ABELL (Annual Bibliography for English Language and Literature), produced by the Modern Humanities Research Association, has existed as a print bibliography for over seventy years. Now available online (to subscribers) and on CD-ROM, ABELL contains approximately 860,000 records of scholarly articles, doctoral dissertations, books and reviews published anywhere in the world. ABELL covers English language and literature, literary theory, bibliographic studies and studies of traditional folk cultures of the English-speaking world. The search functions allow users to construct detailed specialist bibliographies for teaching and research purposes, as ABELL can be searched by title keyword, subject, author or reviewer, publication details, journal keyword and publication year, or any combination of these terms. The CD-ROM contains ABELL records from 1920 onwards, whilst the Web version is available in two editions: 1920 onwards and 1980 onwards. The Web editions are subscribed to as part of Chadwyck-Healey's Literature Online service. The database is available to subscribing academic institutions only on the basis of a site licence agreement.
This website contains the text of a book by John P. Broderick entitled The Able Writer : A Rhetoric and Handbook, first published in 1982. The book was intended to be used in college composition courses or as a reference guide for writers. It explains how to organise ideas and express them clearly and persuasively in correct scholarly English. The text is available in PDF format chapter by chapter. The site includes summaries of important sections of the book, with illustrative exercises. There are paragraphs on audience, coherence, the placement of modifiers, and figurative language. An instructor's manual is also provided for those teaching classes using the book. The resource should prove useful to students requiring help with their written style, particularly at A-Level and undergraduate level.
Accents of English from around the world is a webpage that allows the user to compare the pronunciation of words between different dialects and varieties of English and some other Germanic languages. Equipped with a sound plug-in the user may listen to words in the many different forms available. Hovering over the IPA transcription of the word (or clicking it) returns the sound of the word in that particular variety. The site can be browsed by region, or by word, thus allowing different kinds of comparisons. The project is hosted the University of Edinburgh and is funded by Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). This is a valuable resource for anyone interested in the dialects of English and comparison to other Germanic languages.
The “American Rhetoric” website contains an extensive database of speeches, sermons, lectures, legal proceedings, and other such recorded materials, which illustrate and exemplify the principles of rhetoric. Users will need audio and video plug-ins to view many parts of this online resource. The site includes a page of classical and modern definitions of rhetoric, and excerpts from Plato and Aristotle. The bulk of the content consists of texts (and audio and video recordings) of great American speeches and political addresses. There is also a section on the movies, featuring classic fictionalised speeches. The best-known American speeches, such as Martin Luther King’s “I have a dream”, and President Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address”, are all included, alongside over 5,000 others. There are special sections on Christian rhetoric, and on the rhetoric of 9/11. This latter page contains over 100 speeches responding to the terrorist attacks against New York and Washington in 2001. The site contains several interactive exercises such as a rhetoric quiz, and tests based on the evaluation of rhetorical arguments. Links are provided to journals and societies devoted to communication studies, while a news and information index offers links to other external websites.
This is the website of the Anglistik Guide (English Studies) at the Goettingen State and University Library. The project is a gateway to Internet resources concerned with English literature and language. There are five main categories for searching: British Language and Literature (including General Commonwealth); New Literatures in English; American Language and Literature; Celtic Languages and Literature; and Gender Studies. However, these large categories are broken down into a number of sub-categories, such as: anthologies, literary criticism, and individual authors and works. Search can be performed by typing in simple or advanced search terms, or just by browsing the index.
The Anglo-Norman Online Hub website provides information about the ongoing revision and expansion of the Anglo-Norman Dictionary (AND). It also provides online access to the dictionary. The project website enables searches to be made of the English translations and glosses in the dictionary. Full bibliographic details are provided for each of the texts used in its compilation. A section of the site has been put aside to host the concordance of entries. Additional features of the site include several articles relating to Anglo-Norman topics, and a number of primary texts. These source texts include: the Oxford Psalter; Thomas Rymer's edition of Foedera; and 'La Vie de Saint Thomas Becket' amongst others. This is an essential resource for Anglo-Norman scholars.
Applied Semiotics (Sémiotique appliquée), published by the Department of French Studies at the University of Toronto, is a freely-available, peer-reviewed, electronic journal that publishes the results of literary semiotic research. The journal aims to promote research in semiotics that focuses on a specific text (or scenario). However, it does not rule out the publication of purely theoretical investigations. As a result, Applied Semiotics is of interest to critics as well as to theorists. The home page offers access to an archive of previously published issues in full text. Further pages include: calls for papers; an outline of the journal's mandate; a style guide; details about the advisory board; information about the print edition of the journal which is also available; a links page listing websites of interest to those working in the field of Semiotics; and a news page with up-to-date bulletins. The journal is available in French and English, and many of the articles are bi-lingual.
The online version of ARIES ('Assisted Revision in English Style') is a set of English grammar tutorials developed by STELLA (Software for Teaching English Language & Literature and its Assessment) at the University of Glasgow. The site provides modules covering: the basics of punctuation: the apostrophe; further punctuation; spelling guidelines; and a reference unit. Each module explains usage rules and exceptions. Interactive exercises are provided, enabling users to test themselves. ARIES was originally provided only as subscription software, but this version is freely available.
The website "ASPNS: Anglo-Saxon Plant-Name Survey" is the homepage of this project at the Institute for the Historical Study of Language, University of Glasgow. The Anglo-Saxon Plant-Names Survey (ASPNS) aims to produce a comprehensive database of these names and interpret this linguistic information within an interdisciplinary context of other humanities and sciences. Plant-names of Anglo-Saxon England survive in a variety of media, such as manuscripts and inscriptions, and are of more than linguistic interest, shedding light on a wide variety of social matters such as dialect, land-use and economy, diet, medical treatment, clothing and the wider perception of the landscape. The site provides the ASPNS annual report from 2000 onwards, downloadable in RTF format, details of the personnel working on the project and a list of plant names arranged in tabular form. These include: bushes and trees; ferns; fungi; lichen; moss; grasses and reeds; fruits and nuts; edible roots; various types of grains; spices and herbs; medicinal plants and plants yielding fibres for cloth making. Also included is the database of Latin plant-names in all their variant forms which were current in Anglo-Saxon England. The website also includes the ASPNS bibliography as well as a select but wide-ranging bibliography of general Anglo-Saxon studies (such as language and palaeography, history and archaeology but also fiction and children's literature) as well as page of weblinks. Although largely a specialist resource aimed at researchers in the historical development of the English language, the bibliographies and weblinks will also benefit students and the general public.
The barefoot press website was a companion to a regular pamphlet going by the same name which was distributed for free with the intention of increasing the circulation of and interest in South African poetry. The website features works by some significant South African poets, as well as submissions by up-and-coming writers and members of the public. All poems on the site are reviewed, however, so a certain standard is maintained - there is a light-hearted section for the absolute amateur to contribute to called 'put your foot in it', where visitors are encouraged to write about feet, where this standard is most definitely dropped. The website has led to a few print publications, most notably a posthumous one featuring the works of Lionel Abrahams, its most famous contributor. It now seems to be out of date, unfortunately, but it still retains a very useful and interesting collection of original poetry by some of South Africa's most promising young writers and is well worth a visit.
The website With Reference To accompanies of the BBC Radio 4 programme with the same name aired in 2002. Each programme in the series features a visit to a 'unique or definitive collection of some sort (e.g. teeth, plants, ice, recordings of English dialects)'. The most recent programme follows presenter Quentin Cooper to Stirling where he explores the archive of the spirits manufacturer, Diageo. Not simply an enquiry into the science of spirits, the programme also considers the history of the products - for example the replacement of brandy with gin as the most popular drink in the nineteenth century. The site includes links to other BBC science programmes, many of which can be heard on line.
The BBC Voices website records the findings of journalists who undertook the largest ever popular survey of regional English in the UK and provides a valuable resource for language and cultural studies at all levels. There are 300 hundred recorded conversations, involving over 1,200 people discussing accent; dialogue; vocabulary; and attitudes towards spoken language. The website includes a background to the project, as well as an accent map of the British Isles, which can be used as a search vehicle for the recordings. Some of the clips contain offensive language, but these are clearly marked. Much of the site is aimed at the general public, with features involving testing the ear for accent recognition and audience feedback to the project. However, this material in itself may be of as much interest to language researchers as the recordings. There are also journalist features and debates about language change, dedicated explorations of languages such as Manx and Esperanto and downloads from the Open University on language study. The site is presented in a newspaper format and is straightforward to use.
The Bibliography and Methods in Medieval Studies website is an online course outline with detailed bibliographies and links to resources for bibliographic research in medieval studies. The site is divided into sub-sections, representing the topics covered each week in the course, including: general bibliographies and Internet sources; medieval history sources; ecclesiastical sources; Latin authors and texts; interpretations of the Bible; the liturgy; hagiography; iconography; manuscript research; science; and popular culture and folklore. Each section is linked to a bibliography, covering "the major reference guides, encyclopaedias, bibliographies and electronic databases". Some of the links to electronic resources are only available to students and staff of the University of Illinois, but those that are freely available are worth looking at. There are also eight library exercises designed to train the undergraduate medievalist in the scholarly tools which make the discipline possible.
Bibliomania.com is a commercial website that provides the full-texts of over 2,000 out-of-copyright English and American novels. Every text that one might reasonably expect to find in a paperback classic edition at a bookshop is available here. The site's contents include several 'study guide' texts mainly written by Oxford University graduates for those books frequently taught in schools, such as Huxley's "Brave New World". More than just plot summaries closely examining characters, themes and structure, the guides are designed to be of particular interest to students and their teachers or tutors. The site also has a homework/revision/query help section where you can email any English literature questions to the team. There is also a short history of the novel, divided by period and genre.For each featured author the site provides a short biography and links to electronic texts of their most widely read works. The electronic texts themselves are divided into chapters, ensuring download times are acceptable even over slow connections. Each text has its own message board. New books are added every month, along with new articles and interviews. The "research" area houses a library of reference books, biographies, and religious texts. It contains fully searchable copies of language reference books, including dictionaries, books of quotations and a thesaurus. Also included are non-fiction books with subjects ranging from history, to economics, to psychology, with major religious texts area in embryo. Erotic fiction includes The Kama Sutra and The Perfumed Garden. A free electronic concordance to each text on the site is provided. A search engine is provided with the site. Via the Search Engine one can look for individual words or whole phrases, search across either an individual text, the entire works of a specific author, or even groups of authors, enabling a comparison of the presence of specific words or phrases, across, for example, the Victorian period. The concordances provide you, within seconds, with a list of hyperlinked locations where the relevant search term can be found.
'Breaking News English' is a website which uses current affairs as a resource for students learning English as a second language. It is aimed at teachers primarily but would also be a useful resource for education undergraduates and language researchers. It may well also be useful as self-help for English learners, as it is very easy to follow and use. The site's author, Sean Banville, is British but based in Japan, with a background in EFL and ESL education and research. His site provides differentiated lesson plans for students at basic and advanced levels, based on the news of the day. Each lesson plan contains the full article upon which it is based, an MP3 listening file, communication exercises and activities for individual and pair work, discussion topics, reading and vocabulary exercises. Also available are handouts for classroom use in Word and PDF formats. All the material on the site is freely downloadable with a month-by-month archive available. The news material covered includes political and social content and is suitable for secondary school students upwards. The only possible reservation teachers based in England may have is the potential confusion caused by the site's use of American English spelling. This is an inventive and generous resource, whose daily updating must involve considerable commitment from the author. It is straightforward to use and well-presented.
The BASE website offers information about and access to the British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus. The corpus consists of recordings made in a variety of university departments, grouped into four broad disciplinary groups with 40 lectures and 10 seminars in each: Arts and Humanities; Social Sciences; Physical Sciences; and Life Sciences. The recordings, together making up around 1.6 million word tokens, have been transcribed and tagged, and the transcriptions can be downloaded from the website in XML format. The lecture portion of the corpus can also be accessed through the Sketch Engine corpus analysis interface (subscrition-based with free 30-day trial). The BASE corpus is a valuable resource for investigation of language use in academic context and the website contains a list of publications and conference papers which refer to BASE data. In addition to the BASE manual, the site also provides access to an Excel spreadsheet with information about the individual lectures and seminars, such as: title; department; audience; date of recording; speakers; duration. A link is provided to a selection of interviews with academic staff made in relation to the BASE corpus. The corpus can also be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)), on completion of a request access form.
The website of the British Council works as a showcase for British culture, arts and science to other countries. The site is easy to navigate and provides information on a wide variety of subjects including: teaching and learning English; education and training; the arts and culture; science; society; and governance. The site is also useful for UK users, giving details on the Council's international exchange programmes and English teaching opportunities. The site lists the addresses and contact details for its offices around the UK and the world and forthcoming job opportunities, as well as giving details of the Council's many international projects. This resource is of immeasurable use for those wishing to find out about the United Kingdom, learn or teach English, or to find out about the work done by the charity in promoting British culture abroad.
British Library, Archival sound recordings: English accents and dialects is an online database of twentieth century regional accents. Users can listen to over 600 recordings of people talking from all over England, between 1950 and 1999. The files have been taken from two British Library oral history collections: the Survey of English Dialects and the Millennium Memory Bank. Each file is accompanied by catalogue information, an explanation of unusual words, and notable phonology and grammar. There are also introductions to the collections explaining the background of the extracts and their usefulness to English social history.
The British National Corpus (BNC) website offers information about and access to the BNC, a 100-million word corpus of written and spoken English. The BNC was compiled according to carefully designed criteria and contains a wide variety of written and spoken language. The written texts (100 million words) were taken from a range of fiction and non-fiction domains usually dating back not earlier than 1975. The spoken samples (10 million words) include material from different contexts and regions produced by speakers of different ages and social backgrounds. The corpus is a key resource used for research and teaching in a number of areas, such as: lexicography; natural language processing; applied and theoretical linguistics.
The BNC website describes how the corpus was created and offers comprehensive information about its content and structure. Information on how to use the customised search software (Xaira or SARA) is also available, in the form of step-by-step guides and sample queries. The Simple Search function on the site allows users to see how often a word or phrase occurs in the corpus, and to retrieve up to 50 examples. Links are provided to other sites which offer access to the corpus or to resources created on the basis of it, such as word lists.
Unrestricted access to the corpus requires a user licence, which can be obtained by purchasing a copy of the corpus on DVD or by registering for the Subscription Service. A 30-day free trial is available to those who register and download a copy of the search software.
The BYU Corpus of American English is a very large collection of texts which is being made freely available online via a dedicated search interface. The interface allows the user to search the corpus for words and phrases and display the search result as a concordance with limited context. In addition to searching for exact words or phrases, users can exploit wildcards in their searches, search for lemma and part-of-speech information, look for collocates, and make semantically-based queries, amongst other things. The corpus initially consists of around 360 million words, equal amounts from each year from 1990 to 2007. New material will added at least twice a year. The texts are drawn from a variety of sources and are divided into five genres of equal size: spoken; fiction; popular magazines; newspapers; and academic journals. The search interface is simple to use, and offers functions that are not generally found in corpus search tools, such as the ability to find synonyms and compare similar words. A help file is available and information about how to use this very powerful tool is also provided in the form of a five minute guided tour. The BYU Corpus of American English is a valuable resource for anyone interested in looking at how English, especially American English, is used today. The composition of the corpus makes it particularly suitable for comparisons across time period or genre.
The Cambridge English Renaissance Electronic Service (CERES) is a project at the University of Cambridge which aims to explore the possibilities of electronic media for literary research. The home page provides links to a number of virtual workshops. These include the Aeneas and Isabella Project, a collaborative project which allows scholars to contribute to a database of comments on selected texts; Sidneiana, a multimedia archive of material relating to Sir Philip Sidney and his circle; and Haphazard, an online manuscript resource for students and scholars working on Edmund Spenser. CERES also publishes an online newsletter called Harvest which reviews and recommends sites for scholars working on the Renaissance period. The site is very attractively designed and illustrated, as well as easily navigable. Links to other resources have been carefully selected on the basis of academic and scholarly merit.
The website of the Canterbury Tales Project provides information about the project and access to a number of their articles. The aim of the project is to examine the textual history of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales from 84 manuscripts and four pre-1500 printed editions using computer-assisted means. Since it was founded in the early 1990s, the project has produced editions of individual tales, as well as individual manuscript facsimiles. Using new technology, recent research, computer collation and computer-assisted analysis, the project has produced new insights into Chaucer scholarship. The methodology of the project and the way in which the texts are being recorded, collated and analysed is described on the website through access to a large number of articles published by the project. More information about the CD-ROMs produced by the project is also provided on the website as well as a selection of links to other sites related to Chaucer and related topics. This site is of use to scholars of Chaucer, as well as those in other fields such as dialectology, palaeography, and textual analysis.
The website of the Council for College and University English (CCUE) provides information on the representative body for higher education departments providing teaching and research in English language and literature in the UK. CCUE aims to: represent and promote the interests of English in higher education in the United Kingdom; provide a forum for higher education teachers of English; collect and exchange information; and to liaise with other institutions on matters relevant to the study of English. The site provides: the CCUE's constitution; a list of officers; an archive of minutes of meetings; and texts of current and previous CCUE consultations. This resource would be of interest to teachers of English in all UK higher education institutions.
The project 'Common European Words, Idioms & Proverbs' (CEWIP) has been financed by the European Union and carried out by research groups from: Germany; Italy; Spain; Slovakia; and Poland (although English and French are also covered). The main goal is to bring together all those linguistic elements which European languages have in common, despite their most evident differences. The main page is divided in three sections: words, idioms, and proverbs. In each of these, users may browse corresponding dictionaries of those elements which European languages have in common, as well as activities and interactive exercises. The project seeks to raise awareness of shared linguistic roots, and both tutors and students may use the resources which have been made available to further explore aspects of comparative linguistics.
The Chaucer Pedagogy Page is a website for both teachers and students of Geoffrey Chaucer and his works. This site is a good starting point for Chaucerian research and teaching on a basic level, providing information and links to related resources. The site groups resources and links under basic questions such as "who was Chaucer and what did he do?" and "why was Chaucer's time so important?", as well as providing research paper ideas and information on assessing websites for accuracy and content. The author of the site provides links to other Chaucer sites, as well as to electronic texts in both Middle and Modern English. Resources for teachers includes a 'refresher' section that covers Middle English: grammar; syntax; vocabulary; and pronunciation, as well as providing links to online bibliographies, and e-text primary sources. The site also provides: assignment ideas; teaching notes; later-secondary-school assignments; and a section on responsible research techniques and avoiding plagiarism.
The website 'Chronicles and Society in Northern England in the Fourteenth Century' provides a one-page introduction to this Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) funded project. The project's main aim is to produce a new translation of the fourteenth-century work 'Salacronica', written in French, by Sir Thomas Gray. The team will also seek to produce scholarly articles relating the work to other contemporary writing in the North of England. This new edition will supersede those of Joseph Stevenson (1836) and H.E. Maxwell (1907), neither of which contains a full text. The project team intends to examine the text within its linguistic, historical, and historiographical contexts. In particular, issues such as local attitudes to the Scots, cross border conflicts, and Edward III's wars in France will be addressed. This project received funding from the AHRC within the Research Grants scheme. This resource, when available, will be of interest to students of medieval languages and history, as well as researchers in those fields.
The Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler (CEECS) is an electronic resource which can be downloaded from the Oxford Text Archive website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)). The 0.45 million word Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler was created from the larger Corpus of Early English Correspondence. CEECS covers the years 1418-1680, and consists of 1,147 letters written by 194 writers. The selection criteria were arbitrary, as only 23 editions which were no longer in copyright could be included, but CEECS is nevertheless a fairly representative sample of the full corpus. COCOA markup references are used. Access to this resource is restricted, and hence users are requested to complete a short online form to apply for a copy.
The Corpus of English Dialogues (CED) is an electronic resource comprising dialogues from 1560 to 1760. It can be downloaded from the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) website: however, access to the material is restricted, and users are asked to complete a short Web form to apply for a copy. To give a picture of spoken interaction of the past, as mediated through written records, the CED contains 1.2 million words drawn from both texts which include constructed dialogue and those which purportedly record language from authentic speech situations. There are five main text types in the CED: drama comedy; didactic works (language manuals and other handbooks); fiction; trial proceedings; and witness depositions. The corpus texts have been coded to indicate features such as: foreign language; narration; compilers' comments; editorial comments and emendations; and font changes. The CED comprises 177 text files, and is distributed in plain text and XML formats, accompanied by a PDF guide to the corpus.
The Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse is a website containing a database of over 50 medieval texts encoded in SGML, complete with full bibliographic details. The Corpus is set eventually to expand to include all texts which formed the basis for the Middle English Dictionary. The entire corpus may be searched in a variety of ways and texts may be searched individually or grouped together. The full texts themselves can be browsed and accessed from the search page (although some texts are large and take some time to open), which also links to the Middle English Dictionary and the full bibliography of all the sources used in the compilation of the Dictionary. The standard of presentation is high throughout the site, with the text display kept clear and simple. The site will undoubtedly prove useful to researchers and students of medieval English literature.
This is the website of Lancaster University's Department of Linguistics and English Language. There is information on A level English studies, including a separate website. Here there are: answers from staff from the department to questions on language and linguistics; an annotated selection of links to websites and resources that are of use to A level English language students and teachers; and an annotated guide to A level English language book resources. The department's website also has information about undergraduate admissions to the department, courses available, a postgraduate prospectus, as well as lots of information about general linguistics including a list of Web links. In addition, the site contains links to the webpages of the department's research centres.
This web resource includes a description of dialects and dialect levelling (reduction of local dialect features in favour of a more urban type of English, closer to Standard English) in Britain in the 20th century. It makes an analysis of the social and economic factors underlying dialect change, provides a discussion of Standard English and Estuary English, and gives annotated bibliography. The site is intended primarily for GCE Advanced level GCE (AS and A2) students in English, but will be of interest to language students on university degree courses, and others with an interest in the English language. It is based on a paper presented by Paul Kerswill at a conference at the University of Tartu, Estonia, in August 2000. The paper, originally called Mobility, meritocracy and dialect levelling: the fading (and phasing) out of Received Pronunciation, is downloadable from the site in PDF format.
The title of this online resource corresponds to a series of books 'Dialects of English' published by University of Edinburgh Press. The series documents 'varieties of English from all over the English-speaking world', each volume focusing on one particular dialect to explore its background, history, lexis, phonetics and phonology. The website hosts the recordings of spoken English which have been made in relation to this publication series. The recorded varieties available so far include Northern and Insular Scots, Singapore English, New Zealand English and Indian English. Although copyrighted, these recordings are available for downloading free of charge, if used for the purposes of teaching and research, thus providing ready to use material for students and researchers, as well as any members of the public interested in English dialects.
The “Dictionary of Newfoundland English Online” website contains a digital version of the printed Dictionary of Newfoundland English edited by G.M. Story, W.J. Kirwin, and J.D.A. Widdowson (University of Toronto Press, 1982) together with the supplement published in 1990. The online version retains the preface, introduction, bibliography, index, and works cited whilst permitting the reader to browse through entries. The introduction explains the work’s scope and criteria for inclusion. Phonetic transcriptions have not made it into the electronic version due to the difficulty of representing the phonetic alphabet. The site is keyword searchable and users may also search by terms or definitions. The online edition is a project of the Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage website.
The Dictionary of old English is the website of an electronic dictionary based on the DOEC (Dictionary of Old English Corpus) and is an ongoing project of the University of Toronto. The DOEC contains the full-texts of nearly all known Anglo-Saxon texts - from the law code issued by Athelbert of Kent (c.580-616) to the closing annal of the Old English Chronicle in 1154. Versions of texts that have been transcribed in different dialects or at different times are included in the DOEC. The corpus consists of over 3,000 documents and is available (via subscription) online. As of 2006, volumes 'A' to 'F' of the Dictionary of Old English have been completed and published, with work continuing further down the alphabet. These volumes can be bought on CD-ROM. The website does allow users to search freely for variant spellings in the Dictionary, but citations can only be viewed if the user or their institution has a subscription to the Corpus. A list of texts cited in the Dictionary (with bibliographic information) is also available free. This site would be of use to researchers working in the fields of Anglo-Saxon literature or language, but gives limited options without subscription. The corpus can be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)) on completion of the request access form.
The Electronic Introduction to Old English is an online edition of the book by Peter S. Baker of the University of Virgina. The aim of the online resource is to promote interest in Old English by making information about the language widely available. The site invites readers' comments and suggestions, with the promise that any subsequent corrections will appear in the online version, and at a later date, in the printed edition. The website is divided into chapters, including: 'The Anglo-Saxons and their language'; 'The Grammar of Old English Poetry'; and 'Reading Old English Manuscripts', as well as chapters on: pronunciation; word order; basic grammar; nouns; cases; adjectives; and verbs. The chapters are preceded by an introduction to the electronic edition of the work, and details relating to system requirements and accessibility. Appendices to the main work include a bibliography and suggested further reading. This resource would be of use to English and history students wishing to read Anglo-Saxon poems and documents in their original language.
ELISA: English Language Interview corpus as a Second-language Application is developed at the Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen and the University of Surrey. Its aim is to become a resource for language learning and teaching, and interpreter training. It consists of video recordings of interviews with native English speakers from, for example, England; Scotland; Ireland; Australia; and US. The interviews have been transcribed. The site is a demo that gives free access to a number of video clips and transcriptions as text and XML files. In addition there is a search engine that allows searches in the transcripts and present the result as concordances or word counts. The material on the website is free for use in research, teaching and study with due recognition of the project. This is a valuable resource for anyone interested in corpus linguistics, spoken English or applied linguistics.
The ELT journal may be accessed through the Oxford Journals website. It is a quarterly publication for language teachers and other professionals with an interest in the field of teaching English as a second or foreign language. It addresses everyday practical concerns of ELT (English Language Teaching) professionals as well as more theoretical issues related to the fields of education; linguistics; psychology; and sociology. The site gives access to contents from the journal from volume 1, issue 1, January 1946 onwards. A Special link leads to a feature called Key concepts in ELT, which focuses on central ideas in ELT and contains abstracts and some free downloadable articles in PDF format. There is an online subscription form for the journal available; also a standard online form for applying for journal permissions. Agencies, companies and industry can also apply for bulk purchase of article reprints; bulk subscriptions; sponsorship of supplements; translation of previously published articles or supplements; and online access to articles and supplements for company websites.
The website of the English Association (founded in 1906) is devoted to an international organisation whose aims are to further knowledge and appreciation of the English language and literature and to facilitate related teaching and learning at all levels. The Association: provides a forum for discussion of methods of teaching English; organises regular conferences and lectures; publishes conference proceedings, books, pamphlets, and journals for the general reader, for schools and for scholars; hosts a student web page with information for students of English; and works towards a fuller recognition of English as an essential element in education and in the community at large. The site is well organised and gives detailed information on all of the above areas, as well as a number of useful links.
English For Specific Purposes is an online subscription journal that publishes articles and research notes on English studies and Linguistics. It will be of interest to university students as well as teachers of English and Linguistics. Topics which have been been featured in past issues of English For Specific Purposes displays a wide range of information from discourse analysis; second language acquisition in specialised contexts; legal writing; needs assessment; curriculum development and evaluation; materials preparation to teaching and testing techniques. The journal also contains reviews of textbook materials and scholarly books on topics like writing; genres; media; gender studies; and classroom dynamics. In addition, the online English journal welcomes suggestions for improvement and encourages discussions which identify which aspects require development. Although there is a plethora of information available only one volume is free to read. The others are available only to subscribers. Contents and abstracts are available online from volume 1, issue 1, 1980.
"English handwriting 1500-1700" is part of the Cambridge English Renaissance Electronic Service (CERES). The website provides an online course for late medieval, renaissance and early modern palaeography (paleography) on the basis of an extensive archive of manuscript images, drawn from several Cambridge colleges. In fifteen course lessons, it offers samples of different hands and manuscripts, and invites the visitor to supply transcriptions in the workspace provided. A wide range of pedagogical materials is provided, such as exemplary transcriptions of each course manuscript, alphabets of letter forms, an historical introduction, and codicological as well as palaeographical analyses. Each lesson concludes with a short test, and follow-up sections are available.This site is aimed mainly at beginners, but is also convenient for continuing reference, and includes a concise bibliography and list of links. It has a very user-friendly navigation, and provides downloadable PDF versions of the transcriptions.
The English Language of the North-West in the Late Modern English Period website introduces a corpus of never-before transcribed letters written to Richard Orford, a steward at Lyme Hall in Cheshire, between 1761 and 1790. The collection is held in the John Rylands University Library of Manchester. These are unselfconscious practical letters, often by uneducated people, on matters of business, farming, mining, and social relations. A Corpus of Late Eighteenth-Century Prose contains about 300,000 words, available free for download as a single text file for electronic searching or as three linked HTML files for maximum readability. The corpus can be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)), or from the project manager on completion of the request access form.
This vast website from a Brazilian teacher of English offers, on the one hand, resources useful for teaching English as a Second Language and, on the other, materials and information relevant for comparative linguistic study of Portuguese and English. Teaching methodology is outlined (including the theories of Piaget, Chomsky, Vygotskii and Krashen), together with articles on, for example, language acquisition; aptitude; and motivation. Further short essays covering the history and global status of both languages and monolingualism, are also available here. Of particular interest, however, is the site's comparative approach to the study of both languages: users will find sections devoted to English and Portuguese phonemes, consonants, idioms and false friends compared. While the bulk of the site is useful for Portuguese-speaking English teachers, with much material devoted to explaining the major difficulties students have with English (in Portuguese), these comparative studies will interest teachers of the Portuguese language as well, and serve as good reference guides. The site also features a lively discussion forum, where questions regarding both languages may be addressed.
The English Project is a website of a project supported by the University of Winchester, which is devoted to promoting "awareness and understanding of the unfolding global story of the English language in all its varieties – past, present and future". The Project plans to launch as a major resource in 2012. The website provides information on the Project's activities, including events such as English Language Day, as well as publishing articles relating to its work and to the English language in general. The site also solicits input from users (for example in a texting survey) in order to collect more information on the changing nature of the English language and its usage. The website and the project are both a work in progress at the time of writing, but there is much of potential interest to students, teachers and speakers of English in general. Users of the site can sign up to be notified of future developments in the project, including a planned visitor centre in Winchester, and other related exhibitions and talks.
This web page provides a guide to writing scholarly English. Firstly, reasons are given for the existence of stylistic conventions. These are followed by a detailed guide to punctuation and grammar, looking at the use of grammatical logic in essays, and issues concerning vocabulary. Hints and tips are provided for students wishing to improve their style. After this, the author includes a short section on conventions for scholarly papers, and a link to a table of correction marks. Finally, an appendix is provided giving bibliographical details of other works concerning good English usage.The guide is clear and succinct and includes helpful examples. It should provide a useful reference source for students uncertain of their grammar or scholarly style.
The website of the English Subject Centre is one of the key resources for English teachers in UK Higher Education. The Subject Centre forms part of the UK's Higher Education Academy (formerly the Learning & Teaching Support Network (LTSN)), which promotes the sharing of innovation and good practice in learning and teaching, including the use of communications and information technology (C&IT). The English Subject Centre provides the English Literature, English Language, and Creative Writing communities with news of government programmes and funding initiatives that have an impact upon English studies. The 'Explore' section of the website provides a schedule of events organised by the Centre, which includes workshops and conferences on diverse themes, from studying Shakespeare to various approaches on how to teach creative writing. Also in the 'Explore' section, the user will find a long list of resources for English teachers, addressing topics such as: legal issues; student assessment and examination; plagiarism; access issues; the use of information technology; and funding opportunities. A 'Projects' page details the various projects with which the Subject Centre is associated. The site features an online discussion board, and there are mailing lists related to e-learning and Subject Centre activities that users may subscribe to. The website is available in English and Welsh versions.
English Today (ET) is a quarterly journal covering all aspects of the English language: its history, literature and linguistics; international variations; uses and abuses; neologisms; the influence of the new communication technologies on English; academic models of the language; teaching of the international standard language. ET will be of interest to linguists, teachers of English, advanced language students, and professionals working with the English language (writers, broadcasters, journalists). A ten-year thematic index is published in ET vol.11, No 1, January 1995. The site offers a general overview of the printed journal, its editorial board, and instructions for contributors. Special discounts are available for members of certain professional organisations. Abstracts are available online, starting with volume 1, issue 01 (1985).
English World-Wide is a biannual scholarly journal for the study of varieties of English around the world. It focuses on the dialectology and sociolinguistics of native and second-language speaking communities. The journal also includes research on creoles, language planning, multilingualism, modern historical linguistics and general sociolinguistics. The site gives access to the contents and abstracts of the journal, and a link to IngentaJournals, where online access to the full-texts is available to members of subscribing institutions. Private subscription including access to the electronic version of the journal is also available. Contents are available from volume 1, issue 1, 1980, while contents and abstracts are available from volume 21, issue 1, 2000.
Erfurt Electronic Studies in English (ISSN 1430-6905) is a peer reviewed online journal that publishes full-text articles and reviews across the broad spectrum of English studies, including literature, linguistics, film, humanities computing, English as a foreign language, cultural and gender studies. Although based at the University of Erfurt, Germany, the journal is in English. As a result, many of the articles consider issues raised by teaching English language and literature in a non-English culture. Some of the topics discussed in recent and earlier articles include: The Anatomy of Modernity: Browning and T.S. Eliot (2008); Global Gazes at British Literature: A Report on the 30th Cambridge Seminar on Contemporary British Literature, 2007; The Problems of Xenophobia and the Teaching of English at Japanese Universities (2002); Anne Finch Surveys Womankind (2001). The site links to other related Resources, including Prolepsis, the online book review journal for English Studies. A General Index is also provided, although discontinued in 2002.
The European Society for the Study of English (ESSE) is a federation of national higher educational institutions for the study and understanding of English languages, literatures and cultures of English-speaking peoples. The Society's web pages provides information about its international conference; call for papers and articles from other conferences and also for printed collections; online editions of the Society's newsletter, The European English Messenger (1995- ); information about the Society's journal, The European Journal of English Studies (EJES); and bursaries available for researchers in English studies.
This website discusses the form of English widely spoken in and around London, so called Estuary English. It is a rich compilation of academic articles, monographs, abstracts, lecture handouts, bibliography and newspaper reports. The site is hosted by the Phonetics and Linguistics Department of University College London and relies on both academic and journalistic articles and materials. It also provides links to other similar sites. The information presented is authoritative, very reliable and exhaustive. The site is useful for all levels of teaching and research, and provides a wealth of information about modern developments of the English language within the UK. It is regularly updated and maintained, making it a very useful current resource.
'Examining the Oxford English Dictionary' is the website of a project dedicated to exploring the development of one of the most comprehensive and well-known English resources. The project is of value to language and literature researchers at all levels, for the insights it gives into the complex relationship between language and literature and the development of both. Authored by Charlotte Brewer, a member of the English Faculty at Oxford University, the site illustrates a level of scholarship and detail that reflects the huge achievement of the dictionary itself. Setting out to uncover the foundations of the English language as represented in the OED, Brewer considers the dictionary's quotations and quotation sources, using the search facilities of the OED online. The project explores the Dictionary's bias towards certain types of literature and language by means of analysing the quotations used for its definitions, focussing on the under-representation of 18th-century sources and women authors. The website is regularly updated with news of additional materials and downloadable secondary source articles. Well-presented and user-friendly, this site uses a comprehensive range of information, from philosophical debate to detailed analysis of facts and statistics, to explore the role of the OED in the development of the English language.
Fontes Anglo-Saxonici is an online database which aims to identify all written sources incorporated, quoted, translated, or adapted into all English and Latin texts written down in Anglo-Saxon England.The database contains a detailed listing of the sources of sentences and in some cases phrases occurring in both Old English and Latin texts, and as such, it is an excellent resource for an in-depth analysis of the sources of Anglo-Saxon literature. The well-organized database allows the user to search for specific passages in available works according to line numbers. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB, now Arts and Humanities Research Council AHRC) within the Research Grants scheme. The resource can also be downloaded from the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)), as a zipped file in HTML and Microsoft Access format.
'Francis Lodwick: a working bibliography' is a website created by the Centre for Early Modern Studies at the University of Oxford. The site's aim is to provide more detail about the seventeenth-century linguist and philosopher Francis Lodwick and to enable further study of his works in the absence of other detailed bibliographies. The site gives: a brief biography of Lodwick; a short explanation of the rationale behind the bibliography; and the bibliography itself. This resource sheds some light on a relatively neglected but important figure in English philosophical and linguistic thought, and would interest students and researchers working in: philosophy; English; and linguistics.
The British Academic Written English (BAWE) corpus is a project involving the universities of Warwick, Reading and Oxford Brookes and is funded by Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The corpus contains some 3000 academic student assignments, divided into four disciplinary areas, Arts and Humanities; Social Sciences; Life Sciences; and Physical Sciences, and across four levels of study. The corpus is accessible through the Open Sketch Engine which allows online searches in the corpus. The corpus itself is available free of charges to researchers who register with Oxford Text Archive. This is a valuable resource for researchers within the subject area of corpus linguistics and English language studies.
The Geoffrey Chaucer website, hosted by the English department at Harvard University, has been developed as a companion resource for the undergraduate study of Chaucer (c.1340-1400). The texts and essays available are arranged by topic including: Life of Chaucer; Canterbury Tales; Literary Subjects; Life and Manners; Medieval Science; and Chaucer's Language. The resources give a general overview of life in the later Middle Ages, and of the literary tradition of the period, but notably focus on the Canterbury Tales rather than any of Chaucer's other works. Each of the Canterbury Tales has an introductory essay which makes use of both quotations and illustrations, and further reading is also suggested. A full site index greatly assists in the retrieval of resources. This site would be of use to undergraduate students and teachers looking for an introduction to medieval life and to Chaucer's best-known works.
'The Glossarial Database of Middle English' is an online resource enabling text searching of The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer. The database was prepared as part of a larger resource that, at the time of writing, has not yet been completed. Search results give the number of occurrences of the search string, and each occurrence is reported with its: text reference; Lemma form; and grammatical type. The language of each word is also given, in order to distinguish the Middle English from Latin, Greek, or French equivalents. The site also provides some linguistic statistics relating to the Canterbury Tales. Searches may be conducted with filters if required.
This website provides a basic glossary of literary terms. As of July 2009 the site is still incomplete (last revised in 1999), and lacks many of the rhetorical terms the title promises. All entries are listed alphabetically, each item linking to a specific term. Each definition includes hyperlinks to other terms where appropriate, and some include illustrative examples. An index of topics sorts individual terms according to whether they are applied to poetry, the novel, or drama. 'The Book' heading groups basic bibliographical terms, and a 'genre' heading intends to familiarise the user with more specific generic terms, such as 'Bildungsroman'. There is also a 'history' heading, under which are arranged the various traditional periods and schools of literary history. Unfortunately, the index of topics is not hyperlinked, thus serving only as an example how to find relevant items in the glossary. This resource might be useful for non-specialists faced with literary criticism, or literature undergraduates at the outset of their courses.
This impressive website provides a glossary of poetic terms. Innumerable definitions are given spanning the whole poetic lexicon, including various forms, metres, rhetorical devices, styles, and technical critical terms. Many of the definitions include hypertext cross-references to other related topics, as well as illustrative quotations from poems where applicable. Phonetic pronunciation guidelines are also given for terms where uncertainty may arise. The site is smartly presented, and its contents may be downloaded for off-line reference purposes. This site is likely to prove an excellent resource for all levels of student up to undergraduates. It is the work of Robert G. Shubinski, someone with an evident passion for poetry.
This online resource provides an alphabetical quick reference guide of rhetorical terms, indexed alphabetically from alliteration to zeugma. Descriptions are succinct and are complemented well by the examples given. In many instances links are provided from the examples given to an electronic version of the text cited at the Perseus Digital Library website. These links usefully take the visitor to the precise point in the text from which the examples is given. The examples are predominantly from classical texts, but others are from modern and early modern sources. The resource is provided by Ross Scaife of the Department of Modern and Classical Languages, Literatures, and Cultures at the University of Kentucky.
'A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices' is part of former university lecturer Robert A. Harris's educational site 'VirtualSalt'. This online handbook provides definitions and examples for 60 rhetorical terms, along with a short self-test for students. The handbook was originally printed in 1980, but has now effectively been superseded by its author's new book (details of which are provided on the site). However, the definitions are clear and detailed in this version, and would provide a very useful source of reference for students of this subject.
The History of Literacy website is maintained by the History of Reading Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Reading Association and provides a focal point for anyone researching the history of literacy and reading. The site includes information about the History of Reading SIG; back issues of the group's newsletter (in PDF, from 1976); a series of online publications (also in PDF) which provide practical guidance on undertaking (and funding) research on the history of literacy; and a series of pages dedicated to locating research resources including archives, organisations, book reviews, and funding grants. There are smaller sections on teaching, offering sample course syllabi, and unannotated links to further online resources. The group maintains an email discussion list, the subscription details for which are also available.
This website details the ongoing Historical Thesaurus of English (HTE) project. It describes the project itself, how the finished work will be organised, and lists publications that have benefited from the work on the thesaurus so far. The site also provides some sample entries, such as 'beer' and 'gin'.The HTE contains English words (including Old English) from their earliest written occurrence, giving information on when they fell out of use (where appropriate and known). It is based on the New Oxford English Dictionary. The HTE is organised into three sections: the External World, the Mind, and Society. Within each section, words are ordered chronologically and semantically (not alphabetically). The HTE allows the building of models of vocabularies available at any one time, and it should be a valuable research tool for studying literary and linguistic history. The project received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) within the Research Grants scheme.
The International Corpus of English (ICE) website presents a corpus compilation project that aims to provide comparable corpora of English from different English-speaking regions around the world. Each corpus will contain one million words of spoken and written language, taken from a wide range of sources and situations. There is a common corpus design that is being used by every compilation team, and a common scheme for grammatical annotation, thus ensuring compatibility between the corpora. The site describes the corpus design and annotation schemes and provides information about the different ICE teams, including information about the different varieties of English, bibliographical references and related links. As of January 2008, the following corpora are available for download: Hong Kong; East Africa; India; Philippines; and Singapore. The corpora from Great Britain and New Zealand are available on CD. Sample sound files can be found on the website.
This is the website of International Dialects of English Archive (IDEA). It is a free online archive of primary source dialect and accent recordings for the performing arts. The archive was created in 1997 by Paul Meier, author of Accents and Dialects for Stage and Screen, and a leading dialect coach for theatre and film. The archive is hosted by the Department of Theatre and Film at the University of Kansas. The dialects and accents recordings can be browsed by region. All recordings are in English, of native speakers, and one can find both English language dialects and English spoken in the accents of other languages. The recordings are downloadable and playable for both PC and Macintosh computers.
The Immediacy of Rhetoric: Definitions, Illustrations, and Implications is an online version of Steven D. Krause's PhD dissertation. The thesis addresses issues of rhetoric relating to the Internet. Looking in particular at notions of immediacy, Krause examines how postmodernity and new technology alter and destabilise traditional concepts such as: the rhetor; the audience; and the 'message'. Beginning with a discussion of 'kairos', the thesis goes on to study, using the theories of Derrida, Foucault, and Baudrillard, the relationship between 'immediacy' and 'situation'. An abstract is provided, along with a relatively modest bibliography.
The Institute for Name-Studies is concerned with research into English place-names and personal names and is based at the University of Nottingham. The institute also houses the offices and libraries of the English Place-Name Society (EPNS). The site contains information about the institute and the studies conducted there. This website makes available an online version of the Institute's database titled A Key to English Place-Names. This project, which is supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), aims to provide access to information about the origins of the names of England's towns and villages. The page allows the user to access etymological information about the names of the 14,000 English parishes in the 42 historic counties through a digitised map. Users select the county they wish to explore, and are taken to a county map. Clicking on a place-name opens a pop-up window displaying the etymological information for that name. The site can be browsed using an alphabetical county index that links to lists of parishes within each county. The search function allows users to search by name or by elements within the name, and may be restricted by county and by the original language of the place-name. At the time of cataloguing, the search by name was not working, but the other search functions produced results. The pop-up windows showing etymological information also contain some unexplained codes or references. This website is likely to be of considerable general interest, as well as being a very valuable research tool for linguists, historians and students of local history.
The website for IGLO (Intercomprehension in Germanic Languages Online) aims to foster cross-linguistic comprehension (rather than production) among the Germanic languages, and their teaching to people who already speak closely-related languages. The language of instruction can be selected from the IGLO course interactive map, and include: Danish; Dutch; English; German; Icelandic; Norwegian; and Swedish. Once a language of instruction has been selected, simple instructions in that language guide the user through further material, including histories of the Germanic languages, and comparative Germanic. For the Germanic languages listed, users will also find information on spelling and grammar, glossing-tools, and encyclopaedic facts. At the time of cataloguing, a page of sound-spelling correspondences was under development. Further links on the site provide access to three reference grammars for each language (a mini grammar, a reader's grammar and a reference grammar), a glossing device, links to dictionaries and other tools of use to the student, as well as to general information on the IGLO project, which is a collaboration between the Universities of Tromsø, Hagen, Lund, Salzburg, Iceland, and Antwerp, and the Copenhagen Business School. IGLO should be of use to those interested in the relationships between Germanic languages, and for those hoping to improve their comprehension abilities. At the time of review the coverage seemed somewhat patchy and the site hadn't been updated since 2003. This may still be a useful resource.
The IATEFL site (International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language) aims to support English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching professionals worldwide. It includes conference information, English language teaching book publications and jobs. There is a specific section of the site for Special Interest Groups, which covers Business English, Computers, English for Specific Purposes, Global Issues, and more. The website is straightforward to use and well laid-out, with a comprehensive coverage of relevant issues for teaching EFL, in a user-friendly format. Full membership details are included, as well as news of live events.
'International Index to Black Periodicals Full Text' is an electronic database that provides access to citations and abstracts from scholarly journals and newsletters published in the United States, Africa and the Caribbean, as well as 'full-text coverage of core Black Studies periodicals'. Access is granted to all interested institutions and individuals on the basis of an annual subscription fee. The index covers a wide variety of humanities and social sciences subjects, including visual arts, literature, language, history, philosophy, cultural studies, sociology, economy, law, religion, and others. The bibliography included reflects the current developments in Black Studies scholarship, but the articles in this collection can also date back to as early as 1900, thus providing a historical context for the issues concerned. The website allows performing a variety of searches, using different combinations of elements, such as keywords, author, title, subject categories, terms, publication details or ISSN. This database will be useful to students and researchers, irrespective of their field of expertise, and all those who are interested in Black Studies.
This online course in English grammar, written in 1996-1998, was designed at the Survey of English Usage, a research unit based at University College London, and is funded by Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). It contains sections on word classes; phrases; clauses; sentences; form and function; a glossary of linguistic terms; grammar exercises; and a bibliography section. It is intended for university graduates and anyone interested in the English language (including teachers of English as a foreign language and learners). It is freely available to users from UK educational institutions. It is also available on CD-ROM.
This website is an introduction to traditional grammar for students of medieval literature. Written and edited by Dr Bella Millet of Southampton University, the site seeks to present the varieties of medieval grammar in an historically contextualised manner. The site is divided into two main sections: basic grammar (that is, modern grammar) - for example, syntax and parts of speech; Old English - basic grammar equivalents in Old English.There is also a very useful index of grammatical terms, complete with links to explanations and examples.
The Iowa State University Play Concordances website is designed to assist university students studying word usage in drama. It is not concerned with analysis or criticism. The website contains concordances to: 'Candida' by Bernard Shaw; 'The Children's Hour' by Lillian Hellman; 'Death of a Salesman' by Arthur Miller; 'A Doll House' by Henrik Ibsen; 'The Father' by August Strindberg; 'The Importance of Being Earnest' by Oscar Wilde; 'Juno and Paycock' by Shawn O'Casey; 'The Little Foxes' by Lillian Hellman; ''night Mother' by Marsha Norman; and 'A Raisin in the Sun' by Lorraine Hansburry. There are full dialogue versions for some of the texts, but these are for research purposes only. For each play there are complete alphabetical word lists, plus word lists arranged by frequency of use. The site is easy to navigate and simple to use.
The IViE corpus: English Intonation in the British Isles website provides information about the Intonational Variation in English (IViE) project and access to the IViE corpus. The project examined cross-varietal and stylistic variation in English intonation, and was funded by the ESRC. It ran between 1997 and 2001 at the Phonetics Laboratory, University of Oxford and Department of Linguistics, University of Cambridge. The corpus created by the project includes 36 hours of speech recordings of nine urban varieties of English (London, Cambridge, Cardiff, Leeds, Bradford, Liverpool, Belfast, Dublin). Three of the varieties represent the speech of ethic minority groups. The recordings were collected among 16-year-olds in secondary schools and represent several different speaking styles. Part of the corpus has been prosodically transcribed. The corpus is freely available for academic research and teaching purposes and can be downloaded from the website or searched online. Information about the corpus and the research based on it can be found on the webpage. A number of the publications by the project can be accessed online. The corpus can also be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)), on completion of a request access form.
This website provides subscription information for the Journal of English for Academic Purposes (JEAP). It provides abstracts and contents of all issues from volume 1, issue 1, 2002 and full access to one free sample copy of the journal as well as a search engine for locating articles by particular authors or containing particular keywords. JEAP publishes articles, book reviews, conference reports, and academic exchanges in the linguistic, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic description of English as it occurs in the contexts of academic study and scholarly exchange itself. A wide range of linguistic, applied linguistic and educational topics may be treated from the perspective of English for academic purposes; these include: classroom language; teaching methodology; teacher education; assessment of language; needs analysis; materials development and evaluation; discourse analysis; acquisition studies in EAP contexts; research writing and speaking at all academic levels; the sociopolitics of English in academic uses and; language planning. The journal also includes review essays and reviews of research on topics important to EAP researchers.
Junicode (short for Junius-Unicode) is a Unicode font for medievalists which contains over 1,4000 characters including: runic; phonetic; and a range of special characters in the Unicode Private Use Area requested by the Society for Early English and Norse Electronic Texts. The font is made freely available under an Open Source Software licence for Windows, Linux and Macintosh. Documentation is also available. The developer of the font is Peter S. Baker, lecturer in Old English at the University of Virginia.
King Alfred's Grammar Book is an online guide to the Old English language spoken by the Anglo-Saxon inhabitants of Britain from the sixth to the eleventh centuries. It does not aim to be a comprehensive grammar, but it is nevertheless a fairly extensive introductory work, which should prove helpful to students new to Old English, as well as those who would like a refresher course on the language. The site is constructed like a printed book, with: an introduction; chapters; appendix; and glossaries, and is intended to familiarise students with the basic characteristics of Old English: its history; alphabet; pronunciation; and grammar. Within the book are then sixteen 'chapters' covering the specific parts of speech and pointing out things to look for when translating. These are supplemented with an appendix on sound changes and glossaries of grammar terms and Old English words. Presentation is plain but clear, and the content is well structured, with hyperlinks connecting different paragraphs to assist reference.
'Kritika Kultura' is an online peer-reviewed journal in English Studies published by the Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines. It is described as "an electronic journal of literary, cultural and language studies" which addresses 'issues relevant to the 21-century', such as language, literature, pedagogy, language teaching and learning, cultural and gender politics, national identity, postcolonialism, feminism, and others. The journal defines its objectives as 'exploring and examining contemporary issues in the complex nexus interconnecting language, literature, culture and society'. Apart from the current issue, previous issues are also available online in the archive section. The articles are available in full-text, and all the issues can be downloaded free of charge in the PDF format. There are comprehensive notes on the contributors, as well as instructions how to submit new articles. This online resource will be of interest, primarily, to students and researchers.
The KRYS I corpus is a set of some 6300 documents, in PDF-format, that has been collected by students at the University of Glasgow. The documents have been classified in 70 different genres in ten broader categories. The students were given one of these genres each and were told to collect up to 100 documents available on the Web within this genre. This means that the sampling itself becomes part of the research. Some 5300 documents were reclassified by independent researchers. For a substantial part of the documents the genre differed between the initial and the secondary classification. The different classifications are included in the metadata associated with the documents. The site contains information about the sampling and methods used when collecting the data. The corpus is available for research purposes subject to the demands of the copyright holders. This is a unique resource and valuable for researchers and students in, for example, the areas of automatic text classification; text mining; and pattern recognition.
The Lampeter Corpus of Early Modern English Tracts is a collection of non-literary prose texts covering the period between 1640 and 1740. The period is enclosed between the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642 and the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century and is marked by the standardisation of British English. The corpus consists of 120 texts (tracts, pamphlets). The texts are subdivided into ten decades and six domains: religion; politics; economy; science; law; and miscellaneous. Each domain is represented by two texts in each decade. The total comes up to 1.1 million words. The texts are encoded according to the guidelines of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) and use of the Standard Generalised Markup Language (SGML). They are available free of charge for scholarly research and are aimed at linguists and historians.
Since 1989 David Barton and his colleagues at the Literacy Research Centre, based at Lancaster University, have been developing the study of literacy in life, particularly adult literacy. The site carries information on current events at the Literacy Research Centre with details of weekly meetings, recent projects, a link to Research and Practice in Adult Literacy website (the only British national organisation that focuses on the role of literacy in adult life), courses offered and links to other websites dealing with literacy. The Literacy Research Centre website is a helpful site to both university students and teachers looking for a general background in literacy with a focus on adult literacy. The site is simple to navigate and there is a visitor's section where people can add suggestions or post queries.
The Learning Old English website provides a teach-yourself guide to the Old English language. It was created in response to a perceived lack of a simple and practical learning guide for beginners without a sound prior knowledge of grammar. Although the guide is work in progress, most sections are now complete. It begins with a general introduction to the origins and characteristics of the language, and proceeds to give pronunciation guidelines and the basics of Old English grammar. The focus of the course is on how words and constructions are generally used in practice, with exceptions and idiosyncrasies left to the later stages. Undergraduates struggling with the standard Mitchell and Robinson guide may wish to try this course to supplement their knowledge.
The Leeds Archive of Vernacular Culture (LAVC) comprises material from the University's former Institute of Dialect and Folk Studies (including the Survey of English Dialects), and contains many resources for oral historians and linguists. The website gives access to various different resources, including a selection of digitised images, but principally to a detailed multi-level catalogue of the archive, which was the main outcome of the three-year project. Advanced search options are available, including searching by subject keyword, place, or personal name. Results return bibliographic details with brief but informative notes on content, and in some instances links to associated materials. The LAVC is held in the the Special Collections department of Leeds University Library, and was established as the result of a three-year Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Resource Enhancement grant (2002-05).
The Early Modern English Dictionaries Database is an online searchable database of entries from sixteen early dictionaries, dating from between 1530 and 1657. The sources include bilingual lexicons as well as specialist and hard-word dictionaries. In addition to the database, there is a helpful introduction, and a bibliography of works that may be of interest to those studying the lexicography of the period. The search engine is simple and quick to use. The site is intended to benefit lexicographers, researchers studying the work of the authors of the dictionaries included, and those simply looking up words in the course of routine scholarly work. There is a public version accessible to anyone and a licensed more extensive version accessible with a subscription fee.
'Lexis complexes : literary interventions' is the online, full text of a work of literary criticism (now out of print) by Nelson Hilton, Professor of English at the University of Georgia. Combining psychoanalytic and post-structuralist approaches to literature, Hilton examines how clusters of words based on homonymic series of words (for example: 'mystery'; 'mist'; and 'missed') can reveal links between a text and the persistent concerns of the authors as expressed in other works. Hilton explores examples in texts by: Samuel Johnson; Mary Godwin; John Keats; Lord Tennyson; Charlotte Bronte; Joseph Conrad; and Sylvia Plath. Hilton's claims may at times seem tenuous, but his book provides interesting insights into the works of several famous authors, and would be of interest to linguists or advanced literary scholars.
This website accompanies Ling 131: Language and Style, an introductory undergraduate course in Stylistic Analysis (sometimes also called Literary Linguistics, Critical Linguistics, Linguistic Poetics or other similar names by other scholars) run by Lancaster University's Department of Linguistics and English Language. Stylistic Analysis focuses on how people understand texts when they read them, in particular (but not exclusively) literary texts. On this site the course notes and materials are made freely available for students and lecturers everywhere, although the site's chatroom is for local students only. The course consists of 13 topics (subdivided into sessions), which roughly represent three genres: poetry; prose fiction; and drama. The course includes some text, image and multimedia resources for analysis, round-ups, self-assessment texts, and a glossary.
A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English, 1150 - 1325 (LAEME) is an interactive online atlas, designed to enable regional and chronological linguistic study of English during this period. The Atlas complements the printed 'Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English' (LALME), which covers the period immediately following LAEME. Resources provided as part of the atlas include: a comprehensive introduction to the atlas, its contents and uses; a corpus of lexico-gramatically tagged texts (in a searchable database); a database of information regarding LAEME corpus sources; information on the software used by LAEME with instructions on concordancing, dictionary-making and map-making; and a corpus of etymologies and changes. Searches are performed mainly via 'task' buttons, which bring up search fields relevant to particular interests, namely: mapping; concordancing; timetables; tagged texts; and dictionaries. The maps illustrating regional word usages are particularly useful for those researching the origins of a particular work or manuscript. LAEME is designed specifically as a non-commercial teaching and research resource, to be cited as per a printed text. This resource would be of use both to linguists and also to medievalists studying manuscripts of the period.
Linguistic Atlas of Older Scots (LAOS) is a project at the Institute for Historical Dialectology at the University of Edinburgh and partly funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). It is a corpus of historical texts from different regions of Scotland covering the time from 1380 to 1700. Phase 1 is presented at the website covering 1380 to 1500. The corpus can be searched and browsed in a variety of ways. The distribution of different forms may be shown on maps of Scotland as a compliment to reading the texts and searching for items of interest. The website is rather hard to navigate and a read through of the manual is recommended, still this is a valuable resource for anyone researching Early Scots.
The Literature Conferences Worldwide Web page provides lists of forthcoming conferences related to literature (mainly English) and related areas, including links to the conference websites. Users can add conferences to the database and subscribe to a free email alert which includes a chronology of events relevant to user-specified search terms. Conferences are listed on the site in chronological order stretching some eighteen months into the future. There are usually 15 to 20 conferences per month listed and there is a truly international and wide-ranging list of events. Entries include a brief description of the event and usually a deadline for abstracts or proposals with a link to the conference home page. This site is part of a larger parent site (Conference alerts) which offers a similar service for many other academic disciplines. Use of the site is free.
The MANCASS C11 database project is an online database of scripts and variant Old English spellings in eleventh century manuscripts and texts. The project is based at the Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies (MANCASS), University of Manchester and funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). At present the manuscript catalogue contains details of more than 250 eleventh century manuscripts written in English from 47 major collections worldwide, and more additions are being planned. The database offers sophisticated tools for palaeography and spelling analysis. At the top level the database can be searched either by using an index of the collections included in it or an index of the manuscript shelfmarks. The database operates with concepts such as: sequences; sequence spelling; scriptors; item heading or incipit; and item spelling; many of which provide image-based points of access into the catalogue. C11 is a sophisticated specialist palaeographical and linguistic tool of great value to scholars of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts and texts.
The Medieval Review (TMR, formerly known as the Bryn Mawr Medieval Review) is an online journal sponsored by the Medieval Studies Institute at Indiana University, Bloomington. The journal publishes reviews of books and other research resources within medieval studies (broadly defined) and distributes them via a moderated email list. The TMR website gives details of how to subscribe to the email list (free of charge) as well as giving access to an archive of reviews dating from 1993 to 2009. (Reviews published after 2009 are available at the Indiana University Scholar Works Repository). Archived reviews may be browsed by year or the full text searched by keyword. Each review is also available as an SGML file (encoded according to the TEI Guidelines). Reviews to date have included books on the following subject areas: Chaucer; Heloise and Abelard; rhetoric and art; 14th century Paris; witches in the early modern age; Hincmar; suicide in the Middle Ages; Joan of Arc; scribal practice; early English drama; and Foucault and Scholastic thought. At least 100 reviews are published by the Medieval Review in any one year. This resource would be of use to students and researchers working on the medieval period from an interdisciplinary stance.
This website provides an online database of citations collected for the modal verbs and certain other English words for the Early Modern English Dictionary. The database was prepared electronically over a period of several years using many of the slips assembled during the construction of the original Oxford English Dictionary.This somewhat antique site looks unimpressive but does its job, providing the user with several different formats for searching and for displaying results. Its potential applications may be rather limited, but it will doubtless be of value to those fascinated by Early English modal verbs.
The Middle English Compendium (MEC) is a reference collection of English texts dating from between 1100 and 1500. It has been designed to offer easy access to and interconnectivity between three major Middle English electronic resources: an electronic version of the Middle English Dictionary (MED), a HyperBibliography of Middle English prose and verse, based on the MED bibliographies, and an associated network of electronic resources, including a corpus of Middle English prose and verse texts. Hypertext links offer quick connections between, for example, an MED citation, bibliographical information about its source, and an electronic version of the source (where one exists).The corpus of prose and verse texts contains over 140 texts, which can be searched for individual words and phrases. Results give the total number of occurrences in the corpus, the keyword-in-context and a brief reference (linked to the full reference in the bibliography). This site would be of use to those studying Middle English texts, either from a literary or linguistic standpoint.
'Mr. Bauld's English' is a website by a retired English lecturer from Nova Scotia, who offers open access to his years of experience in English studies. His site is a useful resource for English students up to undergraduate level. While some of the material on the site is aimed at Canadian students, the general content is suitable for any student beginning advanced study. The site may be browsed by headings including: 'Books'; 'Education'; 'Grammar/Language'; and 'Literary Criticism'. Advice is included on: writing essays; choosing texts; developing a personal philosophy towards one's own learning; and along with the good practical advice, there are some gems of wisdom that give this site a very personal voice. There are examples of student essays as well as links to essays by scholars and a wealth of general advice on approaching criticism and interpretation. This site is primarily about approaching the task of analysis and criticism and is very much a lesson from the favourite teacher that everyone goes back to visit long after they have left his classes. It's easy to navigate and full of the relaxed comforting wisdom every undergraduate needs from time to time. Users of the site should note that a few of the links on the site are broken.
The National Association for the Teaching of English (NATE) website provides information and resources for its members. The association is run on a voluntary basis and acts to represent the views of its members to: national bodies; local education authorities; exam boards; etc. The association conducts research into the teaching of English and is involved with curriculum development issues, representing English teachers at all levels from pre-school to university. As well as promoting the association, the website disseminates news and information regarding: forthcoming conferences; publications; and positions vacant. There is also a discussion group, which appears to be well used, especially by secondary school teachers. The site also features book reviews and collects media articles of interest to English teachers. A useful selection of Web links is provided.
The National Association of Writers in Education (NAWE) is a UK organisation devoted to creative writing in education. All levels of education are covered, from primary to tertiary sectors, and all genres of writing fall under the association's remit. NAWE seeks 'to further knowledge, understanding and enjoyment of Creative Writing and to support good practice in its teaching and learning at all levels.' They provide training workshops and publish a journal 'Writing in Education'. The NAWE website offers: a news service; details of forthcoming events and opportunities; information about writing courses, learning resources, and funding opportunities; links to other related sites. Each section of the site includes a chronological list of announcements or relevant references. The site also features a members' section that provides access to the articles published in 'Writing in Education' along with project reports, a members' directory, and an online discussion board. The site is well designed and easy to use. It should prove a useful resource for anyone involved with creative writing in education.
The website of the National Centre for English Cultural Tradition (NATCECT) provides information about the Centre and its activities. Based at the University of Sheffield, the Centre is the only university-based institution in England devoted to the study of all aspects of folklore. It offers undergraduate modules, an MA in Folklore and Cultural Tradition and supports PhD research on various topics. Subjects that fall within the Centre's remit include: cultural tradition; folklore; dialects; custom and belief; traditional dance, drama, and music; and traditional arts. NATCECT's activities include a Traditional Drama Research Group (TDRG). Details of conferences, publications, and the Traditional Heritage Museum are provided, and there is also a link to the NATCECT reference library page of the University of Sheffield Library website, plus a summary listing of NATCECT archive collections, which include over 1,000 research projects, 2,800 audiotapes, and 230 videotapes. Two samples from the Survey of Sheffield Usage are available in MP3 format, via the archive section.
This website is authored by Alan Hartley, a contributor of nautical terms to the Oxford English Dictionary. The site is quite basic, with little structure, and is probably only of real interest to maritime historians and researchers. On it users will find maritime history citations written for the Oxford English Dictionary, covering medieval sources, Sandahl's Middle English Sea Terms, fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth century sources, and Timoteo O'Scanlan's 1831 Spanish maritime dictionary. Also on the site are articles about English nautical vocabulary, medieval astronomical terms, and material from Hartley's unfinished Historical Dictionary of Mediterranean Nautical Terms.
The New Zealand English (NZE) website is a compilation of materials provided by a number of researchers on various aspects of English as spoken in New Zealand. The site has a simple, clear layout and provides articles on the origins, social variation and sounds of NZE. Extensive bibliography on NZE is also provided. The research projects listed include: NZE Dictionary Centre; Corpora of NZE; the NZE Journal; 'Origins of NZE Project'; English On-line Project (resources for teaching); and Evaluating English Accents Worldwide. A brief description of projects and contact details for further information are also provided.
The website associated with the Newcastle Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English (NECTE) describes a project aiming to improve access to and promote the re-use of dialect recordings made in the Newcastle conurbation between 1969 and 1994. The original corpus consisted of 86 loosely-structured interviews, most of which were subsequently phonetically and orthographically transcribed. Interviewees were drawn from a sample of the population of Gateshead in North-East England, spanning various social classes and age groups, and were encouraged to talk about their life histories and their attitudes to the local dialect. The more recent corpus (the ESRC-funded Phonological Variation and Change in Contemporary Spoken English), recorded in the early 1990s, set out to examine salient patterns of phonological variation and change in contemporary spoken British English, focusing on localised versus non-localised patterns of change. The NECTE project has amalgamated the two corpora and created the first TEI-conformant electronic vernacular corpus in a range of formats (sound files as well as phonetic and orthographic transcriptions that are also part-of-speech tagged). The site provides documentation about: the original resources and the NECTE team's enhancement of them; information about the people involved; publications resulting from the project; references; links; and appendices. The transcription and the audio files themselves are not accessible online. The site should be of use to anyone interested in Geordie dialect, linguistics, sociology, sociolinguistics, and the local public interested in changes in Tyneside expressions, folklore and reminiscences. The project was funded by the AHRC under its Resource Enhancement scheme. The resource can also be downloaded in XML format from the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)).
Nonstop English is an wesite developed and maintained by Hungarian English teacher, Laszlo Bujdoso. The site provides resources for teaching and learning English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Foreign Language (EFL). A range of online and interactive exercises are freely available, giving practice in grammar, spelling and reading. A practice exercise to prepare teachers for a TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) test is also provided. Students are encouraged to have fun learning English, with additional resources including: quotations; tongue-in-cheek historical biographies; vocabulary-building games; and crosswords . There is also a section on Business English. Students who subscribe (for free) receive motivating emails, extra exercises and score tracking. For subscribers there is also a unique personal page with activity history to see which exercises students have done, how many times and how successfully. New exercises are added every week, and in return for 20 free exercises, teachers are encouraged to submit one exercise to the site. The website is simple to navigate and is a helpful teaching and learning resource.
The Nordic Journal of English Studies (NJES) was created in 2001 and is now produced two to three times a year by the University of Göteborg in association with the Nordic Association of English Studies. It publishes articles on the English language and literatures in English. Occasionally a special issue on a specific theme of topical interest is produced. An archive of past issues is provided but many of the earlier volumes have lists of contents only. From volme 4, part 2 (November 2005) full-text is available in PDF. The journal can be searched by subject, title or author.
The excellent Old English Aerobics website uses a Java program designed to test students' knowledge of Old English (Anglo-Saxon) grammar. The site provides exercises on: cases; pronouns; nouns; verbs; adjectives; adverbs; and syntax; as well as on Old English student favourites such as i-mutation. Additional exercises are planned for metre and poetics. As well as the tests, the site also links to the 'Old English Aerobics Anthology' Web pages, which provide a number of full texts of Old English poems and prose, including: 'The Dream of the Rood'; 'The Story of Caedmon'; 'The Wanderer'; 'The Wife's Lament' and 'The Life of Aethelthryth' by Aelfric. The Old English Aerobics site is currently being re-written to accompany Peter S. Baker's 'Introduction to Old English', and can be accessed as part of the University of Virginia's Old English Resources website, together with the Anthology and a glossary. This site will be of great use to students starting to learn Anglo-Saxon, or to researchers who wish to brush up on their language skills.
Old English at the University of Calgary is a website that provides teaching materials for an online course in Old English language and literature (401) taught by Murray McGillivray. Students may register (and pay the course fee) if they wish to receive personal tuition, undertake assessed work,and receive credits. The central objective of the course is to enable students to read any Old English prose with the aid of a dictionary. The course site includes: information about the course; a menu of lessons; a wide selection of set texts; further lessons on grammar; and a short selection of related links. As the course advances students are also encouraged to use a Java-based flashcard system to assist the learning of vocabulary and grammar; and to translate sentences either from modern to old English or vice versa (also Java-based with instant feedback). The set texts for this course include: The Story of Abraham and Isaac; Ælfric's Colloquy; Bede's Account of the Poet Cædmon; and Cynewulf and Cyneheard. A selection of texts used in a sister course (Old English 403) is also available.
The online version of the Old English Newsletter (OEN) contains a wealth of information for scholars engaged in Anglo-Saxon studies. The website includes the material published in the print version of the newsletter (launched in 1967) and the annual 'Bibliography and Year's Work in Old English Studies'. The newsletter section includes news on: upcoming events and conferences; project reports; and abstracts of recent books in the field. Each issue includes a selection of essays, which are freely available in full online. There is also an archive of past articles and reports, dating back to 2000. The site provides categorized links to websites relating to various aspects of Old English studies. The second major part of this site is the OEN cumulative bibliography of Anglo-Saxon studies, begun by Carl Berkhout of the University of Arizona in 1975. The bibliography contains over 16,000 entries. Various search options are available, but access is restricted to registered subscribers. Subscription is free, and details are provided on the site. The site would have a broad appeal to scholars working in: Old English language; literature; history; or culture.
Online Corpora is a collection of large scale linguistic corpora, compiled by professor Mark Davies at Brigham Young University. The corpora that are freely available on the site are Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA); British National Corpus (BNC, not compiled by professor Davies); TIME Magazine corpus; Corpus del Español; and Corpus do Português. The site allows for searching the corpora for words and phrases with the result as key words in context, where it is possible to expend the context further. A word can be modified by its part of speech to limit the result further. The search engine and interface is easy to access and is a valuable tool for anyone interested in linguistic research.
The website Online Etymology Dictionary is an amateur site which marshals together etymological resources online. The dictionary is searchable online. There is also a useful list of abbreviations and links to relevant works such as the Oxford English Dictionary (OED). A few selected links are included to sources on Old High German, Old French and Old Norse for example. A good site, which provides a variety of interesting sources for the etymology of words, and which is constructed in such as way that a new search is created each time. Therefore it changes with the Internet content. It is an excellent tool for those seeking the origins of words, the usage of words and their contexts, and also as a dictionary.
The Online Old English Paradigm Project (OOEPP) is an online tool for students learning Old English. It is designed to supplement existing handbooks, and assumes a certain level of knowledge of grammar, or the availability of other resources to enable this. The OOEPP consists of a number of exercises (using Flash) dealing with: pronouns; nouns; adjectives; and verbs. The site aims to train students to learn to college-level introductory Old English course. This is a useful addition to the resources already available to students.
The Open Roget's Project is attempting to create a fully functional lexical resource, based on Roget's Thesaurus, for Natural Language Processing (NLP). The resource consists of the data from the thesaurus and is implemented in Java. There are two versions of the resource based on the two version of the thesaurus, from 1911 and 1987. The earlier version is freely available for downloading while the later is copyright protected. Besides the software the site allows the downloading of the documentation of the project. In addition there is a page with articles connected to the work with the project. The articles are downloadable as PDF-files. This is not an introductory site but is a very useful resource for anyone interested in lexicology or NLP.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the foremost dictionary of the English language. The online version presents both the second edition of the printed Dictionary (1989) and the revisions for the third edition as they are completed. Access is via institutional or personal subscription.
The OED provides more than half a million word definitions, tracing the evolution of words over the last millennium via almost two and a half million quotations. It includes etymological analysis, pronunciation details, and variant spellings. Revised entries for the third edition, where available, are presented alongside their corresponding entry in the second edition. The completion of the third edition is expected by 2010. The site also provides additional information about the Oxford English Dictionary, including online copies of its newsletter, OED News.
The OED is available to UK HE/FE institutions under a national license agreement negotiated by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC).
The Parsed Corpus of Early English Correspondence (PCEEC) consists of 4970 letters from 84 different collections, written between 1410 and 1695 and contains some 2.2 million word tokens in total. The corpus was compiled by the Sociolinguistics and Language History project team at the Department of English, University of Helsinki. The corpus is part of speech and syntactically annotated and the website gives information about the different tagging schemes used. The corpus itself is distributed by the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) and it may be used subject to copyright restrictions. The corpus is designed to be compatible with CorpusSearch, which is a suite of search tools designed by Beth Randall at the University of Pennsylvania. This is a valuable resource for anyone researching or studying the development of the English language. The Corpus can also be ordered via the Oxford Text Archive (OTA) website, (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)), on completion of a request access form.
PennEnglish: Calls for Papers posts information about forthcoming conferences and publications in English studies. It is possible to subscribe to a mailing list from this site, or to browse through archives of conference listings by subject area. Fields of study are listed so that users can quickly identify conferences of potential interest. Conference listings are dated in summary headings so that it is easy to distinguish forthcoming events from the rest of the archive. Academic areas include Medieval literature, Renaissance literature and eighteenth century literature. Other specialisms such as Gender Studies, Travel Writing, Postcolonial literature, Film and Television, and the History of the Book are also listed separately. There is also a section on forthcoming graduate conferences.
The Phrase Finder is a free online database of meanings and origins of over two thousand English phrases and sayings, which developed out of research undertaken at Sheffield Hallam University. Phrases can be browsed alphabetically or searched by keyword, with individual entries providing: the first recorded use of the term; possible alternative interpretations; and its use in literature. The site also provides sections relating to: phrases originating in the Bible; phrases in Shakespeare; phrases coined at sea; and English proverbs. A Discussion Forum is available, fully archived back to February 1998, through which researchers or wordsmiths may ask for help locating the background to a particular phrase. Users can also sign up to a free 'phrase-a-week' email service. In addition, a 'Phrase Thesaurus' is available on the site (aimed at professional writers) which requires a subscription fee. This site is fun, but also a valuable resource for serious researchers and teachers of English as a second language. It is easy to navigate and very comprehensive in its approach, combining a light-hearted style with valuable resource material.
This Web page forms part of the online Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It offers a commentary on Plato's hugely influential discussions of poetry and rhetoric, based on the texts of the Ion, the Republic, the Phaedrus, and the Gorgias. Each text is examined in turn, followed by a brief analysis of Plato's own dialogues as rhetoric and poetry. There is an extensive bibliography, and links to online editions of the texts being considered. This encyclopaedia entry offers a good scholarly introduction to Plato's ideas that should be of use to literature students as well as classicists and literary philosophers.
This website was inspired by the work of the Institute of Propaganda Analysis which was established in 1937 to educate the American public about the ways in which political propaganda could be used to influence their views. The website provides an introduction to modern propaganda techniques and political rhetoric, using the model devised by the IPA, with a discussion of its strength and weaknesses. The site has information on the nature of each technique and the way in which it may be used, such as name-calling, testimonials and fear. The site includes many examples of propaganda from the Second World War and from late twentieth-century America. As well as text files, there are also video clips of propaganda films that may be viewed with RealPlayer.
The Routes of English was a programme broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Presented by Melvyn Bragg, it explored many aspects of the English language throughout the world, particularly variations in pronunciation and the sociolinguistic significance of such variations. The programme's website retains much that was of interest from the broadcasts, with a good number of audio extracts in RAM format (playable with RealPlayer, etc.). The site also features: links to related web pages; games; a question and answer section; and an online message board, though this does not appear to be well used. Although intended for a general audience, undergraduates new to English linguistics should find the site a fascinating introduction to the subject.
The RCAguilar.com (formerly 'Language Learning Playground', and 'ASSK International') is a website that aims to provide students with as much exposure of Spanish, German and English as possible. It also provides review lists and material for teachers. This site includes grammatical explanations, online dictionaries, pronunciation exercises and vocabulary lists. In addition, it has links to other websites relevant to the learning of Spanish, German, and English, as well as culture-related Web pages. The site is free to access but carries advertising. One curiosity about the site is the fact that through MIDI files, learners can become familiar with traditional folk music from Spain, Latin America and Germany. Unfortunately the site has been static since 2006, but there is still much of use to students of German, Spanish and English.
Research and Development Unit for English Studies (RDUES) is the website of a research unit, based at the University of Central England, which consists of a team of corpus linguists and statisticians engaged in developing electronic databases and tools for the description of modern English language in use. Since the Unit's inception in 1989, work has progressed on various projects, all of which are summarised on the website. These have included: Neologisms in Journalistic Text; Analysis of Verbal Interaction and Automated Text Retrieval (AVIATOR); Automatic Collocational Retrieval of NYMs (ACRONYM); Analysis and Prediction of Innovation in the Lexicon (APRIL); System of Hypermatrix Analysis, Retrieval, Evaluation and Summarisation (SHARES); and WebCorp, a suite of tools for accessing the World Wide Web as a corpus. Most of the databases are not directly accessible from this site, although demonstration entries are provided in some instances. The WebCorp search engine is, however, publicly available. The site includes a bibliography of RDUES publications, some of which are available online. Many of the project description pages are also accompanied by more specific bibliographies.
The Reading Experience Database (RED) website is the home of the project of that name. The project is jointly run by: the Open University; the British Library; and the University of Reading. The project was designed to collect information about reading practices during the period 1450-1945. Reading materials include not only books, but also material such as: posters; magazines; letters; and diaries. The website links to the database itself, which allows users to search by: keyword; title of the text being read; name of the reader/listener; author of the text; and date of the reading experience. The records give information on the period of the reading experience and evidence to support it. Users can also contribute to the database, using a form available on the database site. The project site also includes information on the genesis and aims of the project; online issues of the project's newsletter; and news on related events and publications.
This Web page describes the project Recent Grammatical Change in British and American English: A Corpus-based Approach conducted by Professor Geoffrey Leech of the University of Lancaster. The site lists his publications on the subject, and describes the Brown family of corpora of British and American written English - The Brown Corpus, The LOB (Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen) Corpus, The FROWN (Freiburg-Brown) Corpus and the FLOB (Freiburg Lancaster Oslo/Bergen) Corpus, used in the project. It aims to chart and analyse changes in frequency in the use of the English language within the thirty-year period 1961-1991. The focus is on areas of change occurring in the usage of modal auxiliaries, semi-modals, aspect, tense and mood and other areas such as noun phrase categories, questions and punctuation. The findings are described on the site and compared to provisional findings regarding spoken English. The project received a Research Grant from the Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB).
The Renaissance Electronic Texts website is an online resource that publishes a series of selected English Renaissance texts of printed books and manuscripts. The texts are in plain text, and use the original spelling of the works. The site is published by the University of Toronto Library Web Publishing Group, with Professor Ian Lancashire as the general editor. The site was developed to support Professor Lancashire's English Renaissance courses offered at the University of Toronto's English Department, and is an excellent example of coordinating library publishing to support departmental curriculum. Several of the works represented as new editions in e-text include The Elizabethean Homilies, such as "Certaine Sermons Or Homilies appointed to be read in Churches, In the time of the late Queene Elizabeth of famous memory" (London, 1623), written by Edmunds Bonner, John Harpefield, and Thomas Becon; The English School-maister by Edmund Coote; and Shakespeare's Sonnets.
Renaissance Forum is a biannual refereed full-text electronic journal published by the University of Hull. The journal aims to provide an electronic forum for scholarly work in early-modern English literacy and historical scholarship and in the critical methodologies of these fields. It also aims to encourage debate in ways which are not possible in most non-electronic journals. Information for contributors is included on the site.The site is straightforward to navigate. It is possible to locate articles by journal issue number, by indices or via a keyword search. The indices provide lists of articles by contributor, by title of article, by author of book reviewed and by title of book reviewed. The website provides instructions on how to download, print and cite the journal. The site supports an email list. The list currently distributes copies of the journal and provides details of how to download the journal. There are plans to develop a moderated email discussion list for comment on material published in the journal. The site maintains a list of relevant links in the other resources section. Material is published in English and is available free of charge.
This is the website of Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses (RCEI) - a bi-annual journal in the field of English studies. The journal publishes critical essays, interviews and book reviews. Each single issue discusses a topic related to literary, cultural or linguistic field, providing a forum within the discipline. RCEI encourages writing that moves through the tradition of research in English studies, American studies and Linguistics, and boasts contributions by leading international scholars. The site provides contents of published and forthcoming articles, information for contributors, calls for papers, and helpful links.
Rhetor is an online peer reviewed journal containing an eclectic collection of articles relating to rhetorical theory, practice, history and criticism. The journal was launched in 2004 by the Canadian Society for the Study of Rhetoric (CSSR) but only two issues seem to have resulted. Articles are written either in French or English. The full-texts of each article are freely available online in PDF format. The contents include: discussions of the 'liminal' status of rhetoric; an article on French political speeches; a study of 19th-century Hudson's Bay company correspondence; an article on learning conversational rhetoric in 18th century Britain; a paper on the possibility of a new rhetoric for modern Jewish Studies; an essay on Augustine and Christian rhetoric; and pieces concerning Philippe Quineault, George Frideric Handel, Frida Kahlo, and Kenneth Burke. The material is likely to be of interest to researchers in rhetoric, communications and social studies.
The materials in the Rhetoric Notes website have mostly been contributed by students taking Dale Sullivan's rhetoric course at Northern Illinois University, although there are some notes from established rhetorical theorists. The emphasis of the site is very much upon modern theories of rhetoric rather than classical or 'practical' rhetoric. The site contains bibliographies on 19th-century rhetoric, writing assessment theory, and 'writing across the curriculum'. There are three essays on rhetorical concepts, covering discourse communities, literature in composition classes, and the debate surrounding rhetoric as epistemic. There are essays on 20th-century rhetorical theorists such as: Hélène Cixous; Jürgen Habermas; Julia Kristeva; Erika Lindemann; I A Richards; and Robert L Scott. There are comments from rhetorical theorists, and a number of book reviews are also included. Although the editor hopes that the site 'will provide starting places for people new to the field of rhetoric', this site will probably be of more interest to critical theorists.
The Rhetoric Review website provides information on a scholarly, peer reviewed print journal covering all aspects of rhetoric: history; theory; writing; praxis; technical and professional communication; philosophy; criticism; and education. The site provides tables of contents for past, present, and forthcoming editions, as well as submission guidelines and subscription details. There is also a list of peer reviewers and contact details for the editors. Students and researchers in this area would find this publication of interest.
The website of the Rhetoric Society of America (RSA) is designed to promote the Society and its aims of furthering the study, teaching, and practice of rhetoric. The Society's interests cover all aspects and applications of rhetoric, from its classical origins, to political debate, to visual media and the role of rhetoric in modern popular culture. The RSA organises conferences and publishes the journal Rhetoric Society Quarterly. Although the full-texts of the journal articles are not available online, there is an archive of contents pages with abstracts from editions since 2000. Submission and subscription information is also provided. The RSA sponsors several awards, details of which are also available online. In addition the website provides a comprehensive list of related links (although these are aimed at American members and users) and a 'members only' section.
Rhetorical Theory is a website providing information on classical and modern rhetoric and rhetoricians. The site also acts as a gateway to a great many related but independent sites offering additional information, criticism, and debate on the subjects covered. Specific authors featured include: Socrates; Plato; Aristotle; Cicero; Quintilian; and Augustine. In addition to these there is a long list of other 'rhetorical scholars' from all periods. The site includes definitions of the various rhetorical divisions, and links are provided to some of the classical treatises on rhetoric. This website forms part of virtualology.com, an educational service aimed primarily at pre-university students, and which publishes students' class assignments on the web. This particular part of the site is however evidently aimed at the more advanced student. Unfortunately commercial advertising on the site is somewhat distracting.
'RhymeZone' is an online rhyming dictionary for writers, poets, lyricists and anyone who enjoys words. It offers a range of resources that would likely be useful also for educationalists working with language, with students of all ages. The concept is very simple : type in a chosen word to find rhymes, synonyms and definitions, with the options to include phrases and organise the results by letters or syllables. Where only a few letters are known, there is a 'Match these letters' option to try to track down the correct form. The word may also be searched for its location in: the works of Shakespeare; in quotations; and in pictures, as well as checked for: spelling; related words; similar words; or consonants only, among many other options. Other features on the site include sections on: 'Shakespeare'; 'Quotations'; 'Mother Goose' (nursery rhymes); 'Famous Documents' (such as the Bible, U.S. Declaration of Independence); 'Quizzes'; and 'Other Features' (which includes dictionary searches). This site is a combination of quirky fun features and elements that may well be invaluable in finding the final rhyme for that poem that's been unfinished for weeks, in tracking down a derivation or preparing classes on language use. It's very simple to use and neatly presented.
The Richard Rawlinson Center is the website of the main research centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies and manuscript research at the Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University. The Center's website is mainly an information site offering: details about seminars run by the centre; links to associated research and publication projects; links to other subject-related websites; and information on current research. The site also hosts a full-text electronic version of Introduction to Old English by Peter S. Baker (originally published in 2003) which would be of interest to students of Anglo-Saxon language and literature.
The Royal Literary Fund (RFL) is a charity that helps distressed authors. As part of the RFL mission, it offers free online guides to academic writing. The RFL website contains the following book-length works: 'Essay Writing: a guide for undergraduates' by David Kennedy; 'Mission Possible: the study skills pack' by Mario Petrucci; and 'Writing Dissertations: a guide for graduates' by Andrew Ward and Peter Wood. All guides are free, and do not require any plug-in to access. The guides are of high quality, authoritative, and take a British rather than an American approach to writing. This will be a useful website for lecturers who wish to add a strong 'writing and study skills' Web link to their reading-lists or electronic course module pages.
Science Fiction Citations website has been launched as a pilot for an Oxford English Dictionary (OED) project under the guidance of Mike Chrisitie, an OED volunteer, and Sue Surova, an independent researcher for the OED. Words associated with a special area of interest - in this case science fiction - are being collected so that experts in particular fields can help the OED collate their origins and meanings. Science Fiction Citations aims to include all words that are frequently used in science fiction, and attempts to find the earliest example of every sense of every word listed. The editor of the site Jesse Sheidlower requests that enthusiasts help with the project, as it needs earlier examples of terms already included, early examples of terms that have been slated for future inclusion, and any overlooked terms that are common in science fiction. Words used infrequently, words associated chiefly with a single author, or words so specialised that they are found only in a single sub-genre, are not high priorities for inclusion. A very simple interface makes this site a fast and simple specialist resource.
The Scottish Corpus of Texts and Speech (SCOTS) project aims to create a collection of audio and visual material and texts in electronic form which relate to language usage in Scotland (Scots and Scottish English, as well as other community languages). The constantly evolving corpus is available online and is intended to present a linguistic picture of contemporary Scotland. It contains over 1,100 documents and over 4 million words. The documents collected date from 1945 onwards, and most of the spoken texts were recorded since 2000. A search and browse facility is provided. The project is funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) in collaboration with the School of English and Scottish Language and Literature at Glasgow University. Aside from the corpus itself, the website provides basic background information on the project, details of the people involved, links to related sites, and an opportunity to suggest texts or receive further information on the project. This is a valuable site for students and researchers of Scots languages and literature, but would also be of use to anyone with an interest in Scottish language or culture.
The online resource SCRIBE - Spoken Corpus of British English provides information on a pilot project that 'investigated the construction of a corpus of spoken British English'. The project ran in the academic year 1989/90 and was funded by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and the UK Science and Engineering Research Council. Research was facilitated by the partnership between the University College London, Cambridge University, Edinburgh University, the Speech Research Unit, and the National Physical Laboratory. This resource is part of the UCL website. Despite the project's short duration, resulting from the shortage of funding, a substantial prototype corpus was collected and partially annotated. The resource describes the current status of the project as well as provides its existing documentation in 'The SCRIBE Manual' that can be viewed online (HTML format). There are also samples of annotated audio recordings which can be downloaded. These have been grouped into two categories: Sample of many talker recordings and Sample of few talker recordings. Both categories provide recordings of male and female speakers, representing four dialect areas: South East, Glasgow, Leeds and Birmingham. This resource will be of interest, and use, to researchers of spoken English and corpus linguistics.
This website describes the Shakespeare Database CD-ROM, as developed by the Westfälische Wilhelms Universität in Münster, Germany. The site does not provide access to the database itself, although it does imply that this may become a feature in the future. What the site does provide is a bibliography, of works relating to issues surrounding the development of the database, and of works that have benefited from its use. These are mostly about Shakespeare's writings, although some are more concerned with early modern English linguistics, and some on editing Shakespeare. The site also provides a few links to partner sites. A fairly comprehensive explanation of the database gives the user a good idea of its features and potential applications.
The Shakespeare Resource Center is a comprehensive source of information on the life and works of William Shakespeare. The site provides original material as well as annotated links to Shakespeare-related resources elsewhere on the Web. The information and links are divided into sections: bibliographic information about the Bard; a historical look at Elizabethan England; an overview of the four major periods of Shakespeare's works; synopses of his plays; an overview of the authorship debate that has been going since the 1700s; Shakespeare's language; and other links. The site is clearly organised and offers rich and varied information. The resource will be of use both to the student and the general reader, providing a very good overview of Shakespeare's life and work, as well as a starting point for further research.
Short Stories at east of the web is a website that offers full electronic texts of a variety of short stories, both classic and contemporary. The site showcases previously unpublished works, ensuring a good general level of quality through the site's editors. The stories can be browsed by genre, including: children's; crime; fiction; horror; nonfiction; humour; and romance, and can be: read online; downloaded for use on handheld devices; saved for future reading; or printed out. A random story can be produced by clicking on a link on the homepage and stories may also be searched by keyword. In addition, the website provides information on: reading; writing; and teaching stories as well as a comprehensive links page. The design of the site makes navigation simple, and the word games provided for English teachers are also easy to use. The site would be useful: to students studying at undergraduate level; as an outlet for students of creative writing and unpublished writers; or for teachers of: English; creative writing; and new media.
Silva Rhetoricae: the Forest of Rhetoric has been developed as an online reference guide to rhetorical theories and terms. It covers both the classical and the Renaissance periods. The site offers an alphabetical glossary of technical terms for rhetorical tropes and figures. For each term, there is a definition, examples, pronunciation guideline, etymology, cross references, and a very useful list of sources. It is possible to search the site by keyword. There is a helpful overview of the art of rhetoric, including surveys of the various canons and parts of oratory, such as the judicial, deliberative, and epideictic kinds. Information about classical practices for training in rhetoric is also given. The site is attractively designed, and has won a number of awards for its content. It provides a useful introduction to rhetoric for students of classical and Renaissance literature, and a very good quick reference source for researchers.
The Society for Name Studies in Britain and Ireland began life in the 1970s as the Council for Name Studies in Great Britain and Ireland, and was established as a society with open membership in 1991. Its website is intended 'to provide a service for members of the society and also to provide other interested individuals with access to information relevant to Name Studes in Britain and Ireland'. At the time of writing, the early volumes of the society's annually appearing journal, Nomina, had been scanned and were about to be published online. The site also advertises an annual prize for an essay 'on any topic relating to the place-names and/or personal names of England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Man or the Channel Islands'. Moreover, the site provides up-to-date, concise information on research currently being done by its members.
The website 'Sounds Familiar? Accents and Dialects of the UK' is one of the British Library online learning resources. It is dedicated to the study of British accents and vocabularies, from a contemporary and historical perspective. Users can investigate recent trends in pronunciation, such as 'upspeak' or 'T-glottaling', or discover how the English of British Asians is influenced by their bilingual status. The resource includes a selection of over seventy audio recordings and more than 600 short audio clips from the British Library Sound Archive. Some of the materials were recorded in the 1950s and others almost half a century later, between 1998 and1999. The resource consists of five main sections: Regional Voices; Changing Voices; Your Voices; Case Studies; and Activities. The first two of these sections focus, respectively, on the regional and historical variations of English. 'Case Studies' looks into three specific English varieties: Received Pronunciation, Geordie Dialect, and the language of ethnic minorities in the UK. Suggested 'Activities' encourage users to investigate the use of English in their own communities, and 'Your Voices' provides them with an opportunity to publish their results on the site. With its interactive character and comprehensive set of audio data and their interpretations, this site is commendable to general audience interested in the subject, as well as students and researchers of linguistics, particularly phonetics and sociolinguistics.
This is the website for an AHRC and British Academy funded project which brings together a stylistician and a team of psychologists to examine the way people read narrative texts. The project is conducting “an intensive programme of experiments” including: stylistic analysis; text change detection experiments; reading time experiments; eye-tracking tests; continuation tests and ERP neuro-imaging. The research uses a new approach based on the stylistic features of naturally-occurring narrative texts such as popular fiction and newspaper stories. As well as a fuller description of the project and its methodologies, the website includes a list of outcomes to date.
The website of the Study Advice Service at the University of Hull, while primarily aimed at on-campus students, has plenty of open access resources of use to any researcher or student needing advice and guidance on their academic writing style. Downloadable as PDF or Word files, the resources available include topics such as: the correct use of apostrophes and capital letters; advice on critical thinking; essay writing tips; and help on preparing for examinations and dissertations. Some topics are designed as quizzes and video material is also available, with advice on: time-management; referencing; and the risks of plagiarism. There is a very wide coverage of topics from the most simple confusions in grammar and punctuation to more complex and high level problems. The site is aimed at students at undergraduate and post-graduate levels. This is a comprehensive and very well considered resource. It is also easy to use.
The website "The Survey of English Place-Names" provides a one-page outline of the project supported by the British Academy and Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). It is a project undertaken by the English Place-Name Society, in order to provide a comprehensive guide to the etymology and history of English Place-Names. The research has grown from the simple collection of place-names as an auxiliary tool used by historians, to complex geological, agricultural, and grammatical explanations of the names. Correlations between surface geology and linguistic elements of names have been explored and place-name study has been able to explain, for example, that much of the Danish settlement of Lincolnshire was peaceful. Perceptions of landscapes and their topography inform both the naming process and mentalities behind the processes. Elements of Brittonic Celt, Scandinavian, and Anglo-Saxon are all traceable in the Place-Names of England. The Web page provides a link to the Survey of English Place-Names at the University of Nottingham. The website also includes a description of the current phase of AHRC funded work 'Perceptions of Place: English place-name study and regional variety'.
The Sussex Language Institute: Study Skills Web resource is provided by the University of Sussex and is aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate international students studying in the UK. Much of the material is also useful for general advice on university-level academic core skills. The material is presented in seven main sections: 'Some Core Concepts' which includes principles of successful communication, critical analysis, and academic essays and conventions; 'Assessment and Tutors' which includes suggestions about the importance of feedback, the aims and usefulness of assessments, and advice on communicating with university tutors; 'Reading,' including note-taking, selective and critical reading, and understanding arguments; 'Preparing for Written Work' which includes advice on how to choose topics and/or essay questions, planning and brainstorming; 'Writing,' including advice on structure and grammar; 'Seminars' which includes frequently asked questions and information on effective seminar participation; and 'Examples and Exercises' which provides some samples of well-written undergraduate and Masters level work. There is also a section which provides links to other useful study skills websites.
Take Our Word For It describes itself as a bi-weekly word-origin webzine, although the site does not appear to be updated quite as regularly as this would seem to imply. The site explores English words, phrases, and grammar, tracing etymology and relating interesting facts (and opinions) regarding derivations and usage. It is popular rather than scholarly in focus, taking a light-hearted approach to its subject matter. Nevertheless, there should be enough content here to interest students of the English language. The website is divided into several sections: a Spotlight page takes a relatively in-depth look at a particular word or phrase; the Words to the Wise page answers reader's etymological enquiries; the Curmudgeons' Corner hosts rants about poor English usage; Sez You provides readers with a space to challenge the editor's judgements; and there is a laughing stock page for amusing observations. The site also hosts an online book store, a list of links, and a page on etymological theory. The theory page is fairly basic, but does offer lists of Latin and Greek roots and prefixes commonly found in English words, and a guide to Indo-European consonant groups.
Teachit is a vast resource for teaching English, Drama, Media Studies and Citizenship at primary and secondary schools. It is a collection of materials which have been created, tried and tested by English teachers. A majority of them is free, but some of the resources can be used properly only if you access them as a member. The website offers three different levels of subscription for individual members and school departments. Included on the site are downloadable and photocopiable worksheets, lesson plans and schemes of work - in fact, everything needed for planning individual lessons or even courses. Teachit uses frames for simplicity of navigation, and its resources are indexed in a number of ways: key stage, drama, media, online lessons, teaching aids, etc. The drama section, for example, contains lessons and strategies designed for teaching difficult topics such as gender representation or Stanislavski's acting system. In addition, this online resource has large sections devoted to games that can help bring texts alive to sometimes unwilling students. There are also numerous links to other websites, including Teachit's sister sites, that carry full texts of plays or study notes, and offer many other classroom materials.
This is the website of TESL-EJ, Teaching English as a Second Language, Electronic Journal. The journal is a refereed academic electronic publication for the English as a Second Language, English as a Foreign Language and Applied Linguistics professional community. The site contains an archive of the full contents of the journal from volume 1 number 1, 1994. Abstracts are also available. The journal also carries book reviews.
This is the website of TESOL, a professional organisation for teachers of English to speakers of other languages, which aims at providing resources for teachers, educators, and researchers. It covers the full range of levels: primary; secondary; tertiary (higher education); and adult education. In order to obtain full advantage of this site it is essential to become a member of the association. This would allow users to access its online publications, such as: a newsletter; the scholarly journal TESOL Quarterly; and a quarterly magazine, the Essential Teacher. There are also online teaching certificate programs for those interested in teaching English as a foreign language. In addition, there are news and information about previous and future conferences. The site also offers free access to some resources, such as: Compleat Links, an online complement to Essential Teacher; a Question and Answers section, where users can find useful information on teaching vocabulary and grammar, and planning a lesson; jobs search resources searchable by: location; date; type of a job; and a level of education. Job applications can be completed online.
The website for TESOL Arabia, a non-profit organisation with the aim of supporting teachers of English in the Gulf region and around the world, provides more information on the organisation. The site gives information on how to join TESOL Arabia, as well as submission details for contributors to the organisation's journal 'Perspectives', which deals with teaching and learning English as a second language. From the website users can also access information about: grants for travel and study; contact details; and related events. This site is useful for teachers as well as researchers interested in issues related to teaching English as a second language.
The Thesaurus of Old English (TOE) is a searchable online resource, based on a thesaurus first published in print by King's College London in 1995. The site is hosted by the University of Glasgow and creation of the electronic resource was originally funded by the British Academy. The site allows users to search by Old English or modern English words, as well as browsing by TOE category headings from the print version (either alphabetically or by the order they appear in print). Part-word searches in Old English are particularly useful, as are the flags which indicate whether words are infrequently used or mainly used in Old English poetry rather than prose. This site would be of use to university students and researchers making linguistic studies of Old English texts.
This website offers an interface to the text of the Time magazine from 1923 to the present day, over 100 million words in all. Users can search for a word or phrase and retrieve all instances of the string in context. Searches can be restricted to a particular period in time, and they may include information about part-of-speech (word class). The results can be displayed in different ways, allowing the user to see, for example, how the frequency of a word has changed over time. The interface also allows for retrieval of collocates (surrounding words). The resource offers a powerful way to explore the English language as published in the Time magazine over the years. The interface is easy to use. The accompanying help texts provide ample information about how to use the interface and also offers suggestions of the kind of questions that can be answered using the tool. This resource would be of use to anyone interested in the English language, language change, American English, and corpus linguistics. It also offers a valuable tool for looking at cultural and historical events as reported in the Time magazine.
TOEBI (Teachers of Old English in Britain and Ireland) is the website of an association that supports the teaching of Old English at university level. The website provides: details of how to join and participate in the work of the association; a list of Old English courses; and details of associated events and publications. A secondary aim of the website is to provide information on materials relating to teaching Anglo-Saxon: language; literature; and culture. Links and suggestions for language-teaching resources include sections on: course books and grammars; dictionaries; online teaching modules; and recordings. The association also suggests further background reading, and provides links to resources relating to: Old English texts in the original; other organisations; research projects; and museums and Anglo-Saxon sites.
The compiler of this glossary is William Denton, who has previously published the work under the imprint of his Miskatonic University Press in 1993. It is based on the writings of major American writers of detective stories: Raymond Chandler, Dashiell Hammett, and Micky Spillane. It consists of an aphabetical listing of words and phrases with brief definitions, sometimes with quotations to illustrate the context. Some words are linked to pages giving more extensive definitions and explanations. The basic bibliography at the end lists works by the major writers in this genre and also includes some of the major dictionaries of slang. While the scope of this glossary is limited, it provides a useful resouce for those interested specifically in the language of American detective fiction.
The University of California Press e-books collection, 1982 - 2004 : public books Web pages provide a full listing of the works that are freely available from the University of California Press's Digital Library. These free books are a subset of the full range of electronic books (over 500 are freely available online, but the remainder of the 2000 ebooks are available only to students of the University of California). The public books cover topics including: science; art; music; history; religion; and fiction. The majority of the works were originally published between the mid 1980s and the mid 1990s. This resource would be of interest to students in any of the disciplines covered, but especially those working in history and English literature, as these comprise the largest percentage of the works available.
UsingEnglish.com is a substantial online resource for students and teachers of ESL (English as a Second Language). The website features: online exercises; reference materials; articles; discussion forums; and teacher handouts. Some of the materials require user registration to access, but all are freely available. Reference materials include: an online glossary of English grammar; dictionaries; and guides to idiomatic terms, irregular verbs, and 'phrasal verbs'. Teacher resources include: lesson plans; quizzes and tests; and helpful articles on teaching methods and career development. UsingEnglish.com also provides a number of tools for statistical text analysis and grammar checking. Two pieces of free software may be downloaded from the site: an 'English Grammar Reference' and an 'English Irregular Verb List Viewer'. The online discussion forum is well used and exhibits a good standard of debate. This is an excellent site that contains a great deal of useful content. It is professionally presented and users should not have any difficulties finding the kinds of material they are looking for. It should be recommended to anyone teaching ESL.
Verbs Online is a simple website that provides practice in verb conjugation for: French; German; Italian; Spanish; Portuguese; and English. Conjugation exercises are completed online and corrected instantly, and users can select whether they wish an exercise to feature regular or irregular verbs, or both, and the number of verbs they wish to practise in any one exercise. Indicative, subjunctive and conditional tenses are all practised. Users should note that no translations of verbs are provided so this site does not lend itself particularly well to vocabulary building. However, as a means of gaining essential practice in verb conjugation, Verbs Online is ideal.
'Vocabulary training exercises' is an excellent website providing vocabulary testing in English, German, French, and Spanish. It is basically a collection of interactive exercises designed for the self-taught, or as tests to be used by teachers. The vocabulary required is loaded with the exercises and the range of subjects are divided both grammatically and thematically. Self-taught users may check their answers, although because this tool is not flexible it may not work accurately. There is an excellent section which allows the user to create their own test, which can be saved and used for teaching. This simple question and answer format can be used not only for language testing but for any tests utilising such a format. There are exercises set up for testing knowledge of tenses and adjectives, and the themed vocabulary sections include: general vocabulary; professions; hotel; travel; home; business; weather; and computers. Vocabulary lists range from about 50 words to over 100 and load speedily. A bibliography of reference sources is adequate but not exhaustive. Overall this is an excellent site for language learners and teachers.
The Wanderer Project is an online resource that examines the Anglo-Saxon poem 'The Wanderer' both in the original language and in translation. The project is the work of Dr Rick McDonald of Utah Valley University, and is one of a number of medieval English language resources provided on his home page. The site provides images from the Exeter Book manuscript of the poem, as well as four modern English translations of the text (including one by the author of the site). Also available are: readings of the text (as wav files); a glossary; and a 'poetic transcription' of the original Anglo-Saxon text. This resource would be of use to University students studying Anglo-Saxon literature and language.
The 'What Every Medievalist Should Know' (WEMSK) website consists of an extensive annotated bibliography covering all aspects of medieval studies. It is intended for graduate students rather than specialists, although undergraduates may find it useful as well. Everything from 'Mechanics in the Middle Ages' to 'Old Church Slavic Literature' is covered, with topics being posted on a weekly basis. The site is divided into the weeks on which the topics were added, and then according to specific topic area. Topics can also be browsed alphabetically. Each topic is introduced with recommended starting reading and helpful remarks as to where to take one's studies from there, with sub-lists for specific fields within the overall topic. Each topic page concludes with links to other electronic resources. This is a site with clear aims, which it addresses admirably. The new graduate student beginning research in any aspect of medieval life or literature will find direction and useful starting points here.
The Wessex Parallel WebTexts project is making scholarly editions of Middle English texts available, for free, on the Internet for student use. The heart of the site is a fully-searchable and growing anthology of prose and verse texts with a particular emphasis on Middle English lyrics, especially the Harley Lyrics (British Library MS Harley 2253). Translations include: The Land of Cockaygne; The Owl and the Nightingale; The Thrush and the Nightingale; and Winner and Waster. The works and their translations are beautifully presented in parallel, often accompanied by relevant images. Background information on the texts is provided to aid teaching together with an index of first lines. The site also includes details of the linguistic difficulties that arise when translating Middle English and there is a detailed introduction to Middle English grammar. The project is directed by Bella Millett (University of Southampton) and received funding from the English Subject Centre.
'Word Ways' is a full-text ejournal, on the novel topic of word-play, word-puzzles and... "palindromes, word games, magic, unusual lists". Issues published more than two years ago are free to access online, but more recent issues are subscription-only. At April 2009 the journal has 42 issues online, about 38 of which are free to access. Each issue contains about 25 short papers, presented in PDF format. The website has full details of the editors, Editorial Board, and the submissions process. Users can also set up custom email alerts and RSS newsfeeds. There is a keyword search facility. This is a unique journal which may be of interest to calligraphic artists, book artists, those in game studies, students of English language, and perhaps also linguists.
The WordHoard is a project based at the Northwestern University and consists of a tool for the close reading and scholarly analysis of deeply tagged texts. In addition the site contains some corpora with tagged text designed to be used with the tool. These corpora are: Early Greek Epic, Homer, Hesiod, and the Homeric Hymns in the original Greek, with English and/or German translations; the complete Chaucer; all the poetical works of Spenser; and all plays and poems by Shakespeare. The website consists, mainly, of an extensive manual and documentation of the project which explains how to use the WordHoard tool and discusses research methods and possibilities. The texts that are available are lemmatised and tagged for parts of speech and have markers for speaker name; speaker gender; and speaker mortality. This is a very useful tool for systematic research on deeply tagged texts and, in addition, is useful as a discussion on corpus linguistic research methods within literary research.
The Words in English website offers an attractive introduction to the linguistics of the English language. The site covers the historical development of English from the Anglo-Saxon period to the modern day, and includes sections on the structure of the language, its usage, and meaning. There is an extensive list of links to related online and offline resources. Terms such as 'morphology', 'phonetics', and 'semantics' are explained for the benefit of those new to the field. Various examples (such as a list of Cockney rhyming slang) are provided to illustrate each topic, appearing in pop-up windows. There is an explanation of the difference between slang and jargon, and several passages outlining the international significance of English. A timeline traces the development of the language over the centuries. This is a basic introductory site to the English language, likely to be of interest to those approaching English linguistics for the first time, rather than advanced students or scholars.
World Englishes is a journal devoted to the study of English in a global context: varieties of English around the world; language policies and language planning; language teaching methodology; and related issues. The site provides access to: the journal's contents and abstracts, starting from volume 1, issue 1, 1981; article submission information; editorial information; and a sample full-text issue. Electronic access to the full-text of articles for downloading or printing is available through service providers. Access is given to members of institutions subscribing to the print version (librarians should be able to provide further details).
The World Wide Words website is a large online resource explaining English words and phrases. The author of the site, Michael Quinion, is a word enthusiast who has written books on the subject, compiled a weekly column for a national newspaper, and contributed to the Oxford Dictionary of New Words. The website was established in 1996 and has since grown to more than 1,500 archived pages. Quinion's focus is on what words and phrases mean, where they are derived from, how they have evolved, and how they are sometimes misused. Some pages deal with issues of grammar, punctuation, and style. The site is specifically concerned with British English, although some articles are more international in scope. Those interested in etymology or new trends in English language usage should find this a fascinating site. The website is organised into sections consisting of articles, reviews, questions and answers, explanations of phrases, and weird words. There is an alphabetical browse facility and a simple search engine. The site features a pronunciation guide, explaining the principal sounds of standard British English (Received Pronunciation). There is also a good list of links. The site's author sends out a free email newsletter every week, subscription details for which are provided. The newsletter has over 20,000 subscribers.
'Write Better English' is an Australian website which aims to connect "people who love words and who can write well with people who want to improve their writing". It is likely to be of use to undergraduates, budding writers, and any scholar needing to develop writing skills with an emphasis on style and punctuation, with an informal but accurate approach. The site can be browsed by type of user or their requirements. As an example, the section for students includes: access to the seminal work by William Strunk, 'Elements of Style', first published in 1918; a list of tips for essay writing; advice on common writing mistakes; and suggested words for developing a wider vocabulary. The resources section includes: a blog; a forum; and book reviews, many of which are available to more than one user-group. The site requires free registration for membership, although a considerable amount of material is open-access.
The Universal Teacher website provides numerous resources for those teaching English literature, language and theatre studies at school and sixth-form levels in the UK. The site is approved by byteachers.com and adheres to the national curriculum as taught and examined. There are good online tutorials for specific texts, grouped according to level, including: Key Stage; GCSE; and A-Level standards. There are also sections for students with special educational needs, and teaching with ITC. Topics covered by tutorials include: researching dialects; language and gender; language change; Shakespeare's plays; Charles Dickens; Jonathan Swift; Arthur Miller; Thomas Hardy; Charlotte Brontë; John Steinbeck; Jane Austen; Geoffrey Chaucer; Ted Hughes; William Blake; Robert Browning; and popular films such as Forrest Gump and Star Wars. The site includes audio files of poetry, and various study guides. Resources for studying scripture are also provided. This is an excellent site that offers a wide range of resources and which has been carefully designed for its intended audience.
The York-Toronto-Helsinki-Toronto Parsed Corpus of Old English Prose contains 1.5 million words of Old English prose taken from the Toronto Dictionary of Old English Corpus, with special formatting which makes it possible to search conveniently for syntactic structure using a computer search engine. The corpus is in HTML format, and can be downloaded from the Oxford Text Archive (formerly part of the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS)). However, use of the resource is restricted, and consequently users are requested to fill in a short form on the site to gain access to the data.
This website describes the special collections held at the University of Ulster’s Coleraine Library. The collections, which are searchable from the University’s main library catalogue (linked to from here) cover a range of subjects but with a particular focus on Irish history, literature and culture.