The Anglo-Norman Online Hub website provides information about the ongoing revision and expansion of the Anglo-Norman Dictionary (AND). It also provides online access to the dictionary. The project website enables searches to be made of the English translations and glosses in the dictionary. Full bibliographic details are provided for each of the texts used in its compilation. A section of the site has been put aside to host the concordance of entries. Additional features of the site include several articles relating to Anglo-Norman topics, and a number of primary texts. These source texts include: the Oxford Psalter; Thomas Rymer's edition of Foedera; and 'La Vie de Saint Thomas Becket' amongst others. This is an essential resource for Anglo-Norman scholars.
The 'Anglo-Saxon Dictionary' website provides online access to Bosworth and Toller's dictionary, which has been the primary lexical reference for study of the Anglo-Saxon language since its publication in 1898. With the sponsorship of the University of California, Berkley, the text of the dictionary can be searched in a limited way online, and also accessed via a Windows / Mac application. Both the application and the texts can be downloaded free from the website, along with images of the original printed dictionary. Also provided alongside these resources are: a list of other Middle English and Old English printed dictionaries; a guestbook; and a small section of related Web links. This is a valuable resource for both students and researchers studying Old English texts in the original language.
Bibliomania.com is a commercial website that provides the full-texts of over 2,000 out-of-copyright English and American novels. Every text that one might reasonably expect to find in a paperback classic edition at a bookshop is available here. The site's contents include several 'study guide' texts mainly written by Oxford University graduates for those books frequently taught in schools, such as Huxley's "Brave New World". More than just plot summaries closely examining characters, themes and structure, the guides are designed to be of particular interest to students and their teachers or tutors. The site also has a homework/revision/query help section where you can email any English literature questions to the team. There is also a short history of the novel, divided by period and genre.For each featured author the site provides a short biography and links to electronic texts of their most widely read works. The electronic texts themselves are divided into chapters, ensuring download times are acceptable even over slow connections. Each text has its own message board. New books are added every month, along with new articles and interviews. The "research" area houses a library of reference books, biographies, and religious texts. It contains fully searchable copies of language reference books, including dictionaries, books of quotations and a thesaurus. Also included are non-fiction books with subjects ranging from history, to economics, to psychology, with major religious texts area in embryo. Erotic fiction includes The Kama Sutra and The Perfumed Garden. A free electronic concordance to each text on the site is provided. A search engine is provided with the site. Via the Search Engine one can look for individual words or whole phrases, search across either an individual text, the entire works of a specific author, or even groups of authors, enabling a comparison of the presence of specific words or phrases, across, for example, the Victorian period. The concordances provide you, within seconds, with a list of hyperlinked locations where the relevant search term can be found.
This website hosts an online version of the complete Century Dictionary. The Century Dictionary was one of the most impressive dictionaries of the English language compiled in the USA. First published in 1889, the version reproduced here in facsimile form is the revised 1911 edition. The dictionary boasts over half a million definitions, many of them accompanied by illustrations. It also includes a biographical cyclopaedia and a world atlas. The site includes the texts of the various prefaces that introduced the print editions, and the key to pronunciation. The online dictionary may be searched or browsed alphabetically. The online dictionary is made available in jpeg or DjVu format, which requires the DjVu plug-in to be installed before it may be viewed. A link to the site from which the plug-in may be downloaded is provided. The DjVu format enables the user to magnify and manipulate the onscreen facsimile images of the original print dictionary. This resource is intended to be of value to general users, although its accuracy of reproduction should also ensure it is of interest to scholars studying lexicography and dictionary history.
CUVPlus is a downloadable machine-readable dictionary from the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) website, available as a plain text zipped folder. The resource consists of 72,060 Ascii ordered words, each with the following information: spelling, capitalisation, pronunciation, pos. tags, word frequency, syllable count.
The “Dictionary of Newfoundland English Online” website contains a digital version of the printed Dictionary of Newfoundland English edited by G.M. Story, W.J. Kirwin, and J.D.A. Widdowson (University of Toronto Press, 1982) together with the supplement published in 1990. The online version retains the preface, introduction, bibliography, index, and works cited whilst permitting the reader to browse through entries. The introduction explains the work’s scope and criteria for inclusion. Phonetic transcriptions have not made it into the electronic version due to the difficulty of representing the phonetic alphabet. The site is keyword searchable and users may also search by terms or definitions. The online edition is a project of the Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage website.
The Dictionary of old English is the website of an electronic dictionary based on the DOEC (Dictionary of Old English Corpus) and is an ongoing project of the University of Toronto. The DOEC contains the full-texts of nearly all known Anglo-Saxon texts - from the law code issued by Athelbert of Kent (c.580-616) to the closing annal of the Old English Chronicle in 1154. Versions of texts that have been transcribed in different dialects or at different times are included in the DOEC. The corpus consists of over 3,000 documents and is available (via subscription) online. As of 2006, volumes 'A' to 'F' of the Dictionary of Old English have been completed and published, with work continuing further down the alphabet. These volumes can be bought on CD-ROM. The website does allow users to search freely for variant spellings in the Dictionary, but citations can only be viewed if the user or their institution has a subscription to the Corpus. A list of texts cited in the Dictionary (with bibliographic information) is also available free. This site would be of use to researchers working in the fields of Anglo-Saxon literature or language, but gives limited options without subscription. The corpus can be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)) on completion of the request access form.
The Dictionary of the Scots Language (DSL) is a searchable online historical dictionary of the Scottish language as written and spoken by lowland Scots in Scotland and Ulster from the 12th century onward. The DSL database combines the entries from the Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (DOST), which covers the language up until the end of the 17th century, and the Scottish National Dictionary (SND), which spans the 18th century to the present. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council under the Resource Enhancement Scheme, with partnership funding provided by Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. and the Russell Trust. The DSL website describes the project and provides full public access to the dictionary. Searches may be restricted to various aspects of the dictionary entries, such as: geographical label; quotation text; author; etymology; or date. Standard search results return the word plus its surrounding entries. This is undoubtedly a useful online reference work, which should be of great assistance to scholars researching Scottish literature and culture. This resource can also be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)), on completion of a request access form.
DjVu Editions is an online library, largely of classic texts, which may be downloaded in full in DjVu, PDF, and JPEG formats. The collection contains over 30,000 pages and is fully searchable by author or title. It also includes the 'Century Dictionary', which was the first book to be undertaken by the project, which aims to offer an experience as close to that of reading a paper book as possible. Authors whose work is part of the collection include Jane Austen, Geoffrey Chaucer, Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy, William Shakespeare, William Wordsworth and W. B. Yeats, amongst many others. Due to the nature of the site and its aim to offer the actual pages of the text for the user to read, texts 'may be cited with perfect accuracy by traditional means', thereby overcoming the potentially changing nature of web texts that can complicate citations of online material. This site is easy to use, covers a wide range of the literary canon in English, and offers a broadly valuable resource.
'Examining the Oxford English Dictionary' is the website of a project dedicated to exploring the development of one of the most comprehensive and well-known English resources. The project is of value to language and literature researchers at all levels, for the insights it gives into the complex relationship between language and literature and the development of both. Authored by Charlotte Brewer, a member of the English Faculty at Oxford University, the site illustrates a level of scholarship and detail that reflects the huge achievement of the dictionary itself. Setting out to uncover the foundations of the English language as represented in the OED, Brewer considers the dictionary's quotations and quotation sources, using the search facilities of the OED online. The project explores the Dictionary's bias towards certain types of literature and language by means of analysing the quotations used for its definitions, focussing on the under-representation of 18th-century sources and women authors. The website is regularly updated with news of additional materials and downloadable secondary source articles. Well-presented and user-friendly, this site uses a comprehensive range of information, from philosophical debate to detailed analysis of facts and statistics, to explore the role of the OED in the development of the English language.
This website provides a basic glossary of literary terms. As of July 2009 the site is still incomplete (last revised in 1999), and lacks many of the rhetorical terms the title promises. All entries are listed alphabetically, each item linking to a specific term. Each definition includes hyperlinks to other terms where appropriate, and some include illustrative examples. An index of topics sorts individual terms according to whether they are applied to poetry, the novel, or drama. 'The Book' heading groups basic bibliographical terms, and a 'genre' heading intends to familiarise the user with more specific generic terms, such as 'Bildungsroman'. There is also a 'history' heading, under which are arranged the various traditional periods and schools of literary history. Unfortunately, the index of topics is not hyperlinked, thus serving only as an example how to find relevant items in the glossary. This resource might be useful for non-specialists faced with literary criticism, or literature undergraduates at the outset of their courses.
This impressive website provides a glossary of poetic terms. Innumerable definitions are given spanning the whole poetic lexicon, including various forms, metres, rhetorical devices, styles, and technical critical terms. Many of the definitions include hypertext cross-references to other related topics, as well as illustrative quotations from poems where applicable. Phonetic pronunciation guidelines are also given for terms where uncertainty may arise. The site is smartly presented, and its contents may be downloaded for off-line reference purposes. This site is likely to prove an excellent resource for all levels of student up to undergraduates. It is the work of Robert G. Shubinski, someone with an evident passion for poetry.
This website details the ongoing Historical Thesaurus of English (HTE) project. It describes the project itself, how the finished work will be organised, and lists publications that have benefited from the work on the thesaurus so far. The site also provides some sample entries, such as 'beer' and 'gin'.The HTE contains English words (including Old English) from their earliest written occurrence, giving information on when they fell out of use (where appropriate and known). It is based on the New Oxford English Dictionary. The HTE is organised into three sections: the External World, the Mind, and Society. Within each section, words are ordered chronologically and semantically (not alphabetically). The HTE allows the building of models of vocabularies available at any one time, and it should be a valuable research tool for studying literary and linguistic history. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The Early Modern English Dictionaries Database is an online searchable database of entries from sixteen early dictionaries, dating from between 1530 and 1657. The sources include bilingual lexicons as well as specialist and hard-word dictionaries. In addition to the database, there is a helpful introduction, and a bibliography of works that may be of interest to those studying the lexicography of the period. The search engine is simple and quick to use. The site is intended to benefit lexicographers, researchers studying the work of the authors of the dictionaries included, and those simply looking up words in the course of routine scholarly work. There is a public version accessible to anyone and a licensed more extensive version accessible with a subscription fee.
The Literary Encyclopedia provides bibliographies and text profiles for a wide range of authors, as well as critical summaries of many classic texts. Whilst the encyclopaedia's primary focus is on English literature, classical authors and works are also well represented, and their is a growing body of entries on European and international literature. Basic records are free to read (this is normally the first 400 words); whilst subscription is required to view the full entries. There are about 5,900 authors listed, 17,500 works and 1,500 topics all written by experts in their field. Using the advanced search facility it is possible to list authors according to genre, sex, period and culture. The site is constantly under development with the aim of adding many new entries and expanding existing ones. It includes an extensive Links database (over 4,000 links), a stylebook and glossary.
The Middle English Compendium (MEC) is a reference collection of English texts dating from between 1100 and 1500. It has been designed to offer easy access to and interconnectivity between three major Middle English electronic resources: an electronic version of the Middle English Dictionary (MED), a HyperBibliography of Middle English prose and verse, based on the MED bibliographies, and an associated network of electronic resources, including a corpus of Middle English prose and verse texts. Hypertext links offer quick connections between, for example, an MED citation, bibliographical information about its source, and an electronic version of the source (where one exists).The corpus of prose and verse texts contains over 140 texts, which can be searched for individual words and phrases. Results give the total number of occurrences in the corpus, the keyword-in-context and a brief reference (linked to the full reference in the bibliography). This site would be of use to those studying Middle English texts, either from a literary or linguistic standpoint.
This website is authored by Alan Hartley, a contributor of nautical terms to the Oxford English Dictionary. The site is quite basic, with little structure, and is probably only of real interest to maritime historians and researchers. On it users will find maritime history citations written for the Oxford English Dictionary, covering medieval sources, Sandahl's Middle English Sea Terms, fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth century sources, and Timoteo O'Scanlan's 1831 Spanish maritime dictionary. Also on the site are articles about English nautical vocabulary, medieval astronomical terms, and material from Hartley's unfinished Historical Dictionary of Mediterranean Nautical Terms.
The New Zealand English (NZE) website is a compilation of materials provided by a number of researchers on various aspects of English as spoken in New Zealand. The site has a simple, clear layout and provides articles on the origins, social variation and sounds of NZE. Extensive bibliography on NZE is also provided. The research projects listed include: NZE Dictionary Centre; Corpora of NZE; the NZE Journal; 'Origins of NZE Project'; English On-line Project (resources for teaching); and Evaluating English Accents Worldwide. A brief description of projects and contact details for further information are also provided.
The website Online Etymology Dictionary is an amateur site which marshals together etymological resources online. The dictionary is searchable online. There is also a useful list of abbreviations and links to relevant works such as the Oxford English Dictionary (OED). A few selected links are included to sources on Old High German, Old French and Old Norse for example. A good site, which provides a variety of interesting sources for the etymology of words, and which is constructed in such as way that a new search is created each time. Therefore it changes with the Internet content. It is an excellent tool for those seeking the origins of words, the usage of words and their contexts, and also as a dictionary.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the foremost dictionary of the English language. The online version presents both the second edition of the printed Dictionary (1989) and the revisions for the third edition as they are completed. Access is via institutional or personal subscription.
The OED provides more than half a million word definitions, tracing the evolution of words over the last millennium via almost two and a half million quotations. It includes etymological analysis, pronunciation details, and variant spellings. Revised entries for the third edition, where available, are presented alongside their corresponding entry in the second edition. The completion of the third edition is expected by 2010. The site also provides additional information about the Oxford English Dictionary, including online copies of its newsletter, OED News.
The OED is available to UK HE/FE institutions under a national license agreement negotiated by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).
Science Fiction Citations website has been launched as a pilot for an Oxford English Dictionary (OED) project under the guidance of Mike Chrisitie, an OED volunteer, and Sue Surova, an independent researcher for the OED. Words associated with a special area of interest - in this case science fiction - are being collected so that experts in particular fields can help the OED collate their origins and meanings. Science Fiction Citations aims to include all words that are frequently used in science fiction, and attempts to find the earliest example of every sense of every word listed. The editor of the site Jesse Sheidlower requests that enthusiasts help with the project, as it needs earlier examples of terms already included, early examples of terms that have been slated for future inclusion, and any overlooked terms that are common in science fiction. Words used infrequently, words associated chiefly with a single author, or words so specialised that they are found only in a single sub-genre, are not high priorities for inclusion. A very simple interface makes this site a fast and simple specialist resource.
The "Texts in Context" website hosts a collection of themed online exhibits created by the British Library. Over 400 'everyday' texts are featured in the collection, which seeks to illustrate the histories of the English language in various social and cultural discourses. The featured exhibits are: 'Books for Cooks: 600 years of recipes and remedies'; 'Experiences of Empire: varied perspectives on colonial life'; 'Shipwrecks and Smuggling: the adventures of thieves, sailors and tradesmen'; 'Taking the waters : cures, quackery and the diversions of the spa'; 'Town and Tourists: travellers in search of sea, scenery and science'; 'Dictionaries and Meanings: a history of word-collecting from spelling lists to slang'; and 'Voices in Time and Place: speaking and writing dialect in England'. Each section includes a wide range of (mostly) British primary resources and spans at least a couple of centuries of history. There are many large digitised images of texts, along with some audio files in the dialects section which can be accessed from the left hand menu under "Sounds familiar?" Most of the books and publications featured are not reproduced in full, however, but rather access is given to particularly interesting pages. Background commentary is provided for each selected text. Playing cards with excerpts from various texts and periods can be printed off by downloading the PDF files added to the site. This resource is intended to benefit students studying the evolution of English language and style, and is designed to support A-Level English Language courses. In practice it is likely to have a far broader appeal, and may be of interest to undergraduates interested in particular aspects of British cultural history.
The compiler of this glossary is William Denton, who has previously published the work under the imprint of his Miskatonic University Press in 1993. It is based on the writings of major American writers of detective stories: Raymond Chandler, Dashiell Hammett, and Micky Spillane. It consists of an aphabetical listing of words and phrases with brief definitions, sometimes with quotations to illustrate the context. Some words are linked to pages giving more extensive definitions and explanations. The basic bibliography at the end lists works by the major writers in this genre and also includes some of the major dictionaries of slang. While the scope of this glossary is limited, it provides a useful resouce for those interested specifically in the language of American detective fiction.
The website "William Falconer's Dictionary of the Marina the 1780 edition" is an online version of William Falconer's Universal Marine Dictionary. It is published as part of the National Library of Australia's website South Seas, which looks at the voyages and exploration in the Pacific during the eighteenth century. The dictionary was published by Falconer in 1769 and provides definitions or explanations on eighteenth-century ship construction, equipment, furniture, machinery, movements, and military operations. The dictionary has been transcribed in HTML, and can be searched by keyword, or browsed alphabetically from the table of contents. The website also features digitised images taken from the 1780 edition of the dictionary used for this online version.