and archaeological artefacts from across Africa and Asia, and a selection of highlights are reproduced here. A further attraction is a Japanese-style roof garden and the website includes a brief illustrated history of the garden.
The splendid Celtic Art and Cultures website was originally designed as a teaching aid for an art history course taught at the University of North Carolina. This attractively illustrated resource provides a rich visual introduction to many aspects of the Celtic world from 800 BC to 1000 AD, and will complement conventional printed study materials. The database of images can be searched by period, country, object type, and material, while a hypertext vocabulary provides illustrated explanations of key terms. In addition, there are maps and timelines, plus interpretative essays on Celtic design, Hallstatt burials, Celtic high crosses and Irish monasteries. Bibliographic references and links to other Celtic websites are also included. Much of the archaeological and historical background information on the Celts themselves is provided in the form of a virtual exhibition, created by UNC students who took the original course. The site will be of particular benefit to undergraduates, but also to teachers at a variety of levels.
The Celtic Inscribed Stones Project (CISP) is an AHRB-funded project based at University College London. The aim of the project is to study medieval Celtic inscriptions (Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Brittany, the Isle of Man, and parts of western England) in the period approximately 400-1100 CE. One objective is the creation of a database of all known inscriptions. The first version of the database is available online. The database contains records for each documented stone. Records include information about the site (description and references), stone, and inscription. Information provided about any given stone includes: history of discovery; dimensions, setting and location; form and condition; crosses and decorations; and folklore. Information provided about the inscription includes: readings (with references); date, incision, language (with linguistic notes); notes on palaeography and legibility; and references discussing names on the stone. The database can be browsed by an alphabetical index, site location, common name, and CISP code.
The Ceramic Petrology website is a collection of archaeological techniques that are employed to determine the provenance of pots and other ceramic objects. The website is a portal aimed at students beginning the study of these techniques. Mainstream techniques are: thin-sectioning; firing analyses; chemical analyses; electron microprobing; acid dissolution; neutron activation analyses; thermoluminescence; inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS); remanent magnetic suspectibility; X-ray analyses (including XRF and XRD); scanning electron microscopy (SEM); isotope techniques. New techniques and variants of those mentioned are also being developed, and of course, the scientific techniques constitute only part of what ceramic petrology is. The approach of this website is to maintain an annotated bibliography of all topics concerning ceramic petrology and present a collection of pictures taken with the microscope. Although spartan, this is perhaps the best way to present the discipline as a whole. Students will be able to learn more about individual techniques, without any real bias. Readers are free to explore all techniques and choose which they prefer, albeit such choice will probably depend more on the instruments they have access to rather than on personal preferences. Some fundamentals of ceramic petrology are also given in this informal introduction. For example, readers are warned that chemical data are useful only after petrological and mineralogical studies have determined the compositions of ceramics. The microphotographs refer to American ceramics, but are commented upon individually, so that they are an excellent didactic tool. A few hyperlinks point to academic departments, laboratories and online publications on the subject.
This is a website detailing the collection of coins from the ancient Greek city of Ephesus in the Museum of Ancient Cultures in Macquarie University; it is presented as a study aid for students of ancient history and related subjects but also for the interest of the general public. Ephesus was famous throughout classical antiquity for its great temple of Artemis, which no doubt contributed to the prosperity of the city, but the site is also important for producing the earliest finds of coinage in the ancient world and from the 6th century BC was producing distinctive issues recognisible by the use of the deer and the bee as symbols of the polis. The website consists of a series of 10 illustrated chapters outlining the history, iconography and cultural and religious symbolism of the coinage of Ephesus. There are also chapters on women from the ruling class in Ephesus, the relationship between the city and its neighbours (and ultimately with the expanding Roman republic), and on the temple and cult of Ephesian Artemis, together with a succinct bibliography. Finally, there is also an interactive gallery of the coins themselves. The result is a fascinating social, economic and political history as reflected in its monetary issues.
The Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture (CASSS) aims to detailed, authoritative survey of English pre-Conquest sculpture. The website is currently limited in its functionality, although there is still a link to the previous website, which has more information available. On the old website, currently there is a list of publications and information about the project and staff. CASSS is in the process of producing regional catalogues of carved stones, with full bibliographic references and scaled photographs. The catalogues are of interest to historians, archaeologists, art historians, place-name specialists and local historians. On the old website, the project is in the process of producing regional catalogues of carved stones, with full bibliographic references and scaled photographs. The catalogues are of interest to historians, archaeologists, art historians, place-name specialists and local historians. Photographs can be provided, the project welcomes comments from the public, and it is possible to register to receive further information about publications.The website provides information on the project, Corpus publications for individual counties, the digital grammar of Anglo-Saxon ornament, links to related websites, and a link to the CASSS database. There is a list of regional volumes already published, those in preparation and forthcoming publications. The digital grammar of Anglo-Saxon ornament includes sections on: classification of forms and shapes of monuments; dating methods; epigraphy; techniques of carving; classification of ornament; and a bibliography. The CASSS database features information from Volume IV (South-East England), as a sample of what will become available in the future. The images of sculptures appear with information about the website, location, discussion, dates, description, measurements and evidence for discovery. The project has received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Resource Enhancement scheme.
The Early Medieval Corpus of Coin Finds (EMC) is a project to gather together into a single database all of the single finds of coins minted 410-1180 found in the British Isles. There are several thousand such coins, mostly Anglo-Saxon and Norman, but with a smattering of Frankish, Byzantine, even Arabic, and hundreds more are found every year. The EMC is the first attempt to collect all of the coins from the whole period (many of them previously unpublished) and present them in an easily accessible and searchable form. It is based at the Department of Coins and Medals, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. You can search the EMC for any combination of: date ranges; kingdom; ruler; type; mint where struck; moneyer; county where found; findspot (nearest large settlement); location; provenance; amongst other options. This greatly enhances the effectiveness of searching. There are also numerous options for the search results, (for example whether to include images or how many line of text included per coin). The search results can be organised as a list, also with a map of findspots, and a histogram. Aside from a detailed description of provenance, many coins are also accompanied by a high-resolution image. The database is updated with new finds on a regular basis. The site also includes an introduction to the dataset and an article on the importance of single finds (as opposed to coin hoards) in the study of coinage.
This specialist resource is an online edition of Dr Nicolle Hirschfeld's 1996 book The PASP database for the uses of scripts on Cyprus (Minos Supplement 13) which aims in the long-term to provide a comprehensive account of all the ancient inscriptions and glyphs from Cyprus, whether on stone, clay or metal and coin. The people of the island of Cyprus employed a variety of writing systems to record their spoken languages in the Bronze and Iron Ages, including the syllabic Cypro-Minoan and Cypro-Classical scripts as well as alphabetic Greek and Phoenician letters. The current database includes Cypro-Minoan writings from the Late Bronze Age circa 1700-1000 BCE which record an undeciphered language (or languages) and the closely related Cypro-Classical script of the succeeding Iron Age which lasted down to the 3rd century BC when it was displaced by the Greek alphabet. Cypro-Classical was used to record both the local Greek dialect and an undeciphered tongue called Eteo-Cypriot. Phoenician and Roman inscriptions will be added in future editions of the database, in addition to the inscriptions in cuneiform, Egyptian and Ugaritic which have also been found in the island. The database is searchable by inscription number, object type, geographical context, nature and material and is prefaced by various instructions on how to use the data. This resource will benefit researchers in the ancient writings and scripts of the Mediterranean world, particularly those interested in the transmission of the alphabet to the Greek world and the interaction of cultures in the region in the Bronze and Iron Age, as well as more general students of Cypriot and Near Eastern archaeology.
The Davistown Museum website, includes a few sections of relevance for experimental archaeology, American history and the archaeology of North America. The website provides background information about both the Center and the tools contained in the museum’s collections. Clicking on "Tools" it is possible to access section "An Archaeology of Tools", which contains several articles on tools (including historic maritime tools) in PDF format; a series of useful publications on collections held by the museum, also available in PDF format; and extensive bibliographies on a variety of subjects (including "European Precedents and the Early Industrial Revolution", "Metallurgy", "The Industrial Revolution in America", "US and New England Toolmakers" and others). A small section focuses on the art collections of the museum, largely centred on American artists. Section "History" groups a series of volumes from the museum publications and adds some additional essays. It presents an industrial history of Maine and New England, starting from proto-historic Pemaquid, that may be a useful introduction to the subjects for students at undergraduate and lower level; the comprehensive bibliographies may be useful to a wider audience. Section "Native Americans" is also a series of volumes and chapters from the museum publications with added essays and bibliographies. The section contains an history of Native Americans in New England; chronologies; an interesting essay on "Pathways and Canoe Routes of Native Americans" and other essays on Native Americans trails; a list of Native American artefacts held by the museum (mostly stone tools) and bibliographies. The list of artefacts is in PDF format with hyperlinks to the pictures; this may cause problems with restrictive security settings in the PDF reader. There is an educational section and educational materials are available in several sections of the website: school teachers may use some of them. The website clearly attempts to adapt to the digital format and expand a series of volumes designed for printing; most of the contents of this website is textual, and this is good. Readers should note that the sections only group some of the available printed volumes; clicking on "Site Index" it is possible to access the contents of all volumes with links to their digital versions. This website may be useful to broad audience principally interested on American archaeology and history.
The home page of the Dendrochronology working group in Hamburg, Germany, a section of Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products. The site gives some basic information on dendrochronology and various offshoots such as dendroecology and dendroclimatology. There is an extensive bibliography in section "Literatur". A few research projects in Germany are presented in section "Arbeitsgebiete". There are a number of links to other websites concerned with dendrochronology.
The DigMaster website presents the artefactual evidence (specifically figurines) from two separately excavated Persian sites (Tell Halif and Maresha) together with those from the Pierides Foundation Museum in Larnaca, Cyprus. The site provides an easy to use figurine database interface with a wealth of images and VR media. The DigMaster website is simply set out and very intuitive. There are pages describing the geography and environment, the excavation, survey and ethnography of the sites, as well as a summary of the stratographic settings of the figurines. A simple visual browse structure enables the users to view the figurines arranged by type. There is also contact information for the site's authors, and links to related projects. This is an excellent example of the way in which electronic publication of fieldwork results can move way beyond the limitations of traditional 'hard copy' publication. A new website, DigMasterII, is expanding this website.
This website provides access to a report by the Research Information Network (RIN), 'Discovering physical objects: meeting researchers' needs'. Published in October 2008, the report investigated how researchers in four different disciplines (archaeology, art history, earth sciences, and social and economic history) found out about, and gained access to, collections of objects that were relevant to their research in museums and other organisations. It also looked at how the organisations were helping the researchers in their search. The report discovered that, while researchers wanted online access to finding aids, to enable them to plan their visits to museums and collections, they seem unaware of the online catalogues that currently exist or are being developed. It also found that researchers viewed contact with curatorial staff as being of critical importance, and suggested that there would be "great scope for developing collaboration between museums, galleries and the research community, which would bring benefits to both [researchers and curatorial staff]". Following discussions with researchers and curators, the report made a number of recommendations. The report is available to download as a PDF file.
This website describes an AHRC-funded project exploring the application of 3D colour laser scanning and e-Science technologies to museum objects. The aims are fairly broad: on one hand to examine the ways in which these can record an artefact’s surface detail and colour quality; on another to examine the uses and potential of these datasets, in particular the sharing of the data to facilitate broader museological goals, such as the safe loan of museum collections. The website contains a fuller explanation of the technologies used, and a description of the software developed by the project.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Egyptian antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on Egypt and Egyptology and several pages on individual objects from the collections of the museum (about 200 in April 2006). There is a map and a timeline. An extensive and updated bibliography of publications in French is available. The presentations of individual objects are recommended to anybody with even a passing interest for Egyptology. Most objects have artistic value and are described and interpreted in detail; several pictures are also available for each of them allowing to see all sides of objects. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long).
A site as wonderful in its detail as it is frustrating in its navigation, Egyptian Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom is a website providing information about and diagrams of major Egyptian burial sites constructed between the 16th and 11th centuries B.C. (Dynasties XVIII-XX). With extensive descriptions, Kelley Ross (of Los Angeles Valley College) takes us through the tombs and various chambers of pyramids and the Valley of the Kings, highlighting their major features and offering brief inventories of their contents, along with scholarly theories from some of the more recent secondary sources. The majority of material is directed towards an undergraduate or general interest user who is specifically interested in the physical construction and setting of Egyptian funerary rituals, both of whom will appreciate the number of diagrams and their level of detail.
This is the website of The Michael C. Carlos Museum at Emory University, Georgia, which holds the largest collection of ancient art in the American South East from the earliest prehistoric period to Roman domination. This resource features a modest sample corpus of Egyptian, Nubian, and Near Eastern objects in this collection, providing brief catalogue details and photographs of items ranging in date from 2300 BC and the 5th and 6th Pharaonic dynasties to the 8th century BC. The museum has been collecting objects from North Africa and the Middle East since the early part of the 20th century and has benefited from its associations with figures such as Emory Professor William Shelton, who participated in the American Scientific Mission, Kathleen Kenyon at Jericho, and Edwin Link at Caesarea Maritima. This resource, which provides links to other parts of the museum website including several virtual exhibitions as well as to other websites containing further information on the Ancient Middle East, will interest the general public, as well as provide information on a variety of Near Eastern artefacts for school children and their teachers.
The Eternal Egypt project is an online database of Egyptian historical and cultural resources, and is available in English, French and Arabic. In partnership with the Egyptian Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage and the Supreme Council of Antiquities and with the financial and technical backing of IBM, the resource features the following: high resolution images of key artefacts; panoramic webcam views of live sites of historical importance in Egypt; and reconstructions of lost or damaged sites. The library section provides a series of essays on key aspects of ancient Egyptian civilisation, accompanied by a useful glossary, while an interactive map of the country provides a selection of objects, with commentary, from the most important archaeological sites. There is also a detailed timeline. The resource can be browsed by topic, artefact, character or location. Topics covered include: arts and crafts; science; agriculture; commerce; culture and society; and government. A QuickTime plugin is necessary to view some of the features of the site. Eternal Egypt was winner of Museums and the Web 2005 Best of the Web: Best Innovative or Experimental Application.
EuroPreArt aims to establish a data-base of European prehistoric art and to launch a European institutional network devoted to this domain, and to contribute to the awareness of the diversity and richness of European Prehistoric Art, as one of the 'oldest artistic expression of Humankind'. The website, which is intended to be open-ended and accommodate new entries over time, at present consists of over 800 examples of European engraved or painted rocks from 7 participating European countries, namely, namely, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. These records, mostly in English but also in Spanish or Portuguese, are accessible in various ways : country by country (either in list form or as an interactive map) or with the help of a search engine. Each entry provides a detailed description of the engraving, together with information on its geographic and environmental context, chronology, symbolism and state of conservation together with photographs and tracings of the images and accompanying bibliographic references. The entire bibliographic database of almost 3000 entries is presented alphabetically but can also be searched by keyword and author. There is also a slide show of rock art arranged according to country which provides an attractive visual overview of the range the entire subject. An extensive feedback system allows the reader to contact the many individuals and groups who have contributed to this resource, which will interest a wide constituency of amateurs and academics alike.
This website describes the AHRC-funded work being undertaken to make the University of Nottingham’s Felix Oswald Samian Collection more accessible to scholars. The collection was established by pioneering Roman pottery researcher Felix Oswald and is based on excavations at Margidunum (Nottinghamshire) and acquisitions from French antiquarian Albert-Edward Plicque. The project aims to increase visibility of the project through digitisation (based on rubbings to ensure accuracy) and a full re-analysis of the collection. This re-analysis will identify “each specimen-form, fabric, decoration and stamp and full quantification” and link potters’ stamps and signatures to the Leeds Index of Potters stamps. The project will also use suitable sherds to create an online fabric series. One of the most important outcomes of the project will be a fully searchable online database, and a demonstrator is available here.
The "Finds Research Group AD 700-1700" website provides an introduction to this group which is a forum for people interested in or researching artefacts of the Anglo-Saxon, Viking, medieval and post-medieval periods. The website includes details of forthcoming conferences and meetings, a list of datasheets produced by the forum which communicate the results of ongoing work, membership details and short list of links. One datasheet (Prick Spurs 700-1700 by Blanche M.A. Ellis) is available as an example in PDF format. Membership forms are available on line for printing out (in html format). Details of committee members are also presented. The short list of links includes other finds societies and groups, museums and governmental bodies related to archaeology.
The web pages of The Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI) offers what is likely the most comprehensive collection of images, photographs and reproductions from Mesoamerican sites and artefacts available on the Internet. In an easy to use format, material is divided up into a series of major sections: The Linda Schele Drawings contains a catalogue of detailed drawings of glyphs and architectural features made by Linda Schele during her lifetime with accompanying descriptions and notations. Justin Kerr's "Maya Vase Database & Precolumbian Portfolio" brings together some of the most beautiful and rich photographs from the region using sophisticated photographing techniques to turn three-dimensional vessels into two-dimensional images. All of the image databases are accompanied by extensive documentation and complimented by excellent search utilities that aid the retrieval of photographs and reproductions. The results of research done in Mesoamerica financial backed by the foundation arm of FAMSI is disseminated through their website and include reports on a variety of archaeological and cultural features. They have also established the "Bibliografia Mesoamerica" which currently contains over 50,000 searchable bibliographic references. There are individual sections on the ancient American writings and several maps. While directed at the advanced student or scholar, the array of material contained within this site makes it an essential resource for anyone undertaking advanced research on Mesoamerican culture.
The Global Egyptian Museum is an excellent resource for both students and teachers to learn about the Egyptian material culture. The website is a multimedia gallery of images presenting to the reader Egyptian artefacts conserved in museums outside Egypt. The repository already lists over 1,000 artefacts, and for several additional images; audio commentaries; and videos are available. All materials can be browsed or searched through the simple interface; for each artefact there is at least a colour picture and a concise description with bibliography. The multimedia features available for several records help learning about ancient Egypt through its material culture, and there are good chances that some materials found on the website can be seen in a museum near the reader. Researchers will also find the website useful because it allows to compare materials scattered across the world with ease using multimedia technologies that are better suited for this scope than printed publications. Indeed, the website is part of a project to catalogue all Egyptian artefacts outside Egypt as the plundering of the past ages has produced incoherent collections of Egyptian materials all over the world.
Published to accompany an exhibition on the second golden age of Byzantine art (843-1261) held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, from March 11 to July 6, 1997, this website includes examples of art from the first golden age of Byzantine art (324-730) and the later period ending with the Turkish conquest in 1453. The online exhibition includes various pieces of art (busts, caskets and medallions), which range from the time of Constantine (AD 324) to 1453. There is also a brief history of Byzantium, which is divided into the early (324-730 CE), middle (843-1261 CE) and late (1261-1453 CE) periods. The website consists of: enlargeable images of the works of art; a section on the themes in Byzantine art; a history of Byzantium; and a glossary. In addition, there is a 'teacher resources' section designed to introduce schoolchildren to Byzantine works of art, providing several examples which serve as starting points for discussions. Useful elements include a timeline of important dates and an extensive glossary. A brief description accompanies each image, and the pictures can be enlarged for a more detailed view. The images are clear and well-photographed, but the collection of images is only small (numbering only 15 items).
'A Great Assemblage: An Exhibit of Judaica', which is hosted by Yale University Library, takes the form of an online museum and brings together the highlights of the university's many collections related to Judaica. Contributions are here from the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library; the Judaica Collection of the Sterling Memorial Library; Yale's Babylonian Collection; Yale's Map Collection; Yale's Manuscripts and Archives; and Yale's Art and Architecture Library. It enables visitors to view manucripts, rare books and prints in Hebrew and Yiddish, as well as artefacts ranging from Babylonian times to the 1930s. Each image can be enlarged and is accompanied by a brief description. This site contains remarkable images of Babylonian art, 16th-18th-century Jewish marriage contracts, early 20th-century religious prints from Palestine, and more.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Greek and Roman antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on the Greek, Etruscan, Roman and Byzantine civilisations as well as several pages on individual objects from the collections of the museum (about 250 at the time of review). There is a map and a timeline. The presentations of individual objects are highly recommended as many are masterpieces of art. Most objects have artistic value and are described and interpreted in detail. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long).
'The Historical and Archeological Association of Mauriac and its Area' is the English language website of the 'Comité d'Histoire et d'Archéologie de Mauriac et sa Région'; a local historical society in the Cantal department of the Auvergne, France. This resource provides a concise and attractively presented guide to the archaeology and history of the region around Mauriac from the Upper Palaeolithic (ca. 35,000 BP) to the 18th century A.D. with impressive visual elements and interactive maps and architectural plans. The website describes the principle archaeological monuments of the area period by period and includes a detailed timeline and gazetteers of sites from each historical phase mentioned in the text. The mediaeval section is particularly impressive with dioramas, virtual reality images and interactive architectural plans of the Monastery of St. Pierre and of the Basilica of Notre-Dame des Miracles. In addition, all of the illustrations in the main text are available as thumb-nail images which can be browsed in a separate frame.The translation is generally good but the resource can also be read in a more fluent French version. The layout and level of detail presented here will interest the general public or school students and their teachers who will enjoy and benefit from the interactive nature of the resource. Undergraduates may also find it useful.
The website 'history of Bengal' is a large site containing articles, information about books and a collection of photographs all relating to archaeological digs and sites in Bengal. In particular it focuses on two sites: Chandraketugarh and Khana-Mihirer Dhipi, which both date back over two thousand years. The website is not terribly easy to navigate, as it is presented in a linear fashion with few quick links to the many different sections it contains, some of which are quite hidden. Certainly, from the front page, the user has little hint at the range of information that is available. There are a large number of articles about the archaeological sites here, and a great number of photographs both of the sites themselves and of artefacts recovered from them. This is an interesting site which will be of use to scholars of ancient India.
The House of Ptolemy is a resource guide, intended as a study aid and to provide bibliographical material for students of Greco-Roman Egypt. The main focus of the site, as its name suggests, is the period of the Ptolemaic kings (331 BCE - 30 BCE), descendants of Macedonian Greeks. There are also compendious sections on Roman, Byzantine and modern Egypt. Within these periods, links are arranged by theme into sets and subsets, in a fashion that is generally clear and efficient. Topics covered include: historical overviews; Ptolemaic numismatics; Ptolemaic genealogy and king lists; the transition to Roman provincial Egypt; the city of Alexandria; the culture of Ptolemaic Egypt; the Ptolemaic empire outside Egypt; the Jews of Egypt. Most of the links are presented with a comment from the site's author: this is a personal list, not a faculty or institutional webpage. The selection of items is therefore prone to subjectivity and its completeness cannot be guaranteed; furthermore, material of widely varying intellectual depth, rigour, and specialisation is included among the links. At the time of writing this review, the site was last updated in 2002 - this meant that some of the links were no longer functional. Nonetheless, there is a wealth of material here, well organised; the numerous awards garnered by the page indicate its worth. This site is a useful starting point for students.
One of the gravest threats facing archaeological heritage in the modern world is the illegal excavation, export and sale of cultural material. This excellent resource is the website of the Illicit Antiquities Research Centre (IARC) based at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research of the University of Cambridge, which aims to combat the problem by raising awareness of the issue and highlighting the underlying political, economic and social causes of the problem. The website provides a free online version of the IARC journal "Culture without Context" from 1997 to the present, featuring illustrated articles, book reviews, news and editorial comments. In addition is a substantial bibliography of books and journal articles (many online) relating to the theft of cultural heritage together with a list of weblinks to organisations and publications with aims similar to the IARC. The texts of the 1970 and 1995 UNESCO conventions on cultural property are provided in English, French, German, Spanish and Italian as well as a virtual version of "Stealing History", a travelling display designed to highlight the problem of the looting of antiquities to the general public. This is a very important resource with the widest potential audience ranging from the interested general public, undergraduate and graduate students and their teachers, those working in the heritage management and museum sector.
The 'Institute for Environmental History' claims to be... "the only one of its kind in Western Europe", and is located at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. The Institute has worked closely as part of the AHRC Centre for Environmental History (2002-2006), and the Institute website has a description of this project, its members, and there is a list of selected academic papers - three of which are available as free full-text PDF files. There are also links to the Institute's 'Timeline of Waste', and an Institute weblog related to the... "history of waste management and the social and cultural representations of waste". The Institute also hosts the Scottish Coastal Archaeological and Paleoecological Trust, and the Shorewatch public archeology project. The Institute website also has a details of staff, and the courses it offers.
This is the website of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. Founded in 1965, the Museum has quickly established an excellent reputation. Information is provided about the main collections, of which perhaps the most important is the Shrine of the Book, which holds the Dead Sea Scrolls. These Essene manuscripts date from the third century BC to the first century AD, and the museum's website provides an informative and well-presented introduction, outlining their historical context and importance. A select bibliography and related links are provided. Details are also given of the other wings, devoted to world art, Judaica and Jewish Ethnography, and archaeology, plus the art garden and the youth wing. Each contains descriptions and images of objects from the collection. There are details of events, lectures and publications, as well as exhibitions past present and future. The website is well presented, and provides all the information a prospective visitor might require about the museum and its resources. One of the highlights among the online exhibitions is a Virtual Tour at the Model of Jerusalem in the Late Second Temple Period. The Museum's website is an excellent example of the productive use of the World Wide Web in offering an accessible and informative introduction to a cultural institution of international importance.
This is the website of The Laboratory for Ceramic Research, which is mainly involved in archaeological research. This activity serves archaeological science by providing laboratory investigations of ceramic artefacts. The website has summaries of current projects being undertaken by the laboratory covering prehistoric and medieval pottery. A page describes the techniques used to analyse ceramics. There is also a list of publications by members of the laboratory staff. Researchers may find this website useful.
This website publishes the conferences organised at the University of Montpellier III by the Paléoassociation, which focuses on archaeological sites from the Palaeolithic period to the Bronze Age and cave art. For each conference it is possible to listen to the lecture by using a Real Audio player and all pictures that were projected as part of the lecture are normally accessible on a separate page; for several lectures an abstract and bibliography is also available, in some cases a complete bibliography of the site can be downloaded in PDF format. In the past lectures these are some of the sites discussed: the Palaeolithic caves of Mayenne-Sciences (France), Mezmaiskaya (Russia), Conques (France), Hortus (France), Arbreda (Spain), Castel 2 (France), and Ramandils (France); the Palaeolithic archaeological sites of Zhoukoudian (China), Fressignes (France), Moula (France, Ardèche), the Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain), Romani (Spain); the Neolithic sites on the "Horn of Africa", Plussulien (France), Doline de Roucadour (France), Cap Manuel (Senegal), Balma de la Margineda (Andorra), Fontbrégoua cave (France), Capoulière (France); and the Chalcolithic (Copper Age) site of Rocher du Causse. This website can be very useful to researchers, but requires the Internet Explorer browser and a fair knowledge of spoken French to listen to the lectures.
This website describes the excavations at the open-air Mesolithic site of Siebenlinden, located on the outskirts of the town of Rottenburg, Germany. The excavations were conducted by the State Office for Historical Monuments of Baden-Wurttemberg between 1990 and 1995 and were reopened in 2001. A large amount of lithic evidence was recovered, mainly in the form of triangular microliths although scrapers, burins and truncations were also common. Several hearths were observed (some of which were possibly situated within habitation structures), while a wide range of faunal and botanical evidence was recovered implying that no specialised, species-based economy was in operation. The website presents details on all of the findings from the excavation, and also provides an image gallery.
The Munich Archaeometry Group employ a range of scientific methods in the study of archaeological ceramics. The group is made up of a small number of archaeologists, physicists, chemists, geologists and soil scientists who study ceramics from the Andes and from Celtic and Roman Europe. They make use of neutron activation analysis, thin section microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy to gain detailed physical and chemical descriptions of pottery. The website contains abstracts of research projects that the group has undertaken. A few illustrated papers outline some of the technologies. There is an extensive list of publications by members of the group. A section publishes information on forthcoming events. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
This is the official website of the Guimet Museum of Asian art, Paris. The website contains short texts about the history of museum, galleries of photographs about its collections (Afghanistan and Pakistan; Himalaya; Central Asia; China; Korea; India; and Japan); a series of illustrated articles on temporary exhibitions (most are available in the French version only) among which is the lavishly illustrated text on "Afghanistan, les trésors retrouvés" (Afghanistan, rediscovered treasures); a splendid virtual tour of the whole museum using QuickTime panoramas (available in low and high resolution); and other sections for the general public or visitors of the museum. The many pictures may be useful to illustrate presentations or essays. In section "about the museum" are some articles on archaeological research carried out by members of the museum, including the "Indus and Mehrgarh" mission, which has explored Mehrgarh (traces of successive settlements from the aceramic Neolithic period dated between the end of the 8th and the beginning of the 7th millennium BC to 2600 BC, before the beginning of the Indus civilisation); Nausharo (settlement that yielded evidence of the stylistic development of Harappan ceramics); and Pirak (settlement dated at the end of the Indus civilisation, between 1900 and 1800 BC, where the appearance of miniatures of horsemen, horses and two-humped camels, animals previously absent from the archaeological record, suggest significant changes in the society; iron appears from 1200 BC). The article about the French Mongolian mission reports the discovery of two main categories of tombs: "large tombs set on a north-south axis, complete with a funerary walkway ending in a square terrace enclosed by low, dry stone walls; and small tombs, generally circular, surrounded by a ring of flat stones marking the circumference". There are also pictures showing the work done by dentists in 9000 BC Baluchistan. Section "behind the scenes" publishes short illustrated articles about the conservation of artefacts such as a 6th century AD stone funerary couch from China.
The website of the Museum of Cycladic Art contains useful information on all collections and activities at the museum, and is aimed primarily at the general public. The website is very neat and easy to navigate, and contains sections on the "museum" with practical information and an online version of a DVD presenting the museum ("virtual tour"). Section "permanent collections" is the most interesting, especially for undergraduate students. It includes artefacts from the Cycladic Collection and Collections of Ancient Greek Art and Ancient Cypriot Art, pictured and described in some detail. The selection of Cycladic artefacts follows an educational criterion, for example several figurines out of the very few in existence with traces of paint have been included. Figurines are one of the key topics, and this evident also in section "special topics", where there are also diagrams ordering the know types. There are also sections on Greek art and Cypriot antiquities (the latter focusing on trade), also with selected artefacts presented in greater detail. For each of the three sections there is a ”Special topics” area. These are thematic essays on various issues (including a large number of texts on Ancient Greek Art). Bibliographies are given in some pages, concentrating on publications of the museum (a section on these is also available). "Donators" (sic) is an interesting section on the donors that from the start gathered the collections of the museum. It may interest anybody who is interested in the sometimes difficult relationship between collectors and public museums. Section "education" is also noteworthy, and is aimed at schoolchildren. It includes a "resources" area, which provides online virtual tours to all the collections and museum publications, available as PDF files. Section "activities" outlines the research carried out by staff or promoted by the museum, and some occasional lectures and seminars organised by the museum may interest researchers. The "exhibitions" section provides information about current and upcoming exhibitions, as well as all previous exhibitions - whether art or archaeological exhibitions - presented at the MCA. There are many colour illustrations, maps and diagrams throughout the website, making this website an excellent educational tool up to undergraduate level.
This is the interesting and colourful website of the Natuurhistorisch Museum Maastricht, one of the largest natural history museums in the Netherlands. The website won "Best Innovative or Experimental Application" in the Museums and the Web 2002 : best of the Web awards (judged by a panel of museum professionals to recognize excellence in heritage website design). The numerous and stunning animations (requiring Flash) provide a context for the museum's collection relating to the geology, palaeontology, flora and fauna of southern Limburg and environs.
NESPOS is a scientific collaboration platform for research on Neanderthals and associated culture which is accessible to members only. A membership form is available on the website, there are several categories of membership and all require paying a fee. This website provides members with data about archaeological sites; CT-scans, 3D-models; images of Neanderthal fossils and artefacts; 3D maps; a communication area reserved to participants. Members also have the possibility to use the advanced software for 2D and 3D visualisation of artefacts and topographic maps. Members can create their own "space". All private data can be shared with all or selected members and therefore research groups can be formed. Members can also link any useful data to the personal space, where any private data is stored. 3D maps can be produced using separate software that is available to members and must be installed on individual computers. Some papers can be downloaded and an updated bibliographical database is being created. These tools are invaluable for several types of research projects and are adequate for both individual and collaborative research.
A public webpage outlines the main sites, where Neanderthals have been found; these archaeological sites are also the main source of the data recorded in NESPOS. Among the archaeological sites are: Balve; Bockstein; Buhlen; Gröbern; Hunas; Königsaue; Krapina; Lehringen; Neanderthal; Neumark; Ochtendung; Ranis; Rheindahlen; Salzgitter-Lebenstedt; Sarstedt; Sesselfels; Spy; Vogelherd; and Warendorf.
This is the official Web page of the galleries of Near Eastern antiquities at the Louvre Museum. There are introductory pages on the collection as well as several pages on individual objects (about 200 at the time of review); there is a map and a timeline. Anatolia, Persia, Mesopotamia and the Levant are all represented in the objects analysed in detail. Several tablets and inscriptions of famous texts, such as the Code of Hammurabi, are also presented in some detail, though translations are only partial. Pictures can be enlarged and it is possible to click on "documentation" to reveal a small bibliography, which is provided for each object. Some data appear by hovering with the mouse on various parts of the pages and it is possible to print or email these pages with ease thanks to some tools. For those wishing to visit the museum, apart from practical details, it is possible to have information about new additions to the collections and about objects loaned to exhibitions (which objects, where they are and for how long). An attractive introduction to the Near Eastern collection of one of the world's great museums which will interest the general public and school children as well as university level students of archaeology and ancient history.
The official website of the Niigata Prefectural Museum of History in Japan concentrates on the Jomon culture and the history of the Niigata region. A few simple texts with colour pictures introduce some of the arguments. The Research Activities section contains the profiles of the researchers working at the museum, and there are some scientific papers or short articles by Mark Hall (Sarmatian gold, glass and pottery; obsidian in Hokkaido; Jomon pottery) and Toru Miyao (Jomon pottery). In the Publications section it is possible to access English abstracts of papers published in the Bulletin of the Niigata Prefectural Museum of History, and to access some interesting pages written on the occasion of the special exhibit 'Jomonesque Japan'. These provide only an introduction to Jomon culture, and hence are suitable for students. A few archived archaeological news items from the region, and some general information on the museum and its exhibitions are available. Although this website is incomplete and at times confusing, students may find enough information and pictures to complete an assignment on the Jomon culture of Japan. Researchers may find some of the papers on Sarmatian and Jomon material culture useful.
This website displays and discusses rock art found in caves in Nilgiri, separate pages also give details of megalithic burial sites at Thatakurlipatti and Kalampaliyam. The caves, at Akkathangachimoruvar and Wananga Pazham, also contained pottery, which dates their use to approximately 500 BCE. The website shows examples of the rock art from both sites, and there is also a video available of the cave at Wananga Pazham. Individual examples of the art are discussed in some detail. The grave sites are similarly treated, with photographs of the sites themselves as well as of some of the pottery and other artefacts discovered there. A few more images would be nice, as the website only holds a few, while the video shows that there are a large number of paintings that could have been included.
The Normans, three centuries of achievement, 911 - 1204, is a website created by the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge University, to accompany an exhibition of the same name held in 2004 which followed fortunes of the Normans in England, Sicily and Southern Italy. The website and exhibition were based on Dr William Conte's collection of Norman coins, which is in the Fitzwilliam's holdings. The site covers the following main areas: Scandinavian Homelands and Settlements Overseas; The Normans in Sicily and Southern Italy; The Norman Conquest; The Anarchy of the Reign of Stephen and Hoards and Site Finds. These sections trace the origins of the Normans and their rise and fall, including: the reigns of Robert Guiscard and Roger I in Sicily; William the Conqueror in Normandy and England and the conflict between Stephen and Matilda. The events of the period are described through the lens of the history of coinage. The exhibition is likely to be of use to those with an interest in numismatic history, as well as those looking for an overview of the Normans themselves. Each section is divided into sub-sections that include images of the coins, with brief descriptions setting them in their historical context. The site also includes maps illustrating the scope of Norman rule in Europe. Good quality large images of the coins, without the contextualising descriptions, can be viewed in the site's Gallery. The site includes a small selection of links for Norman history, and a link to the online version of Dr William Conte's collection. The site is informative and easy to use.
The "Novum Inventorium Sepulchrale: Kentish Anglo-Saxon Graves and Grave Goods in the Sonia Hawkes Archive" website publishes a database of Anglo-Saxon materials from the Sonia Hawkes Archive. The database is searchable and contains several illustrations. A few articles and a list of archaeological sites from where the materials have been unearthed complement the website. Both students and researchers may find this website useful.The project has been funded by the AHRC and the German Archaeological Institute.
The website of Durham University's Oriental Museum provides access information and details of the museum's holdings. The museum holds collections from ancient Egypt through to twentieth-century China. The website includes pages on Egypt, the Near East, South Asia, Korea and Southeast Asia, Tibet, China, and Japan. Most of these pages simply give brief details of the scope and format of the holdings, although the website does also include special online exhibitions. There is a 'virtual tour' of some of the Chinese artefacts, each of which is illustrated by a large photographic image and accompanying explanatory text. There is also a small picture gallery of twentieth-century Chinese paintings and drawings. A 'news' section describes current and forthcoming special exhibitions as well as talks, crafts activities, and story-telling performances at the museum. Details of the museum's location, opening hours, and group access restrictions are also provided.
This resource is the home page of the international Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature, based at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. The main aim of this site is to inform the reader on the Center's research and teaching programmes, its bibliographic resources and the state of its scholarship. Apart from programme outlines and calendars of papers and publications, this page provides an excellent and frequently updated bibliography on the Dead Sea Scrolls, including works in more than ten languages. A separate list of suggested introductory reading is provided in the beginner's guide to the Scrolls. The site also offers a 'tour' of one of the caves at Qumran, complete with aerial photographs and pictures and descriptions of some of the manuscript finds. Finally, it provides details of a discussion list (g-Megillot), and has a page with links to related sites.
This website details the archaeological research conducted in the Sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia (Ancient Korinth or Corinth, Greece) by Ohio State University. Isthmia was one of the four great Panhellenic sanctuaries, active from the Archaic period through the end of Antiquity, with a rich period of medieval use as well. This website details this work, and information can be found about: the site, including the sanctuary of Poseidon and the Roman bath; preliminary reports since 1992; the fieldwork carried out by The Ohio state University since 1987; related projects including Dokos and Agios Vasilios; bibliography and other resources; and news. This website has been identified as a model site by the staff of Archaeology magazine, an official publication of the Archaeological Institute of America.
The Oxford Materials Science-Based Archaeology Group is concerned with the investigation of all aspects of the metallurgical process, from smelting to metal finishing, and from the first use of alloys in the 5th/4th millennia BC to the Industrial Revolution. The website gives abstracts of current research projects, a full list of publications by the group and abstracts of some of the publications. There is an extensive archaeo-metallurgical bibliography. A 'Databases' section presents maps of iron-working in Great Britain for all periods, the Iron Age and the Roman period and various bibliographies relating to archaeo-metallurgy. Researchers in particular may find this website useful.
Palaeontologia Electronica, published biannually since 1998, is the first exclusively electronic journal devoted to palaeontology. Its attractive and innovative layout is designed to appeal to a wide constituency from professional palaeontologists and research students to school teachers and the general public. While it publishes technical academic papers, it also offers a range of summaries, letters, news items and reviews (of technical books, popular works and items of interest to children and teenagers) which will appeal to anyone with an interest in fossils. One important feature of this online journal is the inclusion of abstracts not only in French, German, Italian and Spanish but also in a 'plain English' version for non-specialists and, in some cases, an audio summary. Each issue also features a selection of online teaching resources which will be of use to teachers of all didactic levels. These sections, which features themes such include as climate change, dating, dinosaurs, palaeoenvironments, and the relationship between evolution and the philosophy of science, have been validated by the editors as scientifically accurate though the reader will have to judge for themselves the value of the didactic presentations of individual weblinks. The website is hosted by a series of worldwide archives; it is necessary to choose one.
The carved frieze from the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is the most famous, and controversial, collection of sculpture to survive from the classical Greek world. This clearly written and attractively illustrated resource, available in Greek and English, brings together all the surviving fragments of the frieze, presently housed in the British Museum, the Louvre and the Acropolis Museum, in a digital format. The site provides a concise and fascinating introduction to many aspects of the Parthenon and its sculpted decoration, including a history of the frieze and the building itself since its execution by Athenian statesman Pericles between 447 and 438 BC. The reader is given an outline of the religious significance of the Parthenon and the Panathenaic festival for the Athenian people as well as a discussion of the various interpretations of the temple iconography. The frieze itself is presented stone by stone with a commentary on each fragment, including reproductions of drawings by Carrey (1674) and Stuart (1757) which preserve details no longer visible on the surviving sculptures. Usefully, the sculpture from each of the four sides of the temple is presented initially as a series of continuous thumbnail images which allows the iconographic scheme to be viewed as a whole as well as detail by detail. This excellent website, produced by the Acropolis Restoration Service and published by the National Documentation Service (EKT), is intended by the authors to appeal to a wide-ranging audience from the general public to university level academics.
The Perseus Project is a large digital library of online texts and images for the study of ancient Greece and Rome. The resources available via Perseus are extensive, including the following: primary texts (in the original ancient Greek and Latin languages as well as English translation); secondary texts relating to various aspects of the ancient world; a set of linguistic tools; and a number of large databases relating to the study of ancient archaeological sites and artefacts. The art and archaeology section of the website offers a searchable collection of art objects, sites and buildings, with descriptions and images drawn from museums worldwide. It includes architecture, sculpture, coins and vases, and provides access to supporting tools such as atlases and encyclopaedias. The study of the classical world via Perseus is further enhanced by: an interactive atlas; an extensive encyclopaedia with embedded cross-references; and a series of overview articles. The site also offers several further collections of primary and secondary texts: papyri (from the Ptolematic and Roman periods); English Renaissance texts (including all of Marlowe's works, a facsimile of the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays and other resources); London (atlas from 1780 to the present, texts about London, photographs and other materials); books on California and the Upper Midwest from the Library of Congress American Memory Collection; and documents on the history of Tufts University. Mirror sites are available in Berlin and Chicago.
This is the website of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology in London. The museum, which is attached to the Institute of Archaeology at University College London, houses one of the largest collections of Egyptian and Sudanese antiquities in the world, from clothing, tools and containers to religious equipment, animal remains, and writing tools. This attractively presented resource provides a major online corpus of material for studying and teaching the archaeology of Egypt and surrounding regions, in addition to providing practical information for visitors to the museum itself. The core of the website is a searchable database of over 80,000 objects and 92,000 images from the museum collection. The collection can be searched by object type, provenance, material and period and researchers can create their own personalised selection of artefacts for future study by registering (for free) with the website. Equally impressive is the linked Digital Egypt for Universities project, a virtual teaching and learning resource for ancient Egypt which provides a useful thematic introduction to Egyptian archaeology with many maps, virtual reality images of buildings, photographs of artefacts, and an A-Z of many aspects of ancient Egyptian society. Other educational resources, a site gazetteer, and an extensive bibliography are also provided. This site is a major contribution to the online study of ancient Egypt and will benefit a wide range of individuals, from the interested general public to undergraduates and their teachers, as well as to those interested in virtual museums and online publishing in archaeology. The Petrie Museum has recieved funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council.
This is the blog of the Plug Street Project - an archaeological project in Belgium. The project is based around excavations on the First World War Battlefield in the area around the village of Ploegsteert, in Wallonia (Comines-Warneton and Messines). The project builds on investigations in the UK, and this online resource consists of blog postings from team members about the fieldwork - a sort of dig diary with reports and photographs from the excavations. Reports also include press stories and excavation notes about the site of the Battle of Messines (1917) as well as wider issues to do with the material culture of the war, drawing together themes from social and landscape contexts. Finds are tracked from their discovery and recording, through their conservation and their analysis. These have included the remains of at least one soldier (an Australian). The project directors are two archaeologists from the UK Ministry of Defence but the project is actually led by No Man's Land - The European Group for Great War Archaeology and the Comines-Warneton Historical Society. Other academic departments involved include the Universities of Bradford, Cranfield (Shrivenham), Bristol, Cambridge, Northumbria, Birmingham and London Metroploitan, as well as Ghent in Belgium.
Based on the life's work and surviving archive of renowned Oxford epigrapher Lilian ('Anne') Jeffery (1915-1986), this online resource provides a major database and scholarly tool for the study of early Greek writing and literacy from circa 800-500 BC. Published by the University of Oxford's Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents (CSAD), the website provides information on thousands of inscriptions and their archaeological context as well as a biography of Jeffery by David Lewis reproduced from the Proceedings of the British Academy. The inscriptions can be searched by publication sequence, script types, letter form, site context, object type, region and sub region, and date range. Each entry is given an individual data sheet which includes detailed information about the inscriptions, as well as images, transcriptions and translations. There is also a series of maps showing the distribution of the inscriptions. Jeffery's book 'The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece' (first published in 1961) remains a seminal text for early Greek epigraphy but her archive contains a far larger collection of drawings, notes and supplementary material not included in the original publication or in the revised second edition edited by Alan Johnston in 1990. The archival material provided here is of considerable interest in expanding and elucidating the original publication.
This is the website of the Portable Antiquities Scheme, which promotes and coordinates the voluntary recording of chance archaeological finds in England and Wales and is based at the British Museum in London. A database of finds can be searched by find type, find location and period which returns a list of matching records with brief descriptions and a link to a metadata record for the find. There are also photographs of many items. The Finds section includes detailed information on Celtic, Roman and medieval coins, and there is a useful selection of factsheets on conservation of artefacts. There is an online newsletter reporting on significant finds. A code of practice for responsible metal detecting is available as a PDF document. The annual report of the Portable Antiquities Scheme is published on the website. A summary or full-text version of the 1996 Treasure Act can be read online.
This website introduces PotWeb - a project aimed at creating an online catalogue of the ceramics collections at the Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. The website has sections on collectors, vessel forms, the manufacture and the use of pottery. Although the website is expected to include a database of the collections, at the time of review it contained only educational resources on pottery for undergraduate students and the general public.
The Oxyrhynchus Papyri Project is putting online the corpus of ancient papyri excavated from Oxyrhynchus (Al-Bashnasa in Egypt) by Bernard Grenfell and Arthur Hunt since the late nineteenth century. The Project has an online table of contents for volumes 1, 2, 7, and 11-72 of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri. The user may search by keyword, author, date, title, genre or papyrus ID, and is then presented with images of the relevant papyrus and a reference to the volume of POxy in which it has been published. Images are available as either 150 dpi or 300 dpi resolution. Each papyrus record includes location information, editorial details, and notes. The Project's website also includes an introduction to Oxyrhynchus and the excavations; details of how the papyri were digitized; as well as articles on papyrology, and information about the Project's work in imaging and classifying the papyri; features on individual papyri; and the text of media reports relating to the collection. This extensive database is an excellent resource for students and researchers of papyrology.
The aim of the Geniza Project of the Department of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University is to develop better methodologies for Hebrew and Arabic scholars working with the so-called 'Geniza fragments', which are documents found in the Geniza chamber of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo in the late 19th century. This project ultimately intends to create a full-text database of transcriptions of the documents and to offer a dictionary and morphological tools to facilitate the study of the Geniza texts. The site's target audience is the scholar interested in Middle Eastern archaeology, history and religious developments. This resource requires Hebrew fonts. The site has its own search engine.
This website focuses on the Cypriote site of Pyrgos Mavoraki, which is being excavated by a team of Italian archaeologists led by Maria Rosaria Belgiorno. Pyrgos Mavoraki dates to the Early and Middle Bronze Age and has appeared in the news for its metallurgical workshops, where olive oil was used as fuel; an established industry of perfumed oil seems also proven. A page illustrated with large colour pictures outlines the history of the excavations and contains contact details of the excavator. There are also some notes on the palaeoenvironment and results of radiocarbon analyses. Individual pages concentrate on the different productive activities that have been recognised in the archaeological record: metallurgy (with full downloadable posters containing short texts, pictures and graphs); perfumes; textiles (short paper illustrated with colour pictures); wine; a personal section containing "free thoughts". At the time of review large parts of the website were still under construction, but what is available exceeds the expectations of a preliminary report. Pyrgos Mavoraki appears to have been an important site for the manufacture of luxury products and it is a great opportunity for the general public, students and researchers to follow the discoveries with little delay. The website is supported by the National Research Council of Italy, the Italian Foreign Office and the Municipality of Pyrgos-Limassol, Cyprus.
This Web page describes AHRC-funded research to re-display the Ancient Greek and Roman collections at the University of Cambridge's Fitzwilliam Museum. The project aims to bring the University's archaeological scholarship into "conversation" with contemporary museum display practices, in the light of recent advances in art history research, moving away from 'thematic' or 'stylistic' displays, towards an understanding of the role of "changing technology, the complexities of workshop practices, and the role of ancient markets" as well the influence of collectors on museum objects. Outputs will include a new public catalogue and Web pages for visitors.
This website publishes information on the use of Purbeck Marble and Kimmeridge shale during the Roman Period. The website contains a paper "Quarry industries of Purbeck in the Roman period" and a database of Purbeck limestone in Roman contexts. The database (aimed primarily at researchers) consists of lists of vessels and building materials made of Purbeck limestone, inscriptions, building materials and architectural fragments, statuary, stoneworking tools, and other categories of materials. Each list gives the site and findspot location of the object, a description, published sources and varying other items of information. This resource may be useful to both researchers and students.
The "Rock Art in Valtellina" webpage provides a synopsis of the petroglyphs discovered around two sites, Teglio and Grosio, in Lombardy, North Italy. At Teglio, several engraved Copper Age stelae depict daggers and axes that are datable stylistically to the Chalcolithic, while at Grosio (also home to a Medieval castle) 5454 carved figures dating largely from the Iron Age and Bronze Age were found on a rock face. Measuring over 84m in length the rock, known as Rupe Magna or "Big Rock", is alleged to be the largest engraved rock in the Alps. The website provides information on the Neolithic and First Copper Ages, the Copper Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, supported by images of the engravings. Further information on Rupe Magna and the Park of Engraved Rocks of Grosio is also available. Students in particular may find this website useful.
This website gives the user access to images and descriptions of a large collection of rock carvings and inscriptions which were uncovered in 1978 during the building of a road connecting Pakistan and China through the Himalayan and Karakorum mountains. The site has a small gallery showing seven examples of rock art, as well as another collection of images from the highway itself. There is also a list of publications about the collection, along with tables of contents for each of the works. Given that the website refers to approximately 35,000 inscriptions being catalogued by the project, the small number of images on this site is somewhat disappointing, but the introduction and description of the texts and drawings is nonetheless useful.
This small but neatly presented website relates to an important Roman military diploma found on a river bed in Croatia in 1997. Military diplomata, bronze documents testifying to the honourable discharge of a Roman soldier, survive in large numbers; few, however, are as well preserved as this, which dates from 71 AD. The text is beautifully preserved on both the inner and outer faces of the diploma, and the witnesses' seals survive beneath a removable wooden cover. The text provides interesting evidence for Roman activity in the then province of Pannonia, and constitutes the first written evidence of a town in the modern Slavonski Brod region. The English section of the website offers a series of good-quality photographs of the artefact with transcriptions of the text and some notes on its provenance and significance. The quality of both the diploma itself and of the Museum's presentation of it make this site worth a visit for anyone with an interest in Roman military history or this type of epigraphy.
This is the website to accompany Guy de la Bédoyí Ã‚Â¨re's Television series "The Romans in Britain" telling the story of the Roman occupation and its lasting impact - "The Romans helped shape the modern world, but as we are entering a new millennium their influence seems to be waning. How wide is the gap between our perceptions of the Romans and what we actually know about them?". This was broadcast on BBC2 and as part of the Open University's Open2 presentations. Contributors to the series in support of the prolific writer (and now presenter) de la Bédoyí Ã‚Â¨re are archaeologists Gustav Milne (Museum of London), Professor Martin Millett (Southampton University), Simon James, Stewart Ainsworth (Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, and Channel Four's "Time Team"), Lindsay Allason-Jones (Museum of Antiquities, University of Newcastle upon Tyne), Bill Griffiths (Tyne and Wear Museums); Gerald Brodribb; Sally Grainger ; David Rudkin (Fishbourne Roman Palace ) and Eugene Fraser (Butser Ancient Farm), and the prolific and respected writer, and director of the Vindolanda Trust - Robin Birley. The website is separated into the 3 episodes: Fact and Fable; Coming Of Age; and Hadrian's Wall. The full transcript of the programmes are available under "Script" and they are the most interesting part of the website. The left navigation provides links to: a timeline; details of the main locations visited in the series; an extensive reading list, links to other sites; and more information about the Open University courses that the programmes support.
Initiated by the Sussex Archaeological Society at Fishbourne Roman Palace, the 'Romans in Sussex' website is a resource enabling users to access databases of objects and sites in Sussex relating to the late Iron Age (circa 100 BCE - 43 CE), the Roman and the early Saxon period (- 600 CE). It is intended primarily for use in learning and teaching and it has been designed with three separate levels to meet the needs of teachers of: Key Stage 2 (ages 7-11); Key Stages 3 and 4 (12-16); and for further education and higher education and the general public. Teachers may also find this resource useful for background information. Timelines and maps describe key events in Sussex, Britain and Rome throughout this period. Clickable maps illustrate known archaeological features at relevant times in the period. A thematic section divides the period into Late Iron Age, Roman and Anglo Saxon, examining subjects such as settlement and land use, religion and burial, people and politics and trade and industry. Its primary aim is for use as a research tool by students to find out about various aspects of life during this period, drawing on images and descriptions of objects from museums and collections from all over Sussex. Many of the artefacts are not on public display, or even published, and so are available here for the first time. The project is funded by Resource: the Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries.
This is the website of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS), which surveys and records the built heritage of Scotland and makes this information available to the public through the Collections of the National Monuments Record of Scotland (NMRS). The site provides information relating to recent or forthcoming research, exhibitions, or other projects connected with the historic sites and buildings of Scotland. The NMRS, named 'Canmore' contains bibliographic details of images and manuscripts relating to each of the sites on the National Record. The materials referred to are generally not available over the Internet, and must be viewed in person at the appropriate record offices. Registration is required in order to search the database. The format of the search output is: NMRS number; name of site; type of site; council covering the site; whether the site is scheduled or listed; and references to materials relating to the site. The search form for the database allows several search combinations, making it easy to quickly locate the appropriate references for whatever research is being conducted. The RCAHMS website also links to PASTMAP, an interactive site for displaying and searching data on Scotland's built environment, particularly legally protected places such as ancient monuments and listed buildings. The website also contains an online shop, news service, and a showcase that gives more information about recent publications. In addition, an educational service is provided, as are lists of links to other sites concerned with Scottish culture.
The Sacred Texts Archive website has provided this online copy of ‘The Royal Museum, at Naples, being some account of the erotic paintings, bronzes and statutes contained in that famous cabinet secret’ by the French antiquarian Stanilas Marie César Famin, a book that was originally published in France in 1816, under the title of ‘Musée royal de Naples; peintures, bronzes et statues érotiques du cabinet secret, avec leur explication'. The work is of sixty lithographs, depicting objects excavated at Pompeii in the mid-eighteenth century; the name of the artist is unknown. This volume is an English translation of the work published in 1871, with the author's name given as "Colonel Fanin". The images are accessed through hyperlinks in the table of contents. Although not excessively prurient by contemporary standards a warning has been given regarding the content of his volume.
This site, hosted by the National Library of Norway, provides a database and catalogue of the runic inscriptions found during excavations at Bryggen, the medieval wharf of Bergen. The intention of the project is to develop a schema for rune graphology. Each entry in the database is accompanied by an image of the item inscribed and a both a literal and normalised transcription while the catalogue is divided by inscription type. The images provided are of medium resolution but are clear. The catalogue and the database are linked, thus providing an integrated tool for the researcher. There is also a link to a useful online reprint of a 1998 which published the results of the project. This paper was first presented in Glasgow and provides a comprehensive overview of the project's development.
A useful educational and research website based around the small collection of cuneiform tablets held by the University of Minnesota Science Museum which provides a short guide to the history and culture of cuneiform script and political and economic administration in ancient Sumer (southern Iraq) over four thousand years ago. The core of the resource is a description of the physical form, provenance, date and context, and content of each of the dozen tablets owned by the museum accompanied by high quality photographs, viewable at a number of scales, of each object. The actual texts are published in transliteration and translation and mostly deal with administrative and religious matters. Most of the texts belong to the so-called Sumerian Renaissance of the UR III period circa 21st century BC and come from cities in southern Iraq but several others date from the Neo-Babylonian period of the 6th century BC and feature famous kings such as Nebuchadnezzar and Nabonidus. In addition there is a fascinating account of the formation of the collection by archaeologist and adventurer Edgar James Banks ('The forgotten Indiana Jones') who worked in the Middle East in the twilight years of the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the 20th century. This modest resource will particularly interest students and researchers of ancient Near Eastern studies but also forms an attractive introduction to cuneiform texts for the more general reader.
The website Skenotheke: Images of the Ancient Stage has been developed by John Porter, a classical archaeologist based at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. The site is dedicated to images of ancient Greek and Roman theatre which are available on the Web; as such, whilst it does not feature original content, it is a very useful one-stop resource for those interested in ancient drama and the locations where this was performed. Links are provided to virtual reconstructions of ancient theatres, as well as to images of modern productions of classical plays. Images of ancient theatres are arranged by geographical location. Sections are dedicated to the following: the theatre of Dionysus at Athens; deme theatres; other theatres across mainland Greece (including those at Corinth, Delphi and Epidauros); the theatres of Asia Minor; and those on the Greek islands. There are also resources on Roman theatre including that at Pompeii. In addition, the site offers a collection of images of Greek and Roman drama shown in ancient art (including: vase paintings; figurines; mosaics; frescoes; and architectural decoration). These images would be useful for those studying acting in the Greek theatre and related topics such as Greek masks. The site offers resources for the study of satyr plays and comedy as well as Greek tragedy.
This is the website of the Society for Libyan Studies, founded in 1969 with support from the British Academy. The Society aims to encourage and coordinate the activities of researchers working on Libya in Britain and elsewhere. The Society is interested in a broad range of research including: archaeology; history; linguistics; natural sciences; and religion. The site is a valuable resource for information on current academic activities and potential sources of support for researchers. The Society provides some grants and scholarships and organises fieldwork trips. It also publishes the Journal of Libyan Studies, and the site provides tables of contacts for the volumes for 1983-1999, plus abstracts for some of these volumes. Details of forthcoming lectures and meetings concerning Libya are given, plus details of relevant collections in British libraries and archives. The site links to: archaeological sites in Libya; Libyan and British institutes; and other relevant sites.
The South Yorkshire and north Derbyshire regional medieval ceramics reference collection is one of the results of the review of medieval pottery studies in England undertaken by Maureen Mellor on behalf of the Medieval Pottery Research Group and English Heritage in the early 1990s. The project was funded by English Heritage, managed by West Yorkshire Archaeological Service and undertaken by Dr Chris Cumberpatch, with assistance from Dr. D. Williams, Dr. N. Walsh and Dr. M. Hughes. Assistance was given by museum and archaeological curators across the region, by the Derbyshire Archaeological Society and the Rotherham Archaeological Society and by a number of archaeological units and contractors working in the region. The reference collection consists of an online database, containing descriptive information and photographs, and a number of articles describing specific potteries and their products. The database covers medieval and post-medieval pottery from the county of South Yorkshire and the northern part of Derbyshire from a line drawn approximately between Stone, Uttoxeter and Derby, northward. Regional imports are also included. A handbook describes the database and access to it and also includes a comprehensive bibliography covering the study area. The articles, provided as HTML, report on sites that have been mentioned in the literature for a number of years but have not been fully published: Brackenfield near Chesterfield, Frenchgate in Doncaster and Rawmarsh, a suburb of Rotherham in South Yorkshire. Aside from these two main elements, a concordance links the types defined with those described in the reference collections and regional type series covering neighbouring areas and a short summary of the contents of the M.W. Barley collection, held by Nottingham University is also included. The reference collection is easily navigable through the standard ADS interface and users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions prior to accessing the resource.
The archaeological collections of the City of Southampton are detailed in a database at this website. Over 15,000 objects have been catalogued, with entries including: their construction material; the period from which they date; the site at which they were found; their physical dimensions; and any other general information that may be of interest to archaeologists. Photographs are included of many of the objects, though these images are of variable quality. The search engine provided by the site is effective and allows combinations of restrictions to be placed on the search, such as a specific period or settlement.Elsewhere, the site provides historical summaries of Southampton and its environs in every era from the prehistoric, through the Roman, Saxon, and Medieval, up to the early modern. The collection also features a small number of Egyptian artefacts, and a few miscellaneous curiosities brought back by travellers from elsewhere on the globe. Simple maps show the areas of Southampton occupied by previous settlements. The site also provides information as to the City Council's methods of documentation. The opening hours, location, and contact details of the Southampton Museum of Archaeology are provided, along with information regarding the Museum's identification service. A list of annotated links to related websites is also included.
Coptic is the name given to the latest stage of the ancient Egyptian language from the first century BC and written in an alphabet deriving from Greek and Demotic. The term is applied more generally to the distinct culture of Egyptian Christianity and its diaspora which still uses the Coptic language in its religious rituals. This website, produced by the St Shenouda the Archimandrite Coptic Society of Los Angeles, is part of an on-going project to preserve and promote Coptic culture by providing digital resources for Coptic language, literary, archaeological and artistic study. Projects include the Coptic Microfilm Library (CML) which aims to put all relevant Coptic and Arabic texts online and the Mapping of Coptic Monuments project, which will record all Egyptian Christian architectural and archaeological sites. The Manual of Coptic Studies (at the time of review almost completely empty and not updated since 1996) includes: the liturgy and texts of Coptic Christianity; a history of the language; a guide to Coptic writing; a directory of Coptic scholars. Other features include a useful slide show of frescoes from Coptic churches and monasteries. There is also a run of newsletters from the mid-1990s and downloadable software. The links page provides further information on websites of Coptic interest.
The Stone in Archaeology project was carried out by the Department of Archaeology, School of Humanities, University of Southampton and has now been deposited with the Archaeology Data Service (ADS). By doing so it has ensured that a unique multidisciplinary digital resource in the field of lithic archaeology has been created. The aim of the project was to build on the large pre-existing collection of archaeologically relevant comparative rock samples held at Southampton University. This was to be achieved by creating a searchable relational database of all archaeological stone known to have been exploited in Antiquity throughout the British Isles. This database is accessible both to beginners and those with geological experience and allows the identification of stone samples by searching on the distinctive physical properties of a stone. The database provides information regarding the use, quarry location/vicinity and distribution of the stone throughout various periods of history. The site is easy to navigate and the full database is accessible online via a standard ADS interface. Although there is no subscription charge, users are required to accept the ADS terms and conditions before accessing the resource.
This website is an introduction to sandstone and limestone roofs. A section covers the geology of stone roof slates giving the geological stratigraphy and the names and locations of roofstones. A map shows the locations of the geological beds. A gallery describes the various roofstones in further detail. There is an extensive bibliography and a collection of articles on roofing materials.
StoneWatch is an IFRAO member association that promotes the study of ancient rock art. Its website publishes a CD-atlas, which is composed of several illustrated articles written by different experts and available as PDF files each presenting the rock art of a region. The "magazine" is really an academic journal, where illustrated and referenced papers are published as PDF files. The "StoneWatch Magazine" covers the rock art of the whole world and contains some useful preliminary publications of recent discoveries (e.g. Polynesia; Zhuozi mountain of Inner Mongolia; Atacama Desert of South America; Incan rock art; Cuba; representations of ships in Scandinavia and Israel at Nahal Me'arot; Har Karkom in Israel); a special edition focused on Timna Valley. The "special projects" section contains miscellaneous files; news of recent projects; books and CDs that can be purchased. By clicking on "special files for free download" it is possible to access a section with several large documents available as PDF files; these range from full-text books; papers; and MA theses in English, German or Italian. Among the titles are "New Rock Pictures of the Fezzan (South-West-Libya)" and "Roundheads in the Djado and Tassili-Mountains (N-Niger/S-Algeria)" by U. W. Hallier and B. C. Hallier; "The Rock Art of Eastern and Southern Africa" by Bruno Schmidt; "The Geography of Cup and Ring Art in Europe" by Maarten van Hoek; and others.
'Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization' is a full-text open access ejournal, with issues available online from 1991 through to 2009. The journal is published in English and French from the Jagiellonian University Institute of Archaeology, in Poland. Recent articles are primarily in English, and all articles are freely available in PDF format. Example article titles include: 'Egyptianising Grave Monuments in London's Brompton Cemetery'; 'Dwarf Figurines from Tell el-Farkha'; 'Gazelles and Ostriches from Tell el-Farkha'; 'A Forgotten Scarab of Horemheb', among others. Volume 11 was a special issue covering recent research on Greek colonies of the northern Black Sea coast. The journal will be of interest to scholars of... "pre-dynastic and early dynastic Egypt, the archaeology of ancient Egypt and Middle East, archaeology of Greece, Cyprus, Italy; the history of collecting and the history of archaeological research". The journal website has full details of the Editorial Board and submissions process.
Supported by the British Academy, this is an online database of over 25,000 Greek coins found in British museums, institutions and private collections designed to complement the existing 30 printed volumes of the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum (SNG) which was initiated in 1931. The powerful search function allows the reader to search by: collection: country or state of origin; archaeological site; ruler or magistrate; date (600 BC-100 AD); denomination, weight, volume, or standard; obverse and reverse description; die axis; SNG reference. Each item has an individual entry and, in many cases, is accompanied by images of the coins. Although the absence of any introductory material means that this is a largely intended as a specialist resource for numismatists and ancient historians and archaeologists, dedicated undergraduates will also benefit from browsing the corpus of coins from the ancient Greek and Hellenistic world, particularly through using the image gallery function.
The Tarbat Discovery Programme is a study of the church of St Colman at Portmahomack and the Pictish, Norse and Medieval site in which the church stands and its context in the Moray Firth area. This study is being carried out in order to mount an exhibition in the restored church displaying the discoveries made by the research programme. The project is a collaboration between Tarbat Historic Trust, Highland Council and the University of York. The website presents the project description and discoveries to date in a concise format suitable for the general public. Full reports illustrated with plans (included as AutoDesk WHIP images in some cases), sections, finds drawings and site photographs are given as Annual Bulletins for the five seasons of work so far carried out. Bulletins also contain detailed artefactual and environmental reports and assessments. There is an illustrated catalogue of architectural fragments.
The website of the Templo Mayor Museum in Mexico City preserves, exhibits and publicises information on archaeological materials excavated over the course of several seasons of work conducted by the Templo Mayor Project, from 1978 to the present. Long presumed to be lost, the precinct of the Aztec Temple Mayor (or Great Temple) of Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City) was discovered during routine maintenance work in the old colonial urban centre. An unparalleled archaeological source, the Templo Mayor is a vital and unique key to understanding Aztec society. An accessible resource, this website not only discusses the archaeological excavations conducted to date on the site of the Great Temple, but also provides a clear and detailed explication of Mexican culture and history. With useful links providing cross-referencing to explanations and images and a helpful glossary, this is an extremely well-designed site of use to Mesoamerican scholars of all levels, from the academic seeking archaeological images to the school student wanting an accurate and comprehensible synopsis of the pre-colonial Nahua culture of the Valley of Mexico.
Texas Notes provides access to full online texts of a fascinating collection of articles concerning Pre-Columbian art, architecture, and history. Begun in 1990 by epigrapher Linda Schele, the Texas Notes were a ground-breaking method of disseminating the continual advancements in the decipherment of Pre-Columbian material, coming from the Mesoamerica Center at the University of Texas in the early 1990s. Although some of these articles have now been made obsolete by further discoveries and greater understanding of the languages, these articles provide an intriguing record of the development of epigraphy and understanding in this field. Dealing primarily with Mayan inscriptions and glyphs, the Texas Notes also contain material relating to other Mesoamerican cultures of Central and South America. Hosted by the University of Texas at Austin, a prominent centre for the study of Latin America, and a product of their Center for the History of Ancient American Art and Culture, this is an accessible, although sometimes slow, site, which relies on the download of PDF files.
The page also links to other online publications from the Mesoamerica Center, and is part of the Center's larger online resource, giving information about its activities, staff, and a collection of gateways.
The antiquarian Thomas Bateman excavated more than 200 barrows in the Derbyshire and Staffordshire Peak District during the 19th century. This website presents Bateman's own account of his excavations of some of the 7th-century barrow burials. The material is extracted from his two books 'Vestiges of the Antiquities of Derbyshire' (1848) and 'Ten Years' Diggings' (1861). The website is an archived copy of an old website; all links are broken. To follow them from the index page, it is necessary to type in the address bar of the browser the last part of the link (e.g. "bintro.html").
The website Tiles & Architectural Ceramics Society (TACS) introduces this association established in 1981 to encourage the study and preservation of the rich heritage of decorative glazed brick in the United Kingdom. One of the chief aims of the society is to produce a comprehensive online gazetteer and searchable database of all significant sites in the country (still in progress at the time of writing) and to provide support and advice on conservation for tile enthusiasts on a local level. Decorated tiles have been used in Britain since the Roman period but it was particularly with the explosion of church and cathedral building in the 13th and 14th centuries that they became an important feature of internal decoration. By the 19th century, the mass production of architectural ceramics extended their use to a much wider range of structures (both inside and out) including public buildings, commercial buildings, factories and gin palaces but also the more affluent private houses and public lavatories. The TACS website site provides a helpful and colourfully illustrated introduction to the history and usage of tiles, virtual tours of buildings and cities with notable examples (such as Poole and Newcastle) and relevant news items. Free downloads of files containing further information are also available. Other notable features include the 'Tile file' which documents the history of the most important industrial manufacturers of tiles (information for purchase is available), a useful page of links to various related websites (including much of wider architectural interest) and a guide to the journal published by the society. This resource will interest a wide constituency of users, including archaeologists (especially those concerned with mediaeval, post-mediaeval and industrial remains), historians of architecture and design, including researchers into the social aspects of building decoration, and heritage professionals charged with the preservation of the historic built environment. Some of the work-in-progress has not been updated in a while.
Tom Malzbender is an online collection of materials on the work of the scientist who has developed image-based relighting technology to enable scholars to decipher ancient texts. Malzbender's process captures images of three-dimensional objects - such as tablets - thereby helping scholars to read inscriptions that were previously invisible to the human eye. The site contains a short article about the technology, explaining in lay terms how it works and what it can do. There are also Quicktime films demonstrating how the process 'reads' a text. Some technical research data is also available.
Created by the University of Michigan Library, Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity offers a good visual and descriptive introduction to magical practices, devices and ornamentation from the pre-Christian period. Developed around the University's own extensive collection of papyri texts, each section begins with the description of a specific type of magical object, ranging from a early magic recipe books to a protective amulet. This description is followed by a series of related images that detail the features, significance and functionality of these apparatuses. The objects described come predominantly from the Mesopotamian and Egyptian regions, between the first and fifth centuries C.E. The site will be of appeal to anyone who has an interest in early magical rituals and practices during the height and decline of the Roman Empire. Those new to the subject may also wish to explore the brief, but helpful, bibliography at the end of the exhibit.
Trajan's Column is an online collection of images and background material on the Roman monument, a 100 foot stone column recording the military victories of the Roman Emperor Trajan (reigned 98-117 CE) over the Dacians and the Germans in the second century CE,which is one of the most remarkable and best preserved survivals of monumental art from classical antiquity. This website provides a searchable database of over 500 images focusing on various aspects of the design and execution of the column's sculptural decoration as well as several introductory essays on the historical background, subject matter and wider physical context of the monument within the Forum of Trajan in Rome, presented throughout within a hypertext medium. This highly user-friendly resource is designed to be accessible to individuals at varying levels of knowledge and experience of the subject. An elaborate search engine allows you to explore highly specific aspects of the monument while Claudio Martini's interactive cartoon of the entire column provides an excellent introduction to the overall design and layout of the monument and contextualises the individual details provided by the database of images. The site can also be explored through the use of indices organised according to: subject; sculptural technique; and scene number or location. The high quality images (slides and drawings) were generated by sculptor Peter Rockwell, over the course of his study of Roman stone-carving practices, and can be viewed at three different resolutions. Technical information on all the imaging and programming details (including the programming code) is also provided. This detailed, stimulating and attractively presented website will interest archaeologists and classicists as well as art and military historians at many levels from the general public and novice undergraduate to the more experienced researcher.
This useful website explains how archaeological finds in Scotland are recorded and protected. It describes the process for reporting finds, the system of rewards, and emphasises the importance of having artefacts assessed. The legal context is explained in a straightforward manner and the rules concerning metal detecting are also provided. There is a section for museums explaining the procedure for bidding for treasure trove cases, the form for which is included on the site. A news section provides a list of recent treasure trove allocations, and there is also a gallery of images of recent finds. A page of links directs users to other official archaeological organisations in Scotland.
The University of Melbourne's Classics and Archaeology Virtual Museum Project puts online the majority of the contents of the Classics and Archaeology wing of the University's Ian Potter Museum, together with a number of collections not owned by the University. This vast online resource offers access to Greek, Roman, Egyptian and Middle Eastern manuscripts, pottery, coinage, bronzes, vases and sculpture.The centrepiece of the site is the database that allows the user to search the collection. Over 7000 images are available, and there are a number of photos for each object, taken from differing angles and with varying degrees of detail. This makes the site particularly useful for research, as do the full descriptions, bibliographies and comparisons for individual pieces. This information, with all other relevant data such as date, provenance and material, is attractively presented and easily accessible. The self-directed tour allows the user easy access to full lists of the artefacts and the history of the individual collections. There is extensive documentation about the development of the museum and the virtual museum project.
This is the home page for the Institute of Egyptian Art and Archaeology at the University of Memphis (Memphis Tennessee, rather than Memphis, Ancient Egypt). The site consists of an introduction to the Institute, an online exhibition of a few of the artefacts held at the Institute, a photographic 'tour' of major architectural and archaeological or historic sites in Egypt including Aswan, Giza and Luxor. The exhibition area is small but of good quality, with fairly detailed images of artefacts taken at different angles, and accompanying descriptions. The photographic tour of Egypt does not go greatly beyond the realm of holiday snaps, but short explanations of the subjects photographed may provide a basic introduction to Egyptology for the general public. The site also gives news of any upcoming special exhibitions at the institute. This website is nicely presented, but slight in content, and is aimed more at the public than the academic market. Architects or Egyptologists may however find some use for the images at the site (copyright permitting).
The website and database of the Ure Museum of Greek Archaeology at the University of Reading, which possesses the fourth largest corpus of Greek vases in Britain in addition to an interesting collection of Egyptian material. Founded in 1922 to house the collection of antiquities at the then University College, the collection has expanded considerably since that time through further purchases and gifts. In 2005 the museum benefitted from an Arts and Humanities Research Council funded 'renewal', vastly improving the presentation and interpretation of its collections. This website provides a useful thematic guide to the museum holdings as well as a very detailed and well illustrated searchable database which is described as work-in-progress. In addition to sections on the history and techniques of Greek vases and on the Egyptian material, the thematic sections features: 'Athens and Sparta'; the 'Symposium'; 'Childhood'; 'Men and women'; 'Athletics and warfare'; 'Health and death'; 'Mythology and the gods'. The online database, developed in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for the history of science in Berlin, contains detailed descriptions and captioned images of individual objects and can be searched according to a wide range of fields, including shape, fabric, period, provenance, artist, bibliography and Beazley cross-reference. Both the website and the database are extensively hypertexted. The site also provides visitor information, an online tour, lists of events and brief information for schools (including 'A' level students). This is a very helpful resource for undergraduates studying classical archaeology and ancient history but also provides much useful material for researchers from a relatively unknown but richly endowed museum.
The website "Vindolanda Tablets Online" is an excellent site which provides an online database of the Vindolanda Tablets found at the Vindolanda fortress near Hadrian's Wall dating from the first century of the common era. The site is extremely easy to navigate and features a help section. The database is intended to be used as a learning tool for teaching Latin and Classics at all levels; primary school (there is a link to the Latin course for primary schools, Minimus), A and AS levels, undergraduate, postgraduate and for research purposes. The website is based on the publication of three volumes of materials on the tablets, but obviously offers many more facilities than the printed form. There is a section on the background history to the fort of Vindolanda, where the tablets were found. The tablets provide information on the social, cultural, and military history of the fortress. There is an online exhibition of the tablets, which features sections on people, places, documents, reading the tablets, and forts and military life. An excellent reference section provides information about Roman systems of dates, measures, currencies, military units and ranks, and Roman nomenclature. The tablets themselves can be viewed individually, and through an image zooming viewer. The tablets are arranged as a fully searchable set of digital materials with information included that is related to the tablets. The texts of the tablets can be searched by document type, people, places, military terms, archaeology, and other terms. A comprehensive links page provides information on over 70 websites and a bibliography of printed material. The project is based within the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University and is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The initial capture of the digital images was supported by an Arts and Humanities Research Board grant.
The website "Ancient Near Eastern Art" introduces this collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, which possesses one of the largest and most significant collections of Near Eastern artefacts in the world. This beautifully produced and easily navigated website provides an excellent guide to these holdings for both the general public and the professional academic. The collection can be searched in a number of ways, from a series of 50 highlighted objects selected by the museum or via a search engine which allows you to store a personal collection of search results for future research. Each record provides brief but informative descriptions of each object together with a high quality illustration which can be viewed at a variety of scales from thumbnail to full screen size. The Heilbrunn timeline of world art history which accompanies the entire museum collection, presented as an attractive interactive world map, situates the objects in their wider chronological and cultural context. This resource is a fine example of online museum publishing and will interest a wide public from the interested amateur and school children (and their teachers) to university level students and researchers of ancient Near Eastern art, archaeology and history.